Journal of
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences

  • Abbreviation: J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9820
  • DOI: 10.5897/JTEHS
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 199

Full Length Research Paper

Potential human risk of dissolved heavy metals in gold mine waters of Gauteng Province, South Africa

C. Kamunda
  • C. Kamunda
  • Rusangu University, P.O. Box 660391, Monze, Zambia.
  • Google Scholar
M. Mathuthu
  • M. Mathuthu
  • Centre for Applied Radiation Science and Technology, North West University (Mafikeng Campus), P. Bag X2046, Mmabatho, 2735, South Africa.
  • Google Scholar
M. Madhuku
  • M. Madhuku
  • iThemba LABS (Gauteng), P. Bag X11, Wits, 2050, South Africa.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 06 November 2018
  •  Accepted: 30 November 2018
  •  Published: 31 December 2018

References

American Public Health Association (APHA) (1985). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington, New York, USA.

 

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2007). Guidance for the Preparation of a Twenty First Set Toxicological Profile. 

 

Basheer AA (2018). Chemical chiral pollution: Impact on the society and science and need of the regulations in the 21st century, Chirality, 30:402-406.
Crossref

 

Bazilio A, Weinric J (2012). The Easy Guide to: Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). 

 

Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) (2010). The Framework for the Management of Contaminated Land, South Africa. 

View

 

Department of Health (DOH) (2004). Regulation Relating to Maximum levels for Metals in Foodstuffs, South Africa.

 

Gupta VK, Ali I (2013). Environmental water: Advances in treatment, remediation and recycling, Elsevier, The Netherlands.

 

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (1989). Measurement of Radionuclides in Food and the Environment. Technical Report Series No. 295, Vienna, Austria.

 

Kamunda C, Mathuthu M, Madhuku M (2016). Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Witwatersrand Gold Mining Basin, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13:663.
Crossref

 

Lane TW, Morel FM (2009). A biological function for cadmium in marine diatoms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 200:462-431. 

 

Liang F, Yang SG, Sun C (2011).Primary Health Risk analysis of metals in surface water of Taihu Lake China. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 87(4):404.
Crossref

 

Liefferink M (2009). A South African Perspective: Radioactive Contamination and Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). Discussing pollution risks within the gold mining sector. Federation for a Sustainable Environment.

 

Luo XS, Ding J, Xu B (2012). Incorporating bioaccessibility into human health risk assessments of heavy metals in urban park soils. Science of the Total Environment 424:88-96.
Crossref

 

Mathuthu M, Kamunda C, Madhuku M (2016). Modeling of Radiological Health Risks from Gold Mine Tailings in Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13:570.
Crossref

 

MINEO Consortium (2000). Review of potential environmental and social impact of mining. User need document Part 2, IST-1999-10337. 

 

National Research Council (NRC) (1999) Arsenic in drinking water. Washington, DC: 251-257.

 

Perkin E (2004-2011). ICP-Mass Spectrometry, Tehnical Note.USA. 

View

 

Sibanye Gold Limited (SGL) (2012). Competent person's report on the material assets of Driefontein Gold Mine.

 

Tyson PD, Wilcocks JRN (1971). Rainfall variation over Johannesburg – the local climate over Johannesburg. Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Universtiy of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Occasional paper 428.

 

United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1989). Risk assessment guidance for Superfund. Human health evaluation manual, (part A) [R], vol. 1. Washington, DC: Office of emergency and remedial response; EPA/540/1-89/002, USA.

 

United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2001). Toxics Release Inventory. Public Data Release Report, USA. 

 

United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2011a). Recommended Use of BW3/4 as the Default Method in Derivation of the Oral Reference Dose. EPA/100/R11/001. Office of the Science Advisor, USA. 

View

 

United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2011b). National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. 

View

 

World Health Organisation (WHO) (2008). Guidelines for drinking water quality, 3rd Edition, Incorporating 1st and 2nd addenda, Recommendations, World Health Organisation, Geneva Vol. 1.

 

Winde F, Wade P, Van der Walt IJ (2004). Gold tailings as a source of waterborne uranium contamination of streams ─ the Koekemoerspruit (Klerksdorp goldfield, South Africa) as a case study. Part I: Uranium migration along the aqueous pathway. Water SA, 30, 219–226.
Crossref