2022-01-27T11:18:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:6ACCC5740216 2006-04-01T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2006
Editorial Note Bright Agindotan Editorial There is a current global effort to promote industrial biotechnology as a central feature of the sustainable livelihoods in modern industrialized societies. Since there could be no modern biotechnology without molecular biology and the former is limited by the latter, the developed world is pumping billions of dollars towards basic research in molecular biology of organisms with view of harnessing their potential for their industries. Researches in the fields of Biotechnology and molecular biology are on the fast lane and publications are jetting in due to furies of research activities. New frontiers are opening such as nanobiotechnology, plant biopharming,metagenomics, gene therapy, nutrigenomics, proteomics, microarray, metabolomics, stem cell research, novel vaccines, biotransformations, and whole organism biocatalysis and the horizons are still expanding. With the sequencing of human genomes and some model organisms, a floodgate of research activities to link genotype with phenotype through genetic manipulations has started leading to great research activities in the fields of biotechnology and molecular biology. With DNA sequencing becoming cheaper and faster, and with the development of bioinformatic tools and more powerful computers for sequence analysis, I foresee rapid sequencing of more organisms and genetic manipulations for the benefit of mankind and towards better understanding of systems biology. The results of these research endeavors will definitely lead to enormous publications. Students and researchers in African, Asia and beyond need to keep abreast with these rapidly expanding fields by having free access to reviews of recent developments in these fields for their industrial growth. Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews, is an international online journal for this purpose. We publish current and critical reviews of research articles and make them available online free of charge to all that can access the internet. We accept reviews in all fields of biotechnology and molecular biology and we guarantee speedy and thorough review of manuscripts submitted. We use the occasion of our maiden edition to call for submission of quality review papers by experts in biotechnology and molecular biology. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/6ACCC5740216 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR.9000004 en Copyright © 2006 Bright Agindotan
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:0C094E040212 2006-04-01T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2006
Cassava Biotechnology, a southern African Perspective Murunwa Makwarela and Christine Rey Review The pre-requisite for any cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation program that proposes to develop improved plants is the availability of a reliable regeneration system. Presently many laboratories that prioritize cassava research are able to reliably regenerate plants from a range of cultivars. Unfortunately, some cultivars are still either recalcitrant or resisting attempts to induce useful levels of embryogenesis from their tissues.The review gives a brief account on the different uses of cassava, its introduction into southern Africa and the region#39;s current cassava disease complex with a particular focus in South Africa. Different cassava regeneration and gene transfer systems are also discussed.We conclude by presenting future prospects in southern African cassava biotechnology. Key words: Cassava, CMD, Cassava biotechnology. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/0C094E040212 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR.9000003 en Copyright © 2006 Murunwa Makwarela and Christine Rey
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:0F759E540214 2006-04-01T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2006
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of plants: emerging factors that influence efficiency Jelili T. Opabode Review Despite production of fertile transgenic plants through transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, transformation efficiency is still low. Apart from plant genotype, Agrobacterium strains, plasmid vectors, virulence (vir) gene inducing compounds, medium composition and tissue specific factors, some other factors are becoming important for improving transformation efficiency of plant species. Sucrose treatment of explant increased T-DNA delivery in rice while desiccation improved the T-DNA delivery and stable transformation of sugarcane, maize, wheat and soybean. Silver nitrate suppresses the Agrobacterium growth and facilitates plant cell recovery that resulted in increased efficiency of transformation in wheat. Inclusion of thiol compounds, L-cysteine, dithiothreitol and sodium thiosulphate in co-cultivation medium increased transformation efficiency as high as 16.4% in soyabean. A temperature of 22 0C was found to be optimal for T-DNA delivery in tobacco. The optimal temperature for both T-DNA delivery and stable transformation was 23-25 0C for wheat and 23 0C for maize. Surfactants Silwet 77, pluronic acid F68, Tween 20 enhanced T-DNA delivery in wheat. Evidence that Agrobacterium density, co-culture medium, antibiotic and selectable marker influence T-DNA delivery and integration and stable transformation of plants were also presented. Key words: Agrobacterium, stable transformation, T-DNA delivery, T-DNA integration, transformation efficiency. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/0F759E540214 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR.9000001 en Copyright © 2006 Jelili T. Opabode
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:35754E940209 2006-04-01T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2006
Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use Mamoudou H. Dicko,, Harry Gruppen, Alfred S. Traoreacute;, Alphons G. J. Voragen and Willem J. H. van Berkel Review Phenolic compounds and related enzymes such as phenol biosynthesizing enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase) and phenol catabolizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) are determinants for sorghum utilization as human food because they influence product properties during and after sorghum processing. Phenolic compounds are quality-grade markers for the preparation of several foods because of enzyme inhibitory activities, color, or antioxidant activities. Large intervarietal differences in contents of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activities among sorghum varieties exist. Moreover, some red sorghum varieties have higher antioxidant activities than the most important sources of natural antioxidants. Oxidation products of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase (benzoquinones and polymeric compounds) affect food quality. This paper reviews the current advances in phenolic compounds and phenolic enzymes in sorghum as human food, with emphasis on nutritional and health aspects. This may provide some guidance for researchers in further Investigations and for industries in developing practical health agents and functional foods. Key words: sorghum, phenolic compounds, antioxidants, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/35754E940209 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR.9000008 en Copyright © 2006 Mamoudou H. Dicko,, Harry Gruppen, Alfred S. Traoreacute;, Alphons G. J. Voragen and Willem J. H. van Berkel
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:E94E08A40207 2006-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2006
Biodegradation alternative in the cleanup of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants Anthony I Okoh Review Extensive petroleum hydrocarbon exploration activities often result in the pollution of the environment, which could lead to disastrous consequences for the biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystem if not restored. Remediation of petroleum-contaminated system could be achieved by either physicochemical or biological methods. However, the attendant negative consequences of the physicochemical approach are currently directing greater attention to the exploitation of the biological alternatives. This paper provides a review of the menace of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution and its biodegradation in the environment with the view of understanding the biodegradation processes for better exploitation in bioremediation challenges. Key words: Petroleum hydrocarbon, pollution, environment, and biodegradation. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/E94E08A40207 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR.9000002 en Copyright © 2006 Anthony I Okoh
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:E7C589D40208 2006-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2006
The Challenge of Mosquito Control Strategies: from Primordial to Molecular Approaches Subbiah POOPATHI and Brij Kishore TYAGI Review Mosquito control programs worldwide have been evaluating the feasibility to implement biological control strategies by using Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) and/or B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis (Bti). A comprehensive review is presented here to assess the potentiality of biological control agents in mosquito control operation. Vector control is primordial and very essential means for controlling transmission of filariasis, malaria, Japanese encephalitis and dengue in human society. Over the last few decades, there is growing realization that alternate methods to synthetic chemical control needs to be studied and perfected. In the last decade the bacilli based mosquito larvicides popularly known as biological larvicides are becoming more popular in vector management program the world over. The toxicity to mosquito larvae is due to crystal toxins encoded by specific genes. The major advantages of these biolarvicides are reduced application cost, safety to environment, human beings, animals and other non-target organisms. This special review paper explores the importance of bacterial toxin in controlling vector mosquitoes and the tactics for managing resistance to the mosquitocidal bacteria which include rotating different mosquitocidal strains and using genetic engineering to produce new combinations of toxins. This paper also provides a focus on continuous research toward identification of novel mosquitocidal toxins suitable for use if resistance to existing toxins. Key word: Vector control, synthetic chemicals, biopesticides, mode of action, resistance, bioengineering. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/E7C589D40208 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR.9000010 en Copyright © 2006 Subbiah POOPATHI and Brij Kishore TYAGI
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:5D3C69440212 2006-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2006
Molecular Chaperones involved in Heterologous Protein Folding in Escherichia coli E. BETIKU Review The Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is one of the most attractive host employed in the heterologous production of proteins. However, these target proteins are deposited as insoluble aggregates known as inclusion bodies (IBs) and hence are biologically inactive. The ubiquitous molecular chaperones, a group of unrelated classes of polypeptides help in the mediation of proper folding of the target protein. However, the choice of chaperone(s) is still based on a trial-and-error procedure. Wrong choice of chaperone(s) will affect both the host micro-organism and product stability, negatively. Recent advances in the mechanisms and substrate specificities of the major chaperones and their roles in the chaperone-network now gives some ideas for more rational choice of the chaperone(s) for co-expression. Here, the functions and mechanisms of interactions between the major molecular chaperones are presented. Key words: molecular chaperones, inclusion bodies, heterologous, aggregates, protein folding Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/5D3C69440212 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR.9000007 en Copyright © 2006 E. BETIKU
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:F19805C10853 2006-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2006
Cellulose-hemicellulose networks as target for in planta modification of the properties of natural fibres Olawole O. Obembe, Evert Jacobsen, Richard G.F. Visser, and Jean-Paul Vincken Review Plant cell wall polysaccharides are predominant components of fibres. Natural fibres have a wide range of industrial applications, such as in paper and textile industries. Furthermore, their demand for use as bio-composites in building and automotive applications is also increasing. For the various applications, a gain of control over fibre characteristics is important. Inherent fibre characteristics are largely determined by the ratio and interactions of cellulose and hemicelluloses. Two main strategies for bioengineering fibre properties are reviewed: (i) modifying the cellulose/hemicellulose ratio (by biosynthesis or biodegradation of specific polysaccharides), and (ii) interference with cellulose-hemicellulose interactions using carbohydrate-binding modules. These in planta approaches may have the potential of complementing the currently used surface modification approaches for modifying fibre characteristics. Key words: natural fibre, cellulose, hemicellulose, interactions, cell wall modification, carbohydrate binding module, cellulose synthase Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/F19805C10853 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2006.0001 en Copyright © 2006 Olawole O. Obembe, Evert Jacobsen, Richard G.F. Visser, and Jean-Paul Vincken
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:1FF14DD10864 2006-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2006
Genetic engineering, ecosystem change, and agriculture: an update Lawrence C. Davis Review Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), alternatively called biotech crops, dominate soybean and cotton production and are rapidly increasing their fraction of market share for maize and rice in the U.S. Engineered canola is important in Canada, soybeans are dominant in Argentina and Brazil, and cotton is prominent in China and India. Adoption is much slower elsewhere, in large part due to concerns for potential ecosystem effects that may occur through development of weedy plants, by selection of herbicide resistant weeds and by effects of insecticidal proteins on nontarget insects. The precautionary principle is invoked by critics concerned that one must know in advance the effects of GMOs before releasing them. Alteration of weed species composition of agricultural fields is well documented to occur under herbicide selection pressure. Gene flow to wild relatives of crop plants can be shown under herbicide selection, and one instance (sunflower) is provided for insect resistance transfer leading to increased seed production by a weedy relative. Detailed stewardship programs have been developed by seed producers to minimize risks of gene flow. Although herbicides and insecticides are known to have major effects on agroecosystems, the ecosystem impacts of GMOs per se, thus far appear to be small. Key words: gene-flow, herbicide-resistant weeds, genetically engineered crops, Bt maize, Roundup Ready soybeans Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/1FF14DD10864 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2006.0002 en Copyright © 2006 Lawrence C. Davis
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:8EBAF9240213 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2006
RNAi in medicine: current and future perspectives L. Sudarsana Reddy, V. Sarojamma $ and V. Ramakrishna Review The discovery of 21 ndash; 23 nucleotide RNA duplexes, called small interference RNA (siRNA) may well be one of the transforming events in biology in the past decade. RNAi can result in gene silencing or even in the expulsion of sequences from the genome. Efforts to understand its mode of action have revealed a central role in gene regulation and host defense. The specificity, efficiency and potency of RNAi makes it an attractive tool for analyzing the function of genes. RNA interference can be exploited artificially to inhibit the expression of any gene of interest. RNA interference systems could be used clinically to suppress gene expression as a therapeutic strategy in many diseases characterized by elevated gene function. Finally, as a therapeutic tool, it has shown enormous promise in the control of a large array of diseases. This review focuses on the potential therapeutic use of RNAi for various diseases, the current understanding of RNAi biology, and how RNAi has been utilized to study the role of different genes in the pathogenesis of cancer, HIV, infectious diseases, HBV, cardiovascular diseases, cerebral diseases, neurogenerative diseases, malaria, among others. Key words: RNA interference ndash; cancer ndash; HIV ndash; hepatitis B ndash; neurogenerative diseases ndash; malaria ndash; infectious diseases. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/8EBAF9240213 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR.9000009 en Copyright © 2006 L. Sudarsana Reddy, V. Sarojamma $ and V. Ramakrishna
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:1C6FD3040214 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2006
Lacasses in the textile industry Susana Rodriacute;guez Couto and Joseacute; Luis Toca-Herrera Review The search for efficient and green oxidation technologies has increased the interest in the use of enzymes to replace the conventional non-biological methods. Among the different existing oxidant enzymes, laccases (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductases; EC have been subject of intensive research in the last decades due to their low substrate specificity. The use of laccases in the textile industry is growing very fast, since besides to decolourise textile effluents, laccases are used to bleach textiles, modify the surface of fabrics and synthetise dyes. Therefore, laccase-based processes might replace the traditionally high chemical, energy and water-consuming textile operations. The present paper offers an overview of the laccase applications in the textile industry up to date. Keywords: bleaching, decolouration, denim, laccase, textile industry, wastewater Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/1C6FD3040214 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR.9000006 en Copyright © 2006 Susana Rodriacute;guez Couto and Joseacute; Luis Toca-Herrera
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:BFC63D940215 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2006
External, extrinsic and intrinsic noise in cellular systems: analogies and implications for protein synthesis Pratap R. Patnaik Review Multicellular systems, typically in bioreactors with one or more feed streams, are under the influences of intrinsic (intra-cellular), extrinsic (inter-cellular) and external (environmental) noise. Of these, intrinsic noise is relatively less important in determining protein synthesis and reactor behavior. Although extrinsic noise and external noise have different origins and controls, they have similarities and interactions. The interactions make it important to control both kinds of noise optimally to enhance the gene expression of a desired protein, and the similarities enable this to be done. These aspects are discussed to evolve a comprehensive noise filtering and control strategy for large bioreactors operated in realistic (noisy) environments. Key words: cellular noise sources, analogies, interactions, protein synthesis. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/BFC63D940215 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR.9000005 en Copyright © 2006 Pratap R. Patnaik
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:614E1D410892 2007-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2007
