2021-09-27T08:17:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:E2468D226684 2006-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Measuring the effects of salinity stress in the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L. Patrick D. Biber Full Length Research Paper The mangrove habitat exhibits many unique physical features, one of the most important of which is a salinity gradient. Photosynthetic rates, as measured by leaf stomatal conductance and leaf chlorophyll fluorescence induction, were tested as indicators of salinity stress in seedlings of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, grown under five different salinity levels: 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 parts per thousand. Photosynthetic gas exchange (measured by stomatal conductance), as well as the light reaction of photosynthesis (measured by chlorophyll fluorescence) were found to decrease as salinity increased. The use of leaf stomatal conductance and chlorophyll fluorescence as a measure of photosynthesis allowed a rapid and reliable quantification of the known stressor, salinity, in seedlings of R. mangle. These non-destructive in-vivo techniques were found to be rapid and reliable for monitoring photosynthetic stress, an important physiological parameter determining survival and growth of mangrove plants. These techniques should be considered in forestry management and mangrove restoration projects to assess plant condition. Key words: chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis, Rhizophora, stomatal conductance, salinity. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/E2468D226684 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000485 en Copyright © 2006 Patrick D. Biber
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:AA805FB26700 2006-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Scientific research in Africa in the 21st century, in need of a change of approach Kees Stigter Full Length Research Paper The scientific research environments in industrialized and non-industrialized countries are compared, mainly as far as supportive industries and services to agricultural producers are concerned. Further environmental deterioration and alienating poverty are often a consequence of the observed absence of focused assistance. It is then discussed why and how Africa should change its scientific research and develop its own approach. This asks for new scientific research policies in Africa. The central thesis of this paper is that as agricultural scientists we have come closer than ever to farmers, but we are farther away than ever from policy makers. A simple conceptual and diagnostic framework is discussed by which this situation in scientific research can be easily explained. TTMI-Project results on agrometeorological services in Sudan are discussed in that new context. The paper concludes with first wording in this same new context the final implications for the change in scientific research approach needed in Africa, including a short comparison of research on health services with those on agricultural services. Finally, such implications are discussed the same way for higher education in Africa, also again referring to another important recent development, that of diagnostic studies, that is used as reference throughout this paper. Keywords: Africa; agricultural services; agrometeorology; higher education; livelihood of farmers; policy environments; scientific research; research approach. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/AA805FB26700 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000616 en Copyright © 2006 Kees Stigter
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:ED31C8826743 2006-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Effect of local preservative (Aframomum danielli) on the chemical and sensory properties of stored warakanshi Ashaye O. A, Taiwo O. O and Adegoke G. O. Full Length Research Paper The effect of local preservative (Aframomum danielli) on the chemical and sensory properties of stored warakanshi was investigated. Fresh milk was processed traditionally into warakanshi and Aframomum danielli was added at 1, 2 and 3%, stored at 27plusmn;20C, 7plusmn;20C and evaluated at 0, 3 and 6 days for moisture, pH, protein, ash, peroxide value and sensory properties. Drop in pH was more prevalent at ambient temperature, moisture content varied at both temperatures. Crude protein and ash contents of warankashi samples increased in the first 3 days at both temperatures and a short drop in protein and ash contents was observed for 3% warakanshi from 3 to 6 days at cold temperature. Peroxide value of 0% warakanshi (control) increased significantly while peroxide value at 1% and 2% warakanshi was significantly low. Warakanshi at 3% level of spice was best preferred to other samples of warakanshi at 0 day while 1% warakanshi was preferred to other samples at 3rd and 6th day of storage at cold temperature. A. danielli when used at 1% is more effective as a natural preservative in warakanshi without objectionable attributes in the sensory properties. Keywords: warakanshi, storage Aframomum danielli preservative temperature. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/ED31C8826743 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000211 en Copyright © 2006 Ashaye O. A, Taiwo O. O and Adegoke G. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:AC11D7C26765 2006-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Evaluation of some quality attributes of soybean oils in Ibadan Ashaye O.A and Olusoji O.C Short Communication Soybean oil is popularly used for the processing of margarine, shortenings and soaps, but there is limited information about some quality attributes of the oil. soybean oil was processed from four popular varieties and evaluated for chemical indexes (saponification, Acid, peroxide and iodine values) and sensory characteristics by untrained male and female adults TGX 1440-1E had the lowest saponification value of (96.78 mgKOH/g) and Samsoy 2 had lower acid (2.79%), peroxide (0.03 Meq/g) and iodine (9.89wigs).Samsoy 2 was best preferred with reference to colour, taste, flavour and texture. Samsoy 2 has better quality attributes and could be recommended to soybean oil consuming areas Keywords: Oil, varieties, peroxide, soybean. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/AC11D7C26765 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000322 en Copyright © 2006 Ashaye O.A and Olusoji O.C
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:945E95657699 2006-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
A phenotypic study of growth traits in indigenous. Nguni cattle of Zimbabwe N. Assan Full Length Research Paper Data from 2438 indigenous Nguni calves born at Matopos Research Station representing a total of 526 dams and 56 sires were used to evaluate the phenotypic variability and correlations of growth traits. Traits analyzed were weights at birth (BWT) (, weaning (WWT), yearling (YWT) and eighteen. A multivariate statistical model was used to analyze the data using SAS (1985 ). Sex and year of birth were highly significant (plt;0.01) on all growth traits. Males were significantly heavier than females for all growth traits. The correlation of BWT with WWT, YWT and 18MO were positive, medium and significant. WWT was highly correlated with post weaning growth traits (YWT and 18MO). The estimates of phenotypic correlations were positive showing no antagonism among the growth traits. Key words: Growth Traits, Correlation, Indigenous Nguni cattle, Zimbabwe. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/945E95657699 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000010 en Copyright © 2006 N. Assan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:20319E335913 2006-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Effects of hydraulic retention time and media of constructed wetland for treatment of domestic wastewater Suntud Sirianuntapiboon, Manoch Kongchum and Worawut Jitmaikasem Full Length Research Paper A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of varying soil-to-sand ratios of constructed wetland on wastewater treating efficiency. Wetland beds were prepared with locally available plants, specifically cattail (Typha sp.). Treatment efficiency was evaluated for parameters such as BOD5, COD, SS, TKN and TP. The results indicated that the nutrient reduction corresponds to a longer retention time in wetland beds. Under the longest hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days, the system with media containing a soil-to-sand ratio of 75:25 illustrated the highest removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD, SS, TKN and TP by 92plusmn;5, 91plusmn;%, 76plusmn;9, 90plusmn;3 and 95plusmn;3%, respectively. The infiltration rate was also decreased after operation, particularly in the treatment with lower sand content. However, the highest growth rate of cattail was found under the shortest HRT (0.75 day) condition. Key words: Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Media, Typha sp., constructed wetland. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/20319E335913 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000253 en Copyright © 2006 Suntud Sirianuntapiboon, Manoch Kongchum and Worawut Jitmaikasem
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:4F2A2C035864 2006-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Effect of Intra- and inter-row mixing of sorghum with two varieties of cowpea on host crop yield in a Striga hermonthica infested field B.S. Aliyu and A.M. Emechebe Short Communication A trial was conducted in the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) research farm in Kano, Nigeria during the 2002/2003 cropping season to evaluate the effect of intrarow and interrow mixing of sorghum with two varieties of cowpea on host crop yield in a Striga hermonthica infested field. Significantly (Ple;0.05) highest number of Striga per sorghum plant were obtained with sorghum only, which also have the lowest yield (2370 kg/ha). A significantly (Ple;0.05) higher yield (3709 kg/ha) was obtained with intra-row mixture of sorghum and densely planted cowpea variety, IT96D-452-1. This treatment also had the least number of Striga per net plot and per plant, which may be attributed to the effectiveness of the cowpea trap crop in stimulating the suicidal germination of the Striga seeds which would have otherwise attacked and reduced the productivity of the host plant. It may also be attributed to the effectiveness of the cropping method, with a ratio of sorghum : cowpea plants of 1:13, which improves the productivity of the system and at the same time suppresses the germination of Striga seeds. Keywords: Sorghum, yield, Intra-row, inter-row, cowpea, mixed-cropping Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/4F2A2C035864 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000210 en Copyright © 2006 B.S. Aliyu and A.M. Emechebe
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:5D6529B35836 2006-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Aspect of the biology of Rastrococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Psuedococcidae) on Acalypha hispida in southern guinea savanna of Nigeria Akintola A. J. and Ande A.T. Short Communication The biology and description of various developmental stages of the mealybug found on the green acalypha plant in Ogbomoso, Southern Guinea Savanna was evaluated. The study shows that the stylets of the 1st and 3rd instars as well as adult stages are straight while that of the 2nd instar is somewhat coiled up. Furthermore, identification key chart was prepared using the characters which are peculiar to each instar. The third instar can be identified using the tip of abdomen that is broad with inconspicuous setae and body length that is le; 13 mm. The adult stage is peculiar with its tip of abdomen which is narrow with 2 short setae and a body length usually 13 mm. Key words: Acalypha, antenna, instar, Rastroccocus, savanna, stylet. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/5D6529B35836 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000064 en Copyright © 2006 Akintola A. J. and Ande A.T.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:3B1C71026567 2006-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Nutritional value of diets based on a low-quality grass hay supplemented or not with urea and levels of cassava meal G. V. Kozloskia,b, D. P. Nettoa, L. M. Bonnecarregrave;re Sancheza, L. D. Limaa, R. L. Cadorin Juacute;niora, G.Fiorentinia, C. J. Hauml;rtera Full Length Research Paper Ten Polwarth acute; Texel lambs (30plusmn;1kg live weight (LW)), housed in metabolic cages and fedad libitum a low-quality grass hay (Cynodon ssp.) were used in a replicated 5 times; 5 Latin Square experiment to evaluate effects of non-protein N (NPN) and levels of a non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC) source (cassava meal) supplementation (0, 5, 10 and 15 g/kg of LW) on intake, digestibility, N retention, microbial protein synthesis and rumen fermentation. Hay intake and digestibility were not affected by NPN addition. Organic matter, N and digestible energy intake, as well as rumen microbial protein synthesis and N retention increased linearly (Plt;0.05) but, fibre intake and digestibility, decreased linearly (Plt;0.05) as NFC supplementation increased. Rumen pH, as well as rumen concentrations of ammonia, sugars, amino acids and peptides was significantly affected by supplementation and time after feeding (Plt;0.05). Hay utilization was not improved by N addition showing that it was not limited due a lack of N for rumen bacteria. Supplementing both NPN plus a NFC source improved nutrients intake but reduced forage use by ruminants. Although variations of rumen pH and sugars concentrations play an important role, the detailed mechanisms by which fibre digestibility is negatively affected by NFC supplementation needs to be elucidated. Key words: Digestibility, Intake, Non-fibre carbohydrate, Non-protein nitrogen, Rumen fermentation, Tropical grass. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/3B1C71026567 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000510 en Copyright © 2006 G. V. Kozloskia,b, D. P. Nettoa, L. M. Bonnecarregrave;re Sancheza, L. D. Limaa, R. L. Cadorin Juacute;niora, G.Fiorentinia, C. J. Hauml;rtera
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:225211126602 2006-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Impact of hexaflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on growth, development and reproductive performance of the progeny in Callosobruchus maculatus after adult treatments A Kellouche and N. Soltani Full Length Research Paper Hexaflumuron, a benzoylphenylurea derivative, was tested topically at four doses (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 g/insect) on adults of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and first evaluated on fecundity, hatchability and viability of eggs, longevity and morphometric of oocytes. Our data show that the compound reduced the longevity and the fecundity. In addition, treatment affected growth and development of oocytes and egg-viability as evidenced by measurements the number of oocytes per ovaries and the size of basal follicle, respectively. In a second series of experiments, this IGR donrsquo;t induced significant reduction of the percentage-hatchability but its affect very significantly the viability rate of eggs laid by F1 females. Duration of the embryonic and post ndash; embryonic development of eggs laid by treated females increase when the concentration varied from 0 to 2 g/ l. Key words: Hexaflumuron, Callosobruchus maculatus, eggs development, fecundity, longevity, morphometric of oocytes, viability. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/225211126602 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000401 en Copyright © 2006 A Kellouche and N. Soltani
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:06539CE26636 2006-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Some physical properties of the watermelon seeds Seyed M. A. Razavi and Elnaz Milani Full Length Research Paper Watermelon seeds of three major local Iranian varietiesSarakhsi, Kolaleh and Red, at the moisture content of 4.55, 4.75 amp; 5.02% (w.b.), were selected to study the physical properties, respectively. Linear dimensions, mean diameters, sphericity, surface area, volume, true and bulk densities, porosity, repose angles and static coefficient of friction of the three varietiesrsquo; seeds were measured using standard methods. The results showed that the length, width, thickness, arithmetic mean diameter and geometric mean diameter of watermelon seeds varied from 13.45 to 18.97 mm, 8.4 to 10.7 mm, 2.91 to 3.10 mm, 8.256 to 10.894 mm and 6.893 to 8.456 mm, respectively. While The sphericity by Jean amp; Ballrsquo;s method, sphericity by the Mohseninrsquo;s method, surface area by McCabe et alrsquo;s method and surface area by Jean amp; Ballrsquo;s method, changed from 2.004 to 2.125, 0.446 to 0.513, 149.68 to 225.03 mm2, 128.09 to 198.01 mm2, respectively. The values of the seed volume, true density, bulk density and porosity of watermelon seeds were between 179.53-311.62 mm3, 861.75-866.66 kg/m3, 416.33-527.265 kg/m3 and 39.14-51.68% respectively. The study over the coefficient of friction of watermelon seeds on some materials such as plywood, galvanized metal sheet, glass, fiberglass and rubber showed that the static coefficient of friction varied from 0.26 on glass to 0.676 against rubber. Furthermore, the filling and funneling angles of repose for three watermelon seeds ranged from 27.092 to 32.38, 21.662 to 28.146, respectively. It is concluded that the physical properties of watermelon seeds vary from variety to variety and it is also a function of the seed moisture content, environmental and growth conditions. Key words: Watermelon seeds; Gravimetrical properties; Geometrical properties; Frictional properties Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/06539CE26636 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000649 en Copyright © 2006 Seyed M. A. Razavi and Elnaz Milani
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:95676D726660 2006-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Influence of genotypes, planting methods and weed management on competitiveness of wheat (Tritcum aestivum L.) and Phalaris minor Retz M Anwar Bhat, S S Mahal, K K Vashaist, R K Mahey, A Hussain and G M Mushki Full Length Research Paper Field experiments were conducted at the research farm of Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during 2003-04 and 2004-05. The soil of the experimental site was loamy sand in texture and neutral in reaction rating low in organic carbon and nitrogen, and medium in phosphorus and potassium. Bread wheat genotype PBW 343 tended to reduce the values for dry matter accumulation and density of Phalaris minor indicating comparatively more smothering effect on Phalaris minor as compared to durum wheat genotype PDW 274. PBW 343 recorded 8.52 per cent higher grain yield than PDW 274.Significant reduction in population and dry matter production of Phalaris minor and higher grain yield of wheat was observed under bed planting method as compared to flat planting during both the years of experimentation. Application of clodinafop 0.06 kg ha-1 and integrated weed control with clodinafop 0.045 kg ha-1 + hand / mechanical weeding effectively controlled the Phalaris minor and provided a weed control efficiency of 87.7 and 85.1 per cent, respectively. Integrated weed management practice resulted in 29.12 and 8.46 per cent more grain yield against the unweeded check and two hand/mechanical weedings, respectively. Key words: Bread wheat, Durum Wheat, Phalaris minor, Bed planting, Weed management Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/95676D726660 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000420 en Copyright © 2006 M Anwar Bhat, S S Mahal, K K Vashaist, R K Mahey, A Hussain and G M Mushki
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:E227F8F26690 2006-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Effect of three different treatment levels of deltamethrin on the numbers of dung beetles in dung pats Jordan Chihiya, Christopher. Tafara Gadzirayi and Edward Mutandwa Full Length Research Paper The effect of 3 different treatment levels of the pyrethroid deltamethrin on the numbers of dung beetles (Families, Hydrophilidae, Scarabidae and Staphilinidae) were investigated. A known quantity of cow dung was thoroughly mixed with a premeasured quantity of deltamethrin that would give the required concentration. Dung was exposed in the field for 1 week, collected and washed out to determine the number of beetles. The three levels tested against the control were 0.01mg, 0.1 and 1mg of deltamethrin per litre of dung. The Hydrophilidae and Staphilinidae showed a significant difference from the control at the concentration level of 0.1 mg per litre of dung. The Scarabidae were the most sensitive to deltamethrin showing a significant difference to the control at the lowest dose of 0.01mg per litre. The research recommends that any treatment of livestock especially cattle with deltamethrin that results in dung contamination of 0.1 mg for Hydrophilidae and Staphilinidae, and 0.01 mg for Scarabidae should be reviewed where possible, particularly in those countries where pyrethroids are widely used. Key words: Hydrophilidae, Staphilinidae, Scarabidae, Pyrethroids, Deltamethrin Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/E227F8F26690 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000237 en Copyright © 2006 Jordan Chihiya, Christopher. Tafara Gadzirayi and Edward Mutandwa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:81981FC40193 2006-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Lithological Mapping of the Unsaturated Zone of a Porous Media Aquifer to Delineate Hydrogeological Characteristic Areas:Application to Israel's Coastal aquifer A. Melloul, J. Albert, and M. Collin Full Length Research Paper With water quality steadily decreasing, decision-making with regard to water supply must improve aquifer management models, which are based upon various assumptions. Amongst these are assumptions concerning subsurface aquifer lithology. The objective of this study is to present a means of improving information and assumptions, as well as providing guidelines to characterise the unsaturated zone media. This media integrates soils and the quot;parental materialquot; of soils, which results in a more realistic picture of the surficial layers of the aquifer. This is a key factor for understanding the behavior of the upper border of coastal aquifers and simulation of their hydrogeological models. Developing a digital GIS unsaturated zone map enables 3-dimensional depiction by illustrating the varying permeability characteristics of the stratigraphic layers. The resultant map conveys information about areas having low to high permeability and areas in which perched aquifers might be found. This can consequently contribute to better understanding of the recharge process, and of the reasons for deterioration of groundwater quality in the aquifer. In the case of aquifers prone to stress from significant anthropogenic land-use, the map highlights areas whose vadose zone has the ability to convey liquids and pollutants to the aquifer below. The focus of this study is Israel #39;s Coastal aquifer, a resource of critical significance to the country#39;s water supply, which underlies the most populated areas of the country. This aquifer has been chosen because of its variegated lithology and water quality, the quantities of water being pumped from it, the large amount of existing data, and the potential of water which can be readily stored in it. This aquifer would appear to be an appropriate example of coastal aquifers around the world, to demonstrate the utility of such unsaturated zone mapping. This mapping can prove a tool for developing recommendations with regard to irrigation, land-use planning, and aquifer management. Key words: GIS mapping, Unsaturated zone/vadose zone, lithology, confined aquifer, phreatic aquifer, Coastal aquifer, Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/81981FC40193 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000004 en Copyright © 2006 A. Melloul, J. Albert, and M. Collin
