Herbal plants have long been recognized to possess antimicrobial properties, from ancient medical practice. This study was undertaken to investigate the antibacterial activities of Terminalia ivorensis crude extracts against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas species isolated from burn wounds. A total of 200 burn wounds swab samples were collected from patients at Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki and bacteriologically screened for the presence of S. aureus and Pseudomonas spp. Isolates were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility test by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Extraction of the plant extracts and screening for the presence of phytochemical constituents were carried out using standard methods. Antibacterial activities of aqueous, ethanol, and methanol crude extracts of Terminalia ivorensis were determined by agar well diffusion technique. Out of the 200 burn wound swab samples collected, 56 (28 %) S. aureus and 10 (5 %) and Pseudomonas spp were isolated. The Terminalia ivorensis cold water and methanol crude extracts (leaf, root, and bark) exhibited inhibitory effects (Inhibition zone diameter ranging from 14 mm – 24 mm) at different concentrations (100 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, and 25 mg/mL). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for cold water and methanol extracts were 50 mg/mL and 25 mg/mL respectively. Susceptibility studies using conventional antibiotics showed that ciprofloxacin, imipenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam had activity against the isolated Pseudomonas spp and S. aureus. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponin, flavonoids, phenol, terpenoid, and cardiac glucoside at various concentrations. T. ivorensis leaf, root, and bark extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas species and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from burn wounds. Therefore, Terminalia ivorensis extracts could serve as putative agents in the development of novel drugs for treating burn wound infections associated with Pseudomonas spp and S. aureus.
Keywords: Terminalia ivorensis extracts, burn wounds, Pseudomonas spp, S. aureus, antibacterial activity