Molecular strategies of microbia adaptation to xenobiotics in natural environment Olusola Abayomi Ojo Review The unprecedented population increase and industrial development during the twentieth century has increased conventional solid and liquid waste pollutants to critical levels as well as produced a range of previously unknown strange synthetic chemicals for which society was unprepared. Increasing pollution of the environment by xenobiotic compounds has provoked the need for understanding the impact of toxic compounds on microbial populations, the catabolic degradation pathway of xenobiotics and upgrade in bioremediation processes. Adaptation of native microbial community to xenobiotic substrates is thus crucial for any mineralization to occur in polluted environment. Enzymes which catalyze the biodegradation of xenobiotics are often produced by induction process and this subsequently determine the acclimation time to xenobiotic substrates. Microbial degraders are adapted to xenobiotic substrates via various genetic mechanisms that subsequently determine the evolution of functional degradative pathways. The ultimate goal of these genetic mechanisms is to creating novel genetic combinations in microorganisms that facilitates mineralization of xenobiotics. Moreover, recent development of high-throughput molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays and metagenomic libraries have helped to uncover issues of genetic diversity among environmentally relevant microorganisms as well as identification of new functional genes which would enhance pollution abatement management in the twenty-first century. Key words: Biodegradation, bioremediation, DNA, metagenomics, microarrays and xenobiotics. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/614E1D410892 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2007.0001 en Copyright © 2007 Olusola Abayomi Ojo
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:3B685B910909 2007-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2007
Economics and environmental impact of bioethanol production technologies: an appraisal Anuj Kumar Chandel, Chan ES, Ravinder Rudravaram, M. Lakshmi Narasu, L. Venkateswar Rao and Pogaku Ravindra Review Contemporary industrial developments and rapid pace of urbanization have called for an environmentally sustainable energy sources. Ethanol made from biomass provides unique environmental, economic strategic benefits and can be considered as a safe and cleanest liquid fuel alternative to fossil fuels. There is a copious amount of lignocellulosic biomass worldwide that can be exploited for fuel ethanol production. Significant advances have been made at bench scale towards the fuel ethanol generation from lignocellulosics. However there are still technical and economical hurdles, which make the bioethanol program unsuccessful at commercial scale. This review provides a broad overview on current status of bioethanol production technologies in terms of their economic and environmental viability. These technologies include pretreatment of biomass, the use of cellulolytic enzymes for depolymerisation of carbohydrate polymers into fermentable constituents and the use of robust fermentative microorganisms for ethanol production. Among all the available technologies, dilute acid hydrolysis followed by enzymatic hydrolysis by less expensive and more efficient cellulases has been found more promising towards the potential economics and environmental impact. Key words: Bioethanol, lignocellulosic feedstock, ethanol fermentation, economics, environmental impact Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/3B685B910909 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2007.0002 en Copyright © 2007 Anuj Kumar Chandel, Chan ES, Ravinder Rudravaram, M. Lakshmi Narasu, L. Venkateswar Rao and Pogaku Ravindra
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:4C94AF710932 2007-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2007
Anti-malarials from marine sponges. S. Ravichandran, K. Kathiresan and Hemalatha Balaram Minireview Malaria, which is caused by multiplication of the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum in erythrocytes, is a major health problem in many southern countries. There is an urgent need to discover new antimalarials, due to the spread of chloroquinine resistance and the limited number of available drugs. Among marine invertebrates, Porifera (sponges) are potential source of novel bioactive compounds to provide future drugs against malaria, cancer and a range of viral diseases. A number of sponge-derived antimalarials have been discovered during the last decade. The compounds are mostly nitrogen containing ones (proteins, pyridines, tyrosine-based metabolites, alkaloids, indoles and amides) and also non-nitrogenous compounds (terpenes, polyketides and polysaccharides). Key words: Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, porifera, marine sponges, bioactive compounds, antimalarial compounds. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/4C94AF710932 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2007.0003 en Copyright © 2007 S. Ravichandran, K. Kathiresan and Hemalatha Balaram
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:8B5C9F410944 2007-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2007
Cold-active microbial Lipases: a versatile tool for industrial applications Babu Joseph, Pramod W. Ramteke, George Thomas, and Nitisha Shrivastava Review Lipases are a class of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of long chain triglycerides and constitute the most important group of biocatalysts for biotechnological applications. Cold active lipases have lately attracted attention as a result of their increasing use in the organic synthesis of chiral intermediates. Due to their low optimum temperature and high activity at very low temperatures, which are favorable properties for the production of relatively frail compounds. Cold active lipases are today the enzymes of choice for organic chemists, pharmacists, biophysicists, biochemical and process engineers, biotechnologists, microbiologists and biochemists. The present review describes various industrial applications of cold active microbial lipases in the medical and pharmaceuticals, fine chemical synthesis, food Industry, domestic and environmental applications. Key words: Biocatalysts, cold active lipase, enzymes, industrial application, lipolytic, Psychrophiles. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/8B5C9F410944 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2007.0005 en Copyright © 2007 Babu Joseph, Pramod W. Ramteke, George Thomas, and Nitisha Shrivastava
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:FF4C17C10960 2007-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2007
Non-rhizobial nodulation in legumes D. Balachandar, P. Raja, K. Kumar and SP. Sundaram Minireview Legume - Rhizobium associations are undoubtedly form the most important N2-fixing symbiosis and play a subtle role in contributing nitrogen and maintaining/improving soil fertility. A great diversity in the rhizobial species nodulating legumes has been recog-nized, which belongs to a subgroup of proteobacteria covering the genera, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium (renamed as Ensifer), Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium andAzorhizobium. Recently, several non-rhizobial species, belonging to a and b subgroup of Proteobacteria such as Methylobacterium, Blastobacter, Devosia, Phyllobac-terium, Ochro-bactrum, Agrobacterium, Cupriavidus, Herbaspirillum, Burkholde-ria and some g-Proteobacteria have been reported to form nodules and fix nitrogen in legume roots. The phylogenetic relationship of these non-rhizobial species with the recognized rhizobial species and the diversity of their hosts are discussed in this review. Key words: Legumes, Nodulation, Proteobacteria, Rhizobium Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/FF4C17C10960 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2007.0004 en Copyright © 2007 D. Balachandar, P. Raja, K. Kumar and SP. Sundaram
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:8EB195410993 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2007
Plant protease inhibitors: a defense strategy in plants Huma Habib and Khalid Majid Fazili Review Proteases, though essentially indispensable to the maintenance and survival of their host organisms, can be potentially damaging when overexpressed or present in higher concentrations, and their activities need to be correctly regulated. An important means of regulation involves modulation of their activities through interaction with substances, mostly proteins, called protease inhibitors. Some insects and many of the phytopathogenic microorganisms secrete extracellular enzymes and, in particular, enzymes causing proteolytic digestion of proteins, which play important roles in pathogenesis. Plants, however, have also developed mechanisms to fight these pathogenic organisms. One important line of defense that plants have to fight these pathogens is through various inhibitors that act against these proteolytic enzymes. These inhibitors are thus active in endogenous as well as exogenous defense systems. Protease inhibitors active against different mechanistic classes of proteases have been classified into different families on the basis of significant sequence similarities and structural relationships. Specific protease inhibitors are currently being overexpressed in certain transgenic plants to protect them against invaders. The current knowledge about plant protease inhibitors, their structure and their role in plant defense is briefly reviewed. Key words: Proteases, enzymes, protease inhibitors, serpins, cystatins, pathogens, defense. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/8EB195410993 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2007.0006 en Copyright © 2007 Huma Habib and Khalid Majid Fazili
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:D95EFBE11010 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2007
Analysis and manipulation of the genome dynamic structure Valentina Tosato and Carlo V. Bruschi Review After the genomic era, during which DNA sequencing revealed genes and the post-genomic era, in which their functional analysis was implemented, the notion of a dynamic genome has become convincing. Indeed, since the early days of DNA transposition, new evidence has accumulated indicating a high level of intrinsic structural plasticity characterizing the genome. An ensemble of gross chromosomal rearrangements has been reported, together with their biological effects, some of which correlate to major cellular pathologies such as cancer. From microorganisms to human cells, the convoluted architecture of chromosomes has gained relevance not only from a descriptive point of view, but also as a potential multi-layered storage mechanism of genetic information. The higher-order structure of DNA, including hairpin turns, bending and curvature, as well as precise chromatin topology, could provide the metadata onsuper-information needed to explain the low number of inferred mammalian genes, perhaps conferring new scientific dignity to the infamous bdquo;junk DNAldquo;. In this view, genome dynamics, including the clustering of essential genes and the synteny of others, appears as the paramount cellular response to varying environmental conditions, resulting in massive differential regulation of gene expression. A deeper understanding of the various orders of complexity of genomic DNA structure has allowed the design of more sophisticated biochemical and biophysical tools for its analysis and manipulation, which, in turn, has yielded a better knowledge of the genome itself. This creative cycle is providing new generations of diagnostics and intelligent drugs of pharmacogenomic origin that exploit the ever changing, yet stable, genome dynamic structure. Key words: Genome dynamics, secondary DNA structure, gross chromosomal rearrangements Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/D95EFBE11010 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2007.0007 en Copyright © 2007 Valentina Tosato and Carlo V. Bruschi
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:1F0E0D839910 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2007
Cationic lipids used in non-viral gene delivery systems Sarder Nasir Uddin Review To perform gene transfer two types of vectors are available, (i) viral vectors (ii) nonviral vectors. Among the vectors, nonviral vectors have proved less toxic and safe compare to viral vectors through clinical trials. No single vector is proved suitable for every gene transfection experiment. Cationic lipids are experimentally established as non-viral vector with higher transfection efficiency. Identifying the barriers for transfection and the possible solutions, stability improvement research is needed for better clinical performance of cationic vectors. The newly described liposomal preparation, Liposomes- Protamine-DNA (LPD), has shown superiority over conventional Liposomes-DNA complexes (lipoplexes). In future it is also possible to find new conjugates as cationic lipids bearing many properties, suitable to bound with DNA and penetrate cell. Considering all these properties, these works reviews the most recent studies highlighting cationic lipids used in nonviral gene delivery systems. Key words: Gene therapy, non-viral, lipids, cation, delivery systems. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/1F0E0D839910 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2007.0008 en Copyright © 2007 Sarder Nasir Uddin
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:D24CCDA11042 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2007
Phytochemical antioxidants for health and medicine – A move towards nature Duduku Krishnaiah, Rosalam Sarbatly and Awang Bono Review Oxidants or reactive oxygen species are produced in our body during aerobic metabolism leading to many diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases etc. Antioxidants are the chemicals that neutralize these oxidants. Natural antioxidants are the secondary metabolites of phytochemicals and are preferred over synthetic antioxidants, which are found to impose side effects. A review has been done on the effect of oxidants on human health and their neutralization by natural antioxidants. Major natural antioxidants and their plant sources, different recovery processes for antioxidants from plant matrices and the advantage of indirect supercritical fluid extraction over other processes are presented. Key words: Free radical, secondary metabolites, oxidative stress, recovery processes, process parameters. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/D24CCDA11042 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2007.0009 en Copyright © 2007 Duduku Krishnaiah, Rosalam Sarbatly and Awang Bono
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:0013FAD11068 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2007
Proof of Evidence: PPAR-induced ANGPTL4 in Lipid and Glucose Metabolism Kenichi Yoshida Minireview Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was identified as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-induced gene. The genetic finding that mutation in ANGPTL3 causes hypolipidemia in mice moved us to test whether ANGPTL4 could also regulate lipid metabolism in vivo. We successfully proved that the introduction of ANGPTL4 as well as ANGPTL3 protein into mice rapidly induced hyperlipidemia. This suggests that the identification of novel PPAR-induced secreted proteins would contribute greatly to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of metabolic syndrome, including cardiovascular disease. In addition to lipid metabolism, ANGPTL4 is now regarded as a regulator of glucose metabolism. Emerging biochemical and genetic studies are expected to establish proof-of-evidence of ANGPTL4 as a promising drug development target. Key words: Angiopoietin-like protein 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, lipid metabolism, drug target. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/0013FAD11068 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2007.0010 en Copyright © 2007 Kenichi Yoshida
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:140BAED40216 2007-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2007
Current trends in molecular epidemiology studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mohammad Asgharzadeh and Hossein Samadi Kafil Review Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most harmful human pathogens worldwide, and there are mass efforts for controlling this pathogen. One of the powerful tools to find out and control this pathogen is molecular epidemiology techniques. Currently, wide ranges of techniques are available to type mycobacterium tuberculosis, and choosing the correct technique as a portable and standard method is difficult. IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) remains gold standard method on genotyping to date, but it is labor intensive and inefficient on samples which have fewer than six copy numbers of IS6110. In the recent years, some new methods have been introduced for genotyping of mycobacterium tuberculosis such as mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and Spoligotyping. The present review tries to introduce new approaches in molecular techniques for epidemiological investigation of tuberculosis and to illustrate advantages and problems associated with them. Key words: Molecular epidemiology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, fingerprinting, transmission, genotype. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/140BAED40216 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2007.0013 en Copyright © 2007 Mohammad Asgharzadeh and Hossein Samadi Kafil
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:B66890940215 2007-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2007
Genetic aspects of ameloblastoma: a brief review Daiana P. Stolf, Algernon C. Karim and Abhijit G. Banerjee Review Ameloblastomas are defined as aggressive neoplasms arising from the odontogenic epithelium which exhibit a locally invasive behavior with a high rate of recurrence. If left untreated, they often lead to extensive tissue destruction and deformity. Due to the fact that these tumors emerge from remnants of normal odontogenic apparatus, which is strictly regulated through several genes, studies have been done in an attempt to unravel the relation between these two processes. The normal genetic regulation takes place through different signaling pathways, including four major families: TGF [Transforming Growth Factors, which include BMPs (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins)], FGF (Fibroblast Growth Factors), Hh (Hedgehogs) and Wnt (Wingless). Each family consists of several signals encoded by different genes. The unraveling of specific details concerning these genes and the mechanisms whereby the expression and relationships among them are mediated, may provide an opportunity to develop new treatment therapies and afford efficient prevention. Key words: Ameloblastoma, sonic hedgehog, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor, wingless. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/B66890940215 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2007.0012 en Copyright © 2007 Daiana P. Stolf, Algernon C. Karim and Abhijit G. Banerjee
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:DCD262240216 2007-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2007