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:2685DC936736 2006-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Inter-population variation of chromosome and RAPD markers of Suaeda nudiflora (Willd.) Moq. a mangrove species in India S. N. Jena and A. B. Das Full Length Research Paper Inter-population genetic diversity in Suaeda nudiflora, a mangrove, was investigated through RAPD and chromosome analysis among five Indian populations. Somatic chromosome numbers 2n=36 reported for the first time in population (Pop) I and Pop-II whereas in Pop-III, 2n=36 and 40 chromosomes. Pop-IV showed 2n=54 numbers from high saline environment while Pop-V showed 2n=40 chromosomes. 102 RAPD bands were polymorphic out of a total 182 amplicons with an average of 3.64 bands per population per primer suggests genetic divergence in inter-population level. The dendogram based on the RAPD analysis showed two broad groups suggesting ecotypic adaptability in different saline habitat. The maximum overall relatedness of the pop-II with rest of four populations was 57% indicated by mean similarity while pop-IV revealed minimum mean similarity of 49% suggesting new cytotypes formation. The probable mechanism of overcoming high salinity stress by maintaining polyploidy (2n=54) is discussed. Key words: Genetic divergence, genetic polymorphism, RAPD markers, somatic chromosome,Suaeda nudiflora. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/2685DC936736 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000442 en Copyright © 2006 S. N. Jena and A. B. Das
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:FACBBF736721 2006-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Indeginous knowledge systems in sustainable utilization of wetlands in communal areas of Zimbabwe: case of Hwedza District Christopher. Tafara Gadzirayi, Edward Mutandwa , Jordan Chihiya, And Chikosha Mary Full Length Research Paper The purpose of this research was to investigate how Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) has helped in the sustainable management of wetlands in Mukondwa ward of Hwedza District in Zimbabwe. The wetlands are found in patches of about 2-3 square km per patch and accommodating an average of 15 households and are managed as a community asset. A descriptive survey was used and a structured questionnaire was administered to 280 farmers in seven villages.The findings show that most farmers viewed IKS to be important in sustainable wetland management. A wide range of IKS techniques were used and these included use organic manure, mixed cropping, use of cultural taboos and flora indicators for sustainable management of wetlands. The study also established that urbanization and conventional technologies have an obliterative effect on IKS. The research recommends that IKS development action be based on a multi-sectoral approach involving all institutions of the society. Planners should take cognizance of existing IKS within communities Key words: Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Wetlands, Sustainability. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/FACBBF736721 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000414 en Copyright © 2006 Christopher. Tafara Gadzirayi, Edward Mutandwa , Jordan Chihiya, And Chikosha Mary
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:9F113C936699 2006-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with yams in edo, Ekiti and Oyo states of Nigeria. A. A. Adegbite, J. O. Saka, G. O. Agbaje, O. F. Owolade, G. O. Olaifa A. Lawaland S. T. Ojo Full Length Research Paper A survey was conducted to determine the types, frequency and population of plant parasitic nematodes associated with the soils and roots of Yam (Dioscorea spp.) in all Local Government Areas of Edo, Ekiti and Oyo States of Nigeria using random sampling for soil and root and using pie pan modification of Baerman funnel for plant parasitic nematode extraction. Twelve, eleven and ten genera of plant parasitic nematodes were encountered in the three States respectively, while ten genera each were identified from root samples from the three States. Plant-parasitic nematodes recovered included Meloidogyne spp., Pratylenchus spp., Scutellonema spp.,Radopholus spp., Aphelenchoides spp., Trichodorus spp., Rotylenchus spp.,Helicotylenchus spp., Aphelenchus spp., Longidorus spp., Xiphinema spp andRotylenchulus spp. Pratylenchus spp., Scutellonema spp., and Meloidogyne spp were most widely distributed with frequency rating of 70, 60 and 55% respectively in soil samples from Edo State and in the root samples the three genera predominated with 75, 60 and 60% frequency rating respectively. Scutellonema spp., Meloidogyne spp., and Pratylenchus spp were most widely distributed with a frequency rating of 75, 70 and 60% respectively in soil samples from Ekiti State and in the root samples the three genera predominated with 70, 65 and 50% frequency rating respectively while Meloidogyne spp., Scutellonema spp., and Pratylenchusspp were mostly widely distributed with a frequency rating of 70, 65 and 62.7% respectively in soil samples from Oyo State and in the root samples the three genera predominated with 65, 60 and 60% frequency rating respectively. Key words: Yam (Dioscorea spp.), types, frequency, population of plant parasitic nematodes,Meloidogyne spp., Pratylenchus spp., Scutellonema spp., Radopholus spp. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/9F113C936699 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000664 en Copyright © 2006 A. A. Adegbite, J. O. Saka, G. O. Agbaje, O. F. Owolade, G. O. Olaifa A. Lawaland S. T. Ojo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:0AC29CE36681 2006-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
The value of Acacia brevispica and Leucaena leucocephala seedpods as dry season supplements for calves in dry areas of Kenya Nyambati, E. M.; Sollenberger, L.E.; Karue, C. N.; and Musimba, N. K. R. Full Length Research Paper Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the feed value of Acacia (Acacia brevispica) andLeucaena (Leucaena leucocephala seedpods (whole fruit) during the dry season. In Experiment 1, treatment diets were Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (control) and the hay supplemented with either Acacia or Leucaena seedpod meal. In Experiment 2, maasai lovegrass (Eragrostis superba) hay (control) was offered alone or with a supplement of Leucaena seedpod meal. In Experiment 1, calves supplemented with Leucaena meal had higher gain (486 g d-1) than the control (239 g d-1) or those receiving Acacia pod meal (250 g d-1). In Experiment 2, calves on Leucaenameal had higher gains (559 g d-1) than the control (276 g d-1) confirming the results obtained in Experiment 1. Seedpods of A. brevispica contained only 65% of their seeds, resulting in a lower digestible energy concentration than Leucaena seedpods. These data confirm that cattle productivity can be increased if pods of L. leucocephala are collected during periods of abundance, stored and used as supplements for growing calves. Key words: Acacia, Leucaena, seedpods, grass hay, calf weight gain. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/0AC29CE36681 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000737 en Copyright © 2006 Nyambati, E. M.; Sollenberger, L.E.; Karue, C. N.; and Musimba, N. K. R.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:7AD723C36661 2006-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Gravitropism of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda ) radicles after chemical sterilization of seeds Dexian He and David B. South Full Length Research Paper Certain types of chemicals can affect the gravitropism of roots. In a laboratory study, intact loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) radicles (emerged from H2O2-treated seeds) exhibited positive gravitropism 8 h after horizontal placement in sterile conditions. The growth angle decreased from almost horizontal (85deg;) to 21deg; within one week after treatment (90deg; is horizontal and 0deg; is vertical). When seeds were treated with HgCl2, radicles under sterile growing conditions expressed gravitropism 6.9 h after horizontal alignment. Growth angle changed from 91deg; to 64deg;over a 10-day period. Cubic and quadratic functions were used to model growth angle as a function of time. Under similar experimental conditions, radicles from HgCl2-treated seeds showed a greater degree of gravitropism than those from H2O2-treated seeds (as indicated by the growth angle). These results indicate that the gravitropism can occur in sterile environments and that the type of chemicals used to sterilize seeds might affect the rate of geotropic response. Key words: Loblolly pine, radicle, geotropic growth, microorganism, H2O2, HgCl2, seed sterilization. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/7AD723C36661 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000378 en Copyright © 2006 Dexian He and David B. South
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:6F372AF36643 2006-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Weather and seasonal effects on growth, seed yield and soluble carbohydrate concentrations in selected maize cultivars in the humid areas of Nigeria. S.O. AGELE Full Length Research Paper A study was conducted in 2001 and 2002 to identify genotypic attributes relevant to performance and adaptation of ten maize cultivars grown on the field in the rainy and in the late seasons (terminal drought situation) in a humid zone of Nigeria. Data were collected on shoot biomass and seed yield and on leaf tissue concentrations of chlorophyll a and b and water soluble (non-structural) carbohydrate in the maize cultivars evaluated. Significant cultivar and seasonal effects on growth duration, dry matter production, assimilate reserves and seed yield in the cultivars of maize were obtained. In general, late maturing varieties of maize produced higher seed yield than the early maturing varieties, and when both were sown in the rainy season, they produced larger seed yield than the late season crop. Lower values of chlorophyll concentrations in leaf tissues were obtained for late season maize, but non-significant differences were found for late and early maturing cultivars. Although, the concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates were higher in dry season maize compared to rainy season crop, however, the increased intensities of drought and temperatures during the reproductive phase in the late season could have reduced kernel number (sink size) in the maize cultivars. Key words: Maize, soluble carbohydrate, chlorophyll, yield, cropping seasons, tropics. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/6F372AF36643 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000760 en Copyright © 2006 S.O. AGELE
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:CAE614F36626 2006-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Strategies to optimize the use of scavengeable feed resource base by smallholders in traditional poultry production systems in Africa: A review E.H.Goromela, R.P. Kwakkel, M.W.A. Verstegen and A.M. Katule Review Traditional poultry production accounts for about 80% of the poultry population in Africa. Such poultry species are kept by smallholders, mostly in free-range and in backyard systems for food security, income and socio-cultural purposes. Flock productivity is low compared to high input systems due to sub-optimal management, lack of supplementary feeds, low genetic and diseases. Scavenging system provides most of the scavengeable feed resource base (SFRB) for rural poultry. However, the quantity and quality of SFRB for scavenging poultry varies with season, altitude, climatic conditions, farming activities as well as social, management and village flock biomass. In the present review, diets consumed by scavenging poultry indicates to contain on average low nutrient concentration of protein (100 g kg DM-1), energy (11.2 MJ kg DM-1) and minerals such as Ca (11.7 g kg DM-1) and P (5 g kg DM-1). This low concentration indicates that the amount of nutrients from SFRB alone cannot support optimal growth and egg production of scavenging poultry. Thus such nutrients which can not optimally supplied by SFRB should be provided as supplementary feeds. However, quantitative assessment of SFRB and nutrient concentrations could provide the best strategies to optimize the available SFRB for improving rural poultry productivity. Key words: Traditional, rural poultry, free-range, backyard, scavenging, scavengeable feed resource, nutrient, composition. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/CAE614F36626 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000654 en Copyright © 2006 E.H.Goromela, R.P. Kwakkel, M.W.A. Verstegen and A.M. Katule
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:0AE486A36567 2006-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Seasonal variations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the edible mollusc Donax trunculus (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the gulf of Annaba, Algeria Hayette Beldi , Freacute;deacute;ric Gimbert, Samuel Maas, Renaud Scheifler, Noureddine Soltani Full Length Research Paper Seasonal variations in the concentrations of four trace heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) were determined in Donax trunculus (Mollusca, Bivalvia) at two contaminated sites in the gulf of Annaba (East of Algeria): El Battah and Sidi Salem . The average concentrations of the metals exhibited the following order: Zngt;Cugt; Pbgt;Cd for the two sites. The statistical analysis revealed a significant effect of seasons for all metals measured, the highest values being recorded in winter for Zn and in summer for the other metals. Contrary to expectation, both sites were contaminated with trace heavy metals analysed. Although the highest levels were detected in Sidi Salem beach, there was no significant difference on trace heavy metal concentrations between sites, except for Cd. The implication of this metal contamination for local population was discussed. Keywords: Bivalve Molluscs; Donax trunculus; Environmental contamination; Trace heavy metals, Biomonitoring. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/0AE486A36567 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000621 en Copyright © 2006 Hayette Beldi , Freacute;deacute;ric Gimbert, Samuel Maas, Renaud Scheifler, Noureddine Soltani
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:37E6A2F36553 2006-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
A review on mechanism of plant geotropism: developing trend in research on pine root geotropism Dexian He and David B South Review Despite the fundamental importance of gravity-driven growth response in plants, the mechanisms that result in root geotropism are poorly understood and the signaling pathways involved remain elusive. Therefore, we reviewed root gravisensing structures and theories (or propositions) explaining root growth geotropism in directions of genetics, physiology, biochemistry, and environmental influence. The available data show that the mechanism(s) of root geotropism and root-gravisensing sites depends on the plant species studied. Based upon such a review, key academic controversies on mechanism of root geotropism were pinpointed, and developing trend of research on root geotropism was addressed. Key words: developing trend, hypothesis, mechanism, root geotropism. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/37E6A2F36553 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000013 en Copyright © 2006 Dexian He and David B South
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:B1F4E6926421 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Farmer evaluation of improved soybean varieties being screened in five locations in Kenya: Implications for research and development Jonas Chianu, Bernard Vanlauwe, John Mukalama, Akin Adesina, Nteranya Sanginga Full Length Research Paper In order to determine the improved soybean varieties that if recommended to the farmers would have a high probability of adoption, a farmer participatory approach was used to evaluate 12 soybean varieties at full podding in five locations (Oyani, Riana, Kasewe, Akiites, and Mabole) in western Kenya. These comprised of 11 improved varieties (TGx1871-12E, TGx1895-4F, TGx1895-33F, TGx1895-49F, TGx1878-7E, TGx1893-7F, TGx1893-10F, TGx1740-2F, TGx1448-2E, NAMSOY 4m, and MAKSOY 1n) and one local variety (Nyala). Farmers generated all the 17 criteria for use in the evaluation, with researchers only facilitating. One hundred and two farmers (52% females) participated in the evaluation. A scoring matrix was employed to articulate the results. Data analysis was done using Microsoft Excel. This paper shows that of the seven dual-purpose varieties tested in all the five locations, only TGx1740-2F was acceptable in all. Some varieties were acceptable in specific locations: TGx1895-49F in Oyani, Nyala in Kasewe, TGx1448-2E in Akiites, and TGx1893-7F in Mabole. This result shows that to avoid low adoption, a blanket recommendation of varieties that were accepted only in selected locations must be avoided. TGx1740-2F was the only variety that could be recommended across locations and that was clearly better than the existing farmersrsquo; own variety, Nyala. Key Words: Adoption, Effective recommendations, Improved soybean varieties, Participatory farmer evaluation, Western Kenya. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/B1F4E6926421 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000341 en Copyright © 2006 Jonas Chianu, Bernard Vanlauwe, John Mukalama, Akin Adesina, Nteranya Sanginga
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:993638D26432 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Trophic analysis and fishing simulation of the biggest Amazonian catfish Ronaldo Angelini, Niacute;dia Noemi Fabregrave;, Urbano Lopes da Silva-JR Full Length Research Paper Currently, it is unanimous the fact that the ecosystem approach gives important insights to support fisheries stock assessment and management and healthy sustain aquatic ecosystems. This work aims at the quantification of energy flows at vaacute;rzea (Amazon floodplain) and the simulation of increase in the fishing effort regarding the biggest predators, the catfish, and decrease of flooded forest cover. It was used the Ecopath with Ecosim software to build BAGRES model, which could allow inferences on ecosystem stability. Results showed that: i) BAGRES model has high overhead (69.7%) and Production/Respiration rate very close to 1, showing that this floodplain system is sufficiently mature and capable to support disturbance; ii) Finnrsquo;s cycling index for BAGRES (14.6%) is high when compared to other worldwide system; iii) increasing the effort of the catch of three species of Brachyplatystoma (catfish) have positive effects on biomass and consequently catch and landing of their main preys; iv) in the simulation of deforestation of Floodplain Forest (with no natural regeneration), all species are prejudiced (no exception), including Brachyplatystoma groups that do not use flooded environment. Therefore, the indirect consequence of the deforestation is more intense over fish stocks than increasing fishing effort. The BAGRES model results have important implications for the current policy-making for inland fishing in Brazil, currently mostly based on ldquo;defesordquo; (fishing restriction season), suggesting the necessity of incorporate the impacts which drive the deforestation in Amazon Floodplain. Key words: Brachyplatystoma sp; vaacute;rzea, Amazon floodplain; fisheries; Ecopath with Ecosim Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/993638D26432 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000747 en Copyright © 2006 Ronaldo Angelini, Niacute;dia Noemi Fabregrave;, Urbano Lopes da Silva-JR
