2021-10-28T10:21:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:08AF92A55221 2013-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2013
Impact of liver damage on the histoarchitectural profile of the cerebellar cortex in rats Adekomi DA, Oyesomi TO, Ajao MS, Ojo OA, Onikanni SA Aim: This study described the histopathological profile of the cerebellar cortex and liver of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Methods: Male Wistar rats weighing about 250 g were divided into 2 groups (A and B). Group A (control) rats were treated with olive oil (OO) solution only while Group B rats were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 8 weeks. Thereafter, the cerebellum and liver of the rats were processed and stained with cresyl fast violet and Hamp;E, respectively, for histopathological examinations of the cerebellar cortex and liver. Result: Histopathological analysis shows cortical necrosis, uneven neuronal loss with varying range of vacuolations in the cerebellar cortices and moderate vascular congestion and extensive cytoplasmic damage on the hepatocytes of the CCl4 treated rats. Conclusion: There is of loss of hepatic function in the CCl4 treated rats. Key words: -Neurons, Neuropathology, Vacuolations, Necrosis, Neuronal loss. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/08AF92A55221 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH13.005 en Copyright © 2013 Adekomi DA, Oyesomi TO, Ajao MS, Ojo OA, Onikanni SA
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:D7A0DC555223 2013-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2013
Histopathological pattern of renal tumours seen in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria Isah RT, Sahabi SM, Adamu SN, Muhammad AT, Mungadi IA Aim: Malignant renal tumour is a relatively rare type of cancer that occurs third in urological tumours after prostate and bladder cancers. Little is known in the literatures about its existence in Sokoto which prompted this research. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and histopathological pattern of malignant renal tumours in Sokoto, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 11,554 Hamp;E stained sections were reviewed from 2001 to 2012. Patientrsquo;s data such as age and sex were analyzed from 36 samples which were confirmed for renal tumours. Result: Nephroblastoma has the highest occurrence in malignant cases (48.4%) followed by renal cell carcinoma (41.9%) and transitional cell carcinoma (9.68%). It was observed that nephroblastoma (15 cases) was most prevalent in the 0-7 year age group showing it is a childhood tumour, while the other ones occurred mostly in the adults. Conclusion: Nephroblastoma has the highest occurrence in malignant renal cases in Sokoto, Nigeria. Keywords: Malignant renal tumour, Nephroblastoma, Renal cell carcinoma. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/D7A0DC555223 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH13.004 en Copyright © 2013 Isah RT, Sahabi SM, Adamu SN, Muhammad AT, Mungadi IA
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:81EAF4355225 2013-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2013
Effect of exercise induced stress on serum cortisol level and cd4 cell count in rats Ehiaghe FA,, Agbonlahor DE, Etikerentse SMO, Osadolor HB Aim: To evaluate the effect of exercise induced stress on serum cortisol level and CD4 cells in rats. Methods: A total of 21 male albino rats weighing 100plusmn;10g were used for the study. The exercise pre-conditioning was in the form of mere swimming. Serum cortisol was evaluated using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. CD4 cell counts were estimated using Partec Cyflow counter, Germany for the quantification of CD4 T lymphocytes. Result: It was observed that, there was a significant decrease (P lt; 0.05) in the serum cortisol level in Group 2 when compared with Group 1 and Group 3, while there was a significant increase (P lt; 0.05) in the CD4 cell count in Group 2 when compared with Group 1 and Group 3. Conclusion: Solitary confinement and strenuous exercise were inhibitory to the proliferation of CD4 cells with the elevation of cortisol being a possible mediator. Keywords: Stress, Cortisol, CD4, Swimming. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/81EAF4355225 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH13.003 en Copyright © 2013 Ehiaghe FA,, Agbonlahor DE, Etikerentse SMO, Osadolor HB
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:B4E9CA355227 2013-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2013
