Journal of
Medicinal Plants Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Med. Plants Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0875
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMPR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 3715

Full Length Research Paper

Ethnomedical survey of plants used for the management of HIV and AIDS-related conditions in Mbulu District, Tanzania

Alphonce Ignace Marealle
  • Alphonce Ignace Marealle
  • Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P. O. Box 65013, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Mainen Moshi
  • Mainen Moshi
  • Department of Biological and Pre-clinical Studies, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P. O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Ester Innocent
  • Ester Innocent
  • Department of Biological and Pre-clinical Studies, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P. O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Michael Qwarse
  • Michael Qwarse
  • Department of Natural Products Development and Formulations, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P. O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Kerstin Andrae-Marobela
  • Kerstin Andrae-Marobela
  • Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Garborone, Botswana.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 09 September 2020
  •  Accepted: 08 December 2020
  •  Published: 31 January 2021

References

Abubakar MN, Majinda RRT (2016). GC-MS Analysis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Activity of Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach) and Pterocarpus angolensis (DC). Medicines 3(1):3.
Crossref

 

Adoum OA (2016). Screening of medicinal plants native to Kano & Jigawa states of northern Nigeria, using Artemia cysts (Brine Shrimp Test). American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 4:7-10.

 
 

Al Ashaal HA, Farghaly AA, Abd El Aziz MM, Ali MA (2010). Phytochemical investigation and medicinal evaluation of fixed oil of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits (Balantiaceae). Journal of ethnopharmacology 127:495-501.
Crossref

 
 

Alasbahi RH, Melzig MF (2010). Plectranthus barbatus: a review of phytochemistry, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacology - Part 1. Planta medica 76:653-661.
Crossref

 
 

Alphonse N, Bigendako M, Fawcett K, Yansheng G (2010). Ethnobotanic study around Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. New York Science Journal 3:5.

 
 

Asiimwe S, Kamatenesi-Mugisha M, Namutebi A, Borg-Karlsson AK, Musiimenta P (2013). Ethnobotanical study of nutri-medicinal plants used for the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic ailments among the local communities of western Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacol 150:639-648.
Crossref

 
 

Augustino S, Gillah PR (2005). Medicinal plants in urban districts of Tanzania: plants, gender roles and sustainable use. International Forestry Review 7:44-58.
Crossref

 
 

Bitew H, Gebregergs H, Tuem KB, Yeshak MY (2019). Ethiopian medicinal plants traditionally used for wound treatment: A systematic review. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 33(2).

 
 

Bogh HO, Andreassen J, Lemmich J (1996). Anthelmintic usage of extracts of Embelia schimperi from Tanzania. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 50:35-42.
Crossref

 
 

Chauke MA, Shai LJ, Mogale MA, Tshisikhawe MP, Mokgotho MP (2015). Medicinal plant use of villagers in the Mopani district, Limpopo province, South Africa. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 12(3):9-26.
Crossref

 
 

Chinsembu KC (2010). An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 6(1):25.
Crossref

 
 

Chinsembu KC, Hijarunguru A, Mbangu A (2015). Ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic diseases in Rundu, Kavango East Region, Namibia. South African Journal of Botany 100:33-42.
Crossref

 
 

Chothani DL, Vaghasiya HU (2011). A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity. Pharmacognosy Reviews 5:55-62.
Crossref

 
 

Choy LT (2014). The strengths and weaknesses of research methodology: Comparison and complimentary between qualitative and quantitative approaches. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science 19:99-104.
Crossref

 
 

Chrian M, Erasto P, Otieno J (2011). Antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity effect of extracts of Hallea rubrostipulata and Zanthoxylum chalybeum. Spatula DD 1(3):147-152.
Crossref

 
 

Cos P, Hermans N, De Bruyne T, Apers S, Sindambiwe JB, Witvrouw M, De Clercq E, Vanden BD, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ (2002). Antiviral activity of Rwandan medicinal plants against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Phytomedicine 9:62-68.
Crossref

 
 

Debebe Y, Tefera M, Mekonnen W, Abebe D, Woldekidan S, Abebe A, Belete Y, Menberu T, Belayneh B, Tesfaye B, Nasir I, Yirsaw K, Basha H, Dawit A, Debella A (2015). Evaluation of anthelmintic potential of the Ethiopian medicinal plant Embelia schimperi Vatke in vivo and in vitro against some intestinal parasites. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 15:187.
Crossref

 
 

Deressa T, Mekonnen Y, Animut A (2010). In Vivo anti-malarial activities of Clerodendrum myricoides, Dodonea angustifolia and Aloe debrana against Plasmodium berghei. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 24(1).
Crossref

 
 

Fernandes NAF, Canelo LIN, Mendonça DD, Mendonça AD (2015). Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Extracts from Angolan Medicinal Plants.International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 7:768-776.