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:992A43B26442 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Soil-phosphorus extraction methodologies: A review Abdu Nafiu Review Soil available phosphorus has been measured using chemical extractants and ion-sink methods comprising of resin membranes and FeO coated filter papers or strips. This study compared the conventional chemical extractants such as Bray-1, Olsen, and Mehlich-3 etc with the ion-sink extraction methods. Investigations from researchers have shown the efficacy of the ion-sink methods especially the resin membranes which extract soil-available P in a similar manner as plant roots does. It can be employed for a variety of soil types irrespective of their properties. In contrast to chemical extractants that is designed for specific soil types. Resin membranes does not alter the chemical composition of the soil and therefore gives a close estimate of soil-available P. Economically, resin membrane strips can be used and re-used several times without loosing its extraction power. The size and dimension of the resin strips should be standardized to avoid disparity in the amount of P extracted when different sizes were used for same soils. Key words: Phosphorus, extractants, chemical, ion-sink Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/992A43B26442 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000645 en Copyright © 2006 Abdu Nafiu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:3448E5926461 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Assessment of Drought Tolerance in Segregating Populations in Durum Wheat M. Golabadi, A. Arzani, and S. A. M. Mirmohammadi Maibody Full Length Research Paper Wheat improvement for drought tolerance requires reliable assessment of drought tolerance variability among segregating populations. One hundred and fifty-one F3 and F4families of durum wheat derived from a cross between Oste-Gata (as drought tolerance) and Massara-1 (as susceptible) genotypes were evaluated both under moisture stress (E1) and non-stress (E2) field environments using a randomized complete block design for each environment and growing season (2003-04, 2004-05). Entries of E1 were subjected to moisture stress at grain filling period. Five drought tolerance indices comprising: stress tolerance index (STI), stress tolerance (TOL), stress susceptibility index (SSI), mean productivity (MP), and geometric mean productivity (GMP) were used. The indices were adjusted based on grain yield under drought (Ys) and normal (Yp) conditions. Analysis of variance for each individual year showed that there was a significant genetic variation among families for all criteria with the exception of SSI. The combined analysis of variance over seasons indicated the genetic diversity of lines, significant variation of seasons and differential response of genotypes over seasons for all indices with the exception of SSI. The significant and positive correlations of Yp and (MP, GMP and STI) and Ys and (MP, GMP and STI) under both the seasons as well as significant negative correlation of SSI and TOL in E1 revealed that selection could be conducted for high MP, GMP and STI under both environments and low SSI and TOL under E1conditions. The calculated correlation coefficients revealed that STI, MP, and GMP are the superior criteria for selection of high yielding genotypes both under E1 and E2. Cluster analysis of families using Ys, Yp and five other indices categorized genotypes into five groups each of which having 37, 56, 13, 34 and 11 genotypes in year 2003-04 growing season, respectively. Based on 2004-05 growing season data, six groups each of which having 25, 9, 25, 45, 10 and 37 genotypes were obtained, respectively. Cluster analysis distinguished groups contains superior lines for both E1 and E2, superior lines for only E1 conditions and superior lines for E2 conditions, considering their yield performance (Yp and Ys). Results of calculated gain from indirect selection indicated that selection from moisture stress environment would improve yield in moisture stress environment better than selection from non-moisture stress environment. The comparison of the number of families in common within the top 25% families at E1 in year 2004-05 and those selected using various indices indicated that drought tolerant indices could perform comparable with yield performance (Yp and Ys). Key words: Durum wheat, Moisture stress, Drought tolerance index, grain yield. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/3448E5926461 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000070 en Copyright © 2006 M. Golabadi, A. Arzani, and S. A. M. Mirmohammadi Maibody
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:277A22026477 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Impact of acid and oxgall on antibiotic susceptibility of Probiotic Lactobacilli Ehab Essa Kheadr Full Length Research Paper The present study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of 13 Lactobacillusstrains to 14 antibiotics and to evaluate the impact of some gastrointestinal stressful conditions, particularly acid and bile stress, as well as acid adaptation on their antibiogram profiles. The strains tested were 2 of Lactobacillus acidophilus, 1 Lb. delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus, 2 Lb. casei, 1 Lb. casei paracasei subsp. paracasei, 1 Lb. delbrueckii subsp.lactis, 4 Lb. plantarum and 2 Lb. rhamnosus. In control trails, the majority of the strains tested were susceptible to ampicillin, penicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, novobiocin and nisin A, but resistant to vancomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, paromomycin, streptomycin and nalidixic acid. Lactobacilli strains showed variable susceptibility to cloxacilline and tetracycline. Acid-adaptation (strains adapted to grow at pH 4.0) resulted in increased resistance to cloxacilline, erythromycin and tetracycline, in strain dependent manner. Acid- stressed (exposure to pH 2 for 90 min at 37C) lactobacilli appeared to be more resistant to ampicillin, cloxacilline, chloramphenicol and tetracycline compared with un-stressed strains. In the presence of 0.3% (w/v) oxgall, lactobacilli became more susceptible to aminoglycosides and slightly resistant to cell wall-targeted antibiotics. However, oxgall stress (exposure to 0.3% (w/v) oxgall for 90 min at 37C) slightly modified antibiogram profile depending on the strain tested. Results reported in this study showed that acid and oxgall stresses could substantially modify antibiotic susceptibility/resistance profile of lactobacilli, which may thus affect their probiotic capacity especially when used along with antibiotics. Keywords: probiotics, lactobacilli, antibiotic susceptibility, acid, oxgall. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/277A22026477 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000396 en Copyright © 2006 Ehab Essa Kheadr
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:56F170826494 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Determination of residues of deltaméthrin in wheat and potato by HPLC Rachdi BOUSSAHEL , Khadija M. MOUSSAOUI and Djamila HARIK Full Length Research Paper Residues of deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used to protect stored grains, have been determined in wheat and potato by high -performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 233 nm after extraction by chloroform and a silica gel clean-up. Recoveries from fortified samples spiked with 1 ppm of deltamethrin exceeded 75% for both products. The control carried out on imported products showed the presence of this insecticide that sometimes exceeded the maximum limits of residues authorized by the OMS/FAO (0.10 ppm in potatoes and 1.00 in wheat). Key words: deltamethrin, residues, wheat, potato, HPLC. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/56F170826494 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000157 en Copyright © 2006 Rachdi BOUSSAHEL , Khadija M. MOUSSAOUI and Djamila HARIK
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:BF625BE26532 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
The rotifers of omi river, Ago-iwoye, Nigeria Fafioye, O. O.and Omoyinmi, G. A. K. Full Length Research Paper The rotifers of Omi River, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria were qualitatively studied. Twenty-nine species were recorded indicating a fairly rich quality relative to other Nigerian and African waters. Family Brachionidae (33.3%) was dominant out of nine families documented, while family Trichotoriidae was least represented. The bulk of the rotifers were found at the littoral and pelagic zones. This study showed that the river is not polluted, a reliable drinking water supply and has a high potential for thriving fishery. Key words: Zooplankters, rotifers, Omi River, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/BF625BE26532 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000730 en Copyright © 2006 Fafioye, O. O.and Omoyinmi, G. A. K.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:52E594B26549 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Comparison of potential pod yield and loss in old and rehabilitated cocoa plots Olaiya, A.O; Fagbayide, J.A; Hammed, L.A and M.O. Aliyu Full Length Research Paper A field study was carried out between 1999 and 2001 to comparatively evaluate the potential pod yield and losses in old and rehabilitated cacao plots. Two plots made up of an old and a rehabilitated plots were chosen and four trees were randomly selected as experimental unit at four different locations within each of the plots to serve as the replicates. The experimental units were then laid out in a randomized complete block design. Data on total fruit set (TFS), number of damaged pods (DMP), number of diseased pods (DSP), number of Cherelle wilted pods (CWP) and number of fermentable pods FMP) were collected over two years and subjected to ANOVA and correlation analysis. The result showed that pod loss to cherelle wilt was 34.9% and to diseases 22.3% while the damaged pods amounted to 11.5% in the old plot. In the rehabilitated plot, damage due to mirid infestation was responsible for about 27.4% pod loss followed by cherelle wilt of 25.6% and diseased pods 11.7%. The total number of fermentable pods of 19.8% and 41.6 were obtained in both old and rehabilitated plots respectively. The result showed that TFS was significantly (Plt;0.01) improved by rehabilitation though damage due to insect infestation and pod loss to cherelle wilt still accounted for the loss of over 50% TFS. Key words: Cherelle wilt, damaged pods, diseased pods, old plot, rehabilitated plot. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/52E594B26549 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000123 en Copyright © 2006 Olaiya, A.O; Fagbayide, J.A; Hammed, L.A and M.O. Aliyu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:C33607826576 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2006
Studies on character association and path analysis of certain quantitative characters among parental lines of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum ) and their f1 hybrids in a diallel cross A. U. Izge, A. M. Kadams, and D. T. Gungula Full Length Research Paper A two-year study was conducted during the cropping season of 2004 and 2005 at Maiduguri (110 53I N, 130 16I E) and at Yola (90 8I N, 120 29I E), Nigeria. The study was conducted to determine the correlation and path coefficients among the yield and yield component characters in 10 parental lines and 45 hybrids of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. R. Br), formulated by a diallel cross excluding reciprocals. Strong and significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations were observed between total grain yield with yield/plant, number of tillers/plant, number of leaves/plant, plant height, panicle length and number of seeds/panicle. The path analysis indicated that, grain yield/plant, days to 50% flowering and plant height had the highest direct effects on total grain yield. The panicle length and the threshing percentage had the least direct effects on total grain yield. The direct effect of yield/plant was greatly reduced by the negative indirect effects through days to 50% flowering and downy mildew incidence, even though it was not significant. Similarly, the direct effect of plant height was very much influenced by the negligible indirect effects of threshing percentage, downy mildew incidence and 100-grain weight. The grain yield/plant, number of seed/panicle, and plant height in this study has been identified as selection criteria for obtaining good parental lines and hybrids in a pearl millet breeding program. Key words: pearl millet, total grain yield, correlation, path analysis, parental lines, hybrids. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/C33607826576 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000656 en Copyright © 2006 A. U. Izge, A. M. Kadams, and D. T. Gungula
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:86C1DE931302 2007-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
The comparative toxicities of cadmium, copper and lead to Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Penaeus monodon postlarvae Fafioye, O.O. and Ogunsanwo, B.M. Full Length Research Paper Comparative acute toxicity tests were carried out with three heavy metals viz. cadmium, copper and lead on giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) post larvae. Lethal concentrations at which 50% of the shrimp died (LC50) at 96 h were 3.23 mg/l Cd, 3.02 mg/l Cu and 10.0 mg/l Pb for M. rosenbergii; 2.91 mg/l Cd, 2.16 mg/l Cu and 7.28 mg/l Pb for P. monodon. The metals showed toxicities in the order Cugt;Cdgt;Pb. The LC50 values recorded for M. rosenbergii were higher than the values recorded for P. monodon, hence the specific metals were more toxic to P. monodon than M. rosenbergii. The safe concentrations for all these metals were also calculated. This study has produced LC50 values that may be useful in screening potentially toxic substances in our waters. Key words: Toxicity, heavy metals, shrimp, post larvae. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/86C1DE931302 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000682 en Copyright © 2007 Fafioye, O.O. and Ogunsanwo, B.M.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:A5597BF31183 2007-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Evaluation of some bacterial isolates as germination stimulants of Striga hermonthica O. O. Babalola, D. K. Berner and N. A. Amusa Full Length Research Paper To investigate the role of Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterobacter sakazakii in Striga hermonthica seed germination, we have used two varieties of sorghum to test over time for the selected bacteria, using GR-24, a synthetic strigol analogue as a standard and water as a check. Sorghum seeds coated with a mixture of bacterial cells (5 x 107cfu ml-1) from 24 h old cultures were planted in pasteurized potted soil, which was infested with 0.05 g (about 3000) viable S. hermonthica seed per pot 14 d before sowing. Results have indicated that the bacterial isolates could stimulate S. hermonthica germination in the laboratory and in the screen-house. In vitro, only Pseudomonas sp. 4MKS8 gave significant stimulation of S. hermonthica seed at 5% level of probability as compared to the water check. In the screen-house, the four bacterial isolates stimulated significant germination of S. hermonthica. Key words: Striga hermonthica, Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter sakazakii, germination stimulant, sorghum. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/A5597BF31183 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000321 en Copyright © 2007 O. O. Babalola, D. K. Berner and N. A. Amusa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:2B268FF31052 2007-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Effect of plastic mulch on economizing irrigation water and weed control in baby corn sown by different methods Gulshan Mahajan, Rakesh Sharda, Ashwani Kumar and K.G. Singh Full Length Research Paper Field experiments were conducted during the winter season of 2003 -04 and 2004 -05 to determine the effect of mulch in relation to irrigation and planting method on soil temperature, weed control, baby corn growth, water use and yield. The study revealed that bed planting of baby corn caused 34.9% increase in yield over ridge planting method. Plastic mulch increased baby corn yield by 18.9% and 77.5% over rice straw and unmulched treatment respectively. Baby corn yield at irrigation level of 1.2 ETc proved significantly superior to 1.0 ETc and 0.8 ETc levels. The study further revealed that plastic mulch at irrigation level of 0.8 ETc resulted significant increase in yield by 28.6% over unmulched soil condition even when it was irrigated at 1.2 ETc and resulted 30.6% of water saving. It was interesting that in bed planting method, plastic mulch caused statistically same baby corn yield at all the levels of irrigation with maximum water use efficiency of 40.1 kg/ha-cm at irrigation level of 0.8 ETc, while in ridge planting method the baby corn yield was statically same only at irrigation level of 1.2 ETc and 1.0 ETc, while at 0.8 ETc it decreased significantly. Key words: Baby corn, irrigation, plastic mulch, planting method, weeds, water use efficiency, soil temperature. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/2B268FF31052 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000217 en Copyright © 2007 Gulshan Mahajan, Rakesh Sharda, Ashwani Kumar and K.G. Singh
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:FD0063830934 2007-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
An assessment of use of radio in agricultural information dissemination: a case study of radio Benue in Nigeria O. J. Okwu, A. A. Kuku and J. I. Aba Full Length Research Paper This study investigated the use of radio as a medium of agricultural information delivery to farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. The objective was to determine the impact of radio agricultural programmes on the target audience (farmers). The data were collected from a sample of one hundred respondents selected through a simple random sampling technique. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics viz frequency distribution and percentage. The findings of the study showed that 66% of the respondents listened to agricultural programmes aired on Radio Benue and 42% of the listeners indicated that the programmes were relevant to their agricultural information needs. Majority of the respondents admitted that they gained some new knowledge through listening to the programmes. Non-possession of radio set and unsuitable time of programme presentation were indicated constraints to listener- ship of the programmes. The programmes, to a large extent, had the desired impact on the listeners. It should therefore be sustained but with some modifications in terms of time of presentation and encouragement of group listener- ship. Key words: Agricultural Information, radio, assessment, listener-ship and impact. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/FD0063830934 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000040 en Copyright © 2007 O. J. Okwu, A. A. Kuku and J. I. Aba
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:2D6282030823 2007-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Economic evaluation of soil fertility management options on cassava-based cropping systems in the rain forest ecological zone of south western Nigeria Makinde, E. A., Saka, J. O. and Makinde, J. O. Full Length Research Paper This study was carried out to determine the economic viability of fertility management options in cassava based cropping systems. Data were obtained from an on-station agronomic trial carried out in 1995 and 1996 in the rainforest agro-ecological zone of south western Nigeria. Economic evaluation was carried out using partial budget and Marginal Rate of Return (MRR) Analyses. The result showed that higher net returns were obtained from inorganic fertilizer (N285,748 in 1995 and N259,569 in 1996) followed by inorganic fertilizer + Soybean + soybean residue (N274,826 in 1995 and N255,413 in 1996). However, the result of the MRR analysis indicated that farmers stand to gain better if they change from no fertilizer control to either organic fertilizer (278%) or further to inorganic fertilizer with a MRR of 1255% respectively. Similar result was obtained in 1996 with organic fertilizer (494%) and inorganic fertilizer (1115%). However, considering the problem of scarcity often associated with inorganic fertilizer, the choice of organic fertilizer is more likely to be accepted by the farmers. Key words: Production economics, fertility management, cassava-based cropping systems. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/2D6282030823 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000190 en Copyright © 2007 Makinde, E. A., Saka, J. O. and Makinde, J. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:988495E30735 2007-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Biomass and nitrogen accumulation by green manure legumes as affected by phosphate rock in submerged soils Eklou A. Somado and Kanwar L. Sahrawat Full Length Research Paper Lowlands in West Africa are increasingly absorbing the growing pressure on land for food crop production. However, the current intensification of lowland cropping systems result in the mining of soil nutrient reserves, particularly of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). While N can be supplied via biological N fixation (BNF) by legumes, P deficiency frequently limits both food crop growth as well as legume BNF, especially on acidic soils in the humid forest and savanna regions. Fortunately, large deposits of phosphate rocks (PR) exist in many African countries; and moreover, the PR efficacy can be enhanced when applied to submerged acidic soils. Thus the use of PR may not only supply the limiting P to soil and food crops, but also stimulate BNF-N by legumes including legumes used for green manuring in production systems. A screen house experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of PR-P on the performance of N-fixing legume Aeschynomene afraspera L. during three successive cropping cycles under submerged conditions. BNF was estimated by the 15N-isotope dilution technique, using rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a non-fixing plant. The experimental soil was Ultisol low in available P. Unprocessed PR from Mali was applied at 60 kg P ha -1. Initial application of PR significantly increased legume above ground biomass and BNF over the unfertilized control by 1.4- and 3-fold respectively. This PR-induced growth stimulation further increased during the subsequent cropping period with a maximum biomass of 6.4 tons ha-1 and 80 kg of BNF-derived N ha-1 above the unamended control. The application of P significantly increased the percent N derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa). However, compared to the first two cropping cycles, the efficacy of applied PR-P declined during the third cropping cycle, probably as a result of rise in soil pH following soil reduction. The results suggest that PR can be a useful P source for food crops in rotation with legumes. Key words: Aeschynomene afraspera, phosphate rock, biological nitrogen fixation and flooded soils. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/988495E30735 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000089 en Copyright © 2007 Eklou A. Somado and Kanwar L. Sahrawat
