Journal of
Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy

  • Abbreviation: J. Pharmacognosy Phytother.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2502
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPP
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 223

Full Length Research Paper

Phytochemical and biological analyses of Citharexylum spinosum

Amel M. Kamal1*,
  • Amel M. Kamal1*,
  • Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Cairo 11795, Egypt.
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Mohamed I. S. Abdelhady
  • Mohamed I. S. Abdelhady
  • Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Cairo 11795, Egypt.
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Heba Tawfeek
  • Heba Tawfeek
  • Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Cairo 11795, Egypt.
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Maha G. Haggag
  • Maha G. Haggag
  • Department of Microbiology, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt.
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Eman G. Haggag
  • Eman G. Haggag
  • Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Cairo 11795, Egypt.
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  •  Received: 15 October 2017
  •  Accepted: 07 November 2017
  •  Published: 31 December 2017

Abstract

The phytochemical screening of Citharexylum spinosum L. aerial parts resulted in the presence of flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates and/or glycosides, triterpenes and/or sterols and saponins. The percentage of hydrocarbons and sterols in C. spinosum petroleum ether extract were 99.57 and 0.3%, respectively. In petroleum ether extract, saturated fatty acids (78.76%) and unsaturated fatty acids (9.14%) were found. Chromatographic fractionation of 80% aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of C. spinosum resulted in isolation of 10 compounds; β-Sitosterol, β-Sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, Oleanolic acid, Gallic acid, Quercetin, 6-Methoxy acacetin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, Naringenin, Quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (Quercetrin), 1, 2, 6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and Rutin. The antipyretic activity of aqueous methanolic residue using Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats was significant at dose 300 mg/kg. All tested samples had no analgesic activity. The major isolated compounds were quercetin and quercetrin, their biological activities, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, were determined parallel to the extracts. It was found that the aqueous methanolic residue, chloroform extract, quercetin and quercetrin exerted significant antimicrobial activity. From 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay on A2780 human ovarian cell line, quercetrin showed moderate cytotoxic activity, whereas quercetin showed significant cytotoxic activity.

 

Key words: Citharexylum spinosum, lipoidal matter, phenolics, antipyretic, antimicrobial.