Prevalence of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix in Jalingo, Nigeria Ahmed SA, Ayuba HU, Maiangwa A, Vakkai VI, Dashe DR, Joel R, Abubakar M, Danga D, Raalueke UA, Kataps HJ Aim: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Nigeria; fortunately it is preventable through regular screening and management of intraepithelial lesions. This study aims to determine the prevalence of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) of the cervix among women of reproductive age. Methods: All sexually active women between the ages of 16 ndash; 45 years were screened consecutively for cervical cancer in the Gynecology Clinic of the Specialist Hospital Jalingo using the conventional Pap smear and reported using The Bethesda System. Results: A total of 416 sexually active women were screened. Majority in the 41 ndash; 45 years age group and most of the participants (78.8%) were married. About 83.9% of respondents were negative for SILs; 11.1% had low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL); 4.6% had high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL); while atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC ndash; US) constitute 0.48%. About 18.9% of participants with negative report had inflammatory smears. Conclusion: The prevalence of squamous intraepithelial lesions is high and there is the need for intervention in terms of health education, vaccination, mass screening and management of abnormal smears. Keywords: Squamous intraepithelial lesion, Prevalence, Cervix. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/B4E9CA355227 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH13.002 en Copyright © 2013 Ahmed SA, Ayuba HU, Maiangwa A, Vakkai VI, Dashe DR, Joel R, Abubakar M, Danga D, Raalueke UA, Kataps HJ
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:2C433FF55229 2013-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2013
Effect of ascorbic acid on mercuric chloride-induced changes on the cerebral cortex of wistar rats Ibegbu AO, Animoku AA, Ayuba M, Brosu D, Adamu SA, Akpulu P, Hamman WO, Umana UE, Musa SA Aim: The present work was aimed at evaluating the effect of ascorbic acid on mercuric chloride induced changes on the cerebrum of Wistar rats. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats of average weight of 200g were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. In addition to normal diet, the animals in Group 1 were given distilled water, Groups 2 and 3 were administered 52mg/kg and 26.25mg/kg of mercuric chloride (HgCl) respectively while Groups 4 and 5 were administered 52mg/kg of HgCl and 5mg/kg of ascorbic acid and 26.25gm/kg of HgCl and 5mg/kg of ascorbic acid respectively. Group 6 was administered 5mg/kg of ascorbic acid through oral route, daily for 3 weeks. Results: Oxidative stress assay showed a significant decrease (Plt;0.05) in the mean levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase in Groups 2, 3 and 4 when compared with the Control while lipid peroxidase showed a significant increase (Plt;0.05) in Groups 2 and 3. Histological observation of the cerebrum showed a normal architecture in Groups 1 and 6 while, Groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 showed degenerative changes, necrosis and clumping of cells. Conclusion: Ascorbic acid administration has been shown to ameliorate induced degenerative changes in the cerebrum caused by mercuric chloride toxicity in Wistar rats. Keywords: Mercuric chloride, Cerebral cortex, Ascorbic acid, Oxidative stress. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/2C433FF55229 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH13.001 en Copyright © 2013 Ibegbu AO, Animoku AA, Ayuba M, Brosu D, Adamu SA, Akpulu P, Hamman WO, Umana UE, Musa SA
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:1643ACC55340 2014-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
Effect of stress of examination on serum cortisol level and cd4 cell count in male undergraduates at Igbinedion University, Nigeria Ehiaghe FA, , , Digban K.A., Ehiaghe IJ, . Aim: To assess the effect of stress of examination on serum cortisol level and CD4 cell count in young male students at Igbinedion University. Methods: A cross sectional laboratory based analysis was adopted for this study. A total of 204 male undergraduate volunteers (age 22 + 1.0 years, body mass index 23 + 0.5 kg/m2) were randomly recruited for the study. Total white blood cell (TWBC) was determined using the sysmexreg; Automated Hematology Analyzer. CD4 cell count was estimated using Partec cyflow counter, while serum cortisol level was determined by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay technique. Results: There was a significant increase (P lt; 0.05) in the serum cortisol level at Stage A (1st day of the semester) when compared with Stage B (midway in the semester) and Stage C (morning of the examination), while there was significant decrease (P lt; 0.05) in the TWBC count and CD4 cell count at Stage A when compared with Stage B and Stage C. Conclusion: The stress of examination inhibits proliferation of CD4 cells with the elevation of serum cortisol as a possible mediator. Keywords: Examination, Stress, Cortisol, CD4 cell. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/1643ACC55340 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.001 en Copyright © 2014 Ehiaghe FA, , , Digban K.A., Ehiaghe IJ, .