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:E9A007528937 2007-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Relationships among milk production, reproductive traits, and herd life for Tunisian Holstein-Friesian cows N. Ajili, B. Rekik, A. Ben Gara, and R. Bouraoui Full Length Research Paper The objective of this study was to link productive life of Tunisian dairy cows to their performances of milk, fat, and protein yields and fertility traits. Data included 128,652 records collected from 1990 to 2004 on 47,276 Holstein-Friesian cows in 142 herds. A linear model that included fixed effects of herd-calving year, calving season, parity, and age at first calving was used to study variations of milk production, fertility, and herd life. Relations among yield and fertility traits and herd life were examined by computing linear correlations between residuals from fitting respective linear models. Under Tunisian conditions, a dairy cow averages 5905, 180, and 167 kg of milk, fat, and protein, respectively. Intervals between successive calving and from calving to first service, and days open were 427, 90, and 163 days, respectively. True herd life was 41.99 (SD = 24.6) months. The optimal age at first calving ranged between 23 and 27 months. Cows with intermediate yields tended to stay longer in the herd than low or high producing ones. The mean lactation number was 2.6 with more than 57% of cows culled after the first two lactations and only 7.14% of them reached their fifth lactation. Phenotypic correlations of true herd life with milk, fat, and protein yields were 0.07, 0.11, and 0.09, respectively. Those with fertility parameters ranged from -0.04 (with days open) to 0.06 (with calving interval). Key words: Milk production, reproductive traits, herd life, dairy cattle. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/E9A007528937 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000586 en Copyright © 2007 N. Ajili, B. Rekik, A. Ben Gara, and R. Bouraoui
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:AA9212528894 2007-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
The desalination of salt water destine to irrigation by electrodialysis and its effects on the germination, growth and seed yield of wheat (Triticum durum Desf. Var.Karim) S. El Malki, R. El Habbani, M. Tahaikt, M. Zeraouli and A. Elmidaoui Full Length Research Paper Morocco is characterised by a semi-arid climate and by unlimited conventional fresh water especially underground water. Electrodialysis experiment to desalinise water for irrigation was conduced on underground water from the north of Morocco. The effects of the use of desalted water on the germination and growth and seed yield of wheat were monitored to determine the best yield from use of desalted water for irrigation of wheat. Key words: Electrodialysis, desalination, wheat, germination, production. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/AA9212528894 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000685 en Copyright © 2007 S. El Malki, R. El Habbani, M. Tahaikt, M. Zeraouli and A. Elmidaoui
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:8922F5328857 2007-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Long-range persistent correlations in decade-long SPOT-VGT NDVI records of fire affected and fire un-affected sites Luciano Telesca and Rosa Lasaponara Full Length Research Paper We investigated the fire-induced variability in the 1998-2003 time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from SPOT-VEGETATION sensor for two different kinds of vegetation sites: fire un-affected and fire-affected. The statistical analysis, performed by using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), showed that fires contribute in increasing the persistence of time dynamics of vegetation, driving unstable patterns in vegetation dynamics of burned areas. Key words: Fires, NDVI, detrended fluctuation analysis Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/8922F5328857 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000472 en Copyright © 2007 Luciano Telesca and Rosa Lasaponara
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:6AAA3D937425 2007-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Comparative productivity of nitrogen-use efficient and nitrogen-inefficient maize cultivars and traditional grain sorghum in the moist Savanna of West Africa S.O. Oikeh, V.O. Chude, G. J. Kling and W. J. Horst Full Length Research Paper Strategies to cope with low fertilizer use in West Africa include choice of crop (that is., sorghum vs. maize) and the development of nitrogen-use efficient maize (Zea mays L.) varieties. A two-year field study was undertaken to compare the N response of an N-use efficient maize (hybrid, cv. 8644-27) and a nitrogen-inefficient maize (cv. TZB-SR), and to compare the productivity of the two cultivars with a traditional grain-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) in the moist savanna agroecosystem in Zaria, Nigeria. The two maize cultivars were evaluated under three N levels (0, 60, and 120 kg ha-1). Sorghum (cv. lsquo;morirsquo;) was evaluated under 0 and 120 kg N ha-1. Mean grain yield was 0.5 Mg ha-1 greater for N-use efficient than for N-inefficient maize, mostly because of its larger harvest indices for dry biomass and for N, and a greater N-utilization efficiency. In both years, with 120 kg N ha-1 applied, grain yield and grain-N were 54 to 275% higher in maize than in grain sorghum. Under nitrogen stress (zero-N), grain yield of the N-efficient maize was similar to that of grain sorghum. But sorghum had 2 to 3 times greater total aboveground dry-matter yield and 165 to 230% higher total N-uptake than the maize cultivars, suggesting that sorghum was exhausting the soil of a greater amount of mineral-N than maize. Results showed that even under limiting nitrogen supply, a maize-based system with N-efficient maize was potentially more ecologically sustainable than a sorghum-based system involving traditional grain sorghum. Key words: Cereal-based systems, grain sorghum, moist savanna, N-efficient maize, N-inefficient maize, N-utilization efficiency, West Africa Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/6AAA3D937425 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000115 en Copyright © 2007 S.O. Oikeh, V.O. Chude, G. J. Kling and W. J. Horst
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:C8B90A037361 2007-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Effects of the soil texture and the burying depth of the larvae on some biological parameters of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Trypetidae) Ali Ahmed D, Soltani N , Kellouche A, Mazouzi F Full Length Research Paper We have studied the effect of the soil texture and the different depths on the emergence rate, the duration of pupation and the sex-ratio of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. Three different texture of soil have been tested: clay loam, silty clay loam and sandy loam. As far as the depth of burying of the larva is concerned, we have tested six varied depths from 2 to 20 cm.The results have shown that the silty clay loam texture reduces the emergence rate of C. Capitata but the sandy loam soil favours the pupation. The tested depths of burying revealed a significant effect on the emergence rate. The lowest depths (from 2 to 10 cm) permit a high emergence rate. However, the sex-ratio seems to be not influenced by the nature of the soil and less by the depth of burying. Key words: Ceratitis capitata, depth of burying, emergence, pupation, sex-ratio, soil texture. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/C8B90A037361 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000273 en Copyright © 2007 Ali Ahmed D, Soltani N , Kellouche A, Mazouzi F
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:562454937302 2007-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Soil moisture and its consequences under different management in a six year old hedged agroforestry demonstration plot in semi-arid Kenya, for two successive contrasting seasons S. B. B. Otengi, C. J. Stigter, J.K. Ng#;anga and H. Liniger Full Length Research Paper Hedged agroforestry (AF) demonstration plots with maize/bean intercrops were studied at Matanya in Laikipia district, Kenya, between 1991 and 1995 inclusive, to understand crop yield behaviour due to selected soil moisture conservation methods applicable in semi-arid areas. The treatments were: Grevillea robusta trees root pruned, compared to unpruned, both in combination with (1) minimum tillage and mulching with 3t/ha maize stalks harvested from the plots with additional stalks collected from the nearby farms, and (2) the locally applied method of deep tillage practiced by the immigrants from wetter regions, acting as the control. Results showed that: (i) plots with root pruned Grevillea robusta trees that were mulched and minimum tilled had most soil moisture available in the shallower layers, during the wettest and the driest season on which this paper is based; (ii) the variation of soil moisture with distance from the Grevillea robusta trees showed patterns that were quite similar for plots with root pruned trees in the dry and the wet season; (iii) beans had greater seed yields and maize had more (stover) biomass and (only in the wettest season) grain in plots with pruned trees, minimum tilled and mulched, than in other AF plots. In the wettest season this resulted in identical maize yields but lower bean seed yields compared to those in the mulched and sometimes also the local control plots without trees. In the driest season bean yields remained the same but maize biomass yields improved above the control yields for the most successful agroforestry intervention applied; (iv) competition between the six year old Grevillea robusta trees and the crops was indirectly confirmed to be stronger than in earlier experiments in the same plots. This way the agroforestry demonstration plots were very successful in showing the consequences of the ageing agroforestry system, where the soil moisture conservation measures of pruning and mulching kept their effects. Statistical analysis only weakly confirmed the positive effect of root pruning on reducing competition for soil moisture between crops and trees that were very clearly shown to exist by the physical error analysis. Key words: Agroforestry, demonstrations, hedges, intercropping, Kenya, semi-arid land, soil moisture management, wind problems Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/562454937302 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000642 en Copyright © 2007 S. B. B. Otengi, C. J. Stigter, J.K. Ng#;anga and H. Liniger
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:D1BB66A37271 2007-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Effects of variety and row spacing on radiation interception, partitioning of dry matter and seed set efficiency in late season sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in a humid zone of Nigeria Agele, S. O. , Maraiyesa, I. O. and Adeniji, I. A Full Length Research Paper In the tropics, crops sown in the late season are subjected to concurrent stresses of high air and soil temperatures, large saturation vapour pressure deficits and negligible soil water regimes. The responses of three sunflower cultivars to row spacing was analysed in terms of radiation interception and use, plant to plant variability, biomass accumulation and seed set efficiency during the late seasons of 2002 and 2003 on the field in Akure, a rainforest zone of Nigeria. Sunflower cultivars (Functua local, Record and Isaanka) were cropped at 90 x 30, 90 x 60 and 60 x 30 cm row spacing corresponding to 37,037, 18,519 and 55,555 plant.m-2 Increasing density of plant stand appeared to have promoted differences in resource availability per plant during growing season. Row spacing did not significantly affect IPAR while the effects of spacing and cultivar were similar on RUE. Leaf area and dry matter accumulation are suboptimal but RUE appeared to be conservative in circumstances of high saturation vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture stress of the late season. Crops in wide rows intercepted less radiation than their counterparts in narrow rows, and yield response to narrow rows was significant in all cultivars. Seed yield/ha increased as plant density increased although yield of the individual plants and their components were significantly reduced. Among the cultivars, differences in the growth of individual plant at different intensities of inter plant competition were obtained, narrow row spacing enhanced plant-plant variability (inter-plant variation). Under the limiting soil water situation enhanced soil temperatures of the late season EF relates to plant biomass (r2 gt; 0.70), dry matter relates to accumulated intercepted radiation IPAR (r2 gt; 0.90) and fractional intercepted radiation (fIPAR) relates to seed yield (r2 gt; 0.95) while fIPAR is a function of thermal time (TT) (r2 gt; 0.80). Key words: Sunflower, cultivars, late season, RUE, extinction coefficient, plant-plant variability, dry matter partitioning, seed set, seed yield Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/D1BB66A37271 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000277 en Copyright © 2007 Agele, S. O. , Maraiyesa, I. O. and Adeniji, I. A
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:0165A2237220 2007-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Phytochemical characterization and the antimicrobial property of Aframomum danielli extract Fasoyiro, S.B and Adegoke, G.O Full Length Research Paper Characterization of preliminary phytochemical components of Aframomum danielli seeds was determined. Fractions of the seeds obtained by vacuum liquid chromatographic process were tested for antimicrobial activities. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardenolides, carotenoids and polyphenols. All fractions obtained from the petroleum ether extract exhibited antimicrobial activity on food-borne pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentrations in the range of 100 ndash; 800 microgram per millilitres. Key words: Phytochemicals, A. danielli fractions, antimicrobial properties. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/0165A2237220 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000541 en Copyright © 2007 Fasoyiro, S.B and Adegoke, G.O
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:303E73B37195 2007-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Reactions of cowpea to infection by Macrophomina phaseolina isolates from leguminous plants in Nigeria Amusa N.A. Okechukwu R.Uand Akinfenwa B Short Communication The reaction of cowpea to infection by Macrophomina phaseolina isolates, from leguminous plants in Nigeria, was investigated at Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. M. phaseolina isolates obtained from six different leguminous species induced necrotic lesions of varying sizes on two cowpea varieties, IT83D-340 and IT84D-488. Isolate 93-295 from winged bean(Psophocarpus tetragonoloteus) leaf tissues was the most virulent, inducing necrotic lesions of 4.8 mm in diameter on cowpea stem tissues while the smallest necrotic lesion size of 3.2 mm was induced on the same cowpea by isolate 93-52-1. This suggests that cowpea varieties are highly susceptible to M. phaseolina isolates from six different legumes. Moreover, the reactions of the two-cowpea varieties to M. phaseolina isolates from the six legumes differ significantly. This suggests that differences exist in the susceptibility of cowpea varieties to the pathogen. Key words: Macrophomina phaseolina, pathogenicity, leguminous plant, cowpea diseases,southwestern Nigeria. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/303E73B37195 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000581 en Copyright © 2007 Amusa N.A. Okechukwu R.Uand Akinfenwa B
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:41D102937175 2007-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Sources of microbial contamination in tissue culture laboratories in southwestern Nigeria Odutayo, O. I., Amusa, N. A., Okutade, O. O. and Ogunsanwo Y.R. Full Length Research Paper Microbial contamination is a constant problem, which often compromise development of all in vitro techniques. This study aimed at investigating the source of microbial contamination in tissue culture laboratories in southwestern Nigeria. Nineteen microbial contaminants (consisting of eleven bacteria and eight fungi) were found associated with the tissue culture plants and the laboratory environments. The bacterial contaminants includes, Pseudomonas flourescens,Escherichia coli, Proteus sp, Micrococcus spp, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium sp and Erwinia sp. While Fungi isolates were Alterneria tenius, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium sp,Saccharomyces sp, Fusarium oxysporum, Rizopus nigricans and Fusarium culmorum. The rate of occurrence of S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis and E. coli were found to be higher (ranging from 36-46%) in human skin than in all other sampled materials. The laboratory walls and tables also harbored most of the contaminating microbes. The laboratory indoor air was found associated with all the contaminating microbes. Key words: Micro-propagation, plant tissue culture, bacterial and fungal isolates, contamination. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/41D102937175 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000650 en Copyright © 2007 Odutayo, O. I., Amusa, N. A., Okutade, O. O. and Ogunsanwo Y.R.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:C2C00D637145 2007-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Crop-livestock diversification patterns in relation to income and manure use: A case study from a Rift Valley Community, Kenya Miyuki Iiyama, Joseph Maitima and Patrick Kariuki Full Length Research Paper Most rural households in the semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa practise mixed crop-livestock farming. With population growth and the subsequent scarcity of land available for extensive farming, the only option available for these households is to intensify production. For this to be successful, one must understand the divergent patterns of intensification and their relation to the economic needs of households. In a Rift Valley community in Kenya, inter-household heterogeneities in adopting distinctive combinations of particular crop and livestock productions (they are defined as lsquo;crop-livestock diversificationrsquo; or CLD patterns) were observed. Principal component analysis was used to identify the dominant CLD patterns which reflect complementarities between crop and livestock types. This was followed by an assessment of the association between the CLD patterns and the economic returns and manure use of the households. Among the five dominant CLD patterns identified, households that kept improved cattle and grew fruits were found to earn higher incomes and apply more organic manure. Conversely, households that grew staple crops with or without indigenous animals were found to apply less manure. Education, participation in farmersrsquo; groups, access to the training centre, and family size were key factors affecting the adoption of CLD patterns. Key words: Crop-livestock integration, sustainable intensification, income, manure application, rural Kenya Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/C2C00D637145 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000138 en Copyright © 2007 Miyuki Iiyama, Joseph Maitima and Patrick Kariuki
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:278735E37099 2007-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Milking performance of China yak (Bos grunniens): A preliminary report Shikui Dong, Ruijun Long, Muyi Kang Review Yak milk plays a very important role in Tibetanrsquo;s daily life. Milk and milk products are the major dietary ingredients as well as family incomes of Tibetan herders in China. Yak milk yield andcomposition are seasonal and affected by the breed, age, parity and body condition of cow, pasture growth and quality, milking time, milking methods and environmental factors. In this paper, milk production and composition of different breeds are documented, and effects of feeding level, milking time, milking method, environmental factors on milking performance are discussed. It is found that Batang yak from Qinghai Province peaks and Jiali yak from Tibet Autonomous Region bottoms milk production, with 487.2 and 147.6 kg fresh milk per lactation respectively. Comparatively, milk of Jiulong yak and Sibu yak has higher dry matter and fat contents, and milk of Tianzhu White yak contains more protein and lactose. Winter supplementation on dams can improve calf production and milk yield of mother yaks in the following warm season. Compared with once-a-day milking, twice-a-day milking stimulates yak female to give about one third more milk, which, however negatively affect the growth of calves.Yak produces less milk at too high temperature with strong solar radiation on clear days, but more milk within short periods of cloudy or rainy time. Key words: China; yak, breeds, milk performance. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/278735E37099 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000491 en Copyright © 2007 Shikui Dong, Ruijun Long, Muyi Kang
