Journal of
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health

  • Abbreviation: J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2529
  • DOI: 10.5897/JVMAH
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 351

Review

Risk factors, prevention and control strategies for surgical site infections in veterinary practice in Nigeria - A review

Oghenemega David Eyarefe
  • Oghenemega David Eyarefe
  • Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 04 November 2015
  •  Accepted: 23 May 2016
  •  Published: 31 August 2016

References

Abelha FJ, Castro MA, Neves AM, Landeiro NM, Santos CC (2005). Hypothermia in a surgical intensive care unit. BMC Anesthesiol. 5:7
Crossref

 

Adriaanse AH, Pel M, Bleker OP (2000). Semmelweis: the combat against puerperal fever. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 90:153-158
Crossref

 
 

Ahern BJ, Richardson DW (2012). Surgical site infection and the use of antimicrobials. In: Equine Surgery, 4th edn. Eds: JA Auer JA Stick, Elsevier/Saunders, St Louis, Missouri. pp. 68-84.
Crossref

 
 

Akinrinmade JF, Oke BO (2012). Antibiotic prophylaxis in Gastro-intestinal surgery: An evaluation of current Veterinary Practices in Southwest Nigeria. Int. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 4(4):256-262.

 
 

Amirfeyz R, Tasker A, Ali S, Bowker K, Blom A (2007). Theatre Shoes — A Link in the Common Pathway of Postoperative Wound Infection? Ann R Coll. Surg. Engl. 89(6):605-608.
Crossref

 
 

Anderson DJ, Podgorny K, Berríos-Torres SI, Bratzler DW, Dellinger EP, Greene L, Nyquist AC, Saiman L, Yokoe DS, Maragakis LL, Kaye KS (2014). Strategies to prevent surgical site infections in acute care hospitals: update. Infection Control Hospital Epidemiol. 35(06):605-627.
Crossref

 
 

Anderson ME, Sargeant JM, Weese JS (2014). Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance. BMC Vet. Res. 10:106.
Crossref

 
 

AORN (2010). Recommended practices for hand hygiene in the perioperative setting. In: Perioperative standards and recommended practices. Denver: AORN Inc. pp. 75-89.

 
 

Astagneau P, L'Hériteau F, Daniel F, Parneix P, Venier AG, Malavaud S, Jarno P, Lejeune B, Savey A, Metzger MH, Bernet C (2009). Reducing surgical site infection incidence through a network: results from the French ISO-RAISIN surveillance system. J. Hosp. Infect. 72(2):127-34.
Crossref

 
 

Beal MW, Brown DC, Sholer FS (2000). The effects of perioperative hvpothermia and the duration of anesthesia on postoperative wound infection rate in clean wounds: a retrospective study. Vet. Surg. 29(2):123-127
Crossref

 
 

Beldi G, Bisch-Knaden S, Banz V, Mühlemann K, Candinas D (2009). Impact of intraoperative behavior on surgical site infections. Am. J. Surg. 198:157-162.
Crossref

 
 

Birgand G, Azevedo C, Toupet G, Pissard-Gibollet R, Grandbastien B, Fleury E, Lucet, JC (2014). Attitudes, risk of infection and behaviours in the operating room (the ARIBO Project): a prospective, crosssectional study. BMJ Open 4:e004274.
Crossref

 
 

Boer A, Gilad J, Meydan N, Riesenberg K, Schlaeffer F, Alkan M, Schlaeffer P (2001). Impact of active monitoring of infection control practices on deep sternal infection after open-heart surgery. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 72:515-20.
Crossref

 
 

Braswell ML, Spruce L (2012). Implementing AORN Recommended Practices for Surgical Attire, AORN J. (95)1:130.
Crossref

 
 

Bratzler DW, Houck PM (2004). Surgical Infection Prevention Guidelines Writers. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery: an advisory statement from the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project. Clin. Infect Dis. 38(12):1706-15.
Crossref

 
 

Bratzler DW, Houck PM, Workgroup SIPGW (2004). Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery: an advisory statement from the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project. Clin. Infect Dis. 38(12):1706-15.
Crossref

 
 

Bratzler DW, Houck PM, Richards C, Steele L, Dellinger EP, Fry DE, Wright C, Ma A, Carr K, Red L (2005). Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis for major surgery: baseline results from the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project. Arch. Surg. 140(2):174-182.
Crossref

 
 

Carlet J, Rambaud C, Pulcini C (2014). Save Antibiotics: a call for action of the World Alliance against Antibiotic Resistance (WAAAR). BMC infect dis 14(1):436.
Crossref

 
 

Cheadle WG (2006). Risk factors for surgical site infection Surg. Infect. (Larchmt). 7(Suppl 1):S7-11 (Center of Disease Control and Prevention) CfDCaP Surgical site infection (event). 111CDC, editor. Atlanta (GA) CDC: 2014.