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:E04E7B955342 2014-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
Micronutrient levels in workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde Igharo OG, Osadolor HB, Odigie BE, Ilyas Y, Idemudia OU, Igharo LE, Airhomwanbor K Aim: The aim of the work was to determine the levels of some micronutrients in the serum of persons occupationally exposed to formalin in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: The exposed group (n=36) comprised male embalmers (morticians) who have had occupational exposure for a minimum of five years, while apparently healthy age-matched male subjects (n=34) without considerable exposure to formaldehyde served as control subjects. The levels of zinc, copper, selenium, iron and chromium in their blood samples were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: Statistically significant findings were observed in micronutrient status in the exposed group. Zinc (90.39plusmn;1.24 ug/dl), Copper (106.49plusmn;4.56 ug/dl), Chromium (1.5 x 10-3 plusmn;0.00 ug/dl) and Iron (117.79plusmn;3.42 ug/dl) when compared with the non-exposed group, Zinc (106.15plusmn;1.47ug/dl), Copper (165.08plusmn;3.64ug/dl), Chromium (2.2 x 10-3 plusmn;0.00 ug/dl) and Iron (158.10plusmn;2.57 ug/dl). Selenium level in the exposed group (4.6 x 10-3 plusmn;0.00 Unit/ml) was exceptionally higher than in the non-exposed group (1.4 x 10-3 plusmn;0.00 ug/dl). Conclusion: Formaldehyde contributes to depression of some micronutrients in plasma in occupationally exposed subjects. Keywords: Micronutrients. Occupational exposure, Formaldehyde, Toxicity. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/E04E7B955342 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.002 en Copyright © 2014 Igharo OG, Osadolor HB, Odigie BE, Ilyas Y, Idemudia OU, Igharo LE, Airhomwanbor K
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:AA027B955345 2014-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
Observations on the quail’s bursa of fabricius under normal and experimental infectious bursal disease conditions Sonfada ML, Kwari HD, Rabo JS, Wiam IM, Hena SA AIM: The study involved the evaluation of the bursa of fabricius in healthy and experimentally infected quails with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). METHODS: One hundred and fifty days old quail chicks were obtained and divided into two groups. The Group B birds were inoculated with two drops of IBDV antigen while Group A were inoculated with two drops of phosphate buffered saline per os and kept for 14 weeks. Birds were weighed, sacrificed and dissected to remove the bursae on which morphometric and histological procedures were done. RESULTS: Infected bursae showed an initial increase in size which later decreased for a while before attaining a second peak. Histologically, the normal bursae showed the general plan of gastrointestinal tract structures with the lamina propria containing non capsulated lymphoid follicles, which varied in arrangement and number. The infected bursae revealed interfollicular edema, lymphocytolysis, haemorrhages, fibroplasia and keratinization of the bursal substances. CONCLUSION: This study could serve as a guide to poultry clinicians and pathologists in prompt diagnosis of infectious bursal disease in both clinical and subclinical states as well as advancing the knowledge of the bursa of Fabricius in normal and in abnormal states. KEY WORDS: Quail, Bursa of Fabricius, Gastrointestinal tract. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/AA027B955345 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.003 en Copyright © 2014 Sonfada ML, Kwari HD, Rabo JS, Wiam IM, Hena SA
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:ACBAFB455351 2014-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
Serum testosterone level in Nigerian marijuana and cigarette smokers Adu EM, Popoola OA, Adikema NA Aim: To evaluate the effects of marijuana and cigarette smoke on serum testosterone level in male marijuana and cigarette smokers. Methods: Testosterone was estimated using enzyme immunoassay on micro plate format in 30 marijuana smokers, 15 cigarette smokers and 25 sex, age matched non-smokers as controls. Body mass index (BMI) of all subjects was also calculated. Results: There was a significant decrease (Plt;0.05) in testosterone level in marijuana smokers (5.33plusmn;3.5ng/ml) when compared with non-smokers (8.5plusmn;2.4ng/ml) but showed no significant difference statistically (Pgt;0.05) when compared with cigarette smokers (5.4plusmn;1.5ng/ml). A significant difference (Plt;0.05) was observed when cigarette smokers were compared with non-smokers. The BMI of marijuana smokers was significantly higher when compared with cigarette smokers and non-smokers but no significant difference was observed between cigarette smokers and non-smokers. Conclusion: These differences are attributed to the psychoactive chemical and pro-oxidants as well as oxidants present in marijuana and cigarette smoke which alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal integrity. We therefore recommend that stringent measures should be put in place to curb the indiscriminate use of the substances and also smoking history should be considered in the diagnosis of infertility in males. KEY Words: Psychoactive, Oxidants, Androgen, Infertility, Immunoassay, Delta-9-tetrehydrocannabiol Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/ACBAFB455351 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.004 en Copyright © 2014 Adu EM, Popoola OA, Adikema NA
