Journal of
Plant Breeding and Crop Science

  • Abbreviation: J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9758
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPBCS
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 419


Advances in carotenoid increments in storage parts of African staple crops

Ephraim Nuwamanya
  • Ephraim Nuwamanya
  • National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), P. O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda.
  • Google Scholar
Evans Atwijukire
  • Evans Atwijukire
  • National Agricultural Research Laboratories (NARL), P. O. Box 7065 Kawanda, Kampala, Uganda.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 23 September 2018
  •  Accepted: 12 November 2018
  •  Published: 31 March 2019


The importance of vitamin A and other carotenoids in controlling micronutrient based deficiencies in particular VAD has been emphasized in recent years. This has resulted into demands for availing these nutrients in forms that are easily accessible for most of the populations in micronutrient deficient areas. Specifically in Africa, various programs have been instituted to bio-fortify crops with nutrients with more emphasis being put on Vitamin A fortification. Much as advances have been made in this area, a number of programs have registered little success while others have not taken off.  In this review, advances in breeding for vitamin A increments are discussed. Countries where successes have been achieved are also highlighted while efforts in a number of areas for the different staple crops have been given due emphasis. In particular, breeding strategies have been discussed, and examples of successful breeding strategies highlighted to inform future efforts. In addition, the effect of processing on retention of vitamin A in processed products has been discussed with specific recommendations on identification of crop specific processing procedures. Such procedures should be optimized before adoption to allow for minimal losses in vitamin A and other related nutrients. We conclude that much as advances have been made, specific efforts are still needed in certain staples in order to provide benefits to the African consumers.

Key Words: African staples, Carotenoids, Malnutrition, Biofortification, Retention