Journal of
Oceanography and Marine Science

  • Abbreviation: J. Oceanogr. Mar. Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2294
  • DOI: 10.5897/JOMS
  • Start Year: 2010
  • Published Articles: 60

Article in Press

HURRICANE LATENT HEAT ENERGY FROM ANNUAL AMAZON DEFORESTATION RUNOFF


  •  Received: 06 November 2020
  •  Accepted: 06 November 2020
This study measures annual Latent Heat flux energies from Amazon deforestation runoff. The study’s spreadsheet program accomplishes that with two models. The first measures “All” Amazon Runoff, and the second measures “Only” Amazon “Deforestation” Runoff. Both measure those energies over the Central and North American boundary currents and utilize data from existing studies covering the 1988-2015 timeframe. The program selected only hurricane season data for analysis, i.e. June 1 through November 30. The program calculated annual evaporation data in the first model from global satellite and gauge data. In addition, other studies accounted for regional and latitudinal variations in evaporation. From that data, both calculated condensation (precipitation) energies to the atmosphere from evaporation proportionally. In the second model, it utilized a different proportion to calculate the same energies. A second smaller program converts the spreadsheet Latent Heat of Condensation annual volumes from that deforested runoff, into J/day units, i.e. potential energy. In that second program, this study compared the 1988-2015 condensation potential energies directly with kinetic energy calculations of the National Hurricane Center (NHC) and Emanuel (1998). Those authorities calculated Category 1 and Category 3 hurricane wind and rain kinetic energy. The comparisons found strikingly similar orders of magnitude. For example, the program’s 2003 comparison illustrates three days of potential energy from heavy Amazon deforestation runoff. That potential energy could account for 95% of a typical Category 1 hurricane kinetic wind energy. It could also account for 45% of a typical Category 3 hurricane kinetic wind energy. Due to sparsity of existing similar studies to compare with, this study compared that potential energy indirectly. It did that by utilizing the annual Amazon deforested area data, a proxy or surogate representative of the Latent Heat of Condensation potential energy. It compared that data to other processes or phenomena that occur in the area: El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation and Accumulated Cyclone Energy. The high correlations found in all these comparisons, indicate heavy influence of annual Amazon deforestation runoff upon North Atlantic hurricanes. These comparisons are new to the literature, and were unknown until now and should advance the field.

Keywords: Deforestation, Hurricanes, Latent Heat, Modelling, Runoff