Journal of
Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy

  • Abbreviation: J. Pharmacognosy Phytother.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2502
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPP
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 215

Full Length Research Paper

Review on biological and immunomodulatory properties of Moringa oleifera in animal and human nutrition

Adouko S. Jacques
  • Adouko S. Jacques
  • Research Unit in Applied Microbiology and Pharmacology of Natural Substances, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 2009 Cotonou, Benen
  • Google Scholar
Soha S. S. Arnaud
  • Soha S. S. Arnaud
  • Research Unit in Applied Microbiology and Pharmacology of Natural Substances, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 2009 Cotonou, Benen
  • Google Scholar
Ohouko O. H. Fréjus
  • Ohouko O. H. Fréjus
  • Research Unit in Applied Microbiology and Pharmacology of Natural Substances, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 2009 Cotonou, Benen
  • Google Scholar
Dougnon T. Jacques
  • Dougnon T. Jacques
  • Research Unit in Applied Microbiology and Pharmacology of Natural Substances, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 2009 Cotonou, Benen
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 26 June 2019
  •  Accepted: 10 December 2019
  •  Published: 29 February 2020


Moringa oleifera, also called "miracle tree" or "tree for life" is a tree native from India. Highly resistant to drought, M. oleifera grows very well in tropical regions, including Benin. It is a plant with very high nutritional values. The different parts of the plant (leaves, fruiots, seeds, roots, bark and flowers) have multiple uses, both therapeutic and nutritional, with uses in human and animals. The leaves for example, are rich in minerals, vitamins, phenolic compounds like phenolic acids, tannins, flavonoids, phytosterols, and alkaloids. It is reported that M. oleifera had anaphylactic, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic and antimicrobial properties. The present study focuses on the biological properties of Moringa so that it can be used in the treatment of viral diseases in chicken.

Key words: Moringa oleifera, bioactive compounds, biological properties.



Moringa oleifera, also called "miracle tree" or "tree of life" (Fuglie, 2002) is a tree native from India. Drought tolerant (Bosch, 2017), M. oleifera is a widely available plant in tropical and subtropical countries with great economic importance (Foidl et al., 2001). It is a plant with very high nutritional values. This is for a tree, all over the tree, can be self-food, old food and industrial (Khalafalla et al., 2010). M. oleifera is described as a natural anthelmintic, a mild antibiotic, a detoxifier, an exceptional immune builder. It is used in many countries to treat malnutrition and malaria (Khesorn, 2009) and according to Dhakad et al.  (2019)  M.   oleifera   is  the   most   inexpensive   and credible alternative to provide good nutrition and curing and prevention of several disorders. In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in the study of medicinal plants and their traditional use in different parts of the world. However, there is very little information on the use of M. oleifera leaves as an immunomodulator, and on reducing the mortality rate in chickens infected with Newcastle virus (Eze et al., 2013).

The purpose of this document is to provide a bibliographic overview of the properties of M. oleifera, which is the first step in evaluating the immune-enhancing   properties   of  this  plant   in   chickens   with Newcastle disease. Indeed, various authors have reported anaphylactic, antiulcer, antithyroid, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihyperglycemic, anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, antiperoxidative, diuretic, antiurolithiatic, hypocholesterolemic, antihypertensive, cardioprotective, antiasthmatic, immunomodulatory properties of Moringa oleifera.

Botanical description, geographic distribution and chemical composition of M. oleifera

M. oleifera Lam. or Moringa pterygosperma Gaertner is a shrub belonging to the family Moringaceae, cultivated for its leaves, flowers and fruits with many nutritional, medicinal and industrial potentialities. This tree, native to India, has been introduced in all tropical and subtropical regions (Price, 2007; Atakpama et al., 2014) and has become naturalized in many African countries. Still called mouroungue, ben ailé, neverdié, horseradish tree; M. oleifera is a small, fast-growing, perennial (Bosch, 2017) deciduous tree that can reach 7 to 12 m in height (Foidl et al., 2001).

The stem is brittle with a cork bark, whitish gray, with drooping branches; the leaves are pale green and bipinnate or more often tripinnate with opposite and ovoid leaves (Pandey et al., 2011). They are 6.5 to 60 cm long, 4 to 6 pairs of pinnae and elliptic to Tableobovate leaflets (Bosch, 2017) (Figure 1a). The fragrant, bisexual and zygomorphous flowers have five free petals, oblong-spatulate, 1 to 2 cm long, unequal, white or cream and finely veined (Figure 1b). The fruit of Moringa oleifera is a pendulous and elongated capsule, 10 to 50 cm long, brown in color becoming dark brown when ripe (Bosch, 2017). The fruits form pods with three lobes which, when dry, open in three parts (Figure 1c). Each pod contains between 12 and 35 seeds (Foidl et al., 2001). Seeds, globose, 1 to 1.5 cm in diameter bear three thin wings (Bosch, 2017).



