Amphimas pterocarpoides is used traditionally for the treatment of oedema, infections, malaria and skin diseases. This study described pharmacognostic and physicochemical parameters of the leaf and stem bark. The carrageenan-induced foot oedema and the baker’s yeast-induced pyrexia were used to assess the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities respectively. The leaf of A. pterocarpoides is oddly pinnate compound, oblong in shape with acuminate apex and obtuse base. The stem bark is scaly and rugged and exudes a reddish resin when bruised. Leaf microscopy displayed wavy-walled epidermal cells, paracytic stomata, glandular and clothing trichomes, bean-shaped lignified vascular bundle, prismatic calcium oxalate crystals. The leaf (APL) and stem bark (APSB) extracts (30-300 mg/kg p.o.) significantly inhibited foot oedema in chicks with maximum percentage inhibition of 76.65 ± 6.27% and 77.04 ± 2.53% respectively [ED50 = 225.3± 31.52 mg/kg (APL) and 178.9 ± 29.57 mg/kg (APSB)]. APL, APSB and paracetamol also showed significant antipyretic activity [ED50 = 70.95 ± 9.24 mg/kg (APL), 27.02 ± 1.96 mg/kg (APSB), 32.47 ± 3.03 mg/kg (Paracetamol)]. Tannins, flavonoids, phytosterols, triterpenoids and coumarins were identified in A. pterocarpoides. This study has provided essential diagnostic characteristics for the quality control of A. pterocarpoides and justified its anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects.
Key words: Pharmacognosy, carrageenan, Amphimas pterocarpoides, pyrexia, inflammation.
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