Computational aspects of thematics: application to protein tyrosine phosphatase role in diabetes mellitus Allam Appa Rao Review Computation plays an important role in functional genomics and proteomics. Theoretical Microscopic Titration Curves (Thematics) are being employed to predict active binding sites of enzymes. The principal reasons are that the pace of discovery of new proteins is increasing, outpacing the ability to characterize them in conventional biochemical and structural techniques; in addition, advances in computational, structural and force data are used in an interative manner to improve accuracy of active site prediction. From methods using amino acid and nucleotide sequences evidence is available that residues in the enzyme core are selected for stability while those at the surface, which are sites of protein interaction, trade off stability for ligand interactivity. Thematics is a computational method that predicts chemical and electrostatic properties of residues in enzymes and utilizes information contained in those predictions to identify active sites. Discussion of the chemical basis for the predictive powers of Thematics is featured in this paper, and the role of protein tyrosine phosphatase in type 2 diabetes discussed briefly. Key words: Computational aspects, thematics, protein tyrosine phosphatase, diabetes mellitus. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/DCD262240216 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2007.0011 en Copyright © 2007 Allam Appa Rao
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:7A875A540218 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2008
Plant terpenoids: applications and future potentials Sam Zwenger and Chhandak Basu Review The importance of terpenes in both nature and human application is difficult to overstate. Basic knowledge of terpene and isoprene biosynthesis and chemistry has accelerated the pace at which scientists have come to understand many plant biochemical and metabolic processes. The abundance and diversity of terpene compounds in nature can have ecosystem-wide influences. Although terpenes have permeated human civilization since the Egyptians, terpene synthesis pathways are only now being understood in great detail. The use of bioinformatics and molecular databases has largely contributed to analyzing exactly how and when terpenes are synthesized. Additionally, terpene synthesis is beginning to be understood in respect to the various stages of plant development. Much of this knowledge has been contributed by the plant model, Arabidopsis thaliana. Considering the advances in plant terpene knowledge and potential uses, it is conceivable that they may soon be used in agrobiotechnology. Key words: Terpenes, terpene synthase, secondary metabolites, transgenic plants Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/7A875A540218 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2008.0001 en Copyright © 2008 Sam Zwenger and Chhandak Basu
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:7CFB27540219 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2008
Recent advances in salt stress biology – a review Town Mohammad Hussain, Thummala Chandrasekhar, Mahamed Hazara, Zafar Sultan, Brhan Khiar Saleh and Ghanta Rama Gopal Review Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that adversely affects crop productivity and quality. Hence developing salt tolerant crops is essential for sustaining food production. Understanding of the molecular basis of salt stress signaling and tolerance mechanisms are essential for breeding and genetic engineering of salt tolerance in crop plants. The modern approaches being used to impart salt tolerance involves exploitation of natural genetic variations and/or the generation of transgenic plants. This review discusses the challenges and opportunities provided by recently developed molecular tools in the development of salt tolerant crops. Key words: Soil salinity, plasma membrane antiporter (AtSOS1), AtHKT1, vacuolar antiporter (AtNHX1), compatible solutes, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidants. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/7CFB27540219 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2008.0002 en Copyright © 2008 Town Mohammad Hussain, Thummala Chandrasekhar, Mahamed Hazara, Zafar Sultan, Brhan Khiar Saleh and Ghanta Rama Gopal
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:DFA47FD40220 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2008
Mechanistic links between maternal bacterial infection and cerebral palsy Heping Zhou Review Maternal bacterial infection is known as a causal factor for preterm labor and neonatal morbidity. In recent years, both epidemiological and experimental studies have identified maternal bacterial infection as one of the causal factors for the development of cerebral palsy (CP) in the offspring. This review examines accumulating evidence that as critical mediators of the hostrsquo;s response to fighting the infecting bacteria, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress also play important roles in maternal bacterial infection-induced white matter damage and ultimately the development of CP in the offspring. Understanding the actions of cytokines and oxidative stress in CP development could potentially lead to novel and effective therapeutic strategies. Key words: maternal infection; cerebral palsy; lipopolysaccharide; cytokine; oxidative stress Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/DFA47FD40220 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2008.0005 en Copyright © 2008 Heping Zhou
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:AFD4FC040222 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2008
The retinoblastoma binding protein 6 is a potential target for therapeutic drugs Monde Ntwasa Review The retinoblastoma binding protein 6 (RBBP6) proteins (also called P-53 Associated Cell Testis Derived (PACT)) are highly upregulated in esophageal cancer and enhance the activity of MDM2, a p53 inhibitor with ubiquitin ligase activity that is over expressed in many human cancers. Mammalian RBBP6 binds the tumour suppressor proteins p53 and the retinoblastoma protein (Rb). The invertebrate orthologues, on the other hand, have not been shown experimentally to have these properties and they have no obvious sequence features that are similar to the mammalian p53- and Rb-binding domains. General features of RBBP6 proteins such as a highly conserved N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain and a RING-finger indicate that they may be involved in proteolytic degradation of substrate proteins via the proteasome pathway. They have recently been found to act downstream hedgehog in certain normal developmental processes. This may implicate RBBP6 proteins in a wider range of human cancers. These data imply that antagonists of RBBP6 can be used as effective antitumour agents to treat tumours that have functional p53. Key words: p53, RBBP6, PACT, SNAMA, cell cycle, apoptosis, cancer. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/AFD4FC040222 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2008.0003 en Copyright © 2008 Monde Ntwasa
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:5B6BBF840223 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2008
Molecular marker technology in cotton Preetha, S and Raveendren T. S Review Molecular markers have been a valuable tool in cotton breeding investigations. Various marker techniques used in cotton include Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR), Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) and Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP).They have large number applications like characterization of gene pool, DNA fingerprinting, phylogenetic analysis, molecular dissection of complex traits, and characterization of genome organization . Several challenges have been overcome in cotton genomic research and now genetic linkage maps of cotton have been developed based on both intraspecific (intrahirsutum) and interspecific (Gossypium hirsutum x Gossypium barbadense) population and the QTLs responsible for leaf shapes, plant trichomes, photopheriodism, stomatal conductance, disease resistance, yield and fibre quality traits have been mapped. This article would give an overview of genomic research on cotton. Key words: Cotton, DNA markers, diversity studies, QTL mapping Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/5B6BBF840223 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2008.0004 en Copyright © 2008 Preetha, S and Raveendren T. S
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:055F5FD11110 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2008
New targets for antibacterial agents Fatma Abdelaziz Amer, Eman Mohamed El-Behedy and Heba Ali Mohtady Review The alarming increase and spread of resistance among emerging and re-emerging bacterial pathogens to all clinically useful antibiotics is one of the most serious public health problems of the last decade. Thus, the search for new antibacterials directed toward new targets is not only a continuous process but also, at this time, an urgent necessity. Recent advances in molecular biological technologies have significantly increased the ability to discover new antibacterial targets and quickly predict their spectrum and selectivity. The most extensively evaluated bacterial targets for drug development are: quorum sensor biosynthesis; the two component signal transduction(TCST) systems; bacteria division machinery; the shikimate pathway; isoprenoid biosynthesis and fatty acid biosynthesis. Key words: New targets, quorum sensor biosynthesis, TCST systems, bacteria division machinery, shikimate pathway, isoprenoid biosynthesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, antibiotic resistance. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/055F5FD11110 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2008.0006 en Copyright © 2008 Fatma Abdelaziz Amer, Eman Mohamed El-Behedy and Heba Ali Mohtady
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:F92112911122 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2008
Urokinase - A strong plasminogen activator Adinarayana Kunamneni, , Bhavani Devi Ravuri, Poluri Ellaiah, Taadimalla Prabhakhar and Vinjamuri Saisha Review Urokinase (UK) is a serine protease, which specifically cleaves the proenzyme/zymogen plasminogen to form the active enzyme plasmin. It specifically catalyzes the cleavage of the Arg-Val bond in plasminogen. The active plasmin is then able to break down the fibrin polymers of blood clots. Clinically, UK is given to patients suffering from thrombolytic disorders. Among the plasminogen activators, UK provides a superior alternative for the simple reasons of its being more potent as compared to tissue-plasminogen activator and non-antigenic by virtue of its human origin unlike streptokinase. Based on these observations, UK is a strong plasminogen activator. Hence, UK, as one of the most potent plasminogen activators is attracting a great deal of attention. The mechanism of action, physico-chemical properties, in vitro production, cloning and expression, and clinical applications of UK are reviewed in this paper. Key words: Urokinase (UK), plasminogen activators, fibrinolysis, strong plasminogen activator, production, cloning and expression, physico-chemical properties and clinical applications. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/F92112911122 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2008.0007 en Copyright © 2008 Adinarayana Kunamneni, , Bhavani Devi Ravuri, Poluri Ellaiah, Taadimalla Prabhakhar and Vinjamuri Saisha
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:3ECD36340227 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2008
Taxoids: Biosynthesis and in vitro production Priti Maheshwari, Sarika Garg and Anil Kumar Review Taxoids viz. paclitaxel and docetaxel are of commercial importance since these are shown to have anti-cancerous activity. These taxoids have been isolated from the bark of Taxus species. There is an important gymnosperm, Taxus wallichiana(common name, lsquo;yewrsquo;) used for the isolation of taxoids. Due to cutting of the trees for its bark, population of the plant species are threatened to be endangered. Therefore, these are required to be protected globally. Plant cell culture techniques have been exploited for the isolation of mutant cell lines, production of secondary metabolites and genetic transformation of the plants. In vitro, culture ofTaxus not only helps in conservation but is also helpful in the production of paclitaxel and other taxoids. Various strategies tested globally for the commercial production of taxoids are discussed. Different Taxus species, their origin, diterpenoids obtained from different parts of the tree and their applications are discussed. Although, detailed taxoid biosynthetic pathway is not well known, an overview of the pathway has been described. Micropropagation of Taxus and regeneration of transgenic plants has been described. Although, several protocols have been reported for the production of some important taxoids, a rapid, reproducible and economically viable protocol required for the efficient production of taxoids has yet to be established. Supplementation of the biotic and abiotic elicitor(s) to the cell suspension cultures of Taxus has been shown to increase the growth of the cell biomass as well as paclitaxel production due to pathway stimulation. Up-scaling of Taxus cell lines capable of over-producing taxoids could only make the industrial production of paclitaxel feasible. Here, we have reviewedTaxus wallichiana cell cultures in terms of their capabilities of biomass and secondary metabolites production. Key words: Docetaxel, paclitaxel, taxanes, taxus. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/3ECD36340227 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2008.0009 en Copyright © 2008 Priti Maheshwari, Sarika Garg and Anil Kumar
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:0D3C3CF40228 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2008
Biotechnology a key tool to breakthrough in medical and veterinary research Soetan K. O. and Abatan M. O. Review The elucidation of the structure, function and metabolism of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has led to the current global revolution in the recombinant DNA technology, with the possibility to modify these molecules in many ways for the benefit of man and animals. In this review, we considered the basic principles of genetic engineering (gene cloning), bioinformatics, and its applications in medical and veterinary sciences. The issue of ethical questions and fears about biotechnology is also discussed. The ultimate goal of this paper is to re-invigorate the interest of medical and veterinary personnels, biochemists and related scientists to this technology, which is well able to have an effect on the way all the biosciences will be practiced in this new millennium. Key words: Biotechnology, Medical, Veterinary research Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/0D3C3CF40228 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2008.0008 en Copyright © 2008 Soetan K. O. and Abatan M. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:2EFEB8C40238 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2008
Biodiversity and conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants in Africa Okigbo, R N., Eme, U E. and Ogbogu, S. Review Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPS) represent a consistent part of the natural biodiversity endowment of many countries in Africa. The role and contributions of medicinal plants to healthcare, local economies, cultural integrity and ultimately the well-being of people, particularly the rural poor, have been increasingly acknowledged over the last decade. The demands of the majority of the populace for medicinal plants have been met by indiscriminate harvesting of spontaneous flora, including those in forests. This has resulted in severe loss of habitat and genetic diversity. The utilization of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) as a source of fuel, building material, food, fodder, and fibre, in African countries has, however, led to a resurgence of natural product- based industries and pharmaceutical products. This had been spurred by the interests of the developed countries for traditional medicine and natural products. Furthermore, many African medicinal plants are well-known in the international markets, e.g. Ancistrocladus abbreivatus, a Cameroun plant with anti-HIV potential. Therefore, sustainable management and conservation of these endangered medicinal plant species are important not only because of their value as potential therapeutics, but also due to worldwide reliance on traditional medicinal plants for health. Effective conservation strategies for medicinal plant should take place within four main areas: in-situ andex-situ conservation, education and research. Saving Africarsquo;s medicinal plant resources from extinction calls for intensive management and conservation, more research and increased level of public awareness about our vanishing heritage. Key words: African, health care delivery, medicine, harvesting. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/2EFEB8C40238 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2008.0013 en Copyright © 2008 Okigbo, R N., Eme, U E. and Ogbogu, S.
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:0B475F240241 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2008
The role of vaccine derived polioviruses in the global eradication of polio-the Nigeria experience as a case study Okonko I. O., Babalola E. T., Adedeji A. O., Onoja B. A., Ogun A. A., Nkang A. O. and Adu F. D. Review This review reports the role of vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV) in the global eradication of poliomyelitis. A vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a rare strain of poliovirus, genetically mutated from the strain contained in OPV. The OPV contains a weakened or attenuated version of poliovirus, activating an immune response in the body. A vaccinated person transmits the weakened virus to others, who also develop antibodies to polio, ultimately stopping transmission of poliovirus in a community. The World Health Assembly in 1988, resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis from the world by the year 2000 and since then, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) of the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a decline in global polio incidence, from an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 to under 3,500 in the year 2000, with the last remaining global poliovirus reservoirs confined to parts of Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. In the African Region (AFRO) of the WHO, eradication strategies were accelerated following supporting resolutions by WHOrsquo;s Regional Committee for African in 1995 and the organization for African Unity in 1996. Despite the reported success in National Immunization days (NIDs), establishment of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and accelerated efforts to meet the year 2000 targets including ldquo;mopping-uprdquo; executed in 1999 and subsequent years, Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, remains one of the major reservoirs for wild poliovirus transmission. Conversely, American region (AMRO) of the WHO was certified as polio-free in 1994 as was the Western Pacific Region (WPRO) in 2000. Recommendations have therefore being presented on ways of evaluating vaccine administration to boost its output in checkmating the increasing waves of paralytic poliomyelitis (including vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis-VPP) and prevalence of wild poliovirus in the country. However, there are obstacles to the global eradication which involve among others, vaccine derived polioviruses (VDPVs) in areas with low oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) coverage. In addition, long term excretion of neurovirulent immunodeficiency-associated vaccine derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) can lead to poliovirus spread to contacts. Overcoming these obstacles is challenging. Key words: Global eradication, Poliovirus, poliomyelitis, vaccine administration, vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV). Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/0B475F240241 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2008.0012 en Copyright © 2008 Okonko I. O., Babalola E. T., Adedeji A. O., Onoja B. A., Ogun A. A., Nkang A. O. and Adu F. D.