M. oleifera Lam. belongs to the monogeneric family of shrubs and trees of  Moringaceae  which  includes  about 13 species. The other twelve species are well known. They are M. arborea, M. borziana, M. concanensis, M. drouhardii, M. hildebrandtii, M. longituba, M. ovalifolia, M. peregrina, M. pygmaea, M. rivae, M. ruspoliana, M. stenopetala. M. oleifera Lam. is the most widely known and used species (Foidl et al., 2001; Fuglie, 2002).

M. oleifera is growing well at low altitudes (Bosch, 2017). Indeed, it prefers an altitude lower than 600 m (Price, 2007). In East Africa, it is found up to 1350 m altitude, but in Zimbabwe, a naturalized stand at 2000 m testifies to its adaptability (Bosch, 2017). Drought-tolerant, it tolerates a wide range of cprecipitation with minimum precipitation requirements estimated at 250 mm and maximum at more than 3000 mm and a pH of 5.0 - 9.0 (Palada and Changl, 2003). It can be grown in all kinds of soils, but it is mostly fertile and well-drained soils that suit it. Slight frosts are tolerated (Bosch, 2017).

Propagation of M. oleifera is by seed (sown directly in the field at the beginning of the rainy season, either in nursery watered during the dry season), or by cuttings (Bosch, 2017). The results of the screening of M. oleifera leaves show that the leaves of this tree are rich in sterols and triterpenes (terpenoids), carotenoids, essential amino acids, flavonoids, tannins, sugars and fibers. Coumarin derivatives and alkaloids are in trace amounts (Millogo-Koné et al., 2012). Cardiac glycosides, saponins and ascorbic acid have been identified in the leaves of Moringa oleifera (Okumu et al., 2016). In addition, the leaves of M. oleifera contain a very high concentration of vitamins (A, B, C, E, etc.), proteins, certain minerals (iron, calcium, zinc, selenium, etc.) and a rather rare phenomenon. For a plant, it has the amino acids and essential fatty acids (Broin, 2005; Fuglie, 2002; Kasolo et al., 2010; Nouman et al., 2013; De Saint Sauveur and Broin, 2010). They provide a rich and rare combinat ion of zeatin, quercetin, caffeoylquinic acid, beta-sitosterol and kaempferol (Moyo et al., 2011). Studies have shown that mature leaves of M. oleifera contain less protein than young leaves because of their high fiber content, including crude fiber ranging from 9.13 to 28.2% of dry matter (Richter et al., 2003; Ndong et al., 2007).

Sterols, glycosides, alkaloids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, carotenoids and tannins have been identified in the stem bark and flowers of M. oleifera. The seeds are oleaginous, revealing a very high fatty acid profile. They have the same health benefits as olive oil (Anwar et al., 2007). The leaves of M. oleifera contain negligible proportions of anti-nutritional factors (Kavitha et al., 2012). The average composition of some parts of M. oleifera is established in Table 1.



The review article was written using secondary data analysis. Information on searching databases such as Agora, Hinari, Google Scholar, various journals, books, articles were used during redaction of biological properties and immunomodulatory effect of M. oleifera in animal and human nutrition.



Biological activities of M. oleifera

Anti-anaphylactic activity

The anti-anaphylactic effect of the ethanolic seed extract was studied in a murine model of systemic anaphylactic shock induced by compound 48/80. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by the anti-IgE antibody was also used to evaluate the effect of the extract (Mahajan and Mehta, 2007). The study showed, on the one hand, that administered one hour before the injection of compound 48/80, the ethanolic extract of M. oleifera at doses of 0.001 to 1 g / kg completely inhibits the induced anaphylactic shock; on the other hand, the extract significantly inhibits  the  passive  cutaneous  anaphylaxis activated by the anti-IgE antibody at a dose of 1 g / kg (Mahajan and Mehta, 2007).

Antiulcer activity

The root extract of M. oleifera have been used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice (Gholap et al., 2012). Leaf extracts also produced a significant reduction in stress-induced gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine (Devaraj et al., 2007). Debnath and Guha (2007) also reported an anti-ulcer effect of the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves on adult albino Holtzman rats. Indeed, according to these authors, treatment with M. oleifera for 14 days on ulcerated rats decreased the average ulcer index, increased the number of enterochromaffin cells and the content of 5-hydroxytryptamine. The alcoholic leaves extract of M. oleifera Lam. has shown ulcer protective effect as dose dependently against pylorus-ligation, ethanol, cold restraint stress, and aspirin induced gastric ulcer in rats. The said extract of M. oleifera Lam. was found to decrease ulcer and acid pepsin secretion (Verma et al., 2012).

