The present ethnobotanical exploration documents phytotherapeutical practices in Mayurbhanj district of Orissa, eastern India. It is primarily based on field surveys and taxonomic identification of plants carried out in villages, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, parts used to prepare the remedies, and the illnesses to which the remedies were prescribed. One hundred and twelve plants from sixty two families were described, which are therapeutically used against different ailments such as cough, diarrhea, chronic dysentery, chronic constipation, jaundice, menstrual problem, piles, snakebite, rheumatism, tuberculosis, diabetes, leprosy, skin diseases etc. The plant parts namely; leaf, bark, seed, root, tuber, fruit and whole plant were used in raw or cooked forms. The most important medicinal plant families were: Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae and Zingiberaceae. These phytotherapeutical resources were used for the cure of 45 illnesses.
Key words: Mayurbhanj, Orissa, phytotherapy, traditional knowledge, tribals.
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