 
 

Cogen AL, Nizet Gallo RL (2008). Skin microbiota: a source of disease or defence? Br. J. Dermatol. 158:442-455
Crossref

 
 

Clark FC (1907). A brief history of antiseptic surgery. Med. Libr. Hist. J. 5:145-172.

 
 

Coelho JC, Lerner H, Murad I (1984). The influence of the surgical scrub on hand bacterial flora. Int. Surg. 69:305-307.

 
 

Dalstrom DJ, Venkatarayappa I, Manternach AL, Palcic MS, Heyse BA, Prayson MJ (2008). Time dependent contamination of opened sterile operating-room trays. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 90:1022-1025.
Crossref

 
 

Damborg P, Marskar P, Baptiste KE, Guardabassi L (2012). Faecal shedding of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in horses receiving broad spectrum antimicrobial prophylaxis after hospital admission. Vet. Microbiol. 154:298-304.
Crossref

 
 

Eugster S, Schawalder P, Gaschen F (2004). A prospective study of postoperative surgical site infections in dogs and cats. Vet. Surg. 33:542-550.
Crossref

 
 

Gastmeier P, Breier AC, Brandt C (2012). Influence of laminar airflow on prosthetic joint infections: a systematic review. J. Hosp. Infect. 81:73-78.
Crossref

 
 

Hambraeus A (1988). Aerobiology in the operating room–a review. J. Hosp. Infect. 11(Suppl A):68-76.
Crossref

 
 

Humes D, Lobo DM (2009). Antisepsis, asepsis and skin preparation. Surgery 27(10):441-445.
Crossref

 
 

Hemani ML, Lepor H (2009). Skin preparation for the prevention of surgical site infection: which agent is best? Rev Urol. 11(4):190-5.

 
 

Hopper WR, Moss R (2010) Common Breaks in Sterile Technique: Clinical Perspectives and Perioperative Implications. AORN J. 91(3):350-366.
Crossref

 
 

Jeong SJ, Ann HW, Kim JK, Choi H, Kim CO, Han SH, Choi JY, Peck KR, Kang CI, Yeom JS, Choi YH (2013). Incidence and Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection after Gastric Surgery: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study. Infect Chemother 45(4):422-443.
Crossref

 
 

Kurmann A, Peter M, Tschan F, Muhlemann K, Candinas D, Beldi G (2011). Adverse effect of noise in the operating theatre on surgical-site infection. Br. J. Surg. 98:1021-1025.
Crossref

 
 

Krautheim AB, Jermann TH, Bircher AJ (2004). Chlorhexidine anaphylaxis: case report and review of the literature. Contact Dermatitis 50:113-116
Crossref

 
 

Kampf G, Kapella M (2003). Suitability of Sterillium Gel for surgical hand disinfection. J. Hosp. Infect 54:222-225
Crossref

 
 

Kampf G, Kramer A (2004). Epidemiologic background of hand hygiene and evaluation of the most important agents for scrubs and rubs. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 17:863-893
Crossref

 
 

Larson EL, Hughes CA, Pyrek JD, Sparks SM, Cagatay EU, Bartkus JM (1998). Changes in bacterial flora associated with skin damage on hands of health care personnel. Am. J. Infect Control 26:513-521.
Crossref

 
 

Larson E, Girard R, Pessoa-Silva CL, Boyce J, Donaldson L, Pittet D (2006). Skin reactions related to hand hygiene and selection off hand hygiene products. Am. J. Infect Control 34:627-635.
Crossref

 
 

Lidwell OM, Lowbury EJ, Whyte W, Blowers R, Stanley SJ, Lowe D (1982). Effect of ultraclean air in operating rooms on deep sepsis in the joint after total hip or knee replacement: a randomised study. BMJ 285:10-14.
Crossref

 
 

Lissovoy G, Fraeman K, Hutchins V, Murphy D, Song D, Vaughn BB (2009). Surgical site infection: incidence and impact on hospital utilization and treatment costs. Am. J. infect. control 37(5):387-397.
Crossref

 
 

Loffler H, Kampf G (2008). Hand disinfection: how irritant are alcohols? J. Hosp. Infect 70(Suppl 1):44-48
Crossref

 
 

