In order to optimize fertilizer efficiency and minimize its negative impact on environment, a sustainable nutrient delivery system should be employed. Fertilizers when applied directly to crude oil polluted sites are vulnerable to losses from volatilization and leaching and contribute towards environmental pollution in terms of hazardous gaseous emissions and water eutrophication. To maximize the degradative potentials of indigenous hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms in bioremediation, it is imperative to develop systems that decrease fertilizer loss rate, reduce fertilizer application frequency and also minimize potential negative environmental effects due to leaching and over dosage. Application of inorganic fertilizers directly causes soil hardening and reduction in soil fertility impeding microbial growth. Inorganic fertilizers have the tendency to be released rapidly into the environment (probably due to their availability in the free state), and therefore, have a higher potential to cause eutrophication and leaching. Organic nutrients (manures) for land oil spill clean-up are more productive as it will not only provide nutrients to microbes, but will enrich the soil. However, it is challenging to produce organic fertilizers in large quantities. Monitoring of the microbial activities enhanced by the nutrient delivery system is an essential factor in the biodegradation process to ascertain the effect of CRF formulation on the microbial population. This review is intended to outline the economic and environmental damages caused by the conventional nutrient application system, outline sustainable approaches in formulating eco-friendly CRF from organic polymers and enumerate the potential of nutrient rotation system in environmental restoration and reclamation of crude oil compromised soil.
Keywords: Hydrocarbons, sustained, Degradation, organic fertilizer