 
 

Frank N (2012). Evaluation of Malawian Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Vatke leaf and Securidaca longepedunculata (Fresen) root extracts for antimicrobial activities. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 2(11):26.

 
 

Gail H, Tarryn B, Oluwaseyi A, Denver D, Oluchi M, Charlotte VK, Joop de J, Diana G (2015). An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by traditional health practitioners to manage HIV and its related opportunistic infections in Mpoza, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 171:109-115.
Crossref

 
 

Ganapaty S, Vidyadhar K (2005). Phytoconstituents and biological activities of Vitex-a review. Journal of Natural Remedies 5:75-95.

 
 

Gebre-Mariam T, Neubert R, Schmidt PC, Wutzler P, Schmidtke M (2006). Antiviral activities of some Ethiopian medicinal plants used for the treatment of dermatological disorders. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104:182-187.
Crossref

 
 

Giday M, Asfaw Z, Woldu Z (2009). Medicinal plants of the Meinit ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 124:513-521.
Crossref

 
 

Green E, Samie A, Obi CL, Bessong PO, Ndip RN (2010). Inhibitory properties of selected South African medicinal plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 130:151-157.
Crossref

 
 

Hajji M, Jarraya R, Lassoued I, Masmoudi O, Damak M, Nasri M (2010). GC/MS and LC/MS analysis, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of various solvent extracts from Mirabilis jalapa tubers. Process Biochemistry 45:1486-1493.
Crossref

 
 

Hamza OJ, van den Bout-van den Beukel CJ, Matee MI, Moshi MJ, Mikx FH, Selemani HO, Mbwambo ZH, Van der Ven AJ, Verweij PE (2006). Antifungal activity of some Tanzanian plants used traditionally for the treatment of fungal infections. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 108:124-132.
Crossref

 
 

Hedimbi M, Chinsembu KC (2012). Ethnomedicinal study of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS-related disease conditions in the Ohangwena region, Namibia. International Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 1:004-011.

 
 

Hussein G, Miyashiro H, Nakamura N, Hattori M, Kawahata T, Otake T, Kakiuchi N, Shimotohno K (1999). Inhibitory effects of Sudanese plant extracts on HIV‐1 replication and HIV‐1 protease. Phytotherapy Research 13:31-36.
Crossref

 
 

Jain P, Sharma H, Basri F, Baraik B, Kumari S, Pathak C (2014). Pharmacological Profiles of Ethno-Medicinal Plant: Plumbago zeylanica L.-A Review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 24:157-163.

 
 

James D, Abu E, Wurochekke A, Orji G (2007). Phytochemical and antimicrobial investigation of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ximenia americana. Journal of Medical Sciences 2:284-288.
Crossref

 
 

Jeruto P, Lukhoba C, Ouma G, Otieno D, Mutai C (2008). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Nandi people in Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 116:370-376.
Crossref

 
 

Jeyachandran R, Mahesh A, Cindrella L, Sudhakar S, Pazhanichamy K (2009). Antibacterial activity of Plumbagin and root extracts of Plumbago zeylanica. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica 51:17-22.

 
 

Kabbashi AS (2015). Antigiardial, antiamoebic, antimicrobial, antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and phytochemical of ethanolic fruits extract of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. from Sudan. World Journal Pharmaceutical Research 4:01-21.

 
 

Kambizi L, Afolayan AJ (2001). An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (njohera) in Guruve District, Zimbabwe. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 77:5-9.
Crossref

 
 

Kamuhabwa A, Nshimo C, de Witte P (2000). Cytotoxicity of some medicinal plant extracts used in Tanzanian traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 70:143-149.
Crossref

 
 

Kapewangolo P, Hussein AA, Meyer D (2013). Inhibition of HIV-1 enzymes, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Plectranthus barbatus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 149:184-190.
Crossref

 
 

Karaan M, Ham C, Aithal A, Franzel S, Moombe K, Akinnifesi F, Jordaan D (2006). Baseline marketing surveys and supply chain studies for indigenous fruit markets in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Zambia. http://repository.businessinsightz.org/handle/20.500.12018/7406

 
 

Kariuki D, Miaron J, Mugweru J, Kerubo L (2014). Antibacterial activity of five medicinal plant extracts used by the Maasai people of Kenya. International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences 2:1-6.

