Journal of
Public Health and Epidemiology

  • Abbreviation: J. Public Health Epidemiol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2316
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPHE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 589

Article in Press

Prevalence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis among women attending clinics in selected Hospitals in Oyo State, Southwest, Nigeria.

  •  Received: 21 May 2021
  •  Accepted: 21 May 2021
Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a pathogenic fungal infection of the female lower genital tract, the vulva, and the vagina caused by a yeast called Candida. At least 20-50% of healthy asymptomatic women have it as part of normal flora of the lower genital tract. Health care delivery system related constraints in developing countries have made diagnosis and management of vulvo-vaginal symptoms unnecessarily complicated leading to poor management of the infection. Aim: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among women attending clinics in selected hospitals in Oyo State, Nigeria. Methodology: Two hundred (200) high vaginal swabs were collected from each of the selected hospitals. These were streaked on chocolate agar, blood agar and sabouraud dextrose agar. Structured tool was used in collecting survey of patients’ basic clinical information. Results: The prevalence of Candida species among the 200 subjects was 40% and 45.0% of those infected were aged 20-30 years. Across all Candida species, Candida albicans (83.8%) had the highest prevalence and mostly occurred among patients aged 20-30 years (47.8%). Higher proportion of Candida species infection was detected among patients without vaginal discharge (65.0%) and pelvic inflammation diseases (88.8%) than those with these symptoms. Higher proportion of those without vaginal itching (34.5%, n=69) had positive Candida albicans cultures compared with those who had symptoms. Conclusion: Among the Candida species reported in this study, Candida albicans was the most vulvo-vaginal candida infection. Majority of patients’ samples without pelvic inflammatory disease, vaginal discharge and itching symptoms tested positive for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Recommendation: Based on the findings, health education and awareness for routine screening are highly recommended for women of reproductive age to aid in early candida diagnosis and treatment. Also, clinicians are advised to essentially emphasize on empirical laboratory diagnosis for speciation of Candida specie as against syndromic approach.

Keywords: vulvovaginal candidiasis, prevalence, Candida species, age groups, diagnosis.