Antithyroid activity

Tahiliani and Kar (2000) studied the role of M. oleifera leaf extract in the regulation of thyroid hormones in Swiss adult rats and found that it plays an inhibitory role in the peripheral conversion of tetraidothyoronin (T4) into triiodothyronine (T3). In addition, at low concentrations, this extract can be used to control hyperthyroidism (Tahiliani and Kar, 2000).

Hepatoprotective activity

Various studies have reported that ethanolic extracts of seeds and leaves of M. oleifera have hepatoprotective action. Indeed, Pari and Kumar (2002) evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves on hepatic lesions induced by antituberculous drugs such as isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide in rats. Thus, oral administration of the extract has shown an important protective action made evident by its effect on the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin in serum, also on lipid levels and lipid peroxidation in the liver. This observation was completed by a histopathological examination of the liver.

The seed extract of M. oleifera also exerts a hepatoprotective effect against liver fibrosis induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Indeed, the administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the  CCl4-induced  elevation  of  serum  aminotransferase activity and the level of globulin (Hamza, 2010).

Anti-inflammatory activity

Several parts of the Moringa plant have shown anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves has been demonstrated using tests induced by carrageenan and histamine (Adepapo et al., 2014). N'diaye et al. (2002) showed that M. oleifera root extract has anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats using indomethacin, a potent anti-inflammatory drug (10 mg / kg). In fact, at a dose of 750 mg / kg, the aqueous root extract of M. oleifera significantly inhibited the development of edema at 1, 3 and 5 hours (53.5, 44.6 and 51.1% respectively).

Alcohol extract from M. oleifera seeds has also shown anti-inflammatory activity against ovalbumin-induced respiratory tract inflammation in guinea pigs (Mahajan and Mehta, 2007). Bioactive compounds in M. oleifera pods can contribute to anti-inflammatory activity to improve the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases (Muangnoi et al., 2012).

Antidiabetic activities

The use of M. oleifera as a therapeutic agent against diabetes has been explored. Studies have shown that in rats with type 2 diabetes, leaves of M. oleifera significantly reduce glucose concentration. Leaves are indeed a powerful source of polyphenols, responsible for hypoglycemic activity. M. oleifera also has an enhancing effect on glucose intolerance that can be mediated by quercetin-3-glucoside and fibers contained in leaf powder (Ndong et al., 2007). The aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg / kg body weight showed a reduction of 33.29; 40.69 and 44.06% of the glycemia of alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats (Edoga et al., 2013). At the same doses, Manohar et al. (2012) showed the antihyperglycaemic activity of the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves on normal rabbits and diabetic alloxan-induced rabbits. Moringa fruit lower serum cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein), VLDL (Very Low Density Lipoprotein) and reduce lipid profile in cholesterol-positive rabbits elevated and then increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol (Mehta et al., 2003).

Antitumor activities

M. oleifera has several bioactive compounds with antitumor activity. Niazimicin, niaziminine and beta-sitosterol-3-o-beta-D-glucopyranoside have indeed shown an antitumor action. Studies have explored the chemopreventive and antiproliferative potential of M. oleifera against chemical carcinogenesis, as well as its role in epithelial ovarian cancer. In addition, M. oleifera seed extracts have effects on enzymes metabolizing hepatic carcinogen (Bharali et al., 2003; Bose, 2007). The leaf extract of M. oleifera has shown potential cytotoxic effects on cell lines of human multiple myeloma (Parvathy and Umamaheshwari, 2007; Soha et al., 2019).

Antioxidant activities

Exploration of M. oleifera as a potential source of antioxidants has yielded positive results (Chumark et al., 2008). The content of phenolic compounds present in the leaves confers a scavenging property of free radicals, whereas the ethanolic fraction has considerable properties of metal chelation which can protect against DNA cleavage (Verma et al., 2009; Sreelatha and Padma, 2009; Singh et al., 2009). Seed powder showed a reduction in tissue arsenic concentration, providing protection against oxidative stress (Gupta et al., 2007). M. oleifera seeds have been shown to be superior for trapping free radicals relative to palm oil (Ogbunugafor et al., 2011). Aqueous-methanol extract of M. oleifera leaves has antioxidant capacity (Okumu et al., 2016).

Diuretic and antiurolithic activities

Studies indicate that the M. oleifera wood root has anti-urolithic activity (Dubey et al., 2013). One study also revealed an anti-lithiolithic property of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the bark of the M. oleifera root (Karadi et al., 2006). Indeed, both extracts significantly lowered the levels of urinary excretion and renal retention of oxalate, calcium and phosphate.