 
 

Karthishwaran K, Mirunalini S (2010). Therapeutic potential of Pergularia daemia (Forsk.): the Ayurvedic wonder. International Journal of Pharmacology 6:836-843.
Crossref

 
 

Kebebew M, Mohamed E (2017). Indigenous knowledge on use of medicinal plants by indigenous people of Lemo district, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia. International Journal of Herbal Medicine 5:124-135.

 
 

Kiraithe MN, Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG (2016). Evaluation of the use of Ocimum suave Willd. (Lamiaceae), Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. (Rutaceae) as antimalarial remedies in Kenyan folk medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 178:266-271.
Crossref

 
 

Kisangau DP, Lyaruu HV, Hosea KM, Joseph CC (2007). Use of traditional medicines in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Tanzania: a case in the Bukoba rural district. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 3:29.
Crossref

 
 

Kitonde CK, Fidahusein DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM (2012). Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Study of Vernonia Glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern. in Kenya. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 10(1):149-157.
Crossref

 
 

Kubo I, Fukuhara K (1990). Elabunin, a new cytotoxic triterpene from an East African medicinal plant, Elaeodendron buchananii. Journal of Natural Products 53:968-971.
Crossref

 
 

Lamorde M, Tabuti JR, Obua C, Kukunda-Byobona C, Lanyero H, Byakika-Kibwika P, Bbosa GS, Lubega A, Ogwal-Okeng J, Ryan M, Waako PJ, Merry C (2010). Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 130:43-53.
Crossref

 
 

Leteane MM, Ngwenya BN, Muzila M, Namushe A, Mwinga J, Musonda R, Moyo S, Mengestu YB, Abegaz BM, Andrae-Marobela K (2012). Old plants newly discovered: Cassia sieberiana D.C. and Cassia abbreviata Oliv. Oliv. root extracts inhibit in vitro HIV-1c replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by different modes of action. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 141:48-56.
Crossref

 
 

Luseba D, Elgorashi EE, Ntloedibe DT, Van Staden J (2007). Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and mutagenic effects of some medicinal plants used in South Africa for the treatment of wounds and retained placenta in livestock. South African Journal of Botany 73:378-383.
Crossref

 
 

Machumi F, Midiwo JO, Jacob MR, Khan SI, Tekwani BL, Zhang J, Walker LA, Muhammad I (2013). Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiplasmodial investigations of Terminalia brownii. Natural Product Communications 8:761-764.
Crossref

 
 

Magassouba FB, Diallo A, Kouyaté M, Mara F, Mara O, Bangoura O, Camara A, Traoré S, Diallo AK, Zaoro M, Lamah K, Diallo S, Camara G, Traoré S, Kéita A, Camara MK, Barry R, Kéita S, Oularé K, Barry MS, Donzo M, Camara K, Toté K, Berghe DV, Totté J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ, Baldé AM (2010). Corrigendum to "Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of some plants used in Guinean traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmocology 114(1): 44-53.
Crossref

 
 

Maikere-Faniyo R, Van Puyvelde L, Mutwewingabo A, Habiyaremye F (1989). Study of Rwandese medicinal plants used in the treatment of diarrhoea I. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 26:101-109.
Crossref

 
 

Manenzhe NJ, Potgieter N, van Ree T (2004). Composition and antimicrobial activities of volatile components of Lippia javanica. Phytochemistry 65:2333-2336.
Crossref

 
 

Maregesi S, Van Miert S, Pannecouque C, Feiz HMH, Hermans N, Wright CW, Vlietinck AJ, Apers S, Pieters L (2010). Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum and human immunodeficiency virus. Planta medica 76:195-201.
Crossref

 
 

Maregesi SM, Ngassapa OD, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ (2007). Ethnopharmacological survey of the Bunda district, Tanzania: plants used to treat infectious diseases. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 113:457-470.
Crossref

 
 

Marlowe F (2002). Why the Hadza are still hunter-gatherers. Ethnicity, huntergatherers, and the 'Other', ed. S. Kent. Association or Assimilation in Africa, Sue Kent (Ed.) Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press pp. 247-275.

