With less than five years to the 2015 target set by the United Nations for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), MDGs 4, 5 and 6 are still far from being achieved. Nigeria has the second highest maternal mortality and eighteenth highest child mortality in the world. Efforts to combat HIV and other diseases have recorded only marginal success. This paper identified environmental issues related to the three MDGs and discussed emerging roles of midwives in Nigeria. Review of pertinent literature was done. The environmental challenges related to MDGs 4, 5, and 6 were identified and the critical professional and social responsibilities of midwives to individuals, families and communities with respect to tackling these challenges were discussed. It is increasingly becoming obvious that midwives in Nigeria need to collaborate and respond within and beyond the clinical settings, to the environmental challenges militating against the achievement of MDGs 4, 5 and 6.
Key words: Midwives, challenges, Millennium Development Goals, Nigeria, environmental.