Bovine trypanosomosis is transmitted by tsetse and other biting flies which cause the most serious veterinary and animal production problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Cross sectional study was conducted from September to December, 2013 in Chora district, Western Oromia to assess the prevalence of trypanosomosis and apparent density of its vector. The methods employed during the study were deploying trap for the collection of tsetse flies and buffy coat technique for parasitological study. About 45 monopyramidal baited traps were deployed for 48 h for collection of tsetse fly. In the study area tsetse flies Glossina pallidepes and Glossina tachnoides and other biting flies were trapped. G. pallidepes was caught at altitude of about 2000 m a.s.l. The overall apparent density of the tsetse flies was 2.63 flies/trap/day. Blood samples collected from 384 cattle were centrifuged and examined under microscope. It revealed that Trypanosoma congolense 46(12.0%), Trypanosoma vivax 3(0.8%), no infection of Trypanosoma brucei and mixed infection 3(0.8%) of the two trypanosomes species were the causes of bovine trypanosomosis in the study area. The overall prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was 13.6%. The female cattle were infected with the prevalence of 35(9.2%) than male cattle 17(4.4%) and this association was insignificant (P > 0.05). The prevalence of trypanosomosis in adult and poor body condition cattle were 49(12.8%) and 20(5.2%), respectively and significantly associated (P < 0.05) with prevalence of trypanosomosis. The red colour cattle were mostly affected 22(5.7%) and insignificantly associated (P > 0.05). Aneamic and non-aneamic cattle have trypanosomes infection rate of 43(11.2%) and 9(2.34%), respectively. Aneamic cattle were significantly associated (P < 0.005) with the prevalence of trypanosomosis, but non-aneamic cattle were insignificantly associated (P > 0.05). Generally, the study concludes that tsetse flies were an important vector for the epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis in Chora district. Therefore, disease and its vector control and prevention methods and further studies on the trypanosomal drug resistance should be undertaken to improve livestock production and productivity in the study area.
Key words: Prevalence, trypanosomosis, apparent density, tsetse flies, cattle, Chora district.
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