Journal of
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences

  • Abbreviation: J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9820
  • DOI: 10.5897/JTEHS
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 208

Full Length Research Paper

Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some agropesticides used in Southern Africa

Asita, A. O
  • Asita, A. O
  • Department of Biology, National University of Lesotho, P. O. Roma 180 Maseru, Lesotho, Southern Africa
  • Google Scholar
Hatane, B. H
  • Hatane, B. H
  • Department of Biology, National University of Lesotho, P. O. Roma 180 Maseru, Lesotho, Southern Africa
  • Google Scholar


  •  Accepted: 22 November 2012
  •  Published: 31 December 2012

Abstract

Pesticides use boosts agricultural yield by reducing crop losses. However, some pesticides are mutagens and active ingredients could produce different effects in different formulations. Wipe-out (WO) (Glyphosate 360 g/l), K-O Gard® (KOG) (Deltamethrin 10 g/l), Cutworm bait (CWB) (Sodium Fluosilicate, 100 g/kg), Snail ban (SB) (Metaldehyde, 30 g/kg and Carbaryl, 20 g/kg) and Coopex (CPX) (Permethrin 250 g/kg) were tested for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity using the onion (Allium cepa) test. Onion seeds were germinated and exposed (mg/l) to below EC50 values of WO (78.1, 156.3, 312.5), KOG (156.3, 312.5, 625.0), CWB (78.1, 156.3, 312.5), SB (156.3, 312.5, 625.0), and CPX (312.5, 625.0, 1250.0) for 24 h. Root tips were cut, fixed, hydrolyzed in 1 N hydrochloric acid, stained, squashed and observed microscopically. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induction at each treatment was compared with the negative control using t-test. WO (78.1, 156.3, and 312.5), KOG (312.5, 625.0) and CWB (312.5) were cytotoxic, (P < 0.05). WO (78.1, 312.5), CWB (156.3, 312.5), SB (625.0) and CPX (1250.0) induced genotoxicity (P < 0.05), mostly, sticky chromosomes. The genotoxic pesticides have potential to cause adverse environmental and health effects, because most adverse effects by genotoxins result from genetic damage and genotoxicity of chemicals is likely to result from cell division abnormalities.

 

Key words: Allium cepa, agropesticides, Southern Africa, mitotic index, chromosome aberration.