Schistosomiasis a water-based disease caused by schistosomesi usually co-infect their hosts with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) parasites due to overlapping poverty-related factors favoring their distribution. In Uganda, infestations of STHs and schistosomiasis commonest in primary school children are ranked 2nd and 3rd, respectively, among the top 10 causes of morbidity despite classified as NTDs in the HSSP aggravated by low financial allocation budget for their control. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and STHs parasites among primary school children, 10-14 years and the associated risk factors in Buyende district. Stool samples from 400 children distributed in eight randomly selected primary schools were processed for S. mansoni and STHs before a face-face standardised interview guide was administered to ascertain factors responsible for perpetuating the parasites in the communities. Overall prevalence of 32% for S. mansoni in 2011 and 16% in 2018 was recorded while 1.25%, 0.2% in 2011 and 0.38%, 0% respectively. Hookworm was not reported in 2011, but a prevalence of 6.7% was recorded in 2018. There was a strong association of nature of housing materials OR; 1.61, CI; 1.02-1.40) education level of the caretakers (p-value <0.001; aOR: 17.5, CI: 5.35-50.96) and the swimming frequency of the child respondent aOR: 2.44 95% CI: 1.56-4.23) as the most important risk factors. Illiteracy of caretakers being the critical risk factor should prompt increased health education with information, education and communication (IEC) materials urgently for intervention especially among individuals of low socioeconomic status in fishing communities.
Keywords: Schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths, mass drug administration, risk factors, primary school children