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:1FB526130914 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Control of ochratoxin A (OTA) in kunu zaki (a non-alcoholic beverage) using DaniellinTM Adegoke, G. O, Odeyemi, A. O., Hussien, O. and Ikheorah, J. Kunu-zaki, a non-alcoholic beverage, was produced using modified traditional method incorporating DaniellinTM. Treated samples kept for 5 days at ambient condition (26+-2 C) while untreated samples kept for only 1 day. Protein contents and calorific values of kunu-zakitreated with DaniellinTM (0.5 to 5.0%, w/v) were between 5.76 to 5.93% and 1606.47 to 1626.8 KJ/100g while values for untreated samples were 5.72% and 1547 KJ/100g respectively. Ochratoxin A (OTA) in raw materials used for kunu-zaki production was reduced from 50 mg/kg to lt;1.5 mg/kg with the incorporation of DaniellinTM at 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%. Key words: Ochratoxin A, kunu-zaki beverage, DaniellinTM, food safety. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/1FB526130914 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000131 en Copyright © 2007 Adegoke, G. O, Odeyemi, A. O., Hussien, O. and Ikheorah, J.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:6CDE0CA30882 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Application of para-wood charcoal as the media of the vertical-flow constructed wetland for treatment of domestic wastewater Suntud Sirianuntapiboon, Thitima Chandanasotthi, Prapa Sohsalam, Methinee Rarunroeng and Jutarat Sansak Full Length Research Paper The research aimed to observe the efficiency of vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) system using Para-wood charcoal as the media and Typha sp. as the cultivating plant to treat domestic wastewater. The removal efficiency was increased with the increase of HRT or decrease of hydraulic loading. And the size of Para-wood charcoal media (1, 3 and 5 cm in diameter) did not show any effect to the system efficiency under the lowest hydraulic loading of 0.05 m3/m2d. The microbial degradation of organic matter was promoted by the activity of the cultivated plant (Typha sp.) due to the transferring of oxygen from the atmosphere to the root system of cultivated plant. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds of the wastewater were assimilated into the cultivated plant tissue with the highest level as 1.34 ndash; 1.51 and 0.12 ndash; 0.15 g/100 g plant tissue with the lowest plant-growth rate of 1.42 ndash; 2.0 kg/m2 under the lowest hydraulic loading of 0.05 m3/m2d. Para-wood charcoal was most suitable for using as the media due to the low reduction of infiltration rate of only 1.4% after 3 months operation. However, this VFCW system with small size media (1.5 cm in diameter) at lowest hydraulic loading of 0.05 m3/m2d showed the highest biological oxygen demand (BOD5), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphate (TP) and suspended solids (SS) removal efficiencies of 95.5 plusmn; 1.7, 92.1 plusmn; 2.3, 95.5plusmn; 2.7 and 94.5 plusmn; 1.6%, respectively. Key words: Constructed wetlands, vertical flow, para-wood charcoal, Typha sp., domestic wastewater. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/6CDE0CA30882 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000060 en Copyright © 2007 Suntud Sirianuntapiboon, Thitima Chandanasotthi, Prapa Sohsalam, Methinee Rarunroeng and Jutarat Sansak
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:3182FB430820 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Seromonitoring of especially dangerous diseases in small ruminants in the Republic of Tajikistan Koshemetov Zh. K., Matveyeva V. M., Mamadaliyev S. M., Nurabayev S. Sh., Azhibayev A. Zh. and Orynbayev M. B. Full Length Research Paper Seromonitoring for antibodies against especially dangerous viral infections in small ruminants in the Republic of Tajikistan was conducted. Antibodies to sheep pox and PPR viruses were detected in blood sera of small ruminants. Key words: Virus, antigen, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, sheep pox, peste des petits ruminants. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/3182FB430820 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000629 en Copyright © 2007 Koshemetov Zh. K., Matveyeva V. M., Mamadaliyev S. M., Nurabayev S. Sh., Azhibayev A. Zh. and Orynbayev M. B.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:D56E26030772 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Levels of variability in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to cercospora leaf spot disease – implication for selection A. U. Izge, Z. H. Mohammed and A. Goni Full Length Research Paper Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop both in subsistence and commercial agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Leaf spot diseases caused by fungus have been a major destructive disease of groundnut and could cause a yield loss of up to 50 % or more. A two-year experiment was conducted during the cropping seasons of 2002 and 2003 at the Faculty of Agriculture Research Farm, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. The objective of the study was to determine the reaction of different groundnut varieties to cercospora leaf spot disease to create basis for selection for cercospora leaf spot disease tolerance. The experiment consisted of twenty-four groundnut varieties, laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated highly significant difference among the groundnut varieties in all the characters studied. The results indicated that ICGV-SM-93531, ICGV-IS-96802, ICGV-IS-96827 and ICGV-IS-96808 had the lowest cercospora leaf spot incidence. The variety ICGV-IS-96808 that produced the highest kernel yield also had the lowest days to 50% flowering and incidentally is among varieties that recorded the lowest leaf spot incidence. The study found tremendous level of variability existing among the groundnut varieties that is essential in crop improvement. This study recommends that development or selection of tolerant varieties to leaf spot should be based on their level of incidence. This will be the only effective measure in decreasing production costs and protect the environment from pollution. Potential therefore exist for selection among the groundnut varieties evaluated for cercospora leaf spot disease tolerance. There is however, a need to undertake further studies in order to determine the type and the number of genes controlling cercospora leaf spot disease tolerance in groundnuts for enhanced breeding strategies. Key words: Groundnut, leaf spot, tolerance, incidence, selection, breeding strategy. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/D56E26030772 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000463 en Copyright © 2007 A. U. Izge, Z. H. Mohammed and A. Goni
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:435B46E30727 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Survey of the post harvest diseases and aflatoxin contamination of marketed pawpaw fruit (Carica papaya L) in South Western Nigeria Baiyewu, R.A., Amusa, N. A. Ayoola, O.A. and Babalola, O.O. Full Length Research Paper Survey and collection of the marketed pawpaw fruit with rot symptoms were conducted in the South Western Nigeria in 2000 and 2001 respectively. Pawpaw fruits showing rot symptoms that are displayed for sale in three different market places in three major cities in south western Nigeria namely, Ibadan, Abeokuta and Akure were collected and examined for the presence f the inducing pathogens and for aflatoxin contamination. The most commonly fungi found in rotten pawpaw fruits were: Rhizopus nigricans, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillusniger, Fusarium moniliforme, Colleto-trichum capsici and Trichoderma viride. Rhizopusnigricans, F. moniliforme A. flavus and A. niger had the highest rate of occurrence among the isolated fungi while C. lunata was the least encountered. Pathogenicity tests revealed that of all the isolated fungi, R. nigricans, C. lunata and F. moniliforme were highly pathogenic with the first two leading to rapid disintegration of treated fruits in 3-5 days. A. niger was moderately pathogenic, while A. flavus T. viride caused the least amount of rot on pawpaw fruits. Aflatoxins were detected from infected pawpaw fruits, both before and after autoclaving fruit for 15 min at 121oC. Key words: Carica papaya, aflatoxins, post-harvest diseases, survey. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/435B46E30727 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000665 en Copyright © 2007 Baiyewu, R.A., Amusa, N. A. Ayoola, O.A. and Babalola, O.O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:491C5DE30606 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Persistence of insecticidal activities of crude essential oils of three aromatic plants towards four major stored product insect pests Ngamo T. S. L, Ngatanko I, Ngassoum M. B. , Mapongmestsem P. M. , Hance T. Full Length Research Paper Essential oils of aromatic plants with insecticidal properties are more and more considered as alternative insecticides to protect stored products. Many banned insecticides have high persistence which allow them to occur at several levels of trophic chains. The aim of the present work is to analyse the persistence of insecticidal activity of crude essential oil of three most used local aromatic plants : Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae), Hyptis spicigera L. (Lamiaceae) and Lippia rugosa L. (Verbenaceae) towards the four majors stored product insect pests: Sitophilus zeamais Motsch., Sitophilus oryzae L., Callosobruchus maculatusFab. and Tribolium castaneum Herbst. This research revealed that H. spicigera essential oil was the most active towards S. oryzae with a LD50 = 20.18ppm. T. castaneum was the less sensitive insect to the three essential oils tested. During a period of 24 hours L. rugosa essential oil was the most persistent, showing mortalities for S. zeamais of 80%, S. oryzae more than 60%, C. maculatus 100% and T. castaneum 50%. The two other oils tested were not as persistent as L. rugosa. This important persistence of the essential oil of L. rugosa could be explained by its high content of oxygenated compounds compared to that of the other oils. This most interesting essential oil is therefore a suitable one for popularisation in strategies of pest management in storage. Key words: essential oils, aromatic plants, stored products, insect pests, persistence. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/491C5DE30606 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000536 en Copyright © 2007 Ngamo T. S. L, Ngatanko I, Ngassoum M. B. , Mapongmestsem P. M. , Hance T.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:EE51EE130573 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Potential of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as biocontrol agent of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleopetera: Bruchidae) Ngamo, T. S. L., Kouninki, H., Ladang, Y. D., Ngassoum, M. B., Mapongmestsem, P. M. and Hance T. Full Length Research Paper The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleopetera: Bruchidae) is a major pest of stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in Africa and particularly in northern Cameroon.Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoid of its larval stages, could be used in the biological control of this grain pest. In field conditions, 5 months samples in small holder granaries established the phenological relationship between this parasitoid and its host. Large amount of A. calandrae may efficiently control C. maculatus infestations. Laboratory assays made an evidence of the preference of A. calandrae to parasitise 4th instar larvae of C. maculatus. To estimate the suitable density of the infesting population of parasitoid, other experiments pointed out that one mated female induced reduction of 4.97% of emergence of C. maculatus while 4 females performed more. The reduction of emergence observed was 42.34%. In suitable density, A. calandrae may play an important role in the biological control ofC. maculatus on cowpea during storage. Key words: Anisopteromalus calandrae, biological control, Cameroon, Callosobruchus maculatus, Cowpea. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/EE51EE130573 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000551 en Copyright © 2007 Ngamo, T. S. L., Kouninki, H., Ladang, Y. D., Ngassoum, M. B., Mapongmestsem, P. M. and Hance T.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:1EFC78330532 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Chronic toxicity of essential oils of 3 local aromatic plants towards Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) Ngamo Tinkeu L. S., Goudoum A., Ngassoum M. B., Mapongmetsem, Lognay G., Malaisse F. and Hance T. Full Length Research Paper The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais is a major stored grain pest currently controlled by chemical pesticides. This commonly used control method to prevent post-harvest losses leads to pollution of the environment and intoxication of consumers. Essential oils of aromatic plants are more considered as good control alternative tools. The amount of active volatile of essential oils present in granaries is almost as infra lethal doses. The present work aimed to analyse the chronic toxicity of low doses of essential oils of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae), Hyptis spicigera L. (Lamiaceae) and Lippia rugosa L. (Verbenaceae). These plants are toxic to the pest at high doses. At the dose 2.5 x 10-2 ml/ml, they all reduced the oviposition of S. zeamais. Moreover L. rugosa and H. spicigera were the most active of the biological potential of S. zeamais reducing significantly its amount of grains attacked (F = 8.63**) and that of the rejected flour (F = 41.04***). This chronic toxicity therefore prevents grains from destruction. Key words: Aromatic plants, chemical control, essential oils, feeding deterrence, Sitophilus zeamais, oviposition. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/1EFC78330532 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000098 en Copyright © 2007 Ngamo Tinkeu L. S., Goudoum A., Ngassoum M. B., Mapongmetsem, Lognay G., Malaisse F. and Hance T.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:BAF22D830491 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
The role of eggs inoculum level of Meloidogyne incognita on their reproduction and host reaction El-Sherif, A. G.; A. R. Refaei, M. E. El-Nagar and Hagar, M. M. Salem Full Length Research Paper Two pot experiments were separately conducted to determine the influence of four or three inoculum levels (0, 250, 500 and 1000 or 0, 1000 and 2000 nematode eggs/ 850 g soil/pot) ofMeloidogyne incognita on population density of the nematode and host reaction of two solanacious plants viz tomato cv. Castle rock or pepper cv. Anaheim under partly controlled greenhouse at 23 plusmn; 4oC. Nematode reproduction and host damage were both affected by the initial inoculum levels and revealed a reduction in total the fresh weight of the plants as the inoculum level increased from 250 to 1000 eggs/ tomato plant with values of 18.6 and 43.9%. The rate of build up of M. incognita on tomato increased from 1.14 to 1.48, respectively. When the initial inoculum (Pi) level was increased up to 2000 eggs per pepper plant, the percentage reduction of whole plant fresh weight (73.2%) and shoot dry weight (55.3%) as well as rate of nematode build-up (1.49) also obviously increased. Galls and egg masses/root system increased as Pi was increased on both host plants. Regression analysis of Pi vs rate of nematode build-up either on tomato or pepper plants gave values of R2 amounted to 0.6904 or 0.8149, respectively. This means the susceptibility of tomato cv. Castle Rock to M. incognita infection was more than did pepper cv. Anaheim under greenhouse condition. Key words: Population density, pepper, tomato, inoculum level, Meloidogyne incognita. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/BAF22D830491 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000728 en Copyright © 2007 El-Sherif, A. G.; A. R. Refaei, M. E. El-Nagar and Hagar, M. M. Salem
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:04E0EA130398 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Utilization of phosphorus from different sources by genotypes of promiscuous soybean and cowpea in a low-phosphorus savanna soil O. C. Nwoke, J. Diels, R. C. Abaidoo and N. Sanginga Full Length Research Paper The differential ability of genotypes of soybean (Glycine max) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to thrive under low-phosphorus (P) conditions by utilising P from sources with low solubility was assessed in a greenhouse study with a low-P savanna soil collected from a research field in Fashola, south-western Nigeria. The P sources added (21 mg P kg-1 soil) were calcium phosphate (Ca-P), iron phosphate (Fe-P), aluminium phosphate (Al-P), and triple superphosphate (TSP). Soil without P addition served as a control. The soybean genotypes were TGm 1039, TGm 1196, TGm 1293, TGm 1360, TGm 1420, TGm 1511, and TGm 1540. The cowpea genotypes were Danila, IT89KD-349, IT89KD-391, IT90K-59, and IT82D-716. Nearly all the soybean genotypes significantly increased their shoot dry matter yield (DMY) and accumulation of P from the various sources when compared with the control; the ranking for P acquisition was controllt;Al-Plt;Fe-Plt;Ca-P=TSP. The shoot DMY and shoot P accumulation of most of the cowpea genotypes were also significantly increased by the addition of CaP, Fe-P, and TSP; the addition of Al-P had no significant effect. The cowpea genotypes varied widely in acquiring P from the P sources. However, the general ranking was control=AlPlt;FePlt;CaP=TSP. For both crop species, the shoot DM yields under Ca-P and TSP treatments were not significantly different. From the analysis of shoot P accumulation with the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) model, the cowpea genotype IT89KD-391 was better than other genotypes with Ca-P as P source; genotype IT90K-59 was better when Fe-P was the P source. In contrast, most of the soybean genotypes appeared to have access to the P sources in a similar manner Keywords: Soybean, cowpea, genotypes, savanna soil, sparingly soluble phosphorus. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/04E0EA130398 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000754 en Copyright © 2007 O. C. Nwoke, J. Diels, R. C. Abaidoo and N. Sanginga
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:8B8C5B130372 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Nitrogen balance and dynamics as affected by water table and fertilization management in celery (Apium graveolens) cropping system of southwestern China Huaming Guo , Guanghe Li , Dayi Zhang , Xu Zhang and Changrsquo;ai Lu Full Length Research Paper Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/8B8C5B130372 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000504 en Copyright © 2007 Huaming Guo , Guanghe Li , Dayi Zhang , Xu Zhang and Changrsquo;ai Lu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:28CBE7730343 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Hepatomodulatory role of Enicostemma littorale Blume against oxidative stress induced liver injury in rats R.S. Gupta and Dharmendra Singh Full Length Research Paper The hepatomodulatory response of ethanol extract of Enicostemma littorale Blume was examined in contrast to oxidative stress-induced liver injury by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in albino wistar male rats. The rats received the extract, orally at the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b wt/day for 21 consecutive days and CCl4, at the dose of 0.2 ml/kg b wt/twice a week, i.p with olive oil, in the ratio 1:1 treatment. The rats subjected only CCl4 with olive oil, showed remarkable oxidative stress-induced liver injury. Supplementation of E. littorale extract significantly (Plt; 0.001) increased the hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and vitamin-C (vit. C) in the liver, with a dose-dependent reduction of the thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS) as evidenced by reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, compared with the control animals. The hepatic total cholesterol and triglycerides level were also significantly decreased in the groups receiving E. littorale extract, in comparison to controls. Further, the hepatic marker levels-AST, ALT (aspartate and alanine transaminases), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), ACP (acid phosphatase), -GTP (gamma glutamyl transpeptidase), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), SDH (sorbitol dehydrogenase), Total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum were also restored to normal level dose-dependently after the supplementation of E. littorale extract in comparison to respective controls. These biochemical observations were strongly supported by a comparative histoarchitectural examination of liver sections from treated groups, further corroborated the hepatomodulatory role of E. littole extract. Silymarin was used as standard drug for comparison with the E. littorale extract. In conclusion, these results suggest the hepatomodulation by E. littorale Blume against oxidative stress mediated through interference with free radical generation and reduction in fat metabolism. Key words: Carbon tetrachloride, E. littorale; Free radicals, Hepatomodulation, Oxidative stress. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/28CBE7730343 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000385 en Copyright © 2007 R.S. Gupta and Dharmendra Singh
