Borana zone is an important cradle of animal domestication and the habitat of many indigenous livestock species. Dromedary camel is among species of animals that was domesticated by Borana pastoralists as adaptive strategy to climate changes and frequent drought. The present study was to identify camel health problems and its impact on camel production in and the surrounding Gomole districts in Borana zone, Southern Ethiopia. The information about the camel and their impact were obtained through participatory rural appraisal. This information was collected by a cross sectional study involving 125 households who owned dromedary camels. Camel diseases were classified as those affecting integumentary system respiratory system or other. Diseases of the integumentary system were most frequent (94%) followed by other systems at 81.3% and those of the respiratory system at (56.3%). Of the integumentary diseases, camel mange (Citto galaa) had highest impact on camel production followed by Camel pox (Bagaa) and contagious ecthyma (Imburura). Among the diseases of other body systems, Caseous lymphadenitis (Ushara) had the highest impact on camel production followed by Trypanosomosis (dhukkaana) and Haemorrhagic septicaemia (Qandhicha) while for respiratory system diseases the acute form of respiratory complex (Furrii) had highest impact on camel production. The present study also found that veterinary services including vaccination in the study area is low. Further studies need to be carried out to document indigenous knowledge of pastoralists on camel diseases and confirmation using laboratory techniques.
Keywords: dromedary camel; diseases; participatory rural appraisal; Borana zone; pastoralism