To broaden the genetic base of the allotetraploid peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), pre-breeding programs have produced interspecific synthetic allotetraploids resulting from the chromosome duplication of hybrids between peanut related diploid species. These allotetraploids were highly cross-fertile with peanut making it possible to access the extensive genetic variability harbored by the wild species. This study aims to evaluate the impact of polyploidization and hybridization in resveratrol content in Arachis hybrids. Resveratrol is a potent antioxidant that has been shown to be useful in the treatment of many human diseases. For that, resveratrol was characterized in five synthetic allotetraploids of wild Arachis, six diploid wild species, three cultivars of A. hypogaea and three backcross (BC) hybrids between synthetic allotetraploids and A. hypogaea. Leaves from these genotypes were ultraviolet (UV) light irradiated for 2 h 30 min and their resveratrol contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Resveratrol was found in all genotypes, but at variable concentrations. Synthetic allotetraploids and peanut did not differ and diploid species had the lowest resveratrol content. The highest concentrations were observed in hybrids between allotetraploids and cultivars of A. hypogaea that were probably the most heterozygous among the genotypes analyzed since their chromosome sets came from different species. This study data suggest a positive effect of polyploidy and hybridization in resveratrol content.
Key words: Peanut, wild relatives, polyploidy, pre-breeding.
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