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:8F39C3F30314 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Main-streaming participatory and cross-disciplinary approaches in animal science research in developing countries Jens Aagaard-Hansen, Carl Erik Schou Larsen , Niels Halberg, Carsten Nico Hjortsoslash;, Quentin Gausset and Jolly Kabirizi Full Length Research Paper Conventional research approaches have lost considerable momentum after their astonishing achievements during the green revolution. The negative side of focusing rigorously on production improvement was eminent around 1980 and led to considerations of environmental, gender and equity aspects - making agricultural development much more complex than previously. In the search for new ways of addressing the persisting problems of food insecurity and malnutrition, new ways should be explored. Based on the experiences from three international, African research projects, the article argues the case of participatory action research and cross-disciplinarity as some of the key elements in future animal science research in developing countries. The benefits are outlined as well as the challenges for the researchers and the donor agencies. Key words: Action research, agriculture, agro-forestry, animal science, cross-disciplinarity, developing countries, livestock systems, paradigms, participation, poverty. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/8F39C3F30314 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000477 en Copyright © 2007 Jens Aagaard-Hansen, Carl Erik Schou Larsen , Niels Halberg, Carsten Nico Hjortsoslash;, Quentin Gausset and Jolly Kabirizi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:0469AD837560 2007-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Response of cabbage to depth of transplanting, soil amendment and water stress on a Japanese volcanic ash soil Nsalambi V. Nkongolo, Mitate Yamada and Atsushi Yamasaki Full Length Research Paper Transplants growth may be reduced by environmental factors when appropriate cultural practices are not used. We studied the response of cabbage to depth of transplanting (DT), soil amendment (SA) and water stress (WS) in a volcanic ash soil at the National Agriculture Research Center in Tsukuba Science City, Japan. Two separate experiments were conducted during a six weeks period: in field and in container. Soil amendments consisted of chemical fertilizer (CF) applied as N-P2O5-K2O 14-14-14 at the rate of 143 kg ha-1, no fertilizer (NF) and dried animal manure (AM) applied at the rate of 1111 kg ha-1. An additional treatment for the container experiment consisted of a soil subjected to four years application of animal manure + CF (CAM). Water stress consisted in one (WS1) and three (WS2) irrigations per week in the field, and the same irrigation schedule per two weeks in containers. Cabbage was transplanted in three distinct phases: at the top of the root ball (DT0), the depth of cotyledon leaves (DT1) and the first true leaf (DT2). After six of field growth, cabbage total dry mass (TDM) decreased by 43, 39 and 33% in AM, CF and NF respectively when WS2 was imposed. These results were also confirmed in container study. Animal manure was effective in reducing the severity of the suppressive effect of DT, but not that of WS on cabbage growth. Increase in cabbage overall growth, which was higher in CF and CAM as compared to AM and NF, was mainly due to nutrient supply. Key words: Animal manure, chemical fertilizer, cabbage growth, transplants Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/0469AD837560 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000594 en Copyright © 2007 Nsalambi V. Nkongolo, Mitate Yamada and Atsushi Yamasaki
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:279226C37586 2007-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Productivity of cassava/okra intercropping systems as influenced by okra planting density C.O. Muoneke and E.U. Mbah Full Length Research Paper The productivity of cassava (Manihot esculentus Crantz)/okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) intercropping system as influenced by okra planting density (0; 14,000; 28,000; 42,000 and 56,000 plants/ha) in intercropping with cassava (10,000 plants/ha) were investigated in 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 cropping seasons at Umudike, a rainforest location in south-eastern Nigeria. The results showed that sole cassava plants were shorter than the intercrops between 6 to 12 weeks after planting (WAP) in 2000/2001 but throughout the growing period (6 - 48 WAP) in 2001/2002 as okra planting density in the mixture increased. Similarly, sole okra plants were shorter than the intercropped ones. The leaf production and the leaf area index (LAI) of okra were reduced by high okra planting densities intercropped with cassava. The LAI of cassava increased up to 36 WAP and thereafter declined while in okra it declined up to 10 WAP in both years. It was always higher in sole okra than in the intercrops. Intercropping reduced the total number of tubers but the tuber yield was not affected. Intercropping significantly (Plt; 0.05) reduced the number of fresh pods, pod length and diameter, pod weight per plant and pod yield/ha. Within the intercrops, okra pod yield was not affected by okra planting density in 2000/2001 whereas in 2001/2002 season, 42,000 plants/ha okra plots yielded higher than the other intercrops. The results showed that it was more productive to grow the two crops together as depicted by yield advantages of 25-30% and that there was higher monetary returns in the mixtures. The optimum okra planting density for intercropping with cassava was 42,000 plants/ha as it had the highest yield advantage of 30% in both seasons and gross monetary returns of N 142,000.00 and N 153,900.00 in 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 seasons, respectively. Key words: Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) plant density, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), intercropping Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/279226C37586 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000568 en Copyright © 2007 C.O. Muoneke and E.U. Mbah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:5E322B837756 2007-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Viruses and virus-like diseases affecting sweet potato subsistence farming in southern Tanzania Joseph Ndunguru and Regina Kapinga Full Length Research Paper A survey for sweet potato viruses was conducted in 32 farmerrsquo;s fields in Mbinga (20 fields) and Songea (12 fields) districts of the Ruvuma region in Southern Tanzania. Plants showing virus-like symptoms were observed in 25 (78%) out of 32 fields examined. Sweet potato virus disease (SPVD) incidence was low in Mbinga district (16.7%) on average and ranged from 3 to 50% while in Songea district incidence averaged 33% and ranged from 3 to 100%. SPVD incidence difference between the two districts was not statistically significant (P gt; 0.05) except among sweet potato cultivars (Plt; 0.05). Sweet potato virus disease severity significantly (P lt; 0.001) varied between the district with Mbinga having the lowest (2.38 plusmn; 0.2) and Songea the highest (3.26 plusmn; 0.12) mean severity score. SPVD severity score also significantly varied among sweet potato cultivars (P lt; 0.001) with cultivar lsquo;lsquo;Jeshirsquo;rsquo; displaying the most severe symptoms (4.2 plusmn; 0.37 severity score) and lsquo;Winorsquo; and lsquo;Madaresalama expressing the mildest symptoms (2.0 plusmn; 0.00). Twenty foliar samples from infected plants were tested serologically for Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), Sweetpotato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet potato calico-like virus (SPCaLV), Sweet potato mild speckling virus (SPMSV), C-6 (a new flexious rod virus), Sweet potato latent virus (SwPLV), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) andCucumber mosaic virus (CMV) using Nitrocelullose Membrane ELISA (NCM-ELISA). SPCFV was the most common virus detected followed by SPCSV. SPVG was detected in seven samples representing the first report of its occurrence in Tanzania. SwPLV, C-6, CMV and SPCaLV were not detected. Whitefly population was low and aphids were rarely found in most of the fields. Orange-fleshed sweet potato cultivars grown in the surveyed areas also displayed SPVD symptoms with high incidence and severity. These results indicate that SPVD situation in Tanzania is not uniform in the major sweet potato growing areas and the significance of this virus diversity needs to be investigated. Key words: Sweet potato, sweet potato virus disease, NCM-ELISA, incidence, Tanzania Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/5E322B837756 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000759 en Copyright © 2007 Joseph Ndunguru and Regina Kapinga
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:D1C6B9837529 2007-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
In vitro cultures of pupal integumental explants to bioassay insect growth regulators with ecdysteroid activity for ecdysteroid amounts and cuticle secretion H. Berghiche, G. Smagghe, S. Van De Velde and N. Soltani Full Length Research Paper The present study evaluated the in vitro bioassay with pupal integumental explants of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor to test the activity of two types of insect growth regulators (IGRs) with ecdysteroidal action. We assessed the imidazole derivative KK-42, that is know as ecdysteroid biosynthesis inhibitor, and the dibenzoylhydrazine RH-0345 (halofenozide) that representing a novel group of IGRs with ecdysteroid agonist action. Two biological endpoint were used, namely the production of ecdysteroid hormone and cuticle secretion in vitro. Also the test was done with and without renewment of the culture medium to test the persistence of action of each compound. Essentially, RH-0345 provoked higher ecdysteroid amounts, while KK-42 a reduction. Interestingly when KK-42 was followed by RH-0345, the inhibitory effect was compensated. In parallel, the deposition of cuticle in vitro was assessed and it was clear that RH-0345 could induce apolysis premature in the integument explants with the formation of a new cuticle. Here the protein and chitin contents of the explants were tested with RH-0345 and three analogous compounds, RH-2485, RH-5992 and RH-5849. Key words: In vitro bioassay, mealworms, integument, ecdysteroids, cuticle, chitin, proteins. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/D1C6B9837529 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000408 en Copyright © 2007 H. Berghiche, G. Smagghe, S. Van De Velde and N. Soltani
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:E241B3D37504 2007-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Development of the scheme to prepare specimens for sheep pox virus indication in objects of environment Matveyeva V.M., Mamadaliyev S.M, Koshemetov Z. K., Russanova A.M. and Troitskiy Y. N. Full Length Research Paper While isolating sheep pox virus from samples of air, water, hay and grain experimentally infected with this agent various filters and eluting media were tested. Possible usage of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for specific indication of the sheep pox virus in various objects of veterinary supervision was investigated. Key words: Specific indication, objects of veterinary supervision, concentration, elution, virus, antigen, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/E241B3D37504 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000169 en Copyright © 2007 Matveyeva V.M., Mamadaliyev S.M, Koshemetov Z. K., Russanova A.M. and Troitskiy Y. N.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:35BC66232445 2007-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Yields and qualities of pigeonpea varieties grown under smallholder farmers’ conditions in Eastern and Southern Africa Hoslash;gh-Jensen, H., Myaka, F. A., Sakala, W. D., Kamalongo, D., Ngwira, A., Vesterager, J. M., Odgaard R., Adu-Gyamfi, J. J. Full Length Research Paper Pigeonpea is one of the few crops with a high potential for resource-poor farmers due to its complementary resource use when intercropped with maize. A three year comprehensive comparative study on the performance of six pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) varieties on farmersrsquo; fields in Eastern and Southern Africa where intercropping with maize is normal practice, was undertaken. The varieties were tested for accumulation of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in all above-ground organs for three years under farmersrsquo; conditions. The study revealed that the latest introduced ICEAP 00040 outperformed all the other tested varieties (ICP 9145; ICEAP 00020, ICEAP 00053, ICEAP 00068, and a local variety called ldquo;Babati Whiterdquo;) under farmer-managed conditions. The harvest indices (HI), ranging from 0.08 - 0.15 on dry matter (DM) basis, were relatively low and unaffected (Pgt;0.05) by the environmental variation. The N harvest index (NHI) was 0.28 and P harvest index (PHI) was 0.19. The better responses of ICEAP 00040 to favourable conditions could however only be realised in a minority of cases as yields generally were low. These low yields are still a major challenge in African smallholder agriculture as pulses play an important role in soil fertility maintenance as well as in the household diets. Key words: Cajanus cajan; genotypic variation; ICRISAT East African pigeonpea (ICEAP); nutrient deficiencies; pigeonpea. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/35BC66232445 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000769 en Copyright © 2007 Hoslash;gh-Jensen, H., Myaka, F. A., Sakala, W. D., Kamalongo, D., Ngwira, A., Vesterager, J. M., Odgaard R., Adu-Gyamfi, J. J.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:C97928E32043 2007-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Nitrogen budgets in crop sequences with or without phosphorus-fertilised cowpea in the maize-based cropping systems of semi-arid eastern Africa J.M. Vesterager, N.E. Nielsen and H. Hoslash;gh-Jensen Full Length Research Paper Advantages of cowpea were tested in terms of net N-input by cowpea mono- or intercropped with maize in a crop sequence where sparingly soluble P sources were added to the first year crop. The grain yield of maize grown after cowpea monocrop was doubled and the N uptake increased by 60% compared to maize following maize. The N-value of growing cowpea monocropped prior to maize monocrop was equivalent to the application of 50 kg N ha-1 as mineral fertiliser. When maize followed a maize-cowpea intercrop, grain yield was increased by 67%. Around 34% of the N contained in cowpea residues was recovered in the following maize as estimated by 15N. There was however no benefit on the second season maize of applying sparingly soluble P sources to the first season legume. Key words: Cowpea, crop sequences, maize, nitrogen budgets, sparingly soluble phosphorus. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/C97928E32043 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000505 en Copyright © 2007 J.M. Vesterager, N.E. Nielsen and H. Hoslash;gh-Jensen
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:6898D2231577 2007-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Effect of differential irrigation on physical and histochemical properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) grown in the field in Eastern Nigeria Nkaa, F. A., Ogbonnaya, C. I. and Onyike, N.B. Full Length Research Paper The effect of moisture stress on the physical and histochemical properties of three certified improved varieties of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) relevant to pulp and paper production were investigated. The test plants were grown in the field on a deep sandy-loam soil in the Botanical Garden of Abia State University, Uturu. Three watering regimes representing well-watered control, moderate stress and severe water stress were imposed on the plants. Each irrigation regime was replicated three times in a split plot design with watering treatments as the main plots and the varieties as the sub-plots. Water deficit did not adversely affect the fibre dimensional properties as well as the fibre derived values. Analysis of histochemical properties of Kenaf indicated that water deficit enhanced these properties in the stressed plants when compared with well-watered plants. Thus suggesting that water stress enhances the quality of pulp and paper produced from Kenaf. Key words: Hibiscus cannabinus, kenaf, histochemical, pulp, paper, water deficit. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/6898D2231577 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000203 en Copyright © 2007 Nkaa, F. A., Ogbonnaya, C. I. and Onyike, N.B.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:95D022D31381 2007-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Livestock and livelihoods: Development goals and indicators applied to Senegal D. Roland-Holst and J. Otte Full Length Research Paper In this report, we present a series of empirical techniques to examine linkage between livestock and livelihood, using data from Senegal, a West African economy with high levels of smallholder poverty and livestock dependence. Our results for this country show that livestock dependent populations are more likely to be poor and the severity of their poverty is greater, yet the same reliance on livestock also offers a way to mitigate their adversity. By analyzing market linkages and supply chains in the livestock sector, we find that rural household producers capture only a small fraction of the ultimate value of their products. Moreover, we find that generalist agricultural promotion policies may be of limited value to them because most of the value created by these policies can be captured by downstream market participants. Our primary conclusion is that livestock holds substantial potential for poverty alleviation, but that carefully targeted policies are required to realize this potential. Key words: Livestock, Poverty, Senegal, MDGs. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/95D022D31381 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000469 en Copyright © 2007 D. Roland-Holst and J. Otte
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:5EB6DCD26937 2007-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
The role of dietary phytase in formulation of least cost and less polluting fish feed for sustainable aquaculture development in Nigeria U. U. Gabriel, O. A. Akinrotimi, P. E. Anyanwu, D. O. Bekibele and D. N. Onunkwo Review The production of fish meal in Nigeria from the wild sources has for some period now been dwindling and when available are very expensive, because most of the fish meal used in fish feed formulation are imported. Hence viable alternatives have to be found for the sustainability of the aquaculture industry in the country. Plant based protein sources, which are relatively cheap, readily available and easily accessible hold the solution to this, but with limitations in utilization, due to the presence of phytic acid, an anti-nutritional agent present in virtually all plant ingredients. Phytic acid reduces bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients like proteins, phosphorus and other minerals, there by promoting accumulation of dissolved solids which ultimately leads to pollution. Hence, the need to create awareness of the efficiency of phytase treated diets, for the survival of the industry in the nearest future is imperative for the overall success of aquaculture venture. The role of dietary phytase in the formulation of fish feed using plant based protein sources which is cost effective, and reduces the incidence of aquatic pollution by making the nutrients and minerals in the feed more available to fish are thoroughly discussed in this paper. Key words: Fish feed, phytase, cost effective, diet, sustainable aquaculture. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/5EB6DCD26937 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000727 en Copyright © 2007 U. U. Gabriel, O. A. Akinrotimi, P. E. Anyanwu, D. O. Bekibele and D. N. Onunkwo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:83C021826980 2007-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Locally produced fish feed: potentials for aquaculture development in subsaharan Africa U.U. Gabriel, O. A Akinrotimi, D. O. Bekibele, D. N Onunkwo and P. E. Anyanwu Review Aquaculture development and growth in Africa have been on a low ebb despite the vast aquatic resources that abounds on the continent. Since the introduction of aquaculture to Africa, some decades ago, there have been a lot of innovations, technological advancement and progress in the areas of genetics, seed propagation, pond construction and farm management in general. Despite breakthroughs recorded in these areas most farmers in Africa still rely heavily on imported feed ingredients and fish feeds from European countries, which makes fish farming expensive as fish feed account for at least 60% of the total cost of production. This has contributed in no small measure to the slow pace at which aquaculture is advancing in Africa. This article, however reviewed critically the potentials of locally manufactured fish feed in enhancing, improving and sustaining aquaculture development in Africa. Various methods of processing employed were discussed and suggestions were made on how aquaculture growth can reach its maximum potential in the production of fish through utilization of locally available fish feed ingredients. Key words: Aquaculture, fish feed, local production, sub-Saharan Africa. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/83C021826980 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000470 en Copyright © 2007 U.U. Gabriel, O. A Akinrotimi, D. O. Bekibele, D. N Onunkwo and P. E. Anyanwu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:3A2A38427014 2007-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Determination of optimum age for transplanting cashew (Anacardium occidentale) seedlings in Northern Ghana Opoku-Ameyaw, K., Amoah, F. M., Oppong, F. K. and Agene, V. Full Length Research Paper The effect of age on the survival and growth of transplanted cashew seedlings was studied in the savanna ecological zone of northern Ghana in three field experiments. The seedling ages studied varied between 1.5 and 4.5 months after sowing. Seedling age significantly affected the survival of cashew seedlings one year after transplanting in two experiments with seedlings of between 1.5 and 2 months old establishing better than the older seedlings ages. Neither the growth of seedlings nor the proportion of plants that flowered two years after transplanting was significantly affected by seedling age at transplanting. A recommendation on the optimum period for raising cashew seedlings for transplanting in northern Ghana is given. Key words: Cashew, seedling age, transplanting. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/3A2A38427014 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000155 en Copyright © 2007 Opoku-Ameyaw, K., Amoah, F. M., Oppong, F. K. and Agene, V.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:B69A3E627049 2007-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
