The prevalence of malaria in human beings and Plasmodium falciparumsporozoite infection in Anopheles mosquitoes were studied for seven months in eight villages in Nyabushozi County, Kiruhura District, Uganda. The aim of the research work was to assess Plasmodium sporozoite infection rates using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and link this with malaria prevalence. A total of 2566 female Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 270 Anopheles funestus group were collected in 24 households using pyrethrum spray catches, and from goats and cattle housing (kraals), using CDC light traps. The densities of female An. gambiaes.l. and An. funestus group in all the eight villages studied were significantly influenced by rainfall. P. falciparum sporozoite rate for An. gambiae s.s. ranged from 0.84 - 5.26%. A total of 4000 people were involved in four epidemiological rounds of malaria surveys. The mean prevalence of parasitaemia was 17.4% for all ages combined and 22.8% for the 5 - 9 year age group. The four separate surveys gave ranges of 12.5 - 22.2% for all ages combined and 17.8 - 25.8% for the 5 - 9 year old children. It is evident from this study that malaria transmission in Nyabushozi County is fairy moderate and perennial, and maintained predominantly by An. gambiae s.s.
Key words: Plasmodium falciparum, sporozoite rate, seasonal dynamics, Uganda.
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