Scientific Research and Essays

  • Abbreviation: Sci. Res. Essays
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-2248
  • DOI: 10.5897/SRE
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2748

Full Length Research Paper

Effects of an additional pharmaceutical care intervention versus usual care on clinical outcomes of Type 2 diabetes patients in Nigeria: A comparative study

Maxwell Ogochukwu Adibe
  • Maxwell Ogochukwu Adibe
  • Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research Team, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Management, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, P. O. Box 410001 Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Udeogaranya Pactrick Obinna
  • Udeogaranya Pactrick Obinna
  • Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research Team, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Management, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, P. O. Box 410001 Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Igboeli Nneka Uchenna
  • Igboeli Nneka Uchenna
  • Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research Team, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Management, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, P. O. Box 410001 Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Ubaka Chukwuemeka Michael
  • Ubaka Chukwuemeka Michael
  • Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research Team, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Management, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, P. O. Box 410001 Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Cletus Nze Aguwa
  • Cletus Nze Aguwa
  • Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research Team, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Management, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, P. O. Box 410001 Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 07 June 2013
  •  Accepted: 16 May 2014
  •  Published: 30 June 2014

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an additional pharmaceutical care intervention on clinical outcomes of Type 2 diabetes patients receiving care in tertiary hospitals. This study was a randomized, controlled and longitudinal study with a 12-month patient follow-up. This study was conducted in two Nigerian University Teaching Hospitals. Patients in ‘usual care’ received the usual/conventional care offered by the hospitals. Patients in ‘intervention’ received usual care and pharmaceutical care for 12 months. This additional pharmaceutical care included a stepwise approach: setting priorities for patient care, assessing patient’s specific educational needs and identification of drug related problems (DRPs), development of a comprehensive and achievable pharmaceutical care plan in collaboration with the patient and the doctor, implementation of the this plan, monitoring and review of the plan from time to time. By end of 12 months, there were significant reductions in the following clinical outcomes (control vs. intervention): glycosylated haemoglobin (%) (7.77 ± 1.12 vs. 7.23 ± 1.09; P = 0.0009), fasting glucose (mg/dL) (168.7 ± 11.49 vs. 129.34 ± 9.97; P < 0.0001). The results for LDL-C, HDL-C, Triglycerides and Total Cholesterol were 116.28 ± 9.64 vs. 101.43 ± 8.35; P Ë‚ 0.0001, 45.29 ± 6.68 vs. 53.82 ± 5.81; P Ë‚ 0.0001, 159.59 ± 8.91 vs. 154.37 ± 10.34; P = 0.0002, 203.75 ± 25.96 vs. 188.71 ± 19.41; P Ë‚ 0.0001 respectively. The intervention resulted in beneficial improvement of clinical outcomes of Type 2 diabetes patients receiving treatment in tertiary hospitals.

 

Key words: Pharmacist, pharmaceutical care, intervention, diabetes outcomes, clinical outcomes, Type 2 diabetes, randomized, controlled study.