A weighted relative density model applied to loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands Opoku-Ameyaw, K., Amoah, F. M., Oppong, F. K. and Agene, V. Full Length Research Paper We present a weighted, individual-tree relative density approach whose reference conditions have the same distribution of crown areas and species as a subject stand. An initial evaluation of the methodrsquo;s efficacy was performed within an even-aged loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. Species-specific reference density equations were developed using plot data and existing crown width equations. Diameter growth prediction was evaluated using data from a thinned 20-year-old plantation. Regression analysis was used to related annual diameter increment and the approachrsquo;s density indices. The predictive ability of the presented method was compared to existing approaches such as Stand Density Index (SDI) and Crown Competition Factor (CCF). Results suggest the weighted, individual-tree approach predicts diameter increment as well as traditional indices. These findings suggest an individual tree approach may not be necessary within an even-aged loblolly pine plantation with a narrow diameter range. Key words: relative density, size-density, Pinus taeda L., loblolly pine. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/B69A3E627049 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000021 en Copyright © 2007 Opoku-Ameyaw, K., Amoah, F. M., Oppong, F. K. and Agene, V.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:18B399427082 2007-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Epidemiological studies of white rust, downy mildew and Alternaria blight of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (Linn.) Czern. and Coss.) Sangeetha, C.G. and A. L. Siddaramaiah Full Length Research Paper White rust, downy mildew and Alternaria blight caused by Albugo candida (Pers.) KuntzePeronospora parasitica (Pers.) (de Bary) and Alternaria brassicicola (Schw.) Wiltshire respectively are important diseases on Indian mustard causing considerable loss. Maximum temperature positively correlated with disease index of all the three diseases. Maximum temperature from 26-29ordm;C and average relative humidity of more than 65 per cent favoured the development of all the three disease. Key words: Disease incidence, maximum, minimum temperature, relative humidity. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/18B399427082 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000293 en Copyright © 2007 Sangeetha, C.G. and A. L. Siddaramaiah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:7C7AA2B27109 2007-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Potential of farm-produced crop residues as protein sources for small-medium yielding dairy cows Nobbert T. Ngongoni, Cletos Mapiye, Marizvukuru Mwale, Bartholomew Mupetaand Michael Chimonyo Full Length Research Paper The nutritive value of fifteen crops and by-products were investigated in terms of the protein and energy value for rumen microbial protein synthesis using in-situ and mobile bag techniques. The sunflower feedstuffs and the cotton seed cake have low digested carbohydrates, which may limit optimum microbial protein synthesis, while forage legumes and cereals have higher digested carbohydrates (Plt; 0.05). Thus, one way of improving protein digestibility protein rich crops is to feed them with cereal crops. The cereal grains (maize, sorghum and pearl millet) and the forage legumes (groundnut and cowpea tops) showed a negative protein balance value, suggesting that nitrogen limited optimum microbial protein synthesis in relation to the available carbohydrates (Plt; 0.05). The nitrogen (N) content of the ram press sunflower cake (43 g/kg DM) was within the range of the N content found in the commercial dairy concentrates (32 - 57 g/kg DM). However, the N in the sunflower was more degradable in the rumen (92%) than that in the commercial dairy concentrate (P lt; 0.05). It can therefore, be concluded that the ram press sunflower cake is potential source of N for small-medium yielding dairy cows. Key words: Crop residues, energy, digestible, microbial protein, sunflower. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/7C7AA2B27109 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000552 en Copyright © 2007 Nobbert T. Ngongoni, Cletos Mapiye, Marizvukuru Mwale, Bartholomew Mupetaand Michael Chimonyo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:70ED66227263 2007-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
An appraisal of the impact of petroleum hydrocarbons on soil fertility: the Owaza experience Leo C. Osuji and Iruka Nwoye Full Length Research Paper Major fertility indices - N, P, K, TOC and TOM contents - were examined against the backdrop of physico-chemical conditions of pH, temperature, moisture content and electrical conductivity of soils three months after oil spillage at Owaza in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. Evidence of severe hydrocarbon contamination was provided by high extractable hydrocarbon content of 3.4 x 103 ndash; 6.8 x 103 mg/kg. High soil acidity (low pH of 4.9 ndash; 5.1), low electrical conductivity as well as high temperature and moisture content, all provided evidence of reduced metabolic activities on the affected site which explains the relatively low TOC/TOM values obtained. These conditions generally imply low soil fertility, which in turn implies low agricultural productivity and reduced source of livelihood in the affected area. Based on the results obtained, contingency/remedial measures should include the application of appropriate and sufficient inorganic NPK fertilizer to restore the carbon to nutrient ratios to the optimum required to stimulate and sustain microbial activity; adjustment of the pH to 6.0 ndash; 6.5 by the addition of calcitic lime; stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by cultivating the soil to distribute the nutrients and lime and appropriate aeration of the treatment zone. Key words: Owaza, petroleum hydrocarbons, oil spillage, primary macronutrients (N, P and K); soil fertility. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/70ED66227263 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000036 en Copyright © 2007 Leo C. Osuji and Iruka Nwoye
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:E555E4927323 2007-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Estimating water needs of maize (Zea mays L.) using the dual crop coefficient method in the arid region of northwestern China ZHAO Chuanyan, NAN Zhongren, Full Length Research Paper Understanding crop water needs is essential for irrigation scheduling and water saving measures in an arid region because of its limited water supply. This study was performed using the dual crop coefficient method to predict seasonal changes in evapotranspiration (ETc) for maize fields in northwestern China in 2004. The reference crop evapotranspiration ET0, an important parameter in simulating the actual crop evapotranspiration (ETc), was estimated using FAO Penmanndash;Monteith equation. The values suggested by FAO-56 were used for the basal crop coefficients (Kcb) after adjustment for the specific climatic condition in the study area. The soil evaporation coefficients (Ke) were determined for the climate, the soil, the maize growing stages, and the irrigation method. Some missing climatic parameters were calculated. The results showed that the ETc values were very low (average value of 1.09 mm day-1) except during irrigation events in the initial stage of crop growth. The ETc value increased during the crop development stage (average value of 3.67 mm day-1) and reached its peak during the mid-season stage (average value of 5.49 mm day-1), then the ETc value declined rapidly during the last crop growth stage (average value of 3.33 mm day-1). In general, the evapotranspiration (ETc) ranged from 0.54 to 7.69 mm day-1 and the total actual ETc was 611.5 mm at the experimental site in the growing season of 2004. Key words: Evapotranspiration; dual crop coefficient; maize (Zea mays L.); FAO-Penman monteith equation; crop water requirement. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/E555E4927323 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000301 en Copyright © 2007 ZHAO Chuanyan, NAN Zhongren,
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:E29448140173 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
The impact of propiconazole (Tilt 250 EC) on the growth and the breathing of hard wheat isolated roots (Triticum durum, GTA and Vitron varieties) Meksem, L., Rouabhi, R, Djebar-Berrebbah, H. and Djebar, M. R. Full Length Research Paper Fungicides are recognized as non-toxic compounds, or have a weak ecotoxicological risks. The use of these products is responsible for an important part of the increase of the cereals output. However, the exhibition of the consumers to residues in food remained especially preoccupying with regard to some metabolites that put more problems in relation with the human health. In our work we investigate the effects of the propiconazole (Tilt 250 EC) at three concentrations 35, 70, 140 and 280 M, on some parameters of the growth and on the respiratory metabolism of roots isolated from two varieties of wheat: the Vitron and GTA variety. Our results show that Tilt 250 EC inhibits strongly the number and the length of the roots of GTA variety, but there are no effects on Vitron variety roots. The respiratory metabolism results of isolated roots show that in Vitron variety there is an enhancement of breathing (about 25%), contrarily in GTA variety where we observe a reduction in respiration rate (about 100%). Key words: Propiconazole, tilt 250EC, wheat; Triticum durum, GTA, vitron. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/E29448140173 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000718 en Copyright © 2007 Meksem, L., Rouabhi, R, Djebar-Berrebbah, H. and Djebar, M. R.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:3AB256238306 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Attitudes towards risk among maize farmers in the dry savanna zone of Nigeria: some prospective policies for improving food production L. O. Olarinde, V. M. Manyong and J. O. Akintola Full Length Research Paper This paper applies econometric analyses to quantitatively determine the individual risk attitudes of sampled maize farmers in the dry savanna zone of Nigeria. The extent of the risk attitudes are then made the basis for categorizing the farmers into three groups of low, intermediate and high risk averse maize farmers. This categorization now forms a necessary condition for improving the typology of the farmers, which is hypothesized to be influenced by socio-economic, demographic and other extrinsic ldquo;risk factorrdquo;. The typology is essentially made possible by discriminant analyses, which re-categorized the farmers into their appropriate risk groups. A four-stage sampling technique leading to the selection of a final sample of about 350 maize farmers was adopted. Results show that, about 8, 42% and 50% of the farmers are respectively lowly, intermediately and highly averse to maize risk. About 72% of the hypothesized variables were found to be responsible for the risk aversion among the sampled farmers. These variables are the basis of policy recommendation to address issues generated by four types of risks identified in maize production namely natural, social, economic and technical risks. These are important for harnessing crop technology and to alleviate hunger and poverty in Africa. Key words: Risk attitudes and factors, dry savanna, Nigeria, econometric and discriminant analyses and crop technology. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/3AB256238306 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000078 en Copyright © 2007 L. O. Olarinde, V. M. Manyong and J. O. Akintola
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:B34A7A138293 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Esterase isoenzymes are linked to embryogenic structures induction in cotton cell suspension cultures Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire, Kone Daouda, Zouzou Michel, Kouadio Yatty Justin Full Length Research Paper Esterase activity and isoenzymes pattern of two cultivars of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), Coker 312 an embryogenic cultivar and ISA 205N a non embryogenic cultivar, were studied and compared during cell suspension cultures. The use of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis allowed the identification of isoenzymes that number increased with the successive stages of cell culture of the two cultivars. At the stage of embryogenic structures induction which occurs only in Coker 312 cell suspension, we noted the presence of two isoenzymes (y and z) identified as aryl esterase, while one isoenzyme (x) identified as choline esterase wasexclusively found in the cell suspensions of the non embryogenic cultivar ISA 205N. Esterase activity increased in cells of Coker 312 whereas itrsquo;s remained constant in ISA 205N. These results suggested a great implication of esterase enzyme in the induction of embryogenic structures during cotton cell suspension cultures. Key words: Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivar, cell suspensions, embryogenic structures, Esterase; isoenzyme. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/B34A7A138293 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000296 en Copyright © 2007 Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire, Kone Daouda, Zouzou Michel, Kouadio Yatty Justin
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:879CAE038281 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Identification, characterisation and composition of scavengeable feed resources for rural poultry production in Central Tanzania E. H. Goromela, R. P. Kwakkel, M. W. A. Verstegen and A. M. Katule Full Length Research Paper A participatory study was carried out in four villages of central Tanzania to appraise existing and potential scavengeable feed resources available for rural poultry. In addition, proximate analysis of selected scavengeable feed resources including chicken crop and gizzards contents was carried out to quantify their feeding value. Results indicate that the most important scavengeable feed resources in the dry season were cereal grains and their by-products, oil seeds and oil seed cakes and in the wet season were forage leaves, flowers, seeds, garden vegetables, insects and worms. Changes in seasonal conditions, farming activities, land size available for scavenging and the flock size had a major influence on the feed availability. The mean dry matter (DM) of the feed resources was 888 plusmn; 1.8 g per kg. Gross energy ranged from 17.1 to 29.3 MJ kgDM-1 and crude protein (CP) from 64.5 to 418 g kgDM-1. Crude fibre (CF) ranged from 33.3 to 230 g kgDM-1 and ether extract (EE) ranged from 16.0 to 488 g kgDM-1. The mineral composition ranged from 1.5 to 18.4 g kgDM-1 for calcium (Ca); 3.6 to 17.3 g kgDM-1 for phosphorus (P); 9.5 to 34.5 g kgDM-1 for potassium (K) and 0.2 to 8.5 g kgDM-1 for magnesium (Mg). Physical analysis of crop and gizzard contents indicated that the diets consumed by scavenging chickens consisted of cereals and cereal by-products (29.0%), vegetables and forage materials (1.8%), seeds and seed by-products (3.4%), insects and worms (0.2%), egg shells, feathers and bones (0.3%), unidentified feeds (41.5%), inert materials (0.8%) and sand/grit (23.0%). The diet consumed as determined from the crop/gizzard contents had DM of 479 plusmn; 9.6 g per kg and metabolizable energy (ME) of 10.1 plusmn; 0.5 MJ kgDM-1. Nutrient composition in kgDM-1 of the crop and gizzard contents was: 80.4g CP; 70.7g EE; 45.7g CF; 234g Ash; 6.6g Ca; 6.5g P; 12.1g K and 2.6g Mg. The study showed that the nutrient concentrations of scavengeable feed resources consumed by rural poultry were below the recommended levels for optimum growth and egg production. Key words: Central Tanzania, rural poultry, scavengeable feed resources, nutrient composition, crop and gizzard. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/879CAE038281 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000395 en Copyright © 2007 E. H. Goromela, R. P. Kwakkel, M. W. A. Verstegen and A. M. Katule
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:50B385238263 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
The effect of furnace ash on crop yields and macroelement content in selected grass species Jacek Antonkiewicz Full Length Research Paper The research aimed at identification of furnace ash effect on crop yield and contents of Mg, Ca, K, Na and P in various grass species. Application of a dose of 0.533 kg pot-1 affected a significant decline in grass species yield. From among the cultivated grass species perennial ryegrass and meadow fescue produced the greatest yield, whereas meadow-grass gave the smallest. Perennial ryegrass and meadow fescue, proved the most resistant grasses then timothy and red fescue, whereas the meadow-grass proved the most lsquo;sensitiversquo; to ash application. The investigations demonstrated a significant effect of 0.533 kg.pot-1 furnace ash dose on the increase in Mg, Ca and Na contents in grass species, whereas phosphorus concentrations decreased. Furnace ash influenced also an increase in potassium content in timothy, red fescue and perennial ryegrass, while it decreased these element concentrations in meadow grass and to meadow fescue. Contents of magnesium, potassium and phosphorus in the studied grass species corresponded to the standards stated for good quality forage. The level of calcium and sodium in tested grasses was not within the optimal ranges. A decreased uptake of Ca, K, Na and P by grass species was registered under the influence of ash application to the soil. Key words: Ash, reclamation, yield, macroelements, grass species. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/50B385238263 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000696 en Copyright © 2007 Jacek Antonkiewicz
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:A6ABDC238244 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Studying microbial, physiochemical and sensory properties of directly concentrated probiotic yoghurt Samira Yeganehzad, Mostafa Mazaheri-Tehrani and Fakhri Shahidi Full Length Research Paper Skim milk with 8.5% total solids was concentrated to 15 and 20% total solids by vacuum evaporation and inoculated with probiotic Lactobacillus. Yoghurts were incubated at 42oC and stored at 4oC. Survival of Lactobacillus, physiochemical (pH, acidity, synersis, and hardness) and sensory properties (taste and texture) of probiotic yoghurts were evaluated every 7 days to 21 days. Results showed that, increasing the total solid concentration of milk increased the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus, acidity and hardness of yoghurt and reduced the pH and synersis. However, the survival of probiotic Lactobacillus decreased throughout the storage period at 4oC. This work shows the importance of total solid concentration of milk on survival probiotic strains, physiochemical and sensory properties of yoghurt. Key words: probiotic yogurt, total solids, probiotic survival, physiochemical properties, sensory properties. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/A6ABDC238244 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000662 en Copyright © 2007 Samira Yeganehzad, Mostafa Mazaheri-Tehrani and Fakhri Shahidi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:66739A438234 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype A diagnosed in sick and dead wild and domestic birds in Pavlodar oblast, Republic of Kazakhstan Mamadaliyev S. M. , Koshemetov Z. K., Matveyeva V.M., Kydyrbayev Z. K., Zaitsev V. L., Khairullin B. M., Mambetaliyev M. A., Sandybayev N. T., Nurabayev S. S., Azhibayev A. Z., Bulatov Y. A., Katubayeva B.S., Kozhamkulov Y. M., Tabynov K. K., Kydyrmanov A. I., Daulbayeva K. D. and Shahvorostova L.I. Full Length Research Paper This work describes laboratory tests conducted on biological material taken from sick and dead birds from unknown infection in the Pavlodar oblast, Republic of Kazakhstan. In the course of pathological material laboratory tests electron microscopy revealed virion of type A avian influenza virus. Type A AI virus common protein is recognized with the help of ldquo;Directigen Flu Ardquo; test system. The results of HAIT showed hemagglutinin agent H5, and NAIT results showed neuraminidase agent N1. On the basis of laboratory tests results it was determined that the cause of sickness and death of birds in the territory of Pavlodar oblast Irtysh region farm ldquo;NANrdquo; was H5N1 type A AI virus. Key words: HAT, HAIT, NAIT, H5N1 type A avian influenza. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/66739A438234 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000079 en Copyright © 2007 Mamadaliyev S. M. , Koshemetov Z. K., Matveyeva V.M., Kydyrbayev Z. K., Zaitsev V. L., Khairullin B. M., Mambetaliyev M. A., Sandybayev N. T., Nurabayev S. S., Azhibayev A. Z., Bulatov Y. A., Katubayeva B.S., Kozhamkulov Y. M., Tabynov K. K., Kydyrmanov A. I., Daulbayeva K. D. and Shahvorostova L.I.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:41A570038221 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Field evaluation soybean varieties at Ilorin in the southern guinea savanna ecology of Nigeria Akande, S. R., Owolade, O.F. and Ayanwole J.A. Full Length Research Paper Twenty six newly developed soybean varieties were evaluated for two years at Ilorin in a southern guinea savanna environment of Nigeria. The reaction of the varieties to rust infection was also assessed. Effects due to year, variety and year x variety interaction were significant for all the characters evaluated except for plant height where year x variety interaction had no significant effect. Number of days to 50% flowering ranged from 42 to 47.33. Early flowering varieties included TGX 1903-8F, TGX 1903-7F and TGX 1904-2F, while late flowering ones were TGX 1924-1F and TGX 1925-1F. Plant height varied between 25.00 and 44.17 cm. Grain yield ranged from 1017.24 to 2133.01 kg/ha. The best yielding varieties were TGX 1921-23F and TGX 1922-1F. Significantly higher grain yields were obtained in 2005 with an average value of 1602.0 kg/ha compared with 1470.13 kg/ha recorded in 2006. There was no incidence of rust infection in 2005, but in 2006 however, six soybean varieties expressed mild symptoms of the disease. Key words: Grain yield, varietal evaluation, rust infection, savanna agro-ecology, soybean. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/41A570038221 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000349 en Copyright © 2007 Akande, S. R., Owolade, O.F. and Ayanwole J.A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:2C77C9C37774 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Assessment of selection techniques in genotype X environment interaction in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp Aremu, C. O. and O. J. Ariyo and Adewale, B. D. Full Length Research Paper Ten genotypes of cowpea were grown in four environments comprising the early and late seasons of Ogbomoso and Abeokuta locations in 2005 and 2006. Joint linear regression analysis indicated the presence of Genotype x Environment interaction even though, a proportion was non-linear. The differences in the values of the regression coefficient and the correlation of grain yield revealed that the genotypes responded differently to the environments and that regression coefficient as a technique could not be used to identify genotype performance in specific locations. The use of Deviation mean square and Ecovalence mean square techniques produced similar results on the consistency of genotypes performance hence, Deviation mean square and Ecovalence mean square may not be simultaneously used. However, regression coefficient, Si3, Pi, and Modified rank sum techniques can be jointly used to select genotypes based on their yielding ability and response to environmental changes. Key words: Genotype X environment interaction, selection techniques, cowpea, Vigna unguiculata. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/2C77C9C37774 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000075 en Copyright © 2007 Aremu, C. O. and O. J. Ariyo and Adewale, B. D.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:1AA20B337706 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Participatory technology development for agroforestry extension: an innovation-decision approach M. S. Reed Review In order to facilitate Participatory Technology Development (PTD) in African agriculture, extensionists and scientists must collaborate with local innovators to optimise (where necessary) and disseminate their innovations. This literature review proposes a conceptual model for PTD in which technology is developed in the context of an adoption cycle. Building on an innovation-decision approach, the characteristics of innovations that achieve widespread uptake are identified. The link between these characteristics and livelihood constraints and strategies, capital assets and the role of communication is emphasised. Although the agroforestry innovation-decision process occurs in the absence of external intervention, by understanding the characteristics of adoptable innovations in the context of adoption behaviour, it may be possible to identify new roles for extensionists and scientists. They may be able to facilitate PTD through the identification of innovators and their innovations, optimise and adapt innovations with reference to the proposed model, and disseminate innovations to other smallholders who may benefit from them. Key words: agroforestry; adoption; technology; public participation; Africa; innovation. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/1AA20B337706 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000525 en Copyright © 2007 M. S. Reed
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:66C2D5837728 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
The sustainability of a groundnut plus maize rotation over 12 years on smallholder farms in the sub-humid zone of Zimbabwe Stephen Robert Waddington, Johannes Karigwindi and John Chifamba Full Length Research Paper An experiment was conducted on four smallholder farms and on-station in the sub-humid zone of northeast Zimbabwe for 12 years to assess how the rotation of groundnut with NPK-fertilized and unfertilized maize affected the productivity and sustainability of this common smallholder cropping system. At the sandy-soil Domboshava station, maize grain yield declined over 12 years of continuous maize cropping, and the rate of decline was larger when fertilizer was used. Maize grain yield was already low (around 0.7 t ha-1 without fertilizer) on the smallholder farm fields when the experiment began, and there was little evidence of further decline. A 3-year groundnut plus maize plus maize rotation raised maize grain yield on station both when fertilizer was used on maize and when not, with some benefits persisting into the second year of maize after groundnut. Three cycles of the rotation with fertilizer at Domboshava increased maize yields by 0.21, 2.92 and 2.26 t ha-1 in the first year after groundnut. With unfertilized maize, grain yields rose by 2.15, 1.52 and 3.61 t ha-1, which was double or more than double those from continuous maize plots. Accumulated over three rotation cycles (nine years) on station, the rotation gave 3.54 t ha-1 (13.2%) more maize grain than continuous maize with fertilizer and 5.33 t ha-1 (42.2%) more when fertilizer was not used, as well as almost 1 t ha-1 of groundnut grain. On the farms, overall yields of groundnut and maize were much smaller, because soils and management were poorer, and inputs few. Groundnut crops averaged less than 0.13 t ha-1 grains. The rotation raised maize grain yield only when no fertilizer was used on maize, where three cycles of the rotation raised maize grain yields by 0.21, 0.38 and 0.32 t ha-1. Accumulated over three rotation cycles, the rotation without fertilizer gave 0.51 t ha-1 (15.1%) more maize grain than continuous maize on the farms, and 0.4 t ha-1 of groundnut grain. It was concluded that the rotation of groundnut with maize can sustain the productivity of smallholder maize systems in sub-humid northeastern Zimbabwe in moderately fertile station conditions and can contribute on nutrient-depleted smallholder fields even when the crops are grown without fertilizer and with few management practices. Key words: Groundnut, maize, crop rotation, soil infertility, longer-term experiment, on-farm research, sustainability, sub-humid zone, Zimbabwe. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/66C2D5837728 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000733 en Copyright © 2007 Stephen Robert Waddington, Johannes Karigwindi and John Chifamba
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:197013637752 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Effects of planting location and storage time on lipids and fatty acids contents of some Madagascan rice varieties Rasoazanakolona Voahanginirina and Rafidinarivo Elie Full Length Research Paper Lipid and fatty acid composition of some Madagascan rice varieties were analysed by both Soxhlet method and Gas Chromatography based on variety, planting locationand the storage time of rice grain. The results showed that there was a significant variety effect. This work also highlighted an agro- ecological site influence on the lipid content, the oleic and arachidic acids. Finally, fatty acid composition of Madagascan rice obeyed Keyslsquo;s rule few time (14 days and 30 days) after harvest andafter one year of storage for one variety out of three. Keysrsquo;s rule was related to variety, to site and to storage time. Mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids weresignificantly influenced by storage time. Key words: Lipid, fatty acids, Madagascan rice, site, storage time. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/197013637752 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000264 en Copyright © 2007 Rasoazanakolona Voahanginirina and Rafidinarivo Elie
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:40E196432890 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Cluster analysis in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Mabel Jendeka Mahasi and John Waweru Kamundia Short Communication Many oilseed crops (e.g. sunflower, soybeans, rapeseed/mustard, sesame, groundnuts etc) are grown in Kenya. But oilseed rape is preferred because of its high yields (1.5 tons ndash; 4.0 tons/ha) with high oil content of 42 ndash; 46%. It is soft seeded hence oil extraction is relatively easy. The meal is high in protein and very useful in livestock feed supplementation. The success of any crop improvement programme depends on the extent of genetic diversity in the material. Hence, it is essential to evaluate introductions for adaptation and study the similarities if any among them. Evaluation trials were carried out on 17 rapeseed genotypes (nine of Canadian origin and eight of European origin) at 4 locations in Kenya namely Endebess, Njoro, Timau and Mau Narok for two years. An analysis of variance was carried out on seed yields which indicated that the genotypes were significantly different (LSD, 0.05). Cluster analysis based on mean seed yields suggested only one major group existed within the material. In the first year, genotypes 2, 3, 8 and 9 didnrsquo;t group with the rest. Genotype 8 was the only one that did not classify with the rest of the Canadian genotypes. Three European genotypes (2, 3 and 9) were however not classified with the others. In the second year, genotypes 10 and 6 didnrsquo;t fall in the major cluster. Of these two, genotype 10 is of Canadian origin. Genotypes were more similar in the second year than the first year due to favorable weather. It is evident that genotypes from different geographical areas, that is, Europe and Canada fell in the same clusters suggesting that they have genetic similarity.The groupings indicated no correspondence between geographical diversity and clustering pattern. Key words: Genetic diversity, cluster analysis, genetic similarity and cluster pattern. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/40E196432890 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000104 en Copyright © 2007 Mabel Jendeka Mahasi and John Waweru Kamundia
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:D6D871A33883 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
The potential of reducing nitrogen fertilizer rates using a soyabean-sugarcane production system in the South Eastern Lowveld of Zimbabwe M.D. Shoko, F. Tagwira and M. Zhou Full Length Research Paper Monoculture is common in sugarcane production throughout the world and leads to decline in yields and soil fertility and build up of pests and diseases. Legumes have been shown as potential crops that break the monoculture cycles in several crops. Farmers can reduce nitrogen fertilizer requirements to the subsequent sugarcane crop when soyabean (Glysine max (L.) Merr) is used as a fallow crop. Field studies were conducted from 2004 to 2005 on nitrogen depleted sandy loam soils at the Zimbabwe Sugar Experiment Station in the South East Lowveld of Zimbabwe. The objectives of the study were to determine nitrogen fixed by soyabeans at various growth stages, determine nitrogen in the foliar of subsequent cane and estimate the artificial nitrogen fertilizer reduction. The treatments used were (i) vegetable soyabeans followed by cane topdressed with 80 and 120 kg nitrogen ha-1, (ii) grain soyabean followed by cane topdressed with 80 and 120 kg nitrogen ha-1, (iii) monoculture cane topdressed with 120 kg nitrogen ha-1. Both grain and vegetable soyabeans fixed more nitrogen at flowering stage, 128 and 118 kg nitrogen ha-1, respectively. The results showed that farmers can save nitrogen fertilizer by using vegetable soyabeans. The nitrogen saved was estimated at 80 kg nitrogen ha-1 as shown by the number of tillers, biomass and nitrogen in leaves of cane. Key words: Nitrogen fertilizer, vegetable, grain soybeans, tillers, CP72-2086. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/D6D871A33883 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000724 en Copyright © 2007 M.D. Shoko, F. Tagwira and M. Zhou
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:56E146433840 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Seasonal changes in body condition scores of pigs and chemical composition of pig feed resources in a semi-arid smallholder farming area of Zimbabwe Orbert C Chikwanha, Tinyiko E Halimani, Michael Chimonyo, Kennedy Dzamaand Evison Bhebhe Full Length Research Paper There are few studies quantifying the productivity of rural pigs and evaluating the nutritive value of non-conventional feeds, such as weeds. The objectives of this study were to determine changes in body condition scores of boars and lactating sows and investigate changes in the chemical composition of commonly used pig feed resources in a smallholder farming area of Zimbabwe. Body condition scores (BCS) were measured monthly between October and April. Commelina benghalensis (wandering jew) and Richardia brasiliensis (Mexican clover) were collected monthly, between October and March, for proximate and amino acid analysis. Sows had lower BCS than boars (Plt;0.05). The Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) contents of C. benghalensis were lower (Plt;0.05) than those of R. brasiliensis. C. benghalensis had about twice the amount of crude protein (CP) compared to R. brasiliensis. Lysine, methionine and cysteine, which are the most important amino acids in pig nutrition, were similar in groundnut hulls and R. brasiliensis. C. benghalensis had higher (Plt;0.05) levels of threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, leucine, histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, valine, arginine, serine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine and alanine than R. brasiliensis. The proportion of essential amino acids (EAA) was significantly higher (Plt;0.05) in R. brasiliensis. A further study to determine the digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed on these non-conventional diets is needed. Key words: Rural pig production, body condition scoring, Commelina benghalensis,proximate analysis, Richardia brasiliensis. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/56E146433840 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000619 en Copyright © 2007 Orbert C Chikwanha, Tinyiko E Halimani, Michael Chimonyo, Kennedy Dzamaand Evison Bhebhe
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:A33B51133816 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus inoculum production in rice plants Tanzima Yeasmin , Parmita Zaman, Ataur Rahman, Nurul Absar and Nurus Saba Khanum Full Length Research Paper Mangifera indica showed highest percentage (100%) of mycorrhizal colonization in Rajshahi University Campus, Bangladesh that was used as a stock plant in pot culture experiment. These root pieces have the ability to serve as a source of mycorrhizal inoculum for crop plants. After using mycorrhizal inoculum, the soil nutrients as well as root colonization for rice plants were greatly affected. Soil nutrients were increased (nitrogen-0.03 times and phosphorus 8 times compared to sterile soil), whereas the percentage of rice roots colonization of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) was also increased 9 times after mycorrhizal inoculation. Mycorrhizal enrichment greatly improved the soil nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus as well as growth of rice plants. Key words: Arbuscular mycorrhiza, rice, soil phosphorus, nitrogen. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/A33B51133816 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000063 en Copyright © 2007 Tanzima Yeasmin , Parmita Zaman, Ataur Rahman, Nurul Absar and Nurus Saba Khanum
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:7DCB8C133769 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Quantitative and qualitative soil quality assessments of tea enterprises in Northern Vietnam Minh Van Dang Full Length Research Paper Long-term cultivation of tea (Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze) in the northern mountainous zone of Vietnam has resulted in soil quality degradation that could affect economic development in the region if sustainable production practices are not identified. The objective of the study is to identify appropriate indicators for assessing soil quality on tea plantations. Quantitative (based on soil analysis) and qualitative (based on farmer interviews) indicators were defined based on their sensitivity to change. Key quantitative indicators were organic-C, pH, N, P, K and S concentration (chemical), mechanical resistance, bulk density, total porosity, PAWC (plant available water capacity) and MWD (mean weight diameter) of aggregates (physical), and earthworm populations (biological). Decreases in the organic-C, N, K and S content, pH, total porosity, PAWC, MWD and earthworm populations, or increases in bulk density and mechanical resistance (compaction) indicated a decrease in soil quality due to long-term tea production. Qualitative assessments gathered through farmer interviews were also used to evaluate overall efficiency of current management practices to sustain long-term tea production. Farmers commonly assess soil quality in terms of tactile or visual soil properties. Important indicators based upon farmersrsquo; perceptions were (in order) organic matter, fertility, soil compaction, soil structure, moisture retention, earthworm abundance, erosion, acidity, surfacersquo;s thickness and the incidence of weeds. Farmer observations of soil quality changes were generally in good agreement with the quantitative assessments. To ensure adoption of improved management practices, qualitative soil quality information obtained from on-farm surveys should be used to supplement the quantitative data obtained through soil analyses. Key words: Soil quality, indicators, tea cultivation. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/7DCB8C133769 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000579 en Copyright © 2007 Minh Van Dang
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:B48405A33755 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Effect of plantation pattern on the efficiency of subsurface flow constructed wetland (sfcw) for sewage treatment Suntud Sirianuntapiboon and Sontidej Jitvimolnimit Full Length Research Paper The subsurface flow constructed wetland system (SFCW) with mono- and mixed-cultures ofTypha latifolia and Canna siamensis could be applied for sewage treatment. The system efficiency was decreased with the decrease of HRT, excepted for nitrate removal. Both types of cultivated-plant did not show any difference on SS, BOD5, ammonium-N2, nitrate-N2 and total phosphorus removal efficiencies. But, SFCW with mixed-cultures showed the highest phosphorus and nitrate removal efficiencies. Also, it gave the highest plant-biomass production yield. Phosphorus was highly accumulated in the plant tissue while, nitrogen was highly accumulated in the media. Number of bacteria of the system was not difference among plant species and plantation pattern, but it was decreased with the decreased of HRT. Then, the removal efficiencies of the system with both mono- and mixed-cultures were highest at the longest HRT operation of 6 days except for nitrate removal. The highest SS, BOD5, ammonia-N2 and total phosphorus removal efficiencies were about 91, 91, 86 and 87%, respectively were obtained in SFCW with both mono- and mixed-cultures. Key words: Plantation pattern, hydraulic retention time (HRT), vertical-flow constructed wetland, Typha latifolia, Canna siamensis. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/B48405A33755 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000215 en Copyright © 2007 Suntud Sirianuntapiboon and Sontidej Jitvimolnimit
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:636B2CC33734 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
Socio- economic conditions of peasant farmers: the case of agricultural technologies’ sustainability in southwest Nigeria Omobolanle Lucia Ogunsumi Full Length Research Paper Agricultural productivity and total annual food and fibre production in Nigeria are pitiably poor much below expectation. This study examined socio-economic conditions of peasant farmers and the consequences on agricultural technologies in Southwest, Nigeria. Structured interview schedules as well as in-depth study devices were used to collect data, which were analyzed using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed, though both categories of farmers had most demographic characteristics in common, sustained users were older and had larger farm size. The study further revealed that there were significant positive correlations between age and adoption pattern (r = 0.16), age and soybean adoption level (r = 0.15), age and cassava adoption level (r = 0.14), organizational membership and extension contact (r = 0.21), factors affecting sustained use of maize and cassava technologies (r = 0.09) while a negative significant correlation exists between factors affecting sustained use of maize technology and extension contact (r = -0.15). There were also significant positive correlations between attitude of farmers towards improved technologies and factors affecting the sustained use of maize technologies (r = 0.44). However, policy makers and rural development workers should be conscious of the fact that sustained users are older and therefore are likely to be more conservative to changes. It should be noted that younger people are moving away from agriculture and that both categories of farmers require constant contact with the extension services if their current condition is to be improved substantially. Key words: Technologies, farmers,food production, extension, adoption Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/636B2CC33734 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000635 en Copyright © 2007 Omobolanle Lucia Ogunsumi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJAR:8656D3E33699 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJAR AJAR:2007
The dynamics of horticultural export value chains on the livelihood of small farm households in Southern Ghana Afari-Sefa Victor Full Length Research Paper Policy makers in developing countries have been concerned with the economic and political risks associated with heavy dependence on few specialized raw materials as main sources of government revenue and foreign exchange. Development partners and donor agencies have equally extolled the need for these countries to diversify their export base as a poverty reduction strategy. As a result, several African countries have tended to focus on non-traditional agricultural exports (NTEs) which reflect their comparative advantage and for many countries the export of horticultural crops has been favoured. This study focuses on a household survey undertaken in the forest and coastal savannah transition zones of Ghana, where the farming system has undergone a remarkable transition from an established system of food crop farming for sale to urban consumers to an intensive production of fruits and vegetable crops for export to European consumers. Econometric analysis shows that though export horticulture has a positive impact on the wellbeing of the majority of households, the chronically poor households are structurally impeded from seizing the available opportunities due to poor resource endowment and liquidity constraints. Key words. Export horticulture, food security, household livelihood, non-traditional exports, export diversification, pro-poor growth. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/8656D3E33699 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR.9000689 en Copyright © 2007 Afari-Sefa Victor