Despite the presence of large number of chicken in Ethiopia, contribution to national economy or benefit from this sector of activity is very limited due to diseases and management, out of which poultry coccidiosis is a leading problem. A cross sectional study was undertaken in Jimma town and College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine’s (JUCAVM) poultry farm from November 2014 to April 2015 with the objective of determining the prevalence of poultry coccidiosis and associated risk factors. The fecal samples collected from live poultry and some after postmortem were subjected to flotation technique to increase sensitivity of the coprological examination of coccidian oocysts using light microscopy (10x). Postmortem examination was also performed to observe the pathological lesion and harvest coccidian oocysts. Out of the total 384 chicken examined, 152 (39.6%; 95% CI 34.7, 44.5) were positive for coccidian oocysts. Statistically significant difference (P=0.003) in the prevalence of coccidiosis was observed between young and adult as well as between exotic and local breeds of chickens. Higher infection proportion was detected in birds under intensive management system as compared to birds in back yard. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.000). The prevalence was also statistically significantly different (P=0.000) between exotic and local breed chickens. Higher prevalence was observed in chickens that were clinically diseased than subclinically harboring the oocysts which was statistically significant (P=0.03). However, no statistical significant association was observed between the prevalence and risk factors like sexes, feeding and watering sources. This study demonstrated that coccidiosis is an important problem of poultry for owners in Jimma town and JUCAVM poultry farm. Therefore, appropriate preventive strategies have to be designed to reduce the burden of this disease.
Key words: Coccidiosis, Eimeria, poultry, prevalence, risk factors, Jimma.
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