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:0FE5F7B40242 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2009
Microtubers in yam germplasm conservation and propagation: The status, the prospects and the constraints Morufat Oloruntoyin Balogun Review The conservation of yam genetic resources using field genebanks, in vitro plantlets, pollen and seed storage are constrained by high losses and space requirements, maintenance cost and an irregular flowering, respectively. Microtubers produced from in vitro plantlets are proposed for conservation and propagation, as they have a longer shelf-life due to dormancy, and are also hardier and less bulky than plantlets. A lot of work has been done on microtuber production, especially the use of temporary immersion systems in production of larger, multiple microtubers. However, there have been different degrees of success, and, very few reports on microtuber dormancy. Also, research findings on postsprout management and efficiency of microtubers relative to other systems in terms of cost, ease of handling and savings on time are sparse. These research gaps limit the practical use of microtubers in conservation and propagation. Future research should be on dormancy control and post-sprout management. A microtuber to microtuber cycle for the conservation and propagation of yam germplasm is proposed in this review, and the invaluable potentials of microtubers in these regards is emphasised. Key words: Yams, Dioscorea species, germplasm conservation, propagation, microtuberization. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/0FE5F7B40242 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2009.0005 en Copyright © 2009 Morufat Oloruntoyin Balogun
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:7ED189740243 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2009
Emerging trends in enhancement of cotton fiber productivity and quality using functional genomics tools N. Manikanda Boopathi and R. Ravikesavan Review Cotton, the most preferred natural fiber in the world, is the mainstay of global economy for severalcenturies. However, the fiber productivity has reached its plateau in the past decade which forced the research community to develop high-yielding and high quality cotton cultivars. In this genomics era, cotton researches focussed on two aspects: identification of genes for important agronomic traits and manipulation of such genes in view of developing elite cotton cultivar. Despite the complexity of the molecular mechanisms underlying its development, the study of the cotton fiber has become a trait of primary interest besides biotic and abiotic stress resistance. Albeit several strategies, functional genomics approach offers new unprecedented opportunities for identification of complex network of genes involved in fiber productivity and quality. Recent years have witnessed a better understanding of the plethora of genes affecting cotton fibre. Molecular, cellular and developmental changes related to fiber development have been identified through high-throughput EST projects and microarray analysis coupled with cotemporary biological tools. Despite impressive progress, the genomics and postgenomics revolution will be applicable in plant breeding only when they can elucidate the relationship between variation in phenotypic traits and the variation in gene sequences and/or expression. To this end, there is an immediate demand for integration of disciplines such as structural genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and bioinformatics with plant physiology and breeding. Integration of multidisciplinary approaches is indispensable in upcoming cotton improvement programs since cotton is an important renewable resource that needs to be preserved for future generations. Key words: Cotton fibre, expressed sequence tags, functional genomics, microarray, transcriptomics. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/7ED189740243 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2009.0006 en Copyright © 2009 N. Manikanda Boopathi and R. Ravikesavan
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:FE9FFA640244 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2009
Toward a comprehensive description of microbial processes through mechanistic and intelligent approaches Pratap R. Patnaik Review Microbial processes functioning in bioreactors under realistic conditions are subject to incomplete dispersion and the presence of noise from the environment and within the cells. These factors complicate the development of good quantitative descriptions of microbial reactors. Most analyses have therefore focused on either the intra-cellular or the extra-cellular processes, ignoring or simplifying the other facet. The resulting models are thus useful only for the intended purposes and in limited domains, but they do not include a comprehensive description of all features. These models have employed one or more of three main approaches to develop quantitative descriptions ndash; mechanistic, cellular intelligence (or cybernetic), and artificial intelligence. Models using judicious combinations of two or more methods have wider and more versatile applicability. However, no model has accommodated both intra-cellular and extra-cellular noise in a macroscopic description of a nonideal bioreactor. Based on a review of recent studies, such a conceptual model is presented here. It combines all three approaches in a flexible design. Key words: Microbial processes, dispersion, noise, modeling approaches, comprehensive description. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/FE9FFA640244 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2009.0008 en Copyright © 2009 Pratap R. Patnaik
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:ADF9BCF40246 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2009
Review on application of biomimetics in the design of agricultural implements Benard Chirende and Jianqiao Li Review This paper aims at reviewing the application of biomimetics in design of agricultural implements. Most of the biomimetic works done were aimed at investigating the effect of non-smooth surfaces on soil resistance based on soil burrowing animals. The characteristics of soil-burrowing animals for improved soil scouring and their mechanism for reducing soil adhesion and friction are discussed. From past research works, it can be concluded that non-smooth surfaces can generally reduce soil resistance however the extent of reduction is still a gray area. The main factors affecting soil adhesion like the nature and properties of the soil, the properties of the soil-engaging component surfaces and the experimental conditions which are difficult to replicate, could be the explanation for inconsistencies in the extent of soil resistance reduction. Generally, when applying the concept of non-smooth surfaces in biomimetic implement design, general factors considered in arranging non-smooth structures are distribution of normal stresses, choice of non-smooth type and material, soil motion tracks during operation and choice of non-smooth convex parameters. Key words: Biomimetics, anti-friction, anti-adhesion, soil resistance, burrowing animals. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/ADF9BCF40246 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2009.0007 en Copyright © 2009 Benard Chirende and Jianqiao Li
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:E490DDA40246 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2009
RNAi as a novel therapeutic platform technology for oncological solutions Gowhar Shafi, Kaiser Jamil, Atya Kapley, Hemant J. Purohit and Mohana Ch Vamsy Review RNA interference (RNAi) is a process in which double-stranded RNA triggers the degradation of a homologous messenger RNA (sharing sequence-specific homology). RNAi has been observed in all eukaryotes, from yeast to mammals. The power and utility of RNAi for specifically silencing the expression of any gene for which sequence is available has driven its incredibly rapid adoption as a tool for reverse genetics in eukaryotic systems. RNAi is remarkably potent i.e., only a few dsRNA molecules per cell (like catalytic reactions) are required to produce effective interference. The long dsRNAs enter a cellular pathway that is commonly referred to as the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. RNAi is now recognized to be one of a larger set of sequence-specific cellular responses to RNA, collectively called RNA silencing. These responses have been shown to play a role not only in mRNA and dsRNA stability/degradation, but also in regulation of translation, transcription, chromatin structure, and genome integrity. RNAi has also been invaluable for unveiling critical pathway involved in cancer development, growth and metastasis and has been useful in identifying critical tumor type specific gene targets for cancer therapy. RNAi has been shown to inhibit gene expression and is considered as one of the most important recent discoveries in molecular oncology. It is already a widely used research tool in the analysis of molecular mechanisms for many diseases including cancer and this is because it allows researchers to silence the expression of specific gene targets, much like antisense technology, but with higher specificity and efficacy. Although RNAi is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon for sequence specific gene silencing in mammalian cells, exogenous short interfering RNA (siRNA) and vector based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) can also invoke RNAi responses. Both are now not only experimental tools for analyzing gene functions but are also expected to be excellent avenues for drug target discovery and the emerging class of gene medicine for targeting incurable disease such as cancer. The success of therapeutic use of RNAi for cancer relies on the development of safe and efficacious delivery systems that introduce siRNA and shRNA expression vectors into target tumor cells. The present review provides a brief overview of RNAi based approaches for gene silencing as a potential therapy for cancer. Key words: RNA interference (RNAi), cancer, posttranscriptional gene silencing, siRNA, miRNA. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/E490DDA40246 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2009.0010 en Copyright © 2009 Gowhar Shafi, Kaiser Jamil, Atya Kapley, Hemant J. Purohit and Mohana Ch Vamsy
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:A37106340247 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2009
Metagenomics - An advanced approach for noncultivable micro-organisms Md. Zeyaullah, Majid R. Kamli, Badrul Islam, Mohammed Atif, Faheem A Benkhayal, M. Nehal, M.A. Rizvi and Arif Ali Review It is known that only 0.1 - 10% of all microorganisms observed in nature can be cultured under conventional laboratory conditions. This leaves researchers unable to study more than 99% of microorganisms in some environments - microorganisms that sometimes have unique and potentially very useful abilities such as waste degradation or synthesis of compounds that could find use as drugs or antibiotics. Metagenomics, the genomic reconstruction of unculturable microorganisms, is a powerful new tool for accessing the untapped resources of biodiversity in environmental samples. The ability to extract and purify high MW DNA from difficult samples such as waste effluents and soil, attempts to provide a breakthrough in representative metagenomic library construction for metagenomics that may enable the discovery of many future drugs and antibiotics. Key words: Metagenomics, microorganisms, waste effluents and soil, drugs and antibiotics. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/A37106340247 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2009.0009 en Copyright © 2009 Md. Zeyaullah, Majid R. Kamli, Badrul Islam, Mohammed Atif, Faheem A Benkhayal, M. Nehal, M.A. Rizvi and Arif Ali
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:15D7D7640247 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2009
The HIV-based host derived R7V epitope; functionality of antibodies directed at it and the predicted implications for prognosis, therapy or vaccine development Bremnaelig;s Christiane and Meyer Debra Review Host protein beta-2 microglobulin (beta;2m) is incorporated into the HIV-1 coat during budding. Individuals not progressing to AIDS produce antibodies directed to an epitope contained in beta;2m which is designated R7V. These antibodies increased with duration of HIV-infection in non-progressor patients and protected against HIV replication. Purified R7V antibodies neutralized different HIV-1 isolates and did not bind to human cells. In individuals progressing to AIDS or using antiretroviral treatment, a lower prevalence of R7V antibodies was observed. This review summarizes findings on the R7V epitope and antibodies directed at it. Suggestions are also made as to necessary research on R7V which may clarify the importance of this epitope in HIV therapy, prognosis or vaccine development. Key words: R7V, epitope, antibodies, beta;2m, HIV, ELISA. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/15D7D7640247 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2009.0011 en Copyright © 2009 Bremnaelig;s Christiane and Meyer Debra
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:70B4F3540248 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2009
Mechanisms and molecular genetic bases of rapid speciation in African cichlids Kazhila C. Chinsembu Review African cichlid fishes are a textbook model of evolution in motion but the molecular genetic bases and mechanisms involved in their rapid speciation largely remain elusive. Emerging experimental evidence now suggests that African cichlids have undergone rapid speciation due to a combination of their molecular genetic potential and the influences of the environment on this potential. The genetic potential of the cichlids lies mainly in the ecomorphological plasticity of their feeding apparatus and their strong sexual selection. Putative genes that underlie the phenotypic variations in African cichlids are beginning to be unravelled but their coverage in the literature remains modest and scattered. This review forms one of the first comprehensive attempts to consolidate emerging data that explain various genes and mechanisms underlying explosive speciation in this family of fishes. The review analyzes the modes of African cichlid speciation, radiation-in-stages model, molecular genetic bases of plastic pharyngeal jaws and teeth and signature genes for sexual selection premised mainly on nuptial colour patterns, egg dummies and maternal mouth brooding, opsins and the sensory drive hypothesis. Explaining sexual selection mechanisms based on colour patterns and sensitivity to light is crucial to understanding African cichlid species biodiversity and conservation in polluted lakes. Key words: African cichlids, rapid speciation, sexual selection, genes. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/70B4F3540248 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2009.0012 en Copyright © 2009 Kazhila C. Chinsembu
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:AC0EBED11165 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2009
The development of the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea into a potentially valuable recombinant protein production system Bruce A. Rosa, Lada Malek and Wensheng Qin, Review The unique inducible system of protein secretion by the carnivorous pitcher plantSarracenia purpurea may be an ideal system for recombinant protein farming. S. purpurea is relatively uncommon and difficult to grow in vitro, so it has not been explored as a potential source of recombinant proteins. However, it naturally secretes large amounts of proteins into a liquid found in the leaf pitchers, so it may be an ideal way to collect recombinant proteins in leaf pitchers. Here, the advantages of transgenic S. purpurea systems over traditional transgenic plant systems for the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins are explored, and the steps necessary to produce such a system are discussed. Key words: Transgenic plants, recombinant protein farming, carnivorous plants, gene technology Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/AC0EBED11165 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2009.0002 en Copyright © 2009 Bruce A. Rosa, Lada Malek and Wensheng Qin,
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:FDE3F9911195 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2009
An investigation for potential development on biosurfactants A. Salihu, I. Abdulkadir and M. N. Almustapha Review Biosurfactants are surface-active metabolites produced by microorganisms. The applications of these biological compounds in the field of enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation proved effective. Besides their environmental applications; biosurfactants have shown interesting properties in several processes. Thus, this article attempts to organize this Information for ease of reference and further stimulates those that have interests in the area to explore further especially in biodegradation of recalcitrant compounds. Key words: Biosurfactant, bioremediation, biodegradation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/FDE3F9911195 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2009.0001 en Copyright © 2009 A. Salihu, I. Abdulkadir and M. N. Almustapha
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:B79E12511219 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2009
Transgenic plants: Successes and controversies Alfred O. Ubalua Review Applications of herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers have greatly increased crop yields in the past. More recently, however, crop yields are barely keeping up with world growth, hence the need for new approaches. Agricultural biotechnology may likely play a key role in the race to feed the worldrsquo;s expanding population with fewer inputs and on less and less available land. Genetic engineering of plants represents the next stage of evolution in our continuing efforts to improve plants used for the production of food and animal feed. Agricultural biotechnology is a powerful technique offering great potential for agricultural sustainability and safe production of foods with increased nutritive value, improved flavour, prolonged freshness, and even disease-fighting properties, but it is not without controversy. The potential for the transgenic crops to alleviate human hunger, and the controversies which are invariably based on visions of the new technology from widely different ethical perspective which have divided both the public and the scientific communities are discussed. But, critical to its adoption and acceptance is by providing choice and accurate information to consumers from scientists, policy makers, industry and the press. The present review addresses the prospects of the technology, and the polemics concerning its adoption. Key words: Transgene, pharmaceutical crops, risks, prospects and controversies. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/B79E12511219 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2009.0004 en Copyright © 2009 Alfred O. Ubalua
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:FEAAB8211229 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2009
Statistical analysis of the application of Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U test in medical research studies U. M. Okeh Review Although non-normal data are widespread in biomedical research, parametric tests unnecessarily, predominate in statistical analyses. Five biomedical journals were surveyed and for all studies which contain at least the unpaired t-test or the non-parametric Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U test - investigated the relationship between the choice of a statistical test and other variables such as type of journal, sample size, randomization, sponsoring etc. The non-parametric Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U were used in 30% of the studies. In a multivariable logistic regression the type of journal, the test object, the scale of measurement and the statistical software were significant. The non-parametric test was more common in case of non-continuous data, in high-impact journals, in studies in humans, and when the statistical software is specified, in particular when SPSS was used. Key words: Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U test, univariate analyses, non-parametric test, logistic regression. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/FEAAB8211229 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2009.0003 en Copyright © 2009 U. M. Okeh
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:5FF052811265 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2010
Emerging trends in nanobiotechnology K. Sobha, K. Surendranath, V. Meena, T. Keerthi Jwala, N. Swetha and K. S. M. Latha Review Nanobiotechnology, an exciting interdisciplinary field of science, is making rapid progress in recent years with the development of new kinds of materials with all the desired physico-chemical properties needed for their successful application in various fields, in particular, medicine. Nanomaterials find applications in different thrust areas of medicine like therapeutics, diagnostics, surgical devices/implants, novel drug delivery systems etc. Recent advancements in this field include the development of semiconductor nanocrystals called ldquo;Quantum Dotsrdquo; (QDs) and their very recent modifications called ldquo;Cornell Dotsrdquo; (CU). Both QDs and CUs have extra-ordinary physico-chemical properties and have either low or no toxicity at all depending on the type of shell coated around the heavy metal. Of late, the toxic heavy metal core is also being replaced suitably for avoiding any potential risk during the long accumulation periods of these particles in biological tissues. This review focuses on the emerging trends in the development of wide array of nanomaterials for biological applications. The areas of emphasis include mainly the QDs - their properties, toxicity studies and some of their biological applications like labeling of cellular structures/molecules, cell uptake, biocompatibility, bioconjugation etc. Also, a short note is added on Cornell dots. Key words: Nanobiotechnology, nanomaterials, quantum dots, Cornell dots, biological applications, biocompatibility, bioconjugation etc. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/5FF052811265 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2010.0002 en Copyright © 2010 K. Sobha, K. Surendranath, V. Meena, T. Keerthi Jwala, N. Swetha and K. S. M. Latha
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:465246411279 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2010
Biotechnology and food security in developing countries Nyerhovwo J. Tonukari and Douglason G. Omotor Review Food security is a necessity for every individual, home, community and nation. In developing countries, food security could be substantially improved by increased investment and policy reforms. Biotechnologyrsquo;s ability to eliminate malnutrition and hunger through production of crops resistant to pests and diseases, having longer shelf-lives, refined textures and flavours, higher yields per units of land and time, tolerant to adverse weather and soil conditions, and generate employment, cannot be over-emphasized. This technology can be applied to improve agriculture in order to improve food production for the human population in an environmentally sustainable manner. However, there is need for government and public-private collaborations to invest in agricultural biotechnology-based companies, researches, or initiatives, in order to make the gene revolution beneficial to developing countries. Key words: Biotechnology, food security, developing countries, agriculture, public investment, policy reform. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/465246411279 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2010.0001 en Copyright © 2010 Nyerhovwo J. Tonukari and Douglason G. Omotor
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:2C868E111306 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2010
