Paracetamol toxicity due to overdose amongst people living in the developing countries has been on the increase. This study investigated the amelioration potentials of Vernonia calvaona ethanol leaf extract in paracetamol-treated rats. Thirty five Wistar rats were divided into five groups of seven rats each. Hepatic damage was induced by administering 2 g/kg b.wt of paracetamol p.o for four day to all the groups except group 1 (normal control). This was followed by 21 days treatment with crude ethanol extract of V. calvaona (VC) leaf as well as vitamin E. Group 2 received 2 g/kg b.wt of paracetamol while groups 3 and 4 received 200 and 400 mg VC extracts/kg b.wt, respectively. Group 5 received vitamin E 100 mg/kg b.wt. and histology of the liver, respectively. The result showed a significant (p˂0.05) increase in serum alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST) and ALP during the pre-treatment phase while the treatment phase indicated a significant (p˂0.05) reduction in the serum ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in a dose dependent pattern relative to the controls. The 400 mg VC extract/kg b.wt and the vitamin E 100 mg/kg b.wt reversed the levels of these enzymes to a non-significant (p˂0.05) difference relative to the controls. The histology of the liver in the VC extract treated groups indicated regeneration of the hepatocytes when compared to the control. It is therefore suggested that crude extract of V. calvaona leaf possesses protective effect against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats.
Key words: Amelioration potentials, liver function biomarkers, Vernonia calvoana.