Scientific Research and Essays

  • Abbreviation: Sci. Res. Essays
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-2248
  • DOI: 10.5897/SRE
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2748

Full Length Research Paper

Assessment of non-ionizing radiation from radio frequency energy emitters in the urban area of Natal City, Brazil

Fred Sizenando Rossiter Pinheiro
  • Fred Sizenando Rossiter Pinheiro
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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Técia Maria de Oliveira Maranhão
  • Técia Maria de Oliveira Maranhão
  • Departamento de Toco-Ginecologia ,Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.
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Mário Bernardo Filho
  • Mário Bernardo Filho
  • Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcântara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av. 28 de Setembro 87 fundos, Brazil.
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Márcio Eduardo da Costa Rodrigues
  • Márcio Eduardo da Costa Rodrigues
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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Gutembergue Soares da Silva
  • Gutembergue Soares da Silva
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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Thiago Palhares de Sousa
  • Thiago Palhares de Sousa
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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Manuel Antonio Bouzas Sanchis
  • Manuel Antonio Bouzas Sanchis
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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André Luiz Severiano Câmara
  • André Luiz Severiano Câmara
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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João Paulo da Silva Gonçalo
  • João Paulo da Silva Gonçalo
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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Andrei de Abiahy Carneiro da Cunha Braga
  • Andrei de Abiahy Carneiro da Cunha Braga
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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  •  Received: 25 June 2014
  •  Accepted: 12 January 2015
  •  Published: 30 January 2015

References

Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações (2002). Regulamento sobre limitação da exposição a campos elétricos, magnéticos e eletromagnéticos na faixa de radiofrequências entre 9 kHz e 300 GHz. Annex to Resolution n° 303, Brazil. Brazil (2009). Brazilian Law n° 11.934. [site visited on 2014 Mar. 29]. Avaible from: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2007-2010/2009/Lei/L11934.htm.
 
Bottura V, Borlino MC, Mathiou M, Adda S, D`Elia S, Vaccarono D (2012). Measurements of Electromagnetic Field strength in Urban Environment from UMTS Radio base Stations and Analysis of the Relation with the Radiated Power. Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?reload=true&tp=&arnumber=6396896&queryText%3DMeasurements+of+Electromagnetic+Field+
 
Eskander EF, Estefan S, Abd-Rabou AA (2012). How does long term exposure to base stations and mobile phones affect human hormone profiles? Clinical Biochem. 45:157-161.
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Feychting M, Ahlbom A, Kheifets L (2005). EMF and health. Annu. Rev. Public Health 26:165-89.
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Gotsis A, Papalikolau N, Komnakos D,Yalofas A, Constantinou P (2005). Non Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation monitoring in Greece. Available from: http://ikaros.teipir.gr/era/era2/A2/A21.pdf.
 
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (1998). Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300 GHz). Health Phys. 74(4): 494-522.
 
Lunca E, Damian C, Salceanu A (2014). EMF Exposure Measurements on 4G/LTE Mobile Communication Networks. 2014 International Conference and Exposition on Electrical and Power Engineering (EPE 2014), 16-18 October, Iasi, Romania , P. 545.
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Nworgu OD, Anyaeji CA, Osahon OD,Sekegor E (2010). Measurement of radio frequency radiation (RFR) power levels from some GSM base stations. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics. 17:469–474.
 
Pérez-Vega C, Zamanillo JM (2005). Measurements of Non-Ionizing Radiation Levels in an Urban Environment. University of Cantabria, Communications Engineering Department (DICOM), Santander, Spain.
 
Salles AA, Fernandez CR, Bonadiman M (2003). FDTD simulations and measurements on planar antennas for mobile phones. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC). Proceedings of the 2003 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International. 2:1043-1048.
 
Tesneli AY, Tesneli NB, Kanberoglu B (2011). Measurements of Electromagnetic Radiation in an urban environment. Available from: http://memberfiles.freewebs.com/14/16/50451614/documents/MEASUREMENTS%20OF%20ELECTROMAGNETIC%20RADIATION.pdf The Rio Declaration: Principle 15 – the Precautionary Approach. Urban Governance: precautionary principle. [site visited on 2013 Nov. 11]. Available from: http://www.gdrc.org/u-gov/precaution-7.html.