Kojic acid: Applications and development of fermentation process for production Rosfarizan Mohamad, Mohd Shamzi Mohamed, Nurashikin Suhaili,Madihah Mohd Salleh and Arbakariya B. Ariff Review Kojic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-g-pyrone, has many potential industrial applications. In this review, the properties and diverse applications of kojic acid in industries are described. The review also discusses the advance in kojic acid fermentation, focusing on the process development in micro-organisms and strain selection, medium and culture optimization, as well as fermentation modes for commercially viable industrial scale production. The performances of various fermentation techniques that have been applied for the production of kojic acid are compared, while the advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed in this paper. Key words: Kojic acid, mild antibiotic, anti-browning agent, tyrosinase inhibitor, submerged fermentation, resuspended cell system, surface culture. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/2C868E111306 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2010.0004 en Copyright © 2010 Rosfarizan Mohamad, Mohd Shamzi Mohamed, Nurashikin Suhaili,Madihah Mohd Salleh and Arbakariya B. Ariff
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:2B9418F11324 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2010
Transition metal complexes as potential therapeutic agents Shazia Rafique, Muhammad Idrees, Anwar Nasim, Haji Akbar and Amin Athar Review Transition metals have important place within medicinal biochemistry. Research has shown significant progress in utilization of transition metal complexes as drugs to treat several human diseases like carcinomas, lymphomas, infection control, anti-inflammatory, diabetes, and neurological disorders. Transition metals exhibit different oxidation states and can interact with number of negatively charged molecules. This activity of transition metals has started the development of metal-based drugs with promising pharmacological application and may offer unique therapeutic opportunities. To provide an update on recent advances in the medicinal use of transition metals, a Medline search was undertaken to identify the recent relevant literature. Key words: Transition metals, metal complexes, anticancer drugs, metal therapeutics. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/2B9418F11324 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2010.0003 en Copyright © 2010 Shazia Rafique, Muhammad Idrees, Anwar Nasim, Haji Akbar and Amin Athar
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:81DF8BB11382 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2010
Swine flu: A threat to human health Syeda Samra Iqbal Jafri, Muhammad Ilyas and Muhammad Idrees Review Influenza virus has caused major global epidemics since 1918. Although this commonly circulating viral strain is not virulent enough to cause mortality, but the re-assortment of viral genome to mutate at a very high rate can lead to the emergence of a highly virulent strain that may lead to next pandemics. Swine flu is an example of re-assortment of two viruses in pig causing thousands of deaths in the whole world especially in the United States of America by zoonotic jumps. This review addresses the biological and epidemiological aspects of swine flu virus and efforts to have a control on the virus globally. Key words: Swine influenza, serotypes, pandemic, vaccine. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/81DF8BB11382 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2010.0005 en Copyright © 2010 Syeda Samra Iqbal Jafri, Muhammad Ilyas and Muhammad Idrees
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:226183611416 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2010
Gene pyramiding-A broad spectrum technique for developing durable stress resistance in crops Raj Kumar Joshi and Sanghamitra Nayak Review The development of molecular genetics and associated technology like MAS has led to the emergence of a new field in plant breeding-Gene pyramiding. Pyramiding entails stacking multiple genes leading to the simultaneous expression of more than one gene in a variety to develop durable resistance expression. Gene pyramiding is gaining considerable importance as it would improve the efficiency of plant breeding leading to the development of genetic stocks and precise development of broad spectrum resistance capabilities. The success of gene pyramiding depends upon several critical factors, including the number of genes to be transferred, the distance between the target genes and flanking markers, the number of genotype selected in each breeding generation, the nature of germplasm etc. Innovative tools such as DNA chips, micro arrays, SNPs are making rapid strides, aiming towards assessing the gene functions through genome wide experimental approaches. The power and efficiency of genotyping are expected to improve in the coming decades. The present review discusses the design parameters in a gene pyramiding scheme, potential application of gene pyramiding in crop plant improvement, and the prospect and challenges in integrating MAS based gene pyramiding with conventional plant breeding programmes. Key words: Gene pyramiding, marker-assisted selection, durable resistance Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/226183611416 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2010.0006 en Copyright © 2010 Raj Kumar Joshi and Sanghamitra Nayak
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:41CAC0411547 2010-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2010
High fructose corn syrup: Production, uses and public health concerns Kay Parker, Michelle Salas and Veronica C. Nwosu Review High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a liquid alternative sweetener to sucrose that is made from corn, the ldquo;king of cropsrdquo; using chemicals (caustic soda, hydrochloric acid) and enzymes (alpha;-amylase and glucoamylase) to hydrolyze corn starch to corn syrup containing mostly glucose and a third enzyme (glucose isomerase) to isomerize glucose in corn syrup to fructose to yield HFCS products classified according to their fructose content: HFCS-90, HFCS-42, and HFCS-55. HFCS-90 is the major product of these chemical reactions and is blended with glucose syrup to obtain HFCS-42 and HFCS-55. HFCS has become a major sweetener and additive used extensively in a wide variety of processed foods and beverages ranging from soft and fruit drinks to yogurts and breads. HFCS has many advantages compared to sucrose that make it attractive to food manufacturers. These include its sweetness, solubility, acidity and its relative cheapness in the United States (US). The use of HFCS in the food and beverage industry has increased over the years in the US. The increase in its consumption in the US has coincided with the increase in incidence of obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndromes. This study examines literature on the production and properties of HFCS and the possible health concerns of HFCS consequent to its consumption in a wide variety of foods and beverages in the typical US diet. Key words: High fructose corn syrup, sweeteners, soft and juice drinks, baked goods, obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, mercury; honey bees, colony collapse disorder. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/41CAC0411547 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2010.0009 en Copyright © 2010 Kay Parker, Michelle Salas and Veronica C. Nwosu
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:D52ACBE11468 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2010
Engineered pathogenesis related and antimicrobial proteins weaponry against Phytopthora infestans in potato plant: A review Bengyella Louis and Pranab Roy Review Phytopthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, causal organism of late blight disease is referred to as the most destructive specific pathogen of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Casualties usually go beyond mere plant destruction, due to its flaring ability to also demolish scientific concerted efforts in establishing novel combat techniques. With high capacity to overcome control measures, it stands at par, and can simply be referred to as a potato-scientist tormentor. This retrospective work examines the role of pathogenesis related proteins and antimicrobial proteins in transgenic potato vis-agrave;-vis P. infestans and prospect for associative introduction and overexpression of synergistically resistance conferring genes as a critical step for developing viable transgenic potatoes. The exploitation of enhanced pathogen-inducible promotor overexpressing key pathogenesis related proteins (PR) exemplified by PR-5 (especially osmotin and thaumatin-like (TL) proteins), PR-12 (defensins such as alfAFP (alfalfa antifungal peptide),Nicotiania megalosiphon defensins (NmDef02)), PR-13 (the thionins); and antimicrobial encoders such as StEREBP1 (Solanum tuberosum ethylene responsive element binding proteins), HEWL (hen egg white lysozyme), CAP (cationic antimicrobial peptide), Barnase cytotoxic protein and oxidative burst through glucose oxidase (GO) have all been incorporated in transgenic potato with variable successes. Apparently, engineering potato with an array of lsquo;transgenes constructrsquo; of selected pathogenesis related proteins and antimicrobial proteins may provide a chance to terminate both the dissemination of P. infestans and consequent emergence of new strains, terminating the concept of a new agrochemical for P. infestans referred to as lsquo;oomicidesrsquo;. Key words: Pathogenesis related proteins, osmotin, thaumatin-like (TL) protein, alfalfa antifungal peptide (alfAFP), Nicotiania megalosiphon defensins (NmDef02), cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAP), hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), glucose oxidase (GO). Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/D52ACBE11468 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2010.0007 en Copyright © 2010 Bengyella Louis and Pranab Roy
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:CFB70DD11483 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2010
Probing yeast for insights into neurodegenerative disease: ORFeome-wide screens for genetic modifiers of α-synuclein cytotoxicity Richard A. Manfready, Review Several of the most devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinsonrsquo;s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, belong to the synucleinopathy class of common neural disorders. A synucleinopathy is characterized by brain tissue plaques formed by the aggregation of misfolded proteinmainly misfolded alpha;-synuclein. alpha;-Synuclein has been extensively studied as the primary protein aggregate in brains afflicted by Parkinsonrsquo;s disease, but the toxic mechanism in which it is involved remains largely enigmatic. Fortunately, a simple but innovative yeast model of synucleinopathy has made possible high-throughput screens for genetic modifiers of alpha;-synuclein toxicity. Deftly interpreted through the use of computational algorithms, these screens could reveal the genetic regulatory networks that underlie synuclein toxicity in vivo, and may enable therapeutic strategies to target the genetic root of neurodegeneration. Key words: Parkinsonrsquo;s disease, alpha;-synuclein, high-throughput screen, synucleinopathy. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/CFB70DD11483 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2010.0008 en Copyright © 2010 Richard A. Manfready,
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:F8CA7CC11552 2010-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2010
Cancer investigation: A genome perspective Varsale A. R., Wadnerkar A. S. and Mandage R. H. Full Length Research Paper The completion of human genome project has evolved many techniques used to locate the human genes. The focus is mainly on the genome, transcriptome or proteome to recognise distinctive characteristics that may explain the basis of human disease and potentially envisage prospect outcomes. Cancer is one of the recent deadliest diseases. Various cancer types root problems in the generalised dealing. The objective of these investigative pursuits is to ultimately individualize treatment for each patient based on their exclusive gene expression prototypes. Key words: Human genome, cancer, functional genomics, transcripts, microarray, proteomics. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/F8CA7CC11552 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2010.0010 en Copyright © 2010 Varsale A. R., Wadnerkar A. S. and Mandage R. H.
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:0E4825611574 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
A review of the pharmacological aspects of Solanum nigrum Linn. F. O. Atanu, U. G. Ebiloma and E. I. Ajayi Review This article reviews, bridges the gap between the folkloric use of Solanum nigrumlinn. (Sn) and the results of evidence based experiments. Although Sn is a rich source of one of plants most dreaded toxins solanine, it has appreciably demonstrated its potential as a reservoir of antioxidants having hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, cytostatic, anti-convulsant, anti-ulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. The review encompasses in-vitro, in vivo and clinical studies done on Sn, while examining whether or not correct scientific measures have been taken in generating experimental evidences for its traditional uses. This review would afford research scientist to know how much is known and what is left undone in the investigation of Sn. Key words: Solanum nigrum, folklore medicine, anticancer, solanine. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/0E4825611574 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0001 en Copyright © 2011 F. O. Atanu, U. G. Ebiloma and E. I. Ajayi
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:56B549611591 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
Bioconversion of pentose sugars into ethanol: A review and future directions Anuj Kumar Chandel, Gajula Chandrasekhar, Konakalla Radhika, Rudravaram Ravinder and Pogaku Ravindra Review Hemicelluloses, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, are well suited for ethanol production due to their enormous availability, low cost and environmental benign process. The major fraction in hemeicelluloses is pentosans and the conversion of pentosans to ethanol is problematic. To get the process economized, the conversion of hemicellulose to ethanol with a satisfactory yield is necessary. In recent years, significant advances have been made towards the technology of pentosans to ethanol conversion. However, there are technical and economical impediments to the development of commercially viable processes utilizing hemicellulosic derived sugars. This article provides an overview of the new insights in pentose sugars conversion into ethanol, pentoses resources, microorganisms and the technology. Key words: Hemicellulose, bioethanol, pentose sugars, yeasts, fermentation. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/56B549611591 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0002 en Copyright © 2011 Anuj Kumar Chandel, Gajula Chandrasekhar, Konakalla Radhika, Rudravaram Ravinder and Pogaku Ravindra
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:A757F1411746 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease Dwivedi M. K., Tripathi A. K., Shukla S., Khan S. and Chauhan U. K. Review Based on prospective and experimental data, mild to moderate elevation of homocysteine is a stabilized and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The hyperhomocystenemia is a consequence of inhibition of transsulphuration pathway or inhibition of remethylation pathway of homocysteine metabolism, transsulphuration is mediated by CBS and remethylation is mediated directly by MS and indirectly by MTHFR. The SNPs in these genes alter the activity of corresponding proteins hence it may or may not be responsible for mild to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia. The consequences of hyperhomocysteinemia arise in the form of endothelial cell injury by increased oxidative stress and reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide, increased platelet adhesiveness, enhanced LDL deposition on arterial wall and activation of coagulation cascade. Some environmental factors are also known to contribute in progression toward disease. Key words: Homocysteine, oxidative stress, inflammation. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/A757F1411746 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0009 en Copyright © 2011 Dwivedi M. K., Tripathi A. K., Shukla S., Khan S. and Chauhan U. K.
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:534A2E640309 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
Emerging infections and bioterrorism emergencies: Where do we go from here? I. O. Okonko, M. O. Ojezele, E. T. Babalola, J. C. Nwanze, O. K. Mejehaand T. A. Amusan Review Emerging infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism attacks warrant urgent public health and medical responses. Response plans for these events may include use of medications and vaccines for which the effects on pregnant women and fetuses are unknown. Recent experiences with outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkey pox and anthrax, as well as response planning for bioterrorism and pandemic influenza, illustrate the challenges of making recommendations about medical interventions for victims. Experience with bioterrorism attacks (anthrax), viroterrorism attacks (arena viruses) and emergency response preparedness (smallpox vaccination) has been gained. Understanding the physiology of the body, the factors that influence the teratogenic potential of medications and vaccines and the infection control measures that may stop an outbreak will aid planners in making recommendations for care during large-scale infectious disease emergencies. Key words: Bioterrorism, emerging infections, emergence preparedness, pathogens, viroterrorism. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/534A2E640309 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0003 en Copyright © 2011 I. O. Okonko, M. O. Ojezele, E. T. Babalola, J. C. Nwanze, O. K. Mejehaand T. A. Amusan
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:5CD67DC40310 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
Recent molecular advances to combat abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants J. Amudha and G. Balasubramani Review Abiotic stress negatively influences survival, biomass production and crop yield. Being multigenic as well as a quantitative trait, it is a challenge to understand the molecular basis of abiotic stress tolerance and to manipulate it as compared to biotic stresses. Abiotic stresses including drought are serious threats to the sustainability of crop yields accounting for more crop productivity losses than any other factor in rainfed agriculture. Success in breeding for better adapted varieties to abiotic stresses depend upon the concerted efforts by various research domains including plant and cell physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and breeding. Use of modern molecular biology tools for elucidating the control mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance, and for engineering stress tolerant crops is based on the expression of specific stress-related genes. Plant responses to water deficit can be analysed by systematically identifying genes that relate to drought tolerance followed by analysis to the cellular, biochemical and molecular basis of the gene (traits). Mechanism of drought tolerance and expression of these drought resistance genes in high yielding varieties will help to improve the drought condition. The genes conferring drought resistance provide foundation for scientific improvement of the croprsquo;s productivity under arid conditions and contribute to improvement and stabilization of cotton yield and farmers#39; income. Stress-induced gene expressions are of genes encoding proteins with known enzymatic or structural functions, proteins with as yet unknown functions, and regulatory proteins. Key words: Abiotic stress, stress induced genes, regulatory proteins, transgenics. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/5CD67DC40310 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0004 en Copyright © 2011 J. Amudha and G. Balasubramani
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:D7775E611654 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
Pancratistatin, an apoptic inducer: New horizon for targeted therapy in cancer Rajesh M. Patel and Rajesh N. Prajapati Review Cancer is a major public health problem worldwide and considered as the most dangerous disease and deaths are countable. Current cancer therapy does not target the specific target that causes the cancer and this leads to serious side effects which can be fatal. Targeted therapy is a new horizon for treating cancer at the specified sites with least side effects and more effective than the chemotherapy and other commercial methods used for cancer treatment. Different targets for cancer are mitochondria, Fas ligand, cell progress inhibition, cell membrane disruption, and induction of death receptor and enhance the apoptotic process by different pathways. Pancratistatin, a natural compound extracted from Hymenocallis littoralis, can selectively induce apoptosis by various pathways shows marked effectiveness on cancer cells. Apoptosis is one of the mechanisms, which remove the cells that are infected with pathogens or with abnormal cell cycle. Yield of pancratistatin and its derivatives are low and chemical synthesis required but not possible and hence theE. coli used for the transformation of organic compound for production of pancratistatin basic moiety. The present review article focuses on isolation of Pancrastatin and its possible mechanism of induction of apoptosis in jurkt cells and the different methods used to study an induction of apoptosis by them. Key words: Pancrastatin, apoptosis, caspases, tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/D7775E611654 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0005 en Copyright © 2011 Rajesh M. Patel and Rajesh N. Prajapati
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:00AA8FB11670 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, S. K. Patel College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ganpat University, Kherva-382711, Gujarat, India. Bijender Singh, Gotthard Kunze and T. Satyanarayana Review Phytases belong to the class of phosphatases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phytic acid to inorganic phosphate and myo-inositol phosphate derivatives. The enzyme has potential applications in food and feed industries for ameliorating digestibility and assimilation of nutrients of foods and feeds by mitigating the anti-nutritional effects of phytic acid. Phytases have been shown to be useful in improving growth of poultry, pigs and fishes, and they play a role in promoting growth of plants, as well as improve the nutritional quality of bread, soymilk and oil seed cakes by dephytinization. The crystal structures of some phytases have been analyzed for understanding the reaction mechanism. The phytases with desirable properties have been generated through protein engineering approaches, since native phytases do not possess all the properties of an ideal additive feed/food. Recent developments on the characteristics of an ideal phytase, crystal structure, protein engineering, and the potential biotechnological applications of microbial phytases with special reference to their utility in improving growth performance of monogastrics, dephytinization of foods and feeds, plant growth promotion, and combating environmental phosphorus pollution will be discussed in this review. Key words: Phytic acid, microbial phytase, crystal structure, monogastrics, protein engineering, dephytinization, plant growth promotion. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/00AA8FB11670 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0006 en Copyright © 2011 Bijender Singh, Gotthard Kunze and T. Satyanarayana
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:085994B11700 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