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:F07741B55361 2014-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
HIV and HBV coinfection in Niger-Delta, Nigeria Avwioro OG, Ekene EN, Afadu TE Aim: This study was conducted to ascertain the level of coexistence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV and to determine their significant association. Both HBV and HIV share the same routes of infection. Methods: The study was conducted on 500 persons consisting 250 subjects who tested positive to HIV and 250 subjects who tested positive to HBV. HIV positive individuals were further tested for HBV. Similarly, HBV positive individuals were tested for HIV infection. Each group had 125 males and 125 females. Results: Individuals in the age group 31-50 years had the highest prevalence of HIV coinfection with HBV. The study shows a prevalence of 16.4% HBV among HIV infected persons and a prevalence of 12.8% HIV among HBV individuals in Niger-Delta area of Nigeria. Although, the two diseases have similar routes of infection, they are not significantly associated. Conclusion: HBV infection should not be used as a presumptive diagnosis for HIV infection. Key words: HIV, HBV, Hepatitis, Co infection Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/F07741B55361 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.005 en Copyright © 2014 Avwioro OG, Ekene EN, Afadu TE
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:6AD997155369 2014-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
Haematologic and biochemical implications of inhalation of fumes of petroleum products Isirima JC, Angalabiri-Owei BE Aims: To investigate the Haematologic and biochemical implications of exposure to fumes of petroleum products in human subjects. Methods: A total of 100 subjects (40 males and 60 females) aged between 18-30 years participated in the study. Each gender was further categorized into two groups of 10 controls and 30 tests in males and 20 controls and 40 tests in females. Test Group 1 subjects were exposed to fumes of petroleum products for two years and below while test Group 2 subjects were exposed for more than two years. Samples of blood were collected daily and subjected to haematological and biochemical analysis. Results: There was a significant decrease in red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, pack cell volume and haemoglobin concentration in the test Groups 1 and 2 compared to control and a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferases. The odds/odds ratios of subjects becoming anaemic progressively rose from less than 1 in the control to greater than 1 in test groups. Conclusion: Frequent exposure to fumes of petroleum products causes reduction in haematological indices and deleterious effect to the liver cells which worsens with prolonged exposure. Key Words: Petroleum Fumes, Haematological, Biochemical Parameters. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/6AD997155369 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.006 en Copyright © 2014 Isirima JC, Angalabiri-Owei BE
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:ACC12D855393 2014-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
Histological and Biochemical effects of aqueous extract of ocimum gratissimum on the liver and kidney of adult wistar rats Ebeye OA, Ekundina OV, Wilkie IE Aim: Ocimum gratissimum is used commonly in traditional medicine to treat certain diseases. This study accessed the histological and biochemical effects of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum leaves on the kidney and liver of adult Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty four adult Wistar rats were assigned into four groups (A, B, C and D) of 6 rats each. Group A was used as control, and B, C, and D were the treatment groups. Each treatment group received 300, 400 and 500mg/kg respectively of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum orally for twenty one days. The animals were sacrificed on the 21st day by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. The liver and the kidney were collected, fixed in 10% formal saline and processed for light microscopy. Results: Rat weight showed no significant difference between control and treatment group. Biochemical analysis showed very mild decrease in serum ALP, ALT and AST levels when compared with the control. There was no significant difference in serum creatinine and urea levels when compared with the control. The histological study of the liver revealed peripotal inflammatory cell infiltrates and central vein vascular congestion. Histological study of the kidney showed mild to severe intestitial infiltration by inflammatory cells and increased vascular congestion. Conclusion: Ocimum gratissimum may be useful in culinary dishes and also in the treatment of certain ailments but systemic toxicity is also possible and this is dose dependent. Caution should therefore be exercised in the therapeutic use of the plant. Keywords: Ocimium gratissimum, Liver, Kidney, Histology, Biochemical Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/ACC12D855393 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.008 en Copyright © 2014 Ebeye OA, Ekundina OV, Wilkie IE