 
 

Maroyi A (2014). Alternative Medicines for HIV/AIDS in Resource-Poor Settings: Insight from Traditional Medicines Use in Sub-Saharan Africa. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 13:1527.
Crossref

 

Maroyi A (2017). Lippia javanica (Burm.f.) Spreng: Traditional and Commercial Uses and Phytochemical and Pharmacological Significance in the African and Indian Subcontinent. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 34 p.
Crossref

 

Mbunde MV, Innocent E, Mabiki F, Andersson PG (2017). Ethnobotanical survey and toxicity evaluation of medicinal plants used for fungal remedy in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology 6:84-96.
Crossref

 
 

Mbwambo ZH, Moshi MJ, Masimba PJ, Kapingu MC, Nondo RS (2007). Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 7(1):9.
Crossref

 
 

Mesfin F, Demissew S, Teklehaymanot T (2009). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 5:28.
Crossref

 
 

Mohammed MM, Ibrahim NA, Awad NE, Matloub AA, Mohamed-Ali AG, Barakat EE, Mohamed AE, Colla PL (2012). Anti-HIV-1 and cytotoxicity of the alkaloids of Erythrina abyssinica Lam. growing in Sudan. Natural Product Research 26:1565-1575.
Crossref

 
 

Mongalo NI, McGaw LJ, Segapelo TV, Finnie JF, Van Staden J (2016). Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, toxicology and pharmacological properties of Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC. (Combretaceae) - A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 194:789-802.
Crossref

 
 

Moshi MJ, Cosam JC, Mbwambo ZH, Kapingu M, Nkunya MHH (2009). Testing Beyond Ethnomedical Claims: Brine Shrimp Lethality of Some Tanzanian Plants. Pharmaceutical Biology 42:547-551.
Crossref

 
 

Moshi MJ, Mbwambo ZH (2005). Some pharmacological properties of extracts of Terminalia sericea roots. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 97:43-47.
Crossref

 
 

Moshi MJ, Otieno DF, Mbabazi, PK, Weisheit A (2010). Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 2: The medicinal plants used in Katoro Ward, Bukoba District. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 6:19.
Crossref

 
 

Moshi MJ, van den Beukel C, Hamza OJ, Mbwambo ZH, Nondo RO, Masimba PJ, Matee M, Kapingu MC, Mikx F, Verweije P (2007). Brine shrimp toxicity evaluation of some Tanzanian plants used traditionally for the treatment of fungal infections. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 4:219-225.
Crossref

 
 

Mossa JS, El-Feraly FS, Muhammad I (2004). Antimycobacterial constituents from Juniperus procera, Ferula communis and Plumbago zeylanica and their in vitro synergistic activity with isonicotinic acid hydrazide. Phytotherapy Research 18:934-937.
Crossref

 
 

Mujovo SF, Hussein AA, Meyer JJ, Fourie B, Muthivhi T, Lall N (2008). Bioactive compounds from Lippia javanica and Hoslundia opposita. Natural Product Research 22:1047-1054.
Crossref

 
 

Mukanganyama S, Ntumy AN, Maher F, Muzila M, Andrae-Marobela K (2011). Screening for anti-infective properties of selected medicinal plants from Botswana. African Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology 5:1-7.

 
 

Mulaudzi RB, Ndhlala AR, Kulkarni MG, Finnie JF, Van Staden J (2011). Antimicrobial properties and phenolic contents of medicinal plants used by the Venda people for conditions related to venereal diseases. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 135:330-337.
Crossref

 
 

Nair JJ, Mulaudzi RB, Chukwujekwu JC, Van Heerden FR, Van Staden J (2013). Antigonococcal activity of Ximenia caffra Sond. (Olacaceae) and identification of the active principle. South African Journal of Botany 86:111-115.
Crossref

 
 

NBS (2013). 2012 Population and Housing Census. National Bureau of Statistics, United Republic of Tanzania.

 
 

NBS (2017). Tanzania HIV impact survey (THIS) 2016-2017; Summary sheet: Preliminary findings.