Hypocholesterolemic and cardioprotective activities

The Moringa root bark contains the moringinine alkaloid, which by its effect on the sympathetic nervous system stimulates cardiac function (Duke, 2001). The effects may also be due to the prevention of hyperlipidemia. He demonstrated that M. oleifera prevents hyperlipidemia due to iron deficiency in male Wistar rats (Ndong et al., 2007). A study comparing M. oleifera leaf extract with antenolol (a selective β1-receptor antagonist used for cardiovascular diseases) reported the leaf extract of M. oleifera as a hypolipidemic, lowering of body weight, heart weight, serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels in experimental animals (Ara et al., 2008).

M. oleifera also has a cardioprotective role in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Treatment with M. oleifera has been reported to have cardioprotective cardioprotective effects in male Wistar albino rats on enzymatic biochemical parameters including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase (Farooq et al., 2012). It has also been shown that this compound lowers cholesterol levels in rats fed a high-fat diet (Ghasi et al., 2000).

Antihypertensive activities

Several bioactive compounds in M. oleifera leaves exert a direct effect on blood pressure and can thus be used for the stabilization of blood pressure. The compounds of M. oleifera leading to an antihypertensive effect include nitrile, mustard oil glycosides and thiocarbamate glycosides present in Moringa leaves (Anwar et al., 2007). Moringa leaves contain b-sitosterol, a bioactive phytoconstituent with a cholesterol lowering effect.

Antiasthmatic activity

The alkaloid of the Moringa plant showed a similarity with ephedrine in terms of activity. Thus, it can be used in the treatment of asthma. The seeds of M. oleifera have shown a potential effect in the management of bronchial asthma. Patients showed significant relief from the severity of asthma symptoms in addition to improved respiratory function (Agarwal and Mehta, 2008).

Immunomodulatory activity

The immunomodulatory action of the methanolic extract of M. oleifera was studied in an experimental model of immunity. Neutrophil adhesion assays, cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia, and carbon clearance assay were used to study cellular immunity. Humoral immunity was tested by lethality testing in mice, estimation of serum immunoglobulin levels, and indirect haemagglutination assay in animals. The study showed that M. oleifera stimulates both the cell-mediated and the humoral-mediated immune system at lower doses (Sudha et al., 2010). Several studies concluded that, the inclusion of M. oleifera in chicken diets resulted in better growth performance, immune response and antioxidative status (Khan et al., 2017; Oghenebrorhie and Oghenesuvwe, 2016; Yeung et al., 2019). Cui et al. (2018) reported that dietary M. Oleifera supplementation can act as ROS scavenger to improve the antioxidant capacity by activating the antioxidant enzymes and reducing the level of oxidative enzymes in broilers. Moussa et al. (2017) have reported that the inclusion of dietary M. Oleifera could improve the immune response of chickens. Furthermore, El-Deep et al. (2019) reported that M.  oleifera  supplementation of  broiler's  diet  would also modulate the immune response by regulating mRNA expression levels of the innate immune response mediators, such as IL2 and IL6, and alleviating the degenerative changes that occurred in live tissue following HS.

Spasmolytic activity

The roots as well as the ethanol extract of the leaves showed an antispasmodic action, perhaps through the blocking of calcium channels. The spasmolytic activity exhibited by the constituents of the plant provides a solid base for traditional uses of the plant in gastrointestinal motility disorders (Anwar et al., 1994).

Radioprotective activity

A radioprotective effect was observed in the methanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves in irradiated Swiss albino mice. In fact, pretreatment with the methanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves considerably reduces the percentage of aberrant cells in the bone marrow after irradiation with gamma whole body radiation in animals. Pretreatment with the methanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves confers significant radiative protection to bone marrow chromosomes in irradiated mice (Rao et al., 2001).

Antinociceptive activity

Several studies have shown that M. oleifera has analgesic activity. This activity was indeed demonstrated using the acetic acid induced convulsion test and the Eddy hot plate test for peripheral and central analgesic actions respectively using albino mice. The ethanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera showed significant analgesic activity at 100, 200, 400 mg / kg in both tests compared to the control group (Bhattacharya et al., 2014).

The antimigraine potential of the alcoholic fraction of leaf sap of M. oleifera that is traditionally used in the treatment of migraine has been studied. The study showed that Moringa can be used effectively in the treatment and management of migraine (Upadhye et al., 2012). The fresh leaf sap and ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves were administered orally at varying doses to mice and were tested for antinociceptive activities using three models: acetic acid-induced convulsion, licking of the formalin-induced paw and tail stroke test using analgesiometer. The study showed significant antinociceptive activity of M. oleifera (Upadhye et al., 2011).

Healing activity

The aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves and the ethyl acetate   extract   of   dried  leaves  were  found  to   have  significant healing potential. For the study, 10% of the extract was applied to excision, incision and dead space (granuloma) models in the rat as an ointment (Rathi et al., 2006; Hukkeri et al., 2006). The polysterols and phenolic compounds in these extracts promote healing activity (Dubey et al., 2013). 

Antimicrobial activities and antihelminthic effects

Various components of M. oleifera have inhibitory activity against several microorganisms. The seeds of M. oleifera because of some active ingredients they contain: antimicrobial isothiocyanates and glucomoringin is a potent antibacterial and antifungal agent (Padla et al., 2012; Galuppo et al., 2013; Jeon et al., 2014). Moreover Dougnon et al. (2011) have shown that the ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves has antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains.

A range of antimicrobial activity has been observed from susceptibility of B. stearothermophilus to resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ali et al., 2004). In addition to the antibacterial activity of M. oleifera oils, antifungal activity has also been demonstrated (Chuang et al., 2007). Comparative comparison of the antibacterial and antifungal efficacy of the M. oleifera vapor distillate revealed maximal inhibition of E. coli followed by S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Of the fungi, Aspergillus niger was the most inhibited, followed by Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus nidulans (Prashith et al., 2010).

Alcohol extracts from leaves, seeds and flowers showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter species, Proteus mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus aureus, and Candida albicans (Nepolean et al., 2009). In vitro antifungal activity has been observed against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis, including some species of Aspergillus and Penicillium (Ayanbimpe et al., 2009). 

Recent discoveries have revealed cyanobactericidal potential in seeds (Lürling and Beekman, 2010). It has also been reported that ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves inhibit the Indian worm Pheritima posthuma (Rastogi et al., 2009).

Antiplasmodial activity

In vitro studies have shown an antiprotozoal effect of M.oleifera (Köhler et al., 2002). Soluble seed extract lectin showed larvicidal activity by delaying larval development and promoting mortality in Aedes aegypti, probably due to its haemagglutinating activity (Coelho et al., 2009; Ferreira et al., 2009).

Cerebroprotective and depressive activities of the Central Nervous System (CNS)

The root extract exhibits CNS depressive activity. Studies using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera root on penicillin-induced convulsion, locomotor behavior, cerebral serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and norepineprine (NE) were studied in rat. The extract improved the imbalance between 5-HT, DA and NE (Ray et al., 2003). The brain-protective effect of M. oleifera leaf extract against brain damage and oxidative stress in the animal model of focal ischemic stroke was studied. The study demonstrated that M. oleifera leaf extract is a potential neuroprotectant that is cheap and easy to approach (Kirisattayakul et al., 2013).

Other pharmacological effects of M. oleifera

Work on the leaves of M. oleifera has shown that they can serve as a strengthening of the immune system against viral damage and especially in people living with HIV / AIDS (Lipipun et al., 2003). Flowers and leaves are used to treat inflammation, muscle disease, hysteria, tumors, enlarged spleen, and reduced serum cholesterol (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2003). 


The different researches on M. oleifera have come to justify the various uses and virtues that endogenous populations have lent to it for centuries. Given the different nutrients and properties of this miracle tree, it would benefit from being considered in the efforts to contain cases of bacterial resistance increasingly frequent and why not in the prevention and fight against avian pathologies of origin viral disease like Newcastle disease. Also, several investigations are needed to corroborate the main mechanisms of Moringa as an immunostimulatory agent.



The authors have not declared any conflict of interests.



The authors thank the Research Unit in Applied Microbiology and Pharmacology of Natural Substances (U.R.M.A.Pha), which give access to their library for the provision of documents and information necessary for the writing of this review paper.




Adepapo A, Falayi O, Oyagbemi A (2014). The anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive activities of the methanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in some laboratory animals. The FASEB Journal 28:657-669.


Agarwal B, Mehta A (2008). Antiasthmatic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. A clinical study. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 40:28-31.


Ali GH, El-Taweel GE, Ali MA (2004). The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial efficiency of Moringa oleifera seeds extracts. International Journal of Environmental Studies 61:699-708.


Anwar F, Latif S, Ashraf M, Gilani AH (2007). Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytotherapy Research 21:17-25.


Anwar HG, Khalid A, Amin S, Salimuzzaman S, Rubeena S, Bina SS, Shaheen F (1994). Pharmacological studies on hypotensive and spasmolytic activities of pure compounds from Moringa oleifera. Phytotherapy Research 8:87-91.


Ara N, Rashid M, Amran MS (2008). Comparison of Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract with Atenolol on Serum triglyceride, Serum Cholesterol, Blood glucose, heart weight, body weight in Adrenaline Induced Rats. Saudi Journal of Biological Science 15:253-258.


Atakpama W, Kponor EGE, Kanda M, Dourma M, Nare M, Batawila K, Akpagana K (2014). Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae): une ressource phytogénétique à usage multiple, Revue Cames, Sciences de la vie, de la terre et agronomie 2:6-14.


Ayanbimpe GM, Ojo TK, Afolabi E, Opara F, Orsaah S, Ojerinde OS (2009). Evaluation of extracts of Jatropha curcas and Moringa oleifera in culture media for selective inhibition of saprophytic fungal contaminants. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 23:161-164.


Bharali R, Tabassum J, Azad MR (2003). Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. on hepatic carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 4:131-139.


Bhattacharya A, Naik MR, Agrawal D, Rath K, Kumar S, Sekhar S, Mishra SS (2014). Anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects of leaf extract of drumstick tree. Journal of Young Pharmacists 6:20-24.


Bosch CH (2017). Moringa oleifera (PROTA), PlantUseFrançais. Consulté le 13 mai 2018 à 20:21 sur 


Bose CK (2007). Possible role of Moringa oleifera Lam. Root in epithelial ovarian cancer. Medscape General Medicine 9:26.


Broin M (2005). Composition nutritionnelle des feuilles de Moringa oleifera CTA. P 2-3. Consulté le 17 mai 2018 à 14:13 sur 



Chuang PH, Lee CW, Chou CY, Murugan M, Shieh BJ, Chen HM (2007). Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam. Bioresource Technology 98:232-236.


Chumark P, Khunawat P, Sanvarinda Y, Phornchirasilp S, Morales NP, Phivthong-Ngam L, Ratanachamnong P, Srisawat S, Pongrapeeporn KU (2008). The in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant properties, hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic activities of water extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 116:439-446.


Coelho JS, Santos ND, Napoleao TH, Gomes FS, Ferreira RS, Zingali RB, Coelho LC, Leite SP, Navarro DM, Paiva V (2009). Effect of Moringa oleifera lectin on development and mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae. Chemosphere 77:934-938.


Cui YM, Wang J, Lu W, Zhang HJ, Wu SG, Qi GH (2018). Effect of dietary supplementation with Moringa Oleifera leaf on performance, meat quality, and oxidative stability of meat in broilers. Poultry Science 97:2836-2844.


De Saint Sauveur A, Broin M (2010). Produire et transformer les feuilles de Moringa. 36 p. Consulté le 18 mai 2018 à 17:11 sur 


Debnath S, Guha D (2007). Role of Moringa oleifera on enterochromaffin cell count and serotonin content of experimental ulcer model. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 45:726-731.


Devaraj VC, Asad M, Prasad S (2007). Effect of leaves and fruits of Moringa oleifera on gastric and duodenal ulcers. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 45:332-338.


Dhakad AK, Ikram M, Sharma S, Khan S, Pandey VV, Singh A (2019). Biological, nutritional, and therapeutic significance of Moringa oleifera Lam. Phytotherapy Research, pp. 1-34.


Dougnon JT, Edorh AP, Bankole HS, Kpodekon M, Gbenou J (2011). Efficiency of ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections in chicks. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5:6704-6708.


Dubey DK, Dora J, Kumar A, Gulsan RK (2013). A Multipurpose Tree-Moringa oleifera. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences 2:415-423.


Duke JA (2001). Handbook of Nuts. CRC Press. 214-217.


Edoga CO, Njoku O, Amadi EN, Okeke JJ (2013). Blood sugar lowering effect of Moringa oleifera Lam in albinos rats. International Journal of Technology 3:88-90.


El-Deep MH, Dawood MAO, Assar MH, Ijiri D, Ohtsuka A (2019). Dietary Moringa oleifera improves growth performance, oxidative status, and immune related gene expression in broilers under normal and high temperature conditions. Journal of Thermal Biology 82:157-163.


Eze DC, Okwor EC, Okoye JOA, Onah DN (2013). Immunologic effects of Moringa oleifera methanolic leaf extract in chickens infected with Newcastle disease virus (kudu 113) strain. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 7:2231-2237.


Farooq F, Rai M, Tiwari A, Khan AA, Farooq S (2012). Medicinal properties of Moringa oleifera. An overview of promising healer. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6:4368-4374


Ferreira PM, Carvalho AF, Farias DF, Cariolano NG, Melo VM (2009). Larvicidal activity of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds against Aedes aegypti and its toxicity upon laboratory animals. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 81:207-216.


Foidl N, Makkar HPS, Becker K (2001). The potential of Moringa oleifera for agricultural and industrial uses 45-76.


Fuglie LJ (2002). Noms vernaculaires du Moringa oleifera In L'arbre de la vie. Les multiples usages du Moringa, pp. 163-167


Fuglie LJ (2005). The Moringa Tree: A local solution to malnutrition, Church World Service CWS in Senegal Dakar 177p


Galuppo M, Nicola GR, Iori R, Dell'utri P, Bramanti P, Mazzon E (2013). Antibacterial activity of glucomoringin bioactivated with myrosinase against two important pathogens affecting the health of long-term patients in hospitals. Molecules 18:14340-14348.


Ghasi S, Nwobodo E, Ofili JO (2000). Hypocholesterolemic effects of crude extract of leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. in high-fat diet fed wistar rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 69:21-25.


