Methanol poisoning is a hazardous intoxication characterized by visual impairment and formic acidemia. The therapy for methanol poisoning is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) inhibitors to prevent formate accumulation. Ranitidine has been considered to be an inhibitor of both gastric alcohol and hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. This study aimed at testing ranitidine as an antidote for methanol acute toxicity and comparing it with ethanol and 4- methyl pyrazole (4-MP). This study was conducted on 48 Sprague -Dawley rats, divided into 6 groups, 8 rats in each group (one negative control group (C1), two positive control groups (C2, C3) and three test groups (1, 2 and 3). C2., C3 and all test groups were exposed to nitrous oxide by inhalation then, C3 group was given methanol (3 g/kg orally). The three test groups 1, 2 and 3 were given ethanol (0.5 g/kg orally), 4- MP (15 mg/kg intraperitoneally) and ranitidine (30 mg/kg intraperitoneally), respectively 4 h after giving methanol. Rats were sacrificed and heparinized, cardiac blood samples were collected for blood gases. Non-heparinized blood samples were collected for formate levels by high performance liquid chromatography. Eye balls were enucleated for histological examination of the retina. Ranitidine improved metabolic acidosis (p = 0.025), decreased formate levels (p = 0.014) and improved the histological findings in the retina induced by acute methanol toxicity.
Key words: Ranitidine, methanol, poisoning, ethanol, rats.
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