Loscovich A, Davidson EM, Orbach-Zinger S, Rudich Z, Ivry S, Rosen LJ, Avidan A, Ginosar Y (2014). Performance of septic technique during neuraxial analgesia for labour and after the publication of international guidelines on aseptic technique. Isr. J. Health Pol. Res. 3(1):9.
Crossref

 
 

Lucet JC, Laouenan C, Chelius G, Veziris N., Lepelletier D, Friggeri A, Abiteboul D, Bouvet E, Mentre F, Fleury E (2012). Electronic sensors for assessing interactions between healthcare workers and patients under airborne precautions. PLoS One 7(5):e37893.
Crossref

 
 

Lynch RJ, Englesbe MJ, Sturm L, Bitar A, Budhiraj K, Kolla S, Polyachenko Y, Duck MG, Campbell DA (2009). Measurement of foot traffic in the operating room: implications for infection control. Am. J. Med. Qual. 24(1):45-52.
Crossref

 
 

Makary MA (2013). The power of video recording: taking quality to the next level. JAMA 309:1591-1592.
Crossref

 
 

Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR, Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (1999). Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection 1999. Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 20:250-278.
Crossref

 
 

Mayhew PD, Freeman L, Kwan T, Brown DC (2012). Comparison of surgical site infection rates in clean and clean-contaminated wounds in dogs and cats after minimally invasive versus open surgery: 179 cases (2007–2008). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 240(2):193-8.
Crossref

 
 

McHugh SM, Corrigan MA, Hill AD, Humphreys H (2014). Surgical attire, practices and their perception in the prevention of surgical site infection. Surgeon 12(1):47-52.
Crossref

 
 

McMillan S (2014). An evidence-based approach to infection control in the operating theatre. Vet. Nurse 5(4):194-200.
Crossref

 
 

Millard C (2012). Destiny of the Republic: A Tale of Madness, Medicine and the Murder of a President. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

 
 

Moylan JA, Fitzpatrick KT, Davenport KE (1987). Reducing Wound Infections: Improved Gown and Drape Barrier Performance. Arch. Surg. 122(2):152-157.
Crossref

 
 

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2008). Surgical Site Infection, Prevention and treatment of surgical site infection. NICE Clin. Guide. 74:6-28.

 
 

Nakamura RK, Tompkins E (2012). Nosocomial infections. Compendium (Yardley, PA), 34(April), E1–10; quiz E11. doi:10.1383/medc.33.3.22.61114
Crossref

 
 

Nazarali A, Singh A, Weese JS (2014). Perioperative administration of antimicrobials during tibial plateau leveling osteotomy. Vet. Surg. 43(8):966-971.
Crossref

 

Nicholson M, Beal M. Sholer F, Brown DC (2002). Epidemiologic evaluation of postoperative wound infection in clean-contaminated wounds, a retrospective study of 239 dogs and cats. Vet. Surg. 31(6):577-81.
Crossref

 

Nelson LL (2011). Surgical Site Infections in Small Animal Surgery. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. 41(5):1041-1056
Crossref

 
 

Owens CD, Stoessel K (2008). Surgical site infections: epidemiology, microbiology and prevention J. Hosp. Infect. 70(Suppl 2):3-10.
Crossref

 
 

Panahi P, Stroh M, Casper DS, Parvizi J, Austin MS (2012). Operating room traffic is a major concern during total joint arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 470:2690-2694.
Crossref

 
 

Pokrywka M, Byers K (2013). Traffic in the operating room: a review of factors influencing air flow and surgical wound contamination. Infect. Disord. Drug Targets 13(3):156-61.
Crossref

 
 

Puntis JW, Holden CE, Smallman S, Finkel Y, George RH, Booth IW (1990). Staff training: a key factor in reducing intravascular catheter sepsis Arch. Dis. Child. 65:335-337.

 
 

Radcliff KE, Neusner AD, Millhouse PW, Harrop JD, Kepler CK, Rasouli MR, Albert TJ, Vaccaro AR (2015). What is new in the diagnosis and prevention of spine surgical site infections? Spine J. 15(2):336-347.
Crossref

 
 

Radcliff MR, Neusner A, Kepler, CK, Albert TJ, Rihn JA, Hilibrand AS, Vaccaro AR (2013). Preoperative Delay of More Than 1 Hour Increases the Risk of Surgical Site Infection. Spine 38(15):1318-1323.
Crossref

 
 

Sabbatani S, Catena F, Neri F, Vallicelli C, Ansaloni L, Sartelli M, Coccolini F, Di Saverio S, Catena R, Lazzareschi D, Tarasconi A, Abongwa HK, De Simone B, Pinna A (2014). TheBolognese surgeon Giuseppe Ruggi: how and why the aseptic surgery was introduced in Bologna in the middle half of the XIX century. J. Surg. Res. 192:555-563.
Crossref

 
 

Salassa TE, Swiontkowski MF (2014). Surgical attire and the operating room: role in infection prevention. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 96(17):1485-1492
Crossref

 
 

Sapna SM, Pradeep V (2011). The operating theatre: basic architecture. Delhi J. Ophthalmol. 21(3):9-14.

