Journal of
Public Health and Epidemiology

  • Abbreviation: J. Public Health Epidemiol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2316
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPHE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 644

Full Length Research Paper

Sanitation practice and associated factors among slum dwellers residing in urban slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study

Biniyam Sahiledengle
  • Biniyam Sahiledengle
  • Department of Public Health, School of Health Science, Madda Walabu University Goba Referral Hospital, Bale-Goba, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Fessahaye Alemseged
  • Fessahaye Alemseged
  • Department of Epidemiology, School of Health Science, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Tefera Belachew
  • Tefera Belachew
  • School of Graduate Studies Director, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 06 August 2018
  •  Accepted: 27 August 2018
  •  Published: 31 October 2018


Attaining sustainable sanitation in urban slum community is still an issue and continues to be a gap. Furthermore, factors associated with sanitation practices among slum dwellers has not been yet well explored in many low income countries, such as Ethiopia. This study was designed to determine the sanitation practice and associated factors among slum dwellers residing in urban slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was employed. The systematic random sampling technique was used to select households from the slum community in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A pre-tested structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were computed. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors. A total of 335 slum dwellers were involved in the study, of which 64.5% of the households use unimproved sanitation facility and 78.3% of the sanitation facilities were in poor condition. Less than half, 46.9% (95%CI: 41.5, 52.2%) of the slum dwellers had good sanitation practices. Having an improved sanitation facility (AOR= 7.27, 95%CI: 3.09, 17.05), having pour-flush type of sanitation facility (AOR= 4.32, 95%CI: 1.99, 9.39), presence of solid waste collection container inside the house compound (AOR=4.26, 95%CI: 2.02, 8.97), and good hygienic knowledge (AOR=4.37, 95%CI: 1.87, 10.24) were factors associated with good sanitation practice. Poor sanitation practices and unhygienic sanitation facilities were widely reported by slum dwellers and acute in the urban slum of Addis Ababa. Escalating household improved sanitation facilities along with strong health promotion programs on sanitation and hygiene practice is recommended.

Key words: Urban sanitation, sanitation practice, hygiene knowledge, informal settlements, slum, Kirkos sub-city, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.