Journal of
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences

  • Abbreviation: J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9820
  • DOI: 10.5897/JTEHS
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 208

Full Length Research Paper

Paraphenylenediamine induces apoptosis of Murine myeloma cells in a reactive oxygen species dependant mechanism

Zineb Elyoussoufi1,2, Norddine Habti2, Said  Motaouakkil2,3 and Rachida Cadi1*
Zineb Elyoussoufi1,2, Norddine Habti2, Said  Motaouakkil2,3 and Rachida Cadi1*
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 17 January 2012
  •  Published: 30 April 2012


Paraphenylenediamine (p-PD) is the main aromatic amine used in the formulation of hair dyes. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that the use of p-PD based hair dyes might be related to increase risk of human malignant tumors including multiple myeloma and hematopoietic cancers. However, the toxicity of p-PD on myeloma cells has not been well elucidated yet. Therefore, the association between the cytotoxicity of p-PD and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation on murine myeloma cells P3X63Ag8.653 (P3) was evaluated. Treatment with p-PD decreases cell viability in a dose and time dependent manner. In addition, p-PD markedly enhanced lipid peroxidation. This increase was accompanied with a decrease in both glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities. Furthermore, Pre-treatment of P3 cells with antioxidants, reduced glutathione or manganese II chloride, significantly inhibited p-PD induced cytotoxicity and ROS generation. Based on these results, p-PD might induce apoptosis via the involvement of ROS.


Key words: Murine myeloma cells, p-Phenylenediamine, apoptosis, oxidative stress, ROS, antioxidants.