Gholap PA, Nirmal SA, Pattan SR, Pal SC, Mandal SC (2012). Potential of Moringa oleifera root and Citrus sinensis fruit rind extracts in the treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice. Pharmaceutical Biology 50:1297-1302.


Gupta R, Dubey DK, Kannan GM, Flora SJ (2007). Concomitant administration of Moringa oleifera seed powder in the remediation of arsenic-induced oxidative stress in mouse. Cellular Biology International Journal 31:44-56.


Hamza AA (2010). Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48:345-355.


Hukkeri VI, Nagathan CV, Karadi RV, Patil BS (2006). Antipyretic and wound healing activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. In rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 68:124-126.


Jeon SR, Lee KH, Shin DH, Kwon SS, Hwang JS (2014). Synergistic antimicrobial efficacy of mesoporous zno loaded with 4-L-rhamnosyloxy-benzyl isothiocyanate isolated from the Moringa oleifera seed. Journal Gen. Applied Microbiology60:251-255.


Karadi RV, Gadge NB, Alagawadi KR, Savadi RV (2006). Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. root-wood on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 105:306-311.


Kasolo JN, Bimenya GS, Ojok L, Ochieng J, Ogwal-okeng JW (2010). Phytochemicals and uses of Moringa oleifera leaves in Ugandan rural communities. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 4:753-757.


Kavitha C, Ramesh M, Kumaran SS, Lakshmi SA (2012). Toxicity of moringa oleifera seed extract on some hematological and biochemical profiles in a freshwater fish, cyprinus carpio. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 64:681-687.


Khalafalla MM, Abdellatef E, Dafalla HM, Nassrallah AA, Aboul-Enein KM, Lightfoot DA, El-Deeb FE, El-Shemy HA (2010). Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves effective against two leukemias and a hepatocarcinoma. African Journal of Biotechnology 9:8467-8471.


Khan I, Zaneb H, Masood S, Yousaf MS, Rehman HF, Rehman H (2017). Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder supplementation on growth performance and intestinal morphologyin broiler chickens. Journal Animal Physiology Animal Nutrition 101:114-121.


Khesorn N (2009). Antibacterial activity of the capsules of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 36:233-337.


Kirisattayakul W, Wattanathorn J, Tong-Un T, Muchimapura S, Wannanon P, Jittiwat J (2013). Cerebroprotective effect of Moringa oleifera against focal ischemic stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 95:14-15.


Köhler I, Jenett-Siems K, Siems K, Hernández MA, Ibarra RA (2002). In vitro antiplasmodial investigation of medicinal plants from El Salvador. Z Naturforsch C 57:277-281.


Lipipun V, Kurokawa M, Suttisri R (2003). Efficacy of Thai medicinal plant extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Research 60:175-180.


Lürling M, Beekman W (2010). Anti-cyanobacterial activity of Moringa oleifera seeds.Journal of Applied Phycology 22:503-510.


Mahajan SG, Mehta AA (2007). Inhibitory action of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. on systemic and local anaphylaxis. Journal of Immunotoxicology 4:287-294.


Manohar V, Jayasree ST, Kishore Kiran K, Mohana Rupa L, Dixit R , Chandrasekhar N (2012). Evaluation of hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect of freshly prepared aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in normal and diabetic rabbits.Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 4:249-253.


Mehta LK, Balaraman R, Amin AH, Bafna PA, Gulati OD (2003). Effect of fruits of Moringa oleifera on the lipid profile of normal and hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 86:191-195.


Millogo-Koné H, Kini BF, Yougbaré Z, Yaro MB, Sawadogo M (2012). Etudes de la phytochimie et de l'activité antimicrobienne in vitro des feuilles de Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae). Pharmacopée et médecine traditionnelle africaine 16.


Moussa MA, Osman AS, Hady HA (2017). Performance, immunology and biochemical parameters of Moringa oleifera and /or Cichoriuminty bus addition to broiler chicken ration. Journal Veterinary Medecin Animal Heath 9:255-263.


Moyo B, Masika PJ, Hugo A, Muchenje V (2011). Nutritional characterization of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. African Journal of Biotechnology 10:1292-1293.


Muangnoi C, Chingsuwanrote P, Praengamthanachoti P, Svasti S, Tuntipopipat S (2012). Moringa oleifera pod inhibits inflammatory mediator production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell lines Inflammation 35:445-455.


N'diaye M, Dieye AM, Mariko F, Tall A, Sall Diallo A, Faye B (2002). Contribution to the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae). Dakar Medical 47:210-212.


Ndong M, Uehara M, Katsumata S, Suzuki K (2007). Effects of Oral Administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on Glucose Tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar Rats. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 40:229-233.


Nepolean P, Anitha J, Emilin RR (2009). Isolation, analysis and identification of phytochemicals of antimicrobial activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. Current Biotical 3:33-39.


Nouman W, Siddiqui MT, Basra SMA, Farooq H, Zubair M, Gull T (2013). Biomass production and nutritional quality of Moringa oleifera as a field crop. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 37:410-419.


Ogbunugafor HA, Eneh FU, Ozumba AN, Igwo-Ezikpe MN, Okpuzor J, Igwilo IO, Adenekan SO, Onyekwelu OA (2011). Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10:409-414.


Oghenebrorhie O, Oghenesuvwe O (2016). Performance and haematological characteristics of broiler finisher fed Moringa oleifera leaf meal diets. Journal Northeast Agriculture University 23:28-34.


Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gakuya DW, Kiama SG, Ochola FO (2016). Phytochemical profile and antioxidant capacity of leaves of Moringa oleifera (Lam) extracted using different solvent systems. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 5:302-308.


Padla EP, Solis LT, Levida RM, Shen CC, Ragasa CY (2012). Antimicrobial isothiocyanates from the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. Z. Naturforsch 67:557-564.


Palada MC, Changl LC (2003). Suggested cultural practices for Moringa. International Cooperators Guide AVRDC 3:35-45.


Pandey A, Pradheep K, Gupta R (2011). ''Drumstick tree'' (Moringa oleifera Lam.): a multipurpose potential species in India. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 58:453-460


Pari L, Kumar NA (2002). Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera on antitubercular drug-induced liver damage in rats. Journal of Medicinal Food 5:171-177.


Parvathy MVS, Umamaheshwari A (2007). Cytotoxic effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts on human multiple myeloma cell lines. Trends Medicinal Research 2:44-50.


Prashith KTR, Mallikarjun N, Swathi D, Nayana KV, Aiyar MB, Rohini TR (2010). Antibacterial and Antifungal efficacy of steam distillate of Moringa oleifera Lam. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 2:34-37.


Price ML (2007). Le Moringa. In Note technique- ECHO (revue en 2000, en 2002 et en 2007).


Rao AV, Devi PU, Kamath R (2001). In vivo radioprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 39:858-863.


Rastogi T, Bhutda V, Moon K, Aswar KB, Khadabadi SS (2009). Comparative studies on anthelmintic activity of Moringa oleifera and Vitex Negundo. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry 2:181-182.


Rathi BS, Bodhankar SL, Baheti AM (2006). Evaluation of aqueous leaves extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. for wound healing in albino rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 44:898-901.


Ray K, Hazra R, Guha D (2003). Central inhitory effect of Moringa oleifera root extract: possible role of neurotransmitters. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 41:1279-1284.


Richter N, Siddhuraju P, Becker K (2003). Evaluation of nutritional quality of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves as an alternative protein source for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Aquaculture 217:599-611.


Siddhuraju P, Becker K (2003). Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 51:2144-2155.


Singh BN, Singh BR, Singh RL, Prakash D, Dhakarey R, Upadhyay G (2009). Oxidative DNA damage protective activity, antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing potentials of Moringa oleifera. Food and Chemical Toxicology 47:1109-1116.


Soha SAS, Dougnon TV, Ohouko OF, Adouko SJ, Dougnon TJ, Youssao AKI, Farougou S, Kpodekon TTM (2019). Larval cytotoxicity and acute oral toxicity of aqueous extracts of Elaeis guineensis leaves and Khaya senegalensis stem bark in wistar rats. International Journal of Advanced Research 7:573-584.


Sreelatha S, Padma PR (2009). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity. Plant Foods Human Nutrition 64:303-311.


Sudha P, Asdaq SMB, Dhamingi SS, Chandrakala GK (2010). Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in animal's institute of animal health & veterinary biological, herbal, Bangalore. Indian Journal of Physiology Pharmacology 54:133-140.


Tahiliani P, Kar A (2000). Role of Moringa oleifera leaf extract in the regulation of thyroid hormone status in adult male and female rats. Pharmacological Research 41:319-323.


Upadhye K, Rangari V, Mathur V (2011). Evaluation of antinociceptive activities of fresh leaf juice and ethanolic extract of Moringa oliefera Lam. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 4:114-116.


Upadhye KP, Rangari VD, Mathur VB (2012). Antimigraine activity study of Moringa oleifera leaf juice. International Journal of Green Pharmacy 6:204-207.


Verma AR, Vijaykumar M, Mathela CS, Rao CV (2009). In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 47: 2196-2201.


Verma VK, Singh N, Saxena P, Singh R (2012). Anti-ulcer and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves against aspirin and ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats. International Research Journal of Pharmaceuticals 2:46-57.


Yeung AWK, Tzvetkov NT, El-Tawil OS, Bung SG, Abdel-Daim MM, Atanasov AG (2019). Antioxidants: scientific literature landscape analysis. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.