This article presents the conservation of soil and water resources and its effective utilization as key to sustainable agricultural development in Nigeria. This requires policies and methods that emphasize the conservation of these natural resources base. Poverty, intensification and extensification of marginal lands were identified as major threats to the sustainability of soil and water resources. The study recommends “home grown: soil and water conservation practices, and water quality management techniques that are vital to ameliorate the problems of soil degradation, erosion and water quality. It is advocated that education and training of the stakeholders remains the best option for the adoption of the suggested sustainable technologies in order to avert food crisis in Nigeria.
Key words: Soil and water conservation, sustainability, food crisis, poverty, education and training.
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