Acacia nilotica (Linn) is an important medicinal plant, found in Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent as well as in Sokoto State, Nigeria. It has been utilized to treat wounds and intestinal disorders among other uses. It has been estimated that nearly 6 million people suffer from chronic wounds worldwide. Even though several conventional drugs are known to increase healing in different kinds of injuries, most are complicated, expensive, and limited in activity. Hence, in this study the stem back crude methanolic extract of A. nilotica was evaluated for wound healing activity using the wound excision model. The plant's stem bark was extracted by maceration using distilled water and methanol to obtain a crude methanol extract (CME). The CME was screened phytochemically and prepared into ointment before subjecting to wound healing assay using the excision wound model in Wister albino rats. The results showed the presence of rich phenolic phytoconstituents, especially of tannins and saponins which were attributed to aid wound healing based on literature. Consequently, the wound healing activity of 10% CME was comparable significantly (P<0.05), to that of povidone-iodine (5% w/w), while that of 2.5 and 5% were less. The study demonstrated that topical application of CME hastens wound healing and thus provided proof of its folklore use for wound healing.
Key words: Contraction, epithelisation, extract, phytoconstituents, povidone iodine, wound.
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