The aim of the study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the different parts of Adansonia digitata (Malvaceae) extracts. A. digitata is an important medicinal plant to West Africa including Ghana. The plant is used effectively in folk medicine to treat inflammatory diseases such as joint disorders, asthma, toothache and painful swelling.
Carrageenan-induced pedal oedema in 7-day old chicks was used for the anti-inflammatory property of the extracts obtained from six different parts of A. digitata. The extracts were also assessed for their acute toxicity. The results from the acute toxicity test showed there were no behavioural changes, toxic signs, or death in the chicks when given the highest dose (3000 mg/kg) of the extracts orally. The six extracts demonstrated varying degrees of anti-inflammatory effects, in a dose-dependent manner; with the stem extract giving the most potent activity with an ED50 of 145.3 ± 7.6 mg/kg, followed by the flower (167.5 ± 10.42 mg/kg), leaves (169.7 ± 8.76 mg/kg), root bark (187.8 ± 11.2 mg/kg), fruit pulp (218.8 ± 6.86 mg/kg), and the seed (267.1 ± 12.3 mg/kg) as compared to the positive control (diclofenac, ED50 = 55.08±6.11 mg/kg) (p < 0.0001).
Keywords: Adansonia digitata, carrageenan-induced pedal oedema, anti-inflammatory activity, traditional medicine, acute toxicity