Phytochemical screening reveals many therapeutic potentials. This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro spermicidal (IVS) and serum antioxidant (SA) activities of ethanolic leaf extracts of Solanum macrocarpon (ELESM) in albino rats. The IVS activity was investigated using 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml of ELESM at 1, 5 and 10 minutesâ€™ intervals. Thirty 10-12 weeks old male albino rats randomly assigned to six groups (A-F, n=5) were used to determine SA activity of ELESM in albino rats. Rats in groups A, B and C received 0, 400 and 800 mgkg-1 of ELESM respectively, while groups D, E and F were given 10 mgkg-1 of cyclophosphamide (CP), 10 mgkg-1 CP + 400 mgkg-1 ELESM, and 10 mgkg-1 CP + 800 mgkg-1 ELESM respectively. SA was determined on days 0, 21 and 42 of treatment using standard methods. The results showed that ELESM had the highest (p<0.05) composition (mg/100g) of tannins (24.53 Â± 0.43), flavonoids (116.25 Â± 0.38), steroids (3.51 Â± 0.17), terpenoids (179.29 Â± 8.51) and saponin (0.71 Â± 0.07), while the fruit extract had the highest (p<0.05) composition (g/100g) of phenols (10.03 Â± 0.06) and alkaloids (1.81 Â± 0.12). ELESM had the highest (p<0.05) DPPH-scavenging activity, which was comparable to ascorbic acid (control) at 200Âµg/ml concentration, while the root extract had the lowest (p<0.05) activity at all tested concentrations. ELESM significantly (p<0.05) reduced sperm motility and vitality in vitro but in vivo lipid peroxidation/ antioxidant enzymes was unaltered. The results suggest that ELESM has in vitro spermicidal activity regardless of its antioxidant properties.
Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Sperm viability, Solanum macrocarpon, Rattus norvegicus