 
 

Sessler DI (2009). Thermoregulatory defense mechanisms. Critical care Med. 37(7):S203-S210.
Crossref

 
 

Showalter BM, Crantford JC, Russell GB, Marks MW, DeFranzo AJ, Thompson JT, Pestana IA, David LR (2014). The effect of reusable versus disposable draping material on infection rates in implant-based breast reconstruction: a prospective randomized trial. Ann. Plast. Surg. 72(6):S165-169.
Crossref

 
 

Tammelin A, Hambraeus A, Stahle E (2001). Routes and sources of Staphylococcus aureus transmitted to the surgical wound during cardiothoracic surgery: possibility of preventing wound contamination by use of special scrub suits. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 22(6):338-346.
Crossref

 
 

Tammelin A, Hambraeus A, Stahle E (2001). Source and route of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis transmitted to the surgical wound during cardio-thoracic surgery. Possibility of preventing wound contamination by use of special scrub suits. J. Hosp. Infect. 47(4):266-276.
Crossref

 
 

Tanner J, Swarbrook S, Stuart J (2008). Surgical hand antisepsis to reduce surgical site infection. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (1):CD004288
Crossref

 
 

Thorup S (2014). An investigation into bacterial type and load in on veterinary compared to human healthcare workers. Copenhagen (Denmark) Department of Large Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen.

 
 

Tsai DM, Caterson EJ (2014). Current preventive measures for health-care associated surgical site infections: a review. Patient safety surg. 8(1):1.
Crossref

 
 

Turk R, Singh A, Weese JS (2015). Prospective surgical site infection surveillance in dogs. Vet. Surg. 44:2-8.

 
 

Vasseur PB, Paul HA, Enos LR, Hirsh DC (1985). Infection rate in clean surgical procedures. A comparism of ampicillin prophylaxis vs a placebo. J. Am. Vet. Assoc. 187(8):825-827.

 
 

Verwilghen D (2015). Surgical site infections: What do we know? Equine Vet. J. 47:753-755.
Crossref

 
 

Verwilghen D, Singh A (2015). Fighting surgical site infections in small animals are we getting anywhere? Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. 45:243-276.
Crossref

 
 

Verwilghen D, Findji S, Weese JS, Singh A, Dupre G, Catry B, Van Galen G (2013). Evidence based hand hygiene in veterinary surgery: what is holding us back? In: Annual Symposium of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons, ACVS, San Antonio, Texas.

 
 

Verwilghen D, Grulke S, Kampf G (2011). Presurgical Hand Antisepsis: Concepts and Current Habits of Veterinary Surgeons. Veterinary Surgery 40:515-521.
Crossref

 
 

Weese JS, Cruz A (2009). Retrospective study of perioperative antimicrobial use practices in horses undergoing elective arthroscopic surgery at a veterinary teaching hospital. Can. Vet. J. 50:185-188.

 
 

Weese JS, van Duijkeren E (2010). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in veterinary medicine. Vet. Microbiol. 140(3-4):418-429
Crossref

 
 

Weese JS, Halling KB (2006). Perioperative administration of antimicrobrals associated with elective surgery for cranial eructate ligament rupture in dogs: 83 cases (2003-2005). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 229(1):92-95.
Crossref

 
 

Whittern TL, Johnson AL, Smith CW, Schaeffer DJ, Coolman BR, Averill SM, Cooper TK, Merkin GR (1999). Effect of perioperative prophylactic antimicrobial treatment in dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 215(2):212-216.

 
 

Widmer AF, Rotter M, Voss A, Nthumba P, Allegranzi B, Boyce J, Pittet D (2010). Surgical hand preparation: state-of-the-art. J. Hosp. Infect 74(2):112-22.
Crossref

 
 

Wormstrand BH, Ihler CF, Diesen R, Krontveit RI (2014). Surgical treatment of equine colic-a retrospective study of 297 surgeriesin Norway 2005–2011. Acta Vet. Scand. 56:38.
Crossref

 
 

World Health Organization (WHO) (2009): WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO. 270 p.