In silico modeling in conjunction with natural products: Paving the way for rational drug-design Shailza Singh and D. K. Sharma Review Genome sequencing projects has produced a vast wealth of data describing the protein coding regions of the genome under study. However, only a minority of the protein sequences identified has a clear sequence homology to a known protein. In such cases valuable three-dimensional models of the protein coding sequence can be constructed by homology modeling methods. Threading methods uses specialized schemes to relate protein sequences to a library of known structures. Even in cases where there is no clear sequence homology, they have been shown to be able to identify the likely protein fold. As collaborative efforts in systematic structure determination begins to develop in the future, the number of protein sequences that cannot be assigned to a structural class by homology or threading methods will decrease, simply because they belong to a previously unidentified protein folding class. Moreover, the differences in substrate specificity may be explained on the basis of the predicted structures of the protein and its complex with the substrate. Natural products have been a rich source in providing leads for the development of drugs for the treatment of different infections. For this reason,in silico modeling methods in conjunction with natural products are likely to become increasingly useful in the near future for structure-based drug design approaches. Key words: homology modeling, natural products, drug discovery. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/085994B11700 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0007 en Copyright © 2011 Shailza Singh and D. K. Sharma
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:CFA4DAC11711 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
Toxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae: Classification, pathogenesis and virulence determinants Ademola O. Olaniran, Kovashnee Naicker and Balakrishna Pillay Review Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae are pathogenic bacteria commonly found in various contaminated sources and pose a major health risk, causing a range of human enteric infections and pandemics, especially among infants in Africa. Virulence and pathogenesis of these organisms is specifically based on the expression of certain virulence determinants, distinctive mucosal interactions as well as the production of enterotoxins or cytotoxins. The E. coli strains that cause human disease are generally grouped into six pathotypes based on their pathogenic mechanisms of which the enterohemorrhagic and enterotoxigenic groups have been shown to be the most severe. Of the V. cholerae pathogens, the 01 and 0139 serotypes have been identified as being toxigenic due to the CTX genetic element and V. cholerae pathogencity Island, possessed by the respective serotype. This article thus provides an overview of both the enterohaemorragic and enterotoxigenic E. coli as well as toxigenic V. cholerae, and their respective virulence genes determinants involved in pathogenicity. Key words: Diarrhoea, Escherichia coli, pathogenicity, toxigenicity, Vibrio cholerae, virulence determinants Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/CFA4DAC11711 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0008 en Copyright © 2011 Ademola O. Olaniran, Kovashnee Naicker and Balakrishna Pillay
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:5C4FBE611756 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
The role of biotechnology towards attainment of a sustainable and safe global agriculture and environment – A review Soetan, K. O. Review Biotechnology is producing great opportunities for the increase in global agricultural production and for protecting the environment through the reduced use of agro-chemicals like pesticides, fertilizers and rodenticides. Biotechnology has played an important role towards the attainment of environmental sustainability by using environment-friendly crops such as insect-resistant, herbicide-tolerant species and crops that can fix nitrogen leading to purification of the environment. Increasing global food production within existing land area and the use of modern plant breeding methods have enhanced increased production of crops like legumes to improve soil structure, organic matter and fertility. These lead to conservation of bioresources and prevent soil erosion. Some beneficial effects of livestock production on the environment are also discussed. However, fears and concerns about the environmental consequences of biotechnology are also discussed. The overall aim of this review is to emphasize the importance of biotechnology towards attaining a safe and sustainable environment for increased global agricultural production. Key words: Biotechnology, environmental safety, agricultural production, heavy metal, pollution. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/5C4FBE611756 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0010 en Copyright © 2011 Soetan, K. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:B3D69B911776 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
Telomerase: Roles in aging, cancer and hereditary disease K. Sreenivasulu and M. Vijaya Lakshmi Review Telomerase is an enzyme that adds DNA sequence repeats (quot;TTAGGGquot; in all vertebrates) to the 3#39; end of DNA strands in the telomere regions, which are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. This region of repeated nucleotide repeats called telomeres contain condensed DNA material and prevents constant loss of important DNA from chromosome ends. As a result, every time the chromosome is copied only a couple of telomeres are lost, which causes no damage to the organism. Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase that carries its own RNA molecule, which is used as a template when it elongates telomeres, which are shortened after each replication cycle. The existence of a compensatory shortening of telomere (telomerase) mechanism was first predicted by Soviet biologist Alexey Olovnikov in 1973, who also suggested the telomere hypothesis of aging and the telomere#39;s connections to cancer. Telomerase was discovered by Carol W. Greider and Elizabeth Blackburn in 1984 in the ciliate Tetrahymena. Together with Jack W. Szostak, Greider and Blackburn were awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery. This review focus on role of telomerase in various diseases. Key words: Telomere, chromatin, aging, cancer, hereditary diseases. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/B3D69B911776 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0011 en Copyright © 2011 K. Sreenivasulu and M. Vijaya Lakshmi
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:A81F9B311785 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
Application of genomic technologies to the improvement of meat quality in farm animals Hamed Kharrati Koopaei and Ali Esmailizadeh Koshkoiyeh Review Meat quality is one of the most important economic traits in farm animals. The goal of genomics technologies is to provide genetic map and other resources to identify loci responsible for genetic variation in quantitative traits such as meat quality. Candidate gene and genome scanning are two main techniques for this purpose. In the past decade, advances in molecular genetics led to identify these genes and markers linked to them. Sequencing of animal genome is important to distinguish gene function and molecular basis of meat quality determinants. Candidate gene considers relationship between the traits of interest and known genes, while genome scanning studies relationship between traits and pre-mapped markers. So far, several genes and sequences were detected which affect meat quality, for example quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 18 in sheep which causes muscle hypertrophy. The aim of this review is introduce and applications of genomic technologies to the improvement of meat quality. Key words: Genomics technologies, meat quality, candidate gene, genome scanning. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/A81F9B311785 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0012 en Copyright © 2011 Hamed Kharrati Koopaei and Ali Esmailizadeh Koshkoiyeh
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:275194F11793 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
Investigating the potential role of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) Syed Shoaib Ahmed, Atif Adnan, Anam Batool, Ziaur Rahman, Muhammad Ilyas and Syyada Samra Jafri Review PDGF is a growth factor and is extensively involved in multi-dimensional cellular dynamics. It switches on a plethora of molecules other than its classical pathway. It is engaged in various transitions of development however if the unleashed potentials lead astray it brings forth tumorigenesis. Conventionally, it has been assumed that the components of this signaling pathway show fidelity and act with a high degree of autonomy. However, as illustrated by the PDGF signal transduction, reinterpretation of recent data suggests that machinery is often shared between multiple pathways and other components crosstalk to each other through multiple mechanisms. There is a very indiscriminate line that demarcates between normal division and neoplasia. A number of unidentified proteins might be instrumental to this transition. The signal perpetuation is a remarkable portfolio of tumor progression. Key words: Neoplasia, platelet derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, mitogen activating protein kinase, epithilial mesenchymal transition. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/275194F11793 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0013 en Copyright © 2011 Syed Shoaib Ahmed, Atif Adnan, Anam Batool, Ziaur Rahman, Muhammad Ilyas and Syyada Samra Jafri
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:A65BB8911806 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
Integrating molecular tools with conventional breeding strategies for improving phosphorus acquisition by legume crops in acid soils of Sub-Saharan Africa Maureen Fonji ATEMKENG, Teboh Jasper MUKI, Jong-Won PARK and John JIFON Review Leguminous crops are key components of low input agricultural cropping systems, and play an important role in ensuring food security in many societies in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, legume crop productivity in SSA is frequently limited by mineral nutrient deficiencies (particularly phosphorus, P). A common remedy for P deficiency is the application of P-fertilizers or in the case of low input cropping systems the reliance on symbiotic relations between crops and beneficial soil bacteria (rhizobia) and fungi (mycorrhizas). More recently, identification of legume species and genotypes with high efficiencies of P uptake and P use has been the focus of improvement programs using conventional breeding techniques. Due to inherent time limitations in conventional breeding approaches, progress in improving legume P uptake and P use efficiencies has been slow. Advances in attaining this goal could be by integrating molecular tools with conventional improvement strategies. A consideration of molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying differences in P uptake and P use efficiencies can result in more precise targeting of genetic variation and improvement through marker-assisted selection and other conventional techniques. This article discusses the potential for improving legume crop P uptake and P use efficiency in low-P, acid soils of SSA by integrating physiological and genomic tools, with conventional crop improvement in acid soils. Key words: Legume, phosphorus uptake, breeding, comparative genomics, crop improvement, Sub-Saharan Africa. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/A65BB8911806 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0014 en Copyright © 2011 Maureen Fonji ATEMKENG, Teboh Jasper MUKI, Jong-Won PARK and John JIFON
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:F83296011816 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
Developmental competence of in vivo and in vitro matured oocytes: A review Blanco M. R, Demyda S., Moreno Millaacute;n M. and Genero E Review The study of follicular dynamics has been particularly rapid in the last two decades. However,in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes results in reduced embryo production, which suggests that not all oocytes have the capacity to mature and to fertilize properly. The efficiency of bovine embryo production in vitro, measured as the blastocyst rate, obtained from oocytes matured and fertilized in vitro, is about 40%. Evidence has demonstrated that oocyte quality depends on the events that occur before germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and has suggested that the oocyte must accumulate the appropriate information for meiotic resumption, fertilization and early embryonic development before chromosome condensation. The reduced blastocyst yield obtained in vitro seems to be related to oocyte source and quality, and the culture system applied. The oocyte quality and protocols of culture are the key factors that determine embryo development, establish a pregnancy and produce healthy offspring. Key words: Oocyte, in vitro maturation (IVM), vitro fertilization (IVF), in vitro culture (IVC), embryo, bovine. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/F83296011816 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0015 en Copyright © 2011 Blanco M. R, Demyda S., Moreno Millaacute;n M. and Genero E
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:E470D7A11833 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
A new approach of abnormal apoptosis as a cause of autoimmunity and malignancy Aurelian Udristioiusup;, Radu G. Iliescusup;, Lucian Udristioiusup; and Manole Cojocarusup; Review Auto-reactive cells which escape from natural apoptosis represent a continuous threat of potential autoimmune response. Abnormal apoptosis can play a role in negative selection of B and T lymphocytes that escaped the self-reactive nature, and so, apoptosis could represent an additional source of auto-antibody. Increased activity of T cells (CD3+, CD4+, or Th1 helper)) will, at a high serum level, cause a high expression of various types of inflammatory interleukins: IL1-beta;, IL2. The most important regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis in T and B cells are: death receptor cells, CD 95(Fas), TNF-tumor necrosis, caspases, family Bcl-2 proto-oncogenes, Bax gene, p53 tumor suppressor gene, and NF-kappa;B nuclear factor of transcription. The ldquo;decisionrdquo; to undergo programmed cell death is made only in the presence of extrinsic or intrinsic apoptotic messengers. Extrinsic inductors are ligands ndash; cytokines ndash; that bind to death receptors (DRs) found on the cellsrsquo; surface, while intrinsic inductors come from the mitochondria or from the nucleus cells. Key words: Tumor suppressor gene P53, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, tumor necrosis factor, zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/E470D7A11833 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0018 en Copyright © 2011 Aurelian Udristioiusup;, Radu G. Iliescusup;, Lucian Udristioiusup; and Manole Cojocarusup;
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:8D9C02C11840 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
Lignocellulosic ethanol production: Current practices and recent developments Bishnu Joshi Megh Raj Bhatt Dinita Sharma Jarina Joshi Rajani Malla and Lakshmaiah Sreerama Review Production of renewable fuels, especially bio-ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, holds remarkable potential to meet the current energy demand as well as to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions for a sustainable environment. Present technologies to produce bioethanol largely depend on sugarcane and/or starch based grains and tubers (mainly corn, potatoes). This is partly due to ease of substrate handling and processing. On the other hand, use of sugarcane and food grains to produce bio-ethanol has caused significant stress on food prices and food security. Accordingly, the recent focus has been on lignocellulosic materials as a source for bio-ethanol. In fact, many countries are moving towards developing or have already developed technologies to exploit the potential of lignocellulosic materials for the production of bioethanol. This process of ethanol production generally involves hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars followed by fermentation of such sugars to ethanol. Achieving fermentable levels of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass requires relatively harsh pretreatment processes. The pretreatment process has pervasive impact on the overall operation because the process depends on the choice of lignocellulosic source, the size reduction via grinding, chemical treatment, acid hydrolysis, neutralization and fermentation. Recent advances in the process technologies have made it possible to use simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. In this process cellulase enzyme is the critical reagent as well as the cost determining factor. The advances in biotechnology as related to bioethanol have focused on engineering organisms that are capable of producing ethanol from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignocellulose. Such organisms are expected to be capable of not only degrading cellulose, hemicellulose and lignocellulose to fermentable sugars, but also are able to utilize both pentose and hexose sugars to produce ethanol at a relatively high yield. More recent and emerging approaches in bioethanol production are focused on reducing production costs. This approach uses consolidated bioprocessing schemes in which cellulase production, substrate hydrolysis, and fermentation are all accomplished in a single step. Countries, such as Nepal, that totally depend on the import of fossil fuels cannot ignore the potential of bioethanol derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Nepal is rich in biodiversity and posses variety of energy crops. Accordingly, developing policies and mechanisms that promote bioethanol will go a long-way in reducing the fuel crises in the countries lacking oil resources. Key words: Lignocellulosic biomass, bioethanol, saccharification and fermentation (SSF), consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/8D9C02C11840 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2011.0016 en Copyright © 2011 Bishnu Joshi Megh Raj Bhatt Dinita Sharma Jarina Joshi Rajani Malla and Lakshmaiah Sreerama
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:AC19EDE11859 2011-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
Status of biotechnology in Eastern and Central Africa Godliving Y. S. Mtui Review This work examines trends of both conventional and modern biotechnologies in selected Eastern and Central African countries namely Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo, with the aim of giving an up-to-date assessment of their national policies, institutional capacities, and the activities being carried out. Agricultural biotechnology seems to take the lead while biotechnologies related to health, industries and environment are lagging behind. Kenya leads the region with its biotechnology policy framework in place and more on-going biotechnology related activities, followed by Uganda. Tanzania has already developed its biotechnology policy but is slower to translate it into practice especially on matters related to modern biotechnology. The rest of the countries are yet to formulate their biotechnology policies but efforts are underway to achieve that goal. Plant tissue culture is done in all the countries and some projects have already been commercialised. Transgenic crops/animals projects are mainly at the field trial stage and none has been commercialised. The main constraints facing the biotechnology industry in the region are poorly skilled human resources, lack of modern facilities, poor public perception and weak political will by some governments. More vigorous practical actions are needed in order for biotechnology to benefit the people of this region in terms of food security, economic growth, improved health and environmental protection. Key words: Biotechnology, genetically modified organisms, molecular assisted selection, tissue culture. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/AC19EDE11859 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR11.021 en Copyright © 2011 Godliving Y. S. Mtui
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:03E700211872 2011-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2011
Future challenges in environmental risk assessment of transgenic plants with abiotic stress tolerance Mohammad Sayyar Khan, Review Environmental risk assessment of transgenic plants is a prerequisite to their release into the target environment for commercial use. Risk assessment of the first generation transgenic plants with simple monogenic traits has been carried out with principles and guidelines enlisted in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. For more complex traits such as abiotic stress tolerance, there is a growing need to examine for additional considerations in the risk assessment process based on the different nature of this trait. The salt tolerance-inducingcodA gene is a representative of many abiotic stress tolerance genes that confer salt stress tolerance in transgenic plants. In comparison with simple monogenic Bt trait, the future challenge to environmental release of abiotic stress tolerance genes lies in the question whether these genes such as the salt tolerance-inducing codA will need additional considerations in the risk assessment process?. In the present work, we discussed the nature of abiotic stress tolerance trait, environmental risk assessment issues and comparison of the risk assessment elements on Bt and salt tolerance-inducing codA genes to examine needs for additional considerations in the risk assessment process. We concluded and recommended that the use of abiotic stress tolerance genes such as the salt tolerance-inducing codA gene in transgenic plants does not need additional considerations in risk assessment. Key words: Transgenic plants, abiotic stress tolerance, environmental risk assessment, salt tolerance-inducing codA. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/03E700211872 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR11.018 en Copyright © 2011 Mohammad Sayyar Khan,
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:E2E1A9B11897 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2012
Homocysteine-A potent modulator Janani Kumar, Sowmiya Jayaraman and Nandhitha Muralidharan Review Homocysteine is an amino acid and is an intermediate metabolite of methionine metabolism. It is metabolized by two pathways, the trans-methylation and trans-sulphuration. These processes rely on an adequate supply of vitamin B12 and B6 and folic acid. Deficiency of vitamin B12, B6 and folic acid can build up homocysteine level in blood stream. High homocysteine levels has been implicated in a variety of clinical conditions and is widely accepted, alongside smoking, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia as being an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Homocysteine promotes artery problems in more than one way. Homocysteine got a bad rap from its cozy relationship with heart attacks and stroke. Researchers have repeatedly demonstrated that if they give a person a drink containing methionine, homocysteine will shoot up, and blood flow will shrink up. If they give the person a gram of vitamin C before they give the methionine, blood flow will be maintained. This indicates that antioxidant (vitamin C) prevents the formation of free radicals from homocysteine, which interferes with the ability of the blood vessels and causes cardio vascular diseases. Hence, further research is required to confirm whether antioxidant rich diet can prevent the homocysteine formation in the body or not. Key words: Homocysteine, vitamins, methonine, disease. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/E2E1A9B11897 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR11.017 en Copyright © 2012 Janani Kumar, Sowmiya Jayaraman and Nandhitha Muralidharan
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:405587F11909 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2012