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:60DD12955389 2014-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
The effect of honey and aloe vera extract on aspirin induced liver damage in rats Adewoga TOS, Sebiomo A Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of honey and Aloe vera extract on Aspirin-induced liver damage in albino rats. Methods: A total of twenty four adult male albino rats weighing between 100 and 150g were divided into six groups. (A, B, C, D, E and F) of four rats each in a group, Rats in Group A served as control and were given water and feeds only. Rats in Group B were given 100mg/kg of aspirin only, 100mg/kg of aspirin was administered to rats in Group C and 1.0ml of Aloe vera was administered to rats in Group D, rats in Group E were administered Aloe vera extract only while rats in Group F were administered with 100mg/kg of aspirin, 1.0ml of Aloe vera and 1.0ml of honey. The administration was done orally. Results: The results showed significant decrease (Plt;0.05) in the PCV and haemoglobin level of test groups compared with the control. Groups treated with aspirin had the highest WBC count of 5.83times; 103 (plusmn;0.03) while the control group had the lowest WBC count of 2.7times; 103 (plusmn;0.03). Histopathological findings indicate severe dilation of blood vessel, necrosis of vascular connective tissues, wide spread vacuolar degeneration, edema and bile duct hyperplasia. The study revealed that honey and Aloe vera extract had hepato protective and hepato curative effects. Keywords: Honey, Aloe vera, Aspirin, Hepatotoxic, Liver. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/60DD12955389 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.007 en Copyright © 2014 Adewoga TOS, Sebiomo A
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:0B6B1A055437 2014-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
TESTICULAR ALTERATION IN OVER DOSAGE OF AZATHIOPRINE: A HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY IN WISTAR RATS Onanuga IO, Ibrahim RB, Amin A, Omotoso GO Aim: The use of Azathioprine (AZA) in the prevention of organ rejection during transplantation has been documented for different organs of the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of azathioprine on the integrity of the testis of Wistar rats using histological and histochemical techniques. Methods: Eighteen adult male Wistar rats with mean weight 210plusmn;2.65 g were randomly assigned into three groups. Group I (control) received 1 ml of normal saline ldquo;per osrdquo; (p.o), group II animals received 10 mg/kg AZA (p.o) while group III animals received 20 mg/kg AZA (p.o). Treatment lasted for 21 days. Twenty-four hours after treatment, animals were sacrificed; their testes excised, weighed and fixed in Bouinrsquo;s fluid for histological evaluation using Haematoxylin and Eosin while histochemical studies were carried out using Gordon and Sweets, and Massonrsquo;s Trichrome staining techniques. Testicular homogenate was used to assay for testosterone level. Results: Treatment with Azathioprine reduced testosterone level while the histological and histochemical findings of the testicular sections revealed cyto-architectural distortions and reduced staining intensity of collagen and reticulin connective tissue fibers in AZA treated animals compared to the control group. Conclusion: Results from the study reveal that the immunosuppressive drugazathioprine when used at a concentration above 10 mg/kg disrupts the testicular integrity of adult Wistar rats. Keywords: Azathioprine, Testis, Collagen, Reticulin Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/0B6B1A055437 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.012 en Copyright © 2014 Onanuga IO, Ibrahim RB, Amin A, Omotoso GO
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:DCA537F55420 2014-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
Evaluation of the lethal dose of the methanol extract of rhizophora racemosa leaf using Karber’s method Angalabiri-Owei BE, Isirima JC Aim: To evaluate the median lethal dose (LD50) of the methanol extract of Rhizophora racemosa leaf commonly used for toothache and dysmenorrhoea in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. Methods: The modified arithmetic Karberrsquo;s method by Aliu and Nwude was used. Various doses of the extract were administered to adult albino rats through intraperitoneal route and the LD50 was calculated. Results: The result revealed that the LD50 of the methanol extract was 1583.33 mg/kg which is within safe level of consumption. Conclusion: This research therefore provides a scientific evidence that the traditional medicinal use of this plant is safe within the dose limit established. Keywords: LD50, Rhizophora racemosa, Mangrove plant, Karberrsquo;s method, Intraperitoneal. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/DCA537F55420 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.009 en Copyright © 2014 Angalabiri-Owei BE, Isirima JC