 
 

Ngezahayo J, Havyarimana F, Hari L, Stevigny C, Duez P (2015). Medicinal plants used by Burundian traditional healers for the treatment of microbial diseases. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 173:338-351.
Crossref

 
 

Ngezahayo J, Ribeiro SO, Fontaine V, Hari L, Stevigny C, Duez P (2017). In vitro Study of Five Herbs Used Against Microbial Infections in Burundi. Phytotherapy Research 31:1571-1578.
Crossref

 
 

Njoroge GN, Bussmann RW (2007). Ethnotherapeautic management of skin diseases among the Kikuyus of Central Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111:303-307.
Crossref

 
 

Nyamukuru A, Tabuti JRS, Lamorde M, Kato B, Sekagya Y, Aduma PR (2017). Medicinal plants and traditional treatment practices used in the management of HIV/AIDS clients in Mpigi District, Uganda. Journal of Herbal Medicine 7:51-58.
Crossref

 
 

Odak JA, Manguro LOA, Wong K-C (2018). New compounds with antimicrobial activities from Elaeodendron buchananii stem bark. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research 20:510-524.
Crossref

 
 

Olila D, Opuda-Asibo J (2001). Antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts of Zanthoxylum chalybeum and Warburgia ugandensis, Ugandan medicinal plants. African Health Sciences 1:66-72.

 
 

Olilaa D, Opuda-Asibo J (2002). Screening of extracts of Zanthoxylum chalybeum and Warburgia ugandensis for activity against measles virus (Swartz and Edmonston strains) in vitro. African Health Sciences 2:2-10.

 
 

Patel S, Mwamhanga J (2014). The Importance of ethno-medicinal plants amongst the Iraqw in the Karatu District: Cultural and conservation implications. Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences 13:1.

 
 

Pendota SC, Aderogba MA, Moyo M, McGaw LJ, Mulaudzi RB, Van Staden J (2017). Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity of isolated compounds from leaves of Pappea capensis. South African Journal of Botany 108:272-277.
Crossref

 
 

Peter O, Esther M, Gabriel M, Daniel K, Christine B (2015). In vitro anti-Salmonella activity of extracts from selected Kenyan medicinal plants. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 9:254-261.
Crossref

 
 

Qwarse M, Mihale MJ, Sempombe J, Mugoyela VLH, Sunghwa F (2018). Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal and Pesticidal Plants used by Agro-pastoral Communities in Mbulu District, Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Science and Technology 1:22-35.

 
 

Radol A, Kiptoo M, Makokha A, Tolo F (2016). Types of Herbal Medicine Used for HIV Conditions in Vihiga County, Kenya. European Journal of Medicinal Plants 13:1-23.
Crossref

 
 

Ramadhani SON, Denis Z, Mainen JM, Paul E, Samuel W, Moses NN, Vincent PKT, Abdul WK, Pax JM (2015). Ethnobotanical survey and in vitro antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants used to treat malaria in Kagera and Lindi regions, Tanzania. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 9:179-192.
Crossref

 
 

Ramathal DC, Ngassapa OD (2008). Medicinal Plants Used by Rwandese Traditional Healers in Refugee Camps in Tanzania. Pharmaceutical Biology 39:132-137.
Crossref

 
 

Rea A (2003). Cytotoxic activity of Ozoroa insignis from Zimbabwe. Fitoterapia 74:732-735.
Crossref

 
 

Ribeiro A, Romeiras MM, Tavares J, Faria MT (2010). Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 6:33.
Crossref

 
 

Rondevaldova J, Leuner O, Teka A, Lulekal E, Havlik J, Van Damme P, Kokoska L (2015). In Vitro Antistaphylococcal Effects of Embelia schimperi Extracts and Their Component Embelin with Oxacillin and Tetracycline. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM 2015, 175983.
Crossref

 
 

Rukunga GM, Kofi-Tsekpo MW, Kurokawa M, Kageyama S, Mungai GM, Muli JM, Tolo FM, Kibaya RM, Muthaura CN, Kanyara JN (2002). Evaluation of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory properties of extracts from some medicinal plants in Kenya. African Journal of Health Sciences 9:81-90.
Crossref

 
 

Runyoro DK, Matee MI, Ngassapa OD, Joseph CC, Mbwambo ZH (2006). Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-Candida activity. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 6:11.
Crossref

 
 

Salih EYA, Fyhrquist P, Abdalla AMA, Abdelgadir AY, Kanninen M, Sipi M, Luukkanen O, Fahmi MKM, Elamin MH, Ali HA (2017). LC-MS/MS Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Pentacyclic Triterpenes in Antifungal Extracts of Terminalia brownii (Fresen). Antibiotics 6(4):37.
Crossref

 
 

Samie A, Housein A, Lall N, Meyer JJ (2009). Crude extracts of, and purified compounds from, Pterocarpus angolensis, and the essential oil of Lippia javanica: their in-vitro cytotoxicities and activities against selected bacteria and Entamoeba histolytica. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 103:427-439.
Crossref

 
 

Semenya SS, Maroyi A (2012). Medicinal plants used by the Bapedi traditional healers to treat diarrhoea in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacol 144:395-401.
Crossref

 
 

Shai LJ, Chauke MA, Magano SR, Magala AM, Elof JN (2013). Antibacterial activity of sixteen plants species from Phalaborwa, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 7:1889-1906.

 
 

Sigidi MT, Anokwuru CP, Zininga T, Tshisikhawe MP, Shonhai A, Ramaite IDI, Traoré AN, Potgieter N (2016). Comparative in vitro cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbiological activities of two indigenous Venda medicinal plants. Translational Medicine Communications 1(1):9.
Crossref

 
 

Singh M, Kumar V, Singh I, Gauttam V, Kalia AN (2010). Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves. Pharmacognosy Research 2:364-367.
Crossref

 
 

Tantiado RG (2012). Survey on Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants in Iloilo, Philippines. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology 4(4):11-26.

 
 

Tanzania, N.A.C.P., 2002. HIV/AIDS/STI Surveillance Report.

 
 

Tanzania, N.A.C.P., 2011. HIV/AIDS/STI Surveillance Report.

 
 

Temam T, Dillo A (2016). Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of Mirab-Badwacho district, Ethiopia. Journal of BioScience and Biotechnology 5:151-158.

 
 

Tesfaye A, Girma A (2017). Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Nutraceutical Potential of Enset (Ensete ventricosum). African Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 9:112-117.

 
 

Thabeet GO, Shija S, Rweyemamu F (2017). Knowledge of plant species used by HIV/AIDS patients in managing opportunistic infections in Tazania. Advanced Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 1:007-016.

 
 

Thayil SM, Thyagarajan SP (2016). PA-9: A Flavonoid Extracted from Plectranthus amboinicus Inhibits HIV-1 Protease. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 6:1020-1024.

 
 

Toyang NJ, Verpoorte R (2013). A review of the medicinal potentials of plants of the genus Vernonia (Asteraceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 146:681-723.
Crossref

 
 

Tshikalange TE, Meyer JJ, Lall N, Munoz E, Sancho R, Van de Venter M, Oosthuizen V (2008). In vitro anti-HIV-1 properties of ethnobotanically selected South African plants used in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119:478-481.
Crossref

 
 

Tuasha N, Petros B, Asfaw Z (2018). Plants Used as Anticancer Agents in the Ethiopian Traditional Medical Practices: A Systematic Review. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM 2018, 6274021.
Crossref

 
 

Tugume P, Kakudidi EK, Buyinza M, Namaalwa J, Kamatenesi M, Mucunguzi P, Kalema J (2016). Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plant species used by communities around Mabira Central Forest Reserve, Uganda. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 12(1):5.
Crossref

 
 

Vivanco JM (1999). Antiviral and Antiviroid Activity of MAP-Containing Extracts from Mirabilis jalapa Roots. Plant Disease, p. 83.
Crossref

 
 

World Health Organization (WHO) (2008). Fact sheet Number. 134: Traditional medicine, Geneva: . World Health Organization, Geneva

 
 

World Health Organization (WHO) (2018). UNAID Data 2018. World Health Organization, Geneva

 
 

Woldeab B, Regassa R, Alemu T, Megersa M (2018). Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Ethiopia. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine: eCAM 2018, 4630371.
Crossref

 
 

Wube AA, Bucar F, Gibbons S, Asres K (2005). Sesquiterpenes from Warburgia ugandensis and their antimycobacterial activity. Phytochemistry 66:2309-2315.
Crossref

 
 

Yuvaraj DM (2011). A comprehensive review on Plumbago zeylanica Linn. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 5(25):2738-2747.
Crossref

 
 

Zachariah SM, Aleykutty NA, Viswanad V, Jacob S, Prabhakar V (2011). In-vitro Antioxidant Potential of Methanolic Extracts of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Free Radicals and Antioxidants 1:82-86.
Crossref