Key aspects of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in tissue engineering for in vitro skeletal muscle regeneration Biswadeep Chaudhuri and Krishna Pramanik Review Tissue engineering, directly associated with Biotechnology and Biomedical Sciences, is an emerging field of research and development. The main issue of tissue engineering is to precisely and safely regenerate or reconstruct injured tissues of skeletal muscle, bone, teeth, neural, cardiac, cartilage etc. One of the primary requirements for tissue engineering development is a constant source of supplementary stem cells which have the ability to be differentiated into various tissue types such as condroblast, osteoblast or myoblast cells. In modern tissue engineering, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) take the most important part forin vitro growth or regeneration of the required tissues. Selective growth factors are also needed to optimize the growth process. In the preset review, an attempt has been made to focus on the crucial beneficial issues of mesenchymal stem cells for the skeletal muscle regeneration and repair. Though the detailed processes on how dystrophic muscles are replaced by fibrotic tissues inside living organs is still not very clearly understood, we have briefly discussed the overall ideas and future prospects of skeletal muscle regeneration (in vitro) using MSCs on 3D scaffold with optimum experimental conditions (use of various medias, growth factors etc.). Key words: Mesenchymal stem cell, skeletal muscle, tissue engineering, tissue regeneration, growth factors, medical implant, biomaterials. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/405587F11909 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR11.020 en Copyright © 2012 Biswadeep Chaudhuri and Krishna Pramanik
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:4C9671911938 2012-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2012
Therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides from insects Rodney Hull, Rodrick Katete and Monde Ntwasa Review The first antimicrobial peptides were isolated from the cecropia moth Hyalophora cecropia in 1980. Since then a plethora of antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from other arthropods, invertebrates and chordates. With the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens and the promising activity of these peptides, attempts are being made to use these peptides as new antimicrobial agents. Other researchers are interested in using these peptides to improve the resistance of crops and livestock to infections, while another line of research is interested in using these peptides to control vector borne diseases. Despite the promising antibacterial, antiviral, anti-protozoan and anti-tumor activity of these peptides, relatively few peptides have made it to clinical trials. Problems associated with the development of these peptides into effective antimicrobial agents include their higher cost, proteolysis or decreased activity in physiological environments and mass production. This review will focus specifically on the development of insect antimicrobial peptides into useful chemotherapeutic agents. Key words: Insect, antimicrobial peptide, drug discovery. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/4C9671911938 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR.9000011 en Copyright © 2012 Rodney Hull, Rodrick Katete and Monde Ntwasa
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:CD1267A11930 2012-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2012
The role, isolation and identification of Vibrio species on the quality and safety of seafood Shikongo-Nambabi M. N. N. N., Petrus N. P and M. B. Schneider Review Seafoods in their natural environments are associated with a variety of microorganisms. Fish shelf life reduction results from microbial metabolism, mainly by Gram negative bacteria that produce chemical compounds responsible for bad odour, texture and taste. Shelflife is estimated by performing total viable bacterial counts at ambient and refrigeration temperatures. The type and number of bacteria present on seafood depends on the microbial composition of the surrounding waters, on the intrinsic factors, extrinsic factors, processing, and implicit factors and on the microbial interactions within the fish itself. Although, sea food safety assessment is preferably determined by detecting indicator organisms; such as Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms, none of these groups fulfil all requirements that guarantee food safety necessitating direct detecting of relevant pathogens. Vibrio species are part of the bacteria genera associated with seafoods borne diseases. Prompt and accurate detection and identification methods of pathogens are imperative to determine the product compliance with seafood microbiological criteria. Although cultural methods have long been used in detecting human pathogens including Vibrio species in fish, these methods are time consuming and sometimes inaccurate. Also some pathogens have the propensity to change into the Viable but non culturable (VBNC) state in unfavourable environments. The use of molecular methods is hampered by drawbacks, such as inter species 16S rRNA sequence similarity and that some strains carry multiple copies of the 16S rRNA gene. A combination of classical, numerical taxonomy and Multi locus sequence analysis (MLSA) methods are promising to give absolute resolution between closely related Vibrio species. Key words: Vibrios spp., seafood, spoilage, pathogens, detection, identification. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/CD1267A11930 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR11.024 en Copyright © 2012 Shikongo-Nambabi M. N. N. N., Petrus N. P and M. B. Schneider
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:A90B3C311950 2012-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2012
Millet improvement through regeneration and transformation Sonia Plaza-Wuuml;thrich and Zerihun Tadele Review Millets, comprising the small-seeded group of the Poaceae family, represent one of the major food- and feed-crops in the semi-arid tropical regions of Africa and Asia. Compared to major crops of the world, these indigenous crops possess a number of beneficial characteristics including tolerance to extreme climatic and soil conditions; hence, adapts to poor soil fertility and moisture deficient areas. Moreover, millets are also nutritionally rich especially in vitamins and minerals, and most of them are gluten-free. Despite all these benefits, millets are encountered with several production constraints. The major bottleneck affecting millets are their extremely low yield since they are mostly cultivated in marginal areas with poor moisture and fertility conditions. Inherent characteristics, such as susceptibility to lodging, also significantly affect the productivity of millets. Millets are also commonly known as orphan- or neglected-crops due to too little attention given to them by the world scientific community. Genetic improvement in millets could be achieved not only by conventional approaches but also through modern techniques such as genetic modification or transgenics. The main benefits of regeneration and transformation in millet improvement are: i) the multiplication of identical copies of plants that are free of diseases and pests, and ii) the regeneration of the whole plant from transformed tissues with desirable traits. Success in plant transformation is largely dependent on the efficiency of regeneration. Establishing optimum regeneration method for each plant species and ecotype is therefore, a pre-requisite before embarking on plant transformation. In this review, we present various studies made to identify optimum regeneration and transformation methods for major millets. The prospects of applying advanced regeneration and transformation techniques to these vital but under-studied crops of the developing world are also discussed. Key words: Millets, under-researched crops, orphan crops, in vitro regeneration, transformation. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/A90B3C311950 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR12.001 en Copyright © 2012 Sonia Plaza-Wuuml;thrich and Zerihun Tadele
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:066C6C412508 2012-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2012
Starch phosphorylase: Biochemical and biotechnological perspectives Rachana Tiwari and Anil Kumar Review A dynamic mediatory role between starch synthesis and degradation has been ascribed to starch phosphorylase. However, plant starch phosphorylase is largely considered to be involved in phosphorolytic degradation of starch. It reversibly catalyzes the transfer of glucosyl units from glucose-1-phosphate to the non-reducing end of glucan chain with the release of inorganic phosphate. It is widely distributed in plant kingdom. Enzyme multiplicity is also common in starch phosphorylase and different multiple forms have been predicted to have different roles in starch metabolism. Here, various biochemical properties have been reviewed. Its regulation by aromatic amino acids has also been discussed. Importance of plastidial and cytoplasmic starch phosphorylase has also been discussed. Various biotechnological aspects have been discussed. Its exploitation in production of glucose-1-phosphate, a cytostatic compound has been discussed in the present review. Key words: Starch phosphorylase, glucose-1-phosphate, amylase, biosensor, aromatic amino acids. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/066C6C412508 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR12.004 en Copyright © 2012 Rachana Tiwari and Anil Kumar
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:2A84D4E12478 2012-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2012
Uses of mushrooms in bioremediation: A review Adenipekun C. O. and Lawal R. Review One of the major environmental problems facing the world today is the contamination of soil, water and air by toxic chemicals as a result of industrialization and extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Incineration is currently the most effective and common remediation practice but is costly in terms of money and energy used. A rapid cost effective and ecologically responsible method of clean-up is ldquo;bioremediationrdquo; which utilizes micro-organisms to degrade toxic pollutants in an efficient economical approach. Toxic chemicals are degraded to less harmful forms. Although, bioremediation by bacteria agents has received attention of workers, the role of fungi has been inadequately studied. The ability of fungi to transform a wide variety of hazardous chemicals has aroused interest in using them for bioremediation. Mushroom forming fungi (mostly basidiomycetes), are amongst naturersquo;s most powerful decomposers, secreting strong extra cellular enzymes due to their aggressive growth and biomass production. These enzymes include lignin peroxidases (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase, etc. Thus, carbon sources such as sawdust, straw and corn cob can be used to enhance degradation rates by these organisms at polluted sites. White rot fungi have been used for biotransformation of pesticides, degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons and lignocellulolytic wastes in the pulp and paper industry. Phanerochaete chrysosporium,Agaricus bisporus, Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus amongst many mushrooms have been reported in the decontamination of polluted sites. In Nigeria, Lentinus squarrosulus,Pleurotus tuber-regium, P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius have been employed in bioremediation of contaminated soils both in-situ and ex-situ. This paper highlights the use of fungal mycelia in bioremediation (myco-remediation) and studies on the uses of mushrooms for bioremediation. Key words: Bioremediation, mushrooms, polluted soils. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/2A84D4E12478 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR12.006 en Copyright © 2012 Adenipekun C. O. and Lawal R.
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:FFF757212533 2012-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2012
Archaebacterial ancestor of eukaryotes and mitochondriogenesis Milanko Stupar, Vitomir Vidovi, Dragomir Luka and Ljuba Scaron;trbac Review Division of the ancestral prokaryotic genome into two circular double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules by genetic recombination, is a basis for the future separate evolution of the nuclear and mitochondrial gene compartment. This suggests monophyletic origin of both mitochondrion and nucleus. Presumed organism which genome undergoes genetic recombination has to be searched among an aerobic, oxygen non-producing archaeon with no rigid cell wall, but a plasma membrane, probably an crenarchaeota containing functional bacteriochlorophyll a synthase gene and histones. In this proposal, origin of eukaryotes occur by a three-steps. First, replication fork pauses and collapses generating a breakage in the genome of archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes. Second, the double-strand break can be repaired intergenomically by complementary strands invasion. Third, this duplicated genome can be fissioned into two compartments by reciprocal genetic recombination. Scenario is accomplished by aberrant fission of the inner membane surrounding separately those two compartments. Key words: Origin of nucleus, origin of mitochondrion. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/FFF757212533 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR11.026 en Copyright © 2012 Milanko Stupar, Vitomir Vidovi, Dragomir Luka and Ljuba Scaron;trbac
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:AE2589412544 2012-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2012
Role of proteases in cancer: A review Syed Rakashanda, Farukh Rana, Shaista Rafiq, Akbar Masood and Shajrul Amin Review Proteases in normal cells are important in carrying out biological processes. In living systems, a balance between proteases and their anti-proteases occur, and disturbance of balance leads to many diseases like cancer. Steps starting from tumor initiation, growth, metastasis and finally invasion into some other site involve all five classes of proteases: serine, cysteine, aspartate, threonine and matrix metalloproteases. The activity of set of peptides in cancer progression is known as cancer lsquo;degradomersquo;. A great number of reports have shown a correlation between the activity of lysosomal cysteine proteases and tumor progression. Trypsin, one of the typical well-known digestive serine protease has also been found to be involved in various cancers and promotes proliferation, invasion and metastasis. The colorectal cancer with trypsin expression has poor prognosis and shorter disease free survival. Protease involvement in cancer suggests the use of protease inhibitors as anticancer drugs. In this review, we will focus on role of proteases in various processes of carcinogenesis and some protease inhibitor based drugs. Key words: Proteases, protease inhibitors, cathepsins, matrix metalloproteases, threonine proteases, trypsin, tumor. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/AE2589412544 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR11.027 en Copyright © 2012 Syed Rakashanda, Farukh Rana, Shaista Rafiq, Akbar Masood and Shajrul Amin
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:1C236FE12554 2013-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2013
Advancements in the diagnosis of bacterial plant pathogens: An overview Kalyan K. Mondal and V. Shanmugam Review The timely detection and appropriate identification of causal agents associated with disease of crop plants or seeds are considered to be the most important issue in formulating the management strategies for plant diseases. This is particularly important for plant diseases of a bacterial nature, where disease-free planting materials is the only effective way to restrict the disease. The detection of bacterial pathogens still largely depends on cultural, morphological and biochemical properties. The protocol requires skilled taxonomical expertise and is also time and labor intensive. Moreover, it cannot discriminate between closely related strains of same bacterial pathogens. With the advent of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nucleic acid based techniques have made the diagnostic procedures for plant pathogens, including bacteria, easier than the conventional approaches. The wide acceptability of nucleic acid based techniques is due to them being more sensitive, more accurate, more specific, and much faster than conventional techniques. The serology-based diagnoses are very often preferred over nucleo-based techniques as they are more user-friendly and less cumbersome, besides being sensitive, accurate, specific, and much faster than conventional techniques. This review critically analyzes the recent developments and scope of various nucleic acid- and serology-based techniques for the diagnosis of bacterial plant pathogens. Key words: Bacterial pathogens, diagnosis, detection. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/1C236FE12554 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR12.007 en Copyright © 2013 Kalyan K. Mondal and V. Shanmugam
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:446A6AA12568 2013-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2013
Alkhumra virus: A zoonotic butcher in the Middle East? Concerns and consideration Meerasahib Mohamed Fareez, Lubna Saeed Mahmood and Abdulbasit I. I. Al-Sieni Review New, emerging, and re-emerging infectious disease incidences have increased rapidly and frequently with significant human and financial costs. Most of the viral infectious diseases are of zoonotic nature, and public awareness of the human health risks of infections have grown in recent years, since viral epidemics such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West-Nile virus, and Ebola virus diseases have emerged over the past two decades. The Alkhumra virus, which belongs to the flaviviruses family, discovered in Saudi Arabia in the mid-1990s causes hemorrhagic fevers among cattle farmers and butchers. Flaviviruses are transmitted through arthropods, and most of them are of zoonotic nature. Epidemiological data indicates that Alkhumra virus (ALKV) is transmitted from livestock animals to humans by direct contact with animals or by mosquito bites, but not by ticks. In the recent past the incidence of alkhumra virus infection has notably increased and to date, no specific treatment or containment strategies have been developed for Alkhumra virus infection, thus, there is a possibility of a major outbreak if appropriate prevention and control strategies are not adopted. This review presents current facts and future concerns of the disease around the Gulf region. Key words: Alkhumra virus, hemorrhagic fever, Saudi Arabia, tick-borne infection. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/446A6AA12568 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2013.008 en Copyright © 2013 Meerasahib Mohamed Fareez, Lubna Saeed Mahmood and Abdulbasit I. I. Al-Sieni
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:68CC9AE40231 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2013
The large-scale use of feruloyl esterases in industry Ahmed E Fazary and Yi-Hsu Ju Review Presently industrial enzyme companies sell enzymes for a wide variety of applications. The estimated value of world enzyme market is presently about US $ 4.3 billion and it has been forecasted to grow to almost US $ 5.1 billion by 2009. Detergents (37%), textiles (12%), starch (11%), baking (8%) and animal feed (6%) are the main industries; totally these industries use about 74% of industrially produced enzymes. Enzymes are also indirectly used in biocatalytic processes involving living or dead and permeabilized microorganisms. This review concentrates on the use of isolated feruloyl esterases enzyme preparations in large scale and speciality applications and chemical manufacturing. Key words: Feruloyl esterases, industry, biotechnology. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/68CC9AE40231 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2008.0010 en Copyright © 2013 Ahmed E Fazary and Yi-Hsu Ju
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:4769BA440233 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2013
Programmed cell death or apoptosis: Do animals and plants share anything in common Nishawar Jan, Mahboob-ul-Hussain and Khurshid I. Andrabi Review Plants, animals and several unicellular eukaryotes use programmed cell death (PCD) for defense and developmental mechanisms. While cell death pathways in animals have been well characterized, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanism of such a strategy in plants. Although, very few regulatory proteins or protein domains have been identified as conserved across all eukaryotic PCD forms, still plants and animals share many hallmarks of PCD, both at cellular and molecular levels. Morphological and biochemical features like chromatin condensation, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and participation of caspase like proteases in plant PCD appear to be similar across the eukaryotic kingdom and in conformity with the process in metazoans as well. Transgenic expression of mammalian anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins in plants has been shown to influence the regulatory pathways of cell death activation and suppression, indicating the existence of functional counterparts of such genes in plants, several of which have now been cloned and characterized to various extents. This suggests that despite differences, there may be a fair level of functional similarity between the mechanistic components of plant and animal apoptosis. Although genome scan of Arabidopsis thaliana seems to rule out the existence of major mammalian apoptotic counterparts in plants, the identification of caspase like proteins and other structural homolgs (metacaspases) together with mildly conserved apoptotic players like Bax-1 inhibitor may seemed to suggest some degree of common grounds both in execution and in the regulation of the cell death phenomenon. The overall review of the available data pertaining to mechanism of PCD in plants primarily supports an ancestral relationship with animal apoptosis rather than any common executional or regulational strategies. The establishment of mechanistic details of the phenomenon in plants is certain to throw up many surprises to necessitate a fresh review of this intriguing phenomenon. Metacaspases and Paracaspases having been ruled out to possess caspase activity is the beginning for this surprise to unfold. Key words: Programmed cell death, apoptosis, caspases. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/4769BA440233 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2008.0011 en Copyright © 2013 Nishawar Jan, Mahboob-ul-Hussain and Khurshid I. Andrabi
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:F5B457640317 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2013
Genomic imprinting: A general overview Muniswamy K. and Thamodaran P. Review Usually, most of the genes are biallelically expressed but imprinted gene exhibit monoallelic expression based on their parental origin. Genomic imprinting exhibit differences in control between flowering plants and mammals, for instance, imprinted gene are specifically activated by demethylation, rather than targeted for silencing in plants and imprinted gene expression in plant which occur in endosperm. It also displays sexual dimorphism like differential timing in imprint establishment and RNA based silencing mechanism in paternally repressed imprinted gene. Within imprinted regions, the unusual occurrence and distribution of various types of repetitive elements may act as genomic imprinting signatures. Imprinting regulation probably at many loci involves insulator protein dependent and higher-order chromatin interaction, and/or non-coding RNAs mediated mechanisms. However, placenta-specific imprinting involves repressive histone modifications and non-coding RNAs. The higher-order chromatin interaction involves differentially methylated domains (DMDs) exhibiting sex-specific methylation that act as scaffold for imprinting, regulate allelic-specific imprinted gene expression. The paternally methylated differentially methylated regions (DMRs) contain less CpGs than the maternally methylated DMRs. The non-coding RNAs mediated mechanisms include C/D RNA and microRNA, which are invovled in RNA-guided post-transcriptional RNA modifications and RNA-mediated gene silencing, respectively. The maintenance and reprogramming of imprinting are not significantly affected by reduced expression of Dicer1 and the evolution of imprinting might be related to acquisition of DNMT3L (de novo methyltransferase 3L) by a common ancestor of eutherians and marsupials. The common feature among diverse imprinting control elements and evolutionary significance of imprinting need to be identified. Key words: Genomic imprinting, differentially methylated regions (DMRs), non-coding RNA, imprinting evolution. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/F5B457640317 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR07.003 en Copyright © 2013 Muniswamy K. and Thamodaran P.
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:07DB69840318 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2013
Molecular and biological techniques used in landfill investigations: A mini-review umphrey O. Zebulun, Hilary I. Inyang and Helene Hilger Review The purpose of this research paper was to review the different molecular biology techniques that are used in landfill investigations. The methods discussed include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). Operation of landfills as bioreactors is now becoming a common practice, which involves the identification of different microbiological activities that facilitate the eventual breakdown of landfill wastes into useful and innocuous materials. In this review, the two important microbial activities that are discussed include methanotrophic process, carried out by methanotrophic bacteria, and methanogenic processes, carried out by methanogenic bacteria. Other bacteria encountered in landfills such as Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas are also briefly discussed. As the name of these processes imply, methane oxidation and methane production by these microbial activities in landfills constitute another main focus of this paper. The application of these molecular biological techniques in real-time has also been demonstrated in studies involving the investigation of methanogenic diversity and activity in municipal solid waste landfill leachates and this is also discussed further. The results and conclusions of different research studies that focused on these techniques are hereby identified, discussed and summarized. Key words: Bioreactors, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), methanogens, methanotrophs, landfilling. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/07DB69840318 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR10.037 en Copyright © 2013 umphrey O. Zebulun, Hilary I. Inyang and Helene Hilger
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:0B1584444931 2014-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2014
DNA microarrays and their applications in medical microbiology Chijioke A. Nsofor Review Rapid diagnosis and treatment of disease is often based on the identification and characterization of causative agents derived from phenotypic characteristics. This can be laborious and time consuming, often requiring many skilled personnel and a large amount of lab space. However, the introduction of nucleic acid amplification techniques into molecular biology has transformed the laboratory detection of pathogens. The progression of the molecular diagnostic revolution currently relies on the ability to efficiently and accurately offer multiplex detection and characterization for a variety of infectious disease pathogens. DNA microarray analysis has the capability to offer robust multiplex detection. Multiple microarray platforms exist, including printed double-stranded DNA and oligonucleotide arrays, in situ-synthesized arrays, high-density bead arrays, electronic microarrays, and suspension bead arrays. The aim of this paper was to review DNA microarray technology, highlighting two major types: the oligonucleotide-based array and the PCR product-based array. Although, the use of microarrays to generate gene expression data has become routine, applications pertinent to microbiology continue to rapidly expand. This review highlights uses of microarray technology that impact diagnostic microbiology, including the detection and identification of pathogens, determination of antimicrobial resistance, epidemiological strain typing, and determination of virulence factors. Key words: DNA microarray, applications, microbiology. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/0B1584444931 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2013.0216 en Copyright © 2014 Chijioke A. Nsofor
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:9281ED545168 2014-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2014
Co-culture: A great promising method in single cell protein production Asmamaw Tesfaw and Fassil Assefa Review The term single cell protein (SCP) refers to the dried microbial cells or total protein extracted from pure microbial culture (algae, bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts) which serves as food or/and feed supplements. Different substrate and fermentation optimizations are being carried out to maximize SCP production. However, little attention was given to coculturing. SCPs are produced better using coculture than monoculture. This paper reviews the positive roles of coculture in SCP production. First, it results in better saccharification of substrates and efficient carbon source utilization. Second, filling substrate utilization gap is another contribution of coculture. Third, it upgrades biomass and enrich SCP with nutrients than monoculture. Fourth, it reduces fermentation time and production cost by reducing cost of substrate treatment. Key words: Single cell protein, biomass, coculture, monoculture, mixed culture. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/9281ED545168 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2014.0223 en Copyright © 2014 Asmamaw Tesfaw and Fassil Assefa
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:584B70E45949 2014-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2014
Comparative analysis of different immunological techniques for diagnosing fasciolosis in sheep: A review Irfan-ur-Rauf Tak, Jehangir Shafi Dar, B. A. Ganai, M. Z. Chishti, R. A. Shahardar, Towsief Ahmad Tantry, Masarat Nizam and Shoaib Ali Dar Review Fasciolosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection caused by liver flukes of the genus Fasciola, of which Fasciola hepatica and a larger species, Fasciola gigantica are the most common representatives. These two food-borne trematodes usually infect domestic ruminants and cause important economic losses to sheep, goats and cattle. In commercial herds, fasciolosis is of great economic significance worldwide with losses estimated to exceed 2000 million dollars yearly, affecting more than 600 million animals, in articles reported a decade ago. In addition, F. hepatica causes an estimated loss of $3 billion worldwide per annum through livestock mortality, especially in sheep, and by decreased productivity via reduction of milk and meat yields in cattle. The parasitological diagnosis of fasciolosis is often unreliable because the parasitersquo;s eggs are not found during the prepatent period. Even when the worms have matured, the diagnosis may still be difficult since eggs are only intermittently released. Repeated examinations of stools are usually required to increase the accuracy of the diagnosis. Early diagnosis of fasciolosis is necessary for institution of prompt treatment before irreparable damage of the liver occurs. For these reasons, serology is the most dependable method for diagnosing fasciolosis. Attempts have been made to diagnose fasciolosis by detecting antibodies in the serum of sheep suspected of being infected with the flukes. Advances in immunodiagnosis have focused on detection of Fasciola antigens in host body fluid; these tests have an advantage over antibody detection because antigenemia implies recent and active infection. Similarly, somatic and excretory secretory (E/S) antigens of Fasciola sp. or their partially purified component are the commonest source of antigens used in protection trials and serodiagnosis. Thus, the aim of the present review is to encourage more young researchers to initiate work on this aspect of these economically cosmopolitan parasites. Key words: Fasciolosis, Antigenemia, E/S antigens, serodiagnosis, immunoassay, Fasciola spp., zoonotic disease. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/584B70E45949 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2013.0224 en Copyright © 2014 Irfan-ur-Rauf Tak, Jehangir Shafi Dar, B. A. Ganai, M. Z. Chishti, R. A. Shahardar, Towsief Ahmad Tantry, Masarat Nizam and Shoaib Ali Dar
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:ADB05CF49520 2015-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2015
Immunomodulatory effects of carbohydrates and advanced glycation end products Kankia, H. I. Review Carbohydrates which comprise of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides are heterogeneous complex structure in living systems and are found to bind to other organic molecules such as proteins and lipids. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are also heterogeneous group of molecules that accumulate in plasma and other body fluids and in cell and tissues. This review focuses on the impact of polysaccharides and AGEs on immune function. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that polysaccharides and AGEs modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. Polysaccharides such as lectins are reported to activate innate immune cells and T-helper cells leading to the up-regulation of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and macrophages and release of different cytokine profiles such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha;), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, interferon gamma and beta (IFN-gamma; and IFN-beta;2). Both lectins which are non-enzymatic proteins present in plants and animals that preferentially bind to specific carbohydrate structures and AGE which triggers inflammatory response by binding to RAGE do so there by mediating inflammation known as a key underlying cause in the development of vascular complications leading to an increased expression of cytokines, growth factors and adhesion molecules with mediate and immune response. Key words: Immunomodulation, carbohydrates, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), receptors, lectins, in vitro and in vivo studies. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/ADB05CF49520 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2014-0237 en Copyright © 2015 Kankia, H. I.
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:1FFA2C251178 2015-03-10T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2015
Correlating aluminium toxicity, heterosis and epigenetic mechanisms in maize yield improvement in acid soils Josphert N. Kimatu Review Overuse of inorganic fertilizers have contributed to an increase in soil acidity in global arable land and consequently caused an increase in Aluminium ion (Al3+) toxicity and a reduction of crop yield of between 30-50% in developing countries. Studies show that Al3+ toxicity inhibits cell division in the root tip meristem in sensitive plants even at micromolar concentrations. Applications of lime, manure and compost are some of the most common methods used to overcome the impact of Al3+ toxicity. Other studies have identified natural variation for the multigenic Al3+ tolerance trait in many crop species and can be utilized in crop improvement. This review highlights a search for a clearer understanding of the molecular basis for Aluminium ion toxicity by correlating heterosis and epigenetic mechanisms like DNA Cytosine methylation in inbred and reciprocal maize hybrids crosses. Several recent studies indicated that the global differential gene expression regulated by epigenetic mechanisms between hybrids and parental inbred lines can potentially contribute to heterosis in maize. Key words: Maize, heterosis, tolerance, epigenetics, aluminium ion toxicity. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/1FFA2C251178 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2014-0234 en Copyright © 2015 Josphert N. Kimatu
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:9AA790354184 2015-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2015
The reoccurrence of H5N1 outbreaks necessitates the development of safe and effective influenza vaccine technologies for the prevention and control of avian influenza in Sub-Saharan Africa Bitrus Yakubu, Andrew J. Nok, Owolodun O. A., Luka P. D. and Umaru Dunkura Ali Review Africa is experiencing reoccurrence of avian influenza outbreaks with huge negative impact on the economy of the continent as a result of high mortality rate and extreme contagiousness of the disease. The epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Africa during the 2006-2008 outbreaks was complex and linked to movements of poultry commodities and wild birds. The peculiar risk factors, negative economic impact and the potential of being used as a biological weapon necessitates the development of a comprehensive control programme for the prevention or eradication of the disease. It is the opinion of this paper that development of new influenza vaccine technologies will provide affordable comprehensive control programmes for avian influenza prevention in Africa. To keep pace with the variability of the viruses, there is need for frequent redesign of avian influenza (AI) vaccines to match the circulating subtypes and on this is predicated the necessity of the development of influenza vaccine technology for a country, zone or region. The new vaccine technologies have been shown to have the potentials of giving vaccines with required criteria of purity, safety, efficacy, potency, low cost and short response time. The concept of most new vaccine technologies is biased towards removal of influenza virus from the system of vaccine development and at the same time obtaining more effective, potent and safe influenza vaccines. The new influenza vaccine technologies include gene-based, genomics-based, subunit, plant-based, VLPs and universal vaccine technologies. These technologies have the potential to provide vaccines that will not just be used as intervention strategies to lessen severity of the disease but as preventative vaccination. Also routine vaccination will not just be as a tool of last option in disease endemic areas, but one to prevent the disease. Key words: Technologies, avian influenza, vaccine, eradication, prevention, comprehensive, control, programme. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/9AA790354184 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2015.0246 en Copyright © 2015 Bitrus Yakubu, Andrew J. Nok, Owolodun O. A., Luka P. D. and Umaru Dunkura Ali
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:156B3C458824 2016-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2016
Resistance to Bt Crops; Influence, mechanisms and management strategies Mohammed Esmail Abdalla Elzaki Review The genetically engineered insect-resistant crops, Bt crops, were first commercially grown in 1996 and adopted in different countries. The economic benefits of Bt crops are reducing the use of insecticides and more safe to environment, however, development of resistance by insects might reduce their efficacy. Unfortunately, the field population evolved resistance to different Bt toxins and the number of resistant species is going to increase, which threat the continuous success of Bt crops. Thus, understanding the Bt resistance mechanisms, including the molecular basis of resistance is important for well-resistance control in Bt crops. This review paper displayed the mechanisms of insect pests resistance to Bt crops and appropriate strategies to delay and manage the resistance in Bt crops. Key words: Field-evolved resistance, molecular mechanism, resistance to Bt toxins, resistance management strategies, transgenic crops. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/156B3C458824 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2016.0256 en Copyright © 2016 Mohammed Esmail Abdalla Elzaki
oai:academicjournals.org:BMBR:7A2154261212 2016-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals BMBR BMBR:2016
Basics of animal cell culture: Foundation for modern science Oyeleye O. O., Ogundeji S. T, Ola S. I. and Omitogun O. G. Review The culture of animal cells is one of the major aspects of science which serves as a foundation for most of our recent discoveries. The major areas of application include cancer research, vaccine manufacturing, recombinant protein production, drug selection and improvement, gene therapy, stem cell biology, monoclonal antibody production, in vitro fertilization technology, cryopreservation and in vitro production of hormones. Cells can be propagated, expanded and divided into identical replicates, which can be characterized, purified and preserved by freezing. This article reviews the basic aspects of animal cell culture for modern day research. Key words: Animal cell culture, cell freezing, cell preservation. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/BMBR/article-abstract/7A2154261212 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/BMBR2016.0261 en Copyright © 2016 Oyeleye O. O., Ogundeji S. T, Ola S. I. and Omitogun O. G.