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:971C88555429 2014-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
Histomorpohological assessment of the extract of the stalk of sorghum bicolor as a counterstain Omoowo BT, Bankole JK, Muhammed AO, Benard SA, Afolabi OO Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the staining ability of the extract of the stalk of Sorghum bicolor as a counterstain on Haematoxylin. Methods: Tissue blocks of trachea, oesophagus and ileum were retrieved from the Autopsy Block Archive of the Department of Pathology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital Ilorin. Eight (8) serial sections labeled A to H were made from each block and stained with Harris haematoxylin. Section A was counterstained with 1% ethanolic eosin, as control. Different preparations of extracts of the stalk of Sorghum bicolor were used to counterstain sections of Groups B to H as follows: B; 5% aqueous extract with 0.5g Potash, C; 5% aqueous extract, D; 5% extract in 70% ethanol, E; 10% extract in 70% ethanol, F; 5% extract in absolute ethanol, G; 10% extract in absolute ethanol and H; 5% aqueous extract with 40mu;l of acetic acid. Results: The stalk extracts of S. bicolor stained the cytoplasm in shades of pinkish brown Conclusion: This study established the cytoplasmic counter-staining ability of stalk extracts of S. bicolor, and the 10% extract in absolute ethanol had the closest resemblance to the Group A, the control group. It is therefore suggested that 10% extract in absolute ethanol can be substituted for eosin due to its domestic availability, ease of preparation and use, and above all, its good cytoplasmic contrast with the nuclear stain. Keywords: Sorghum bicolor, Counterstain, Extract, Eosin. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/971C88555429 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.010 en Copyright © 2014 Omoowo BT, Bankole JK, Muhammed AO, Benard SA, Afolabi OO
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:D22731D55433 2014-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
The effect of Vernonia Amygdalina and Ocimum Gratissimum on Alloxan-induced diabetic rats Adewoga TOS, Sebiomo A, Fagbemi FT Aim: Anti-diabetic evaluation of Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum on alloxan induced diabetic rats was investigated. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into six groups of five per group. The rats were fed with aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of the plants. Results: On day 2 post induction, fasting blood glucose of all the animals across the groups increased significantly (Plt;0.05) compared to pre induction across all the six groups for both water extract and ethanolic extract treated groups. On day 8 post induction (ethanolic extract), O. gratissimum had the lowest fasting blood glucose of 81 (plusmn;10.02) mg/dl when compared to other test groups while the highest fasting blood glucose of 600 (plusmn;0.00) mg/dl was observed in alloxan only group. On day 8 post induction (water extract) the control group, glibenclamide group, O. gratissimum group, all recorded reduced fasting blood glucose level of 98 (plusmn;6.35) mg/dl, 98.33 (plusmn;7.27) mg/dl, 105.67 (plusmn;10.02) mg/dl, 305.67 (plusmn;68) mg/dl respectively compared to values obtained on day 6 post induction. A drastic reduction in body weight of animals in groups treated with V. amygdalina, combined extract, glibenclamide and alloxan only can be observed (for both ethanolic and water extract treated groups). Out of all the extracts used, the extract of O. gratissimum significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and increased the body weight of the rats at the end of the experiment. Conclusion: O. gratissimum can be used to reduce elevated blood glucose of diabetic animals, and it proved to be more potent than V. amygdalina. Key words: Ocimum gratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Alloxan, Glibenclamide. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/D22731D55433 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.011 en Copyright © 2014 Adewoga TOS, Sebiomo A, Fagbemi FT
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:486051255455 2014-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
The circumference interorbital index of the Isoko ethnic group in Nigeria Anibor E, Ogbor-Omorie E, Ogadima PN Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the circumference interorbital index amongst the Isoko ethnic group of Nigeria. Methods: This study was based on data collected from 600 Isoko subjects between 12ndash;31 years of age in Delta State of Nigeria. Data was collected using a tape rule to measure the head circumference and a non-stretchable transparent centimeter ruler to measure the inner canthal distance. Circumference interorbital index was determined by measuring the head circumference and inner canthal distance. The head circumference was measured from the occipital prominence to the supraorbital ridge, while inner canthal distance was taken as the distance between the medial angles of the two eyes. Circumference Interorbital Index was calculated as Inner Canthal Distance (ICD)/ Head Circumference (HC) x 100. Mean and standard deviation for both sexes were calculated while t-test was employed as a statistical tool to search for significant gender differences. Results: The mean and standard deviation for Isoko male and female circumference interorbital indices were 6.62 and 6.58; 0.38 and 0.10 respectively. Conclusion: This study has provided a baseline data on circumference interorbital index of the Isoko ethnic group of Nigeria. The Isoko males displayed a higher circumference interorbital index than the females. Keywords: Anthropology, Craniofacial surgery, Forensic medicine, Isoko. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/486051255455 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.013 en Copyright © 2014 Anibor E, Ogbor-Omorie E, Ogadima PN
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:2D5981155466 2014-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
Serum lipid abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus Adu ME Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. The present study was conducted to determine the lipid profile of diabetes in Delta State. Methods: Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) as well as Body mass index (BMI) were determined in two hundred subjects. One hundred were diabetic and the other one hundred were apparently healthy individuals used as controls. Results: The TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C as well as BMI of diabetes were observed to be significantly high (Plt;0.05) when compared with control subjects. HDL-C in diabetes was observed to be significantly low (Plt;0.05) when compared with control subjects. Conclusion: The result indicates dyslipidemia in diabetes. Adequate and proper management of diabetes to reduce dyslipidemia and further complications are therefore recommended. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Body Mass Index, Lipid profile. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/2D5981155466 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.014 en Copyright © 2014 Adu ME
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:0AFCBE855359 2014-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
The effect of ascorbic acid on mercury-induced changes on the histomorphology of the cerebellum of adult wistar rats Ibegbu AO, Animoku AA, Ayuba M, Brosu D, Adamu SA, Akpulu P, Hamman WO, Umana UE, Musa SA Aim: The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of ascorbic acid on mercury-induced changes on the cerebellar cortex of adult Wistar rats. Methods: Thirty adult Wistar rats of average weight of 200g were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. The animals in Group 1 (control) were administered with distilled water, Groups 2 and 3 were administered with 52mg/kg and 26.25mg/kg body weight of HgCl2 respectively while Groups 4 and 5 were administered with 52mg/kg of HgCl2 and 5mg/kg of ascorbic acid and 26.25gm/kg of HgCl2 and 5mg/kg of ascorbic acid respectively, while Group 6 was administered with 5mg/kg of ascorbic acid. The administration was through the oral route, daily for 3 weeks and the animals were humanely sacrificed. Thereafter, blood and tissue samples were harvested for analysis. Results: The result of the biochemical parameters showed a significant increase (Plt;0.05) in the mean SOD and LPO values after the administration of mercuric chloride and ascorbic acid. Histological observation of the cerebellar cortex showed normal histo-morphology in Groups 1 and 6 while, the cerebellum in Groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 showed some degenerative, necrotic and cellular changes. Conclusion: Ascorbic acid administration has shown to ameliorate the induced degenerative changes in the cerebellum caused by mercuric chloride toxicity in Wistar rats. Key words: Mercuric chloride, Cerebellar cortex, Ascorbic acid, Wistar rats Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/0AFCBE855359 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.015 en Copyright © 2014 Ibegbu AO, Animoku AA, Ayuba M, Brosu D, Adamu SA, Akpulu P, Hamman WO, Umana UE, Musa SA
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:A0333F855378 2014-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
The use of arm span to estimate height among the Urhobos in Delta state of Nigeria Anibor E, Ogbor-Omorie E, Nwagbara A Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of arm span as a measure of height among the Urhobos in Delta State of Nigeria. Methods: The nature and scope of this study encompassed 401 adults (199 males and 202 females) aged 22 to 65 years from the Urhobo ethnic group in Delta State of Nigeria. Data was collected with subjects in the anatomical position. Height and arm span were measured with a stadiometer and calibrated steel tape respectively. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 10.0. Means and standard deviations (SD) were obtained for both anthropometric variables. Results: The results revealed that the mean of the arm span for males and females were 184.56cm and 173.61cm respectively. The mean of the height was 173.0cm for male and 164.6cm for female. Conclusion: The arm span is a valid measure of height among adult Urhobos. Key words: Arm span, Height, Urhobo, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/A0333F855378 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.016 en Copyright © 2014 Anibor E, Ogbor-Omorie E, Nwagbara A
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:F78DE2355388 2014-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
Evaluation of serum proteins in pulmonary tuberculosis Jemikalajah JD, Okogun GRA, Adu ME, Okolie GC Aim: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem throughout the world, especially in developing countries with its attendant mortality and morbidity. Proteins in plasma or serum are readily accessible and can be analyzed directly to produce diagnostic information on disease states in patients. Methods: 5ml of venous blood was collected from One hundred (100) volunteers which comprised fifty (50) pulmonary tuberculosis patients and fifty (50) age ndash; sex matched apparently healthy subjects as controls. The levels of total proteins, albumin, globulins and albumin/globulin ratio were determined in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Results: Our results show significantly increased total protein, albumin and globulins in pulmonary tuberculosis patients when compared with controls but no significant difference was observed in the albumin/globulin ratio. There was gender difference in globulin levels. Conclusion: The study has heightened the imperative of serum proteins assay in the management of pulmonary tuberculosis. Keywords: Pulmonary tuberculosis, Total proteins, Albumin, Globulins. Keywords: Pulmonary tuberculosis, Total proteins, Albumin, Globulins. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/F78DE2355388 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.017 en Copyright © 2014 Jemikalajah JD, Okogun GRA, Adu ME, Okolie GC
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:B1DD53C55575 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
Health point prevalence of helicobacter pylori in central hospital Warri, Nigeria Jemikalajah DJ, Okogun GRA Aim: More than 50% of the worldrsquo;s population harbor Helicobacter pylori in their upper gastrointestinal tract. Infection is more prevalent in developing countries, and the incidence is decreasing in the West. This study aims to determine the health prevalence rate H. pylori in Central Hospital Warri. Method: All patients suspected of dyspepsia or/and gastritis from 2012 to 2014 were tested for H. pylori. Subjects were screened for H.pylori antibodies using qualitative membrane immunoassay. Results: A total of 936 patients were tested. A prevalence rate of 12.7% was obtained. Also, prevalence of 8.1% and 4.6% were recorded for females and males respectively. The highest prevalence of 3.5% was observed in the age group of 31 ndash; 40 years. While the lowest prevalence of 0.3% and 0.2% was obtained among the children and the elderly Conclusion: This study has shown a decline in the trend of H. pylori infection in the study area. Keywords: Prevalence, Dyspepsia, Gastritis, Helicobacter pylori Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/B1DD53C55575 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.022 en Copyright © 2014 Jemikalajah DJ, Okogun GRA
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:CADEEF755573 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
Effect of Tamoxifen on the histomorphological and biochemical components of the liver of Guinea Pigs Okolie NJC, Okechi OO, Ofor I, Okorochi EC Aim: Tamoxifen, once praised for its importance in preventing breast cancer recurrence, is now implicated in dangerous side-effects. The authors are not aware of studies on the effect of tamoxifen on the histomorphological and biochemical components of the liver of guinea pig, hence the present one. Methods: Thirty guinea pigs weighing between 650g and 700g were assigned randomly into 6 groups of five and were separately given 0.70 and 7.0mg/kg body weight (b.w) tamoxifen for 2 and 4 weeks. Liver function tests and conventional tissue processing haematoxylin and eosin staining method were used in the study. Results: The results showed a significant loss in body weight (plt;0.05) of the guinea pigs administered with low and high doses of the tamoxifen for 4 weeks when compared with the controls. The mean serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and conjugated bilirubin increased significantly than the controls in high dose groups exposed for 2 weeks and 4 weeks respectively (plt;0.05). Similarly, histomorphological changes such as enlargement and sclerotic condition of central vein, enlargement and non-hexagonal radiating arrangement of sinusoids were observed in the liver of guinea pigs in the high dose tamoxifen Key words: Tamoxifen, Liver, Breast cancer Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/CADEEF755573 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.024 en Copyright © 2014 Okolie NJC, Okechi OO, Ofor I, Okorochi EC
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:2B141D455571 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
Phytochemical and trace element analysis of Vernonia Amygdalina (bitter leaf) in different locations in Nigeria Mokogwu ATH, Okorie UP, Digban KA, Abubakar A, Mokogwu EE. Aim: This study was to evaluate the phytochemical and mineral elements of Vernonia amygdalina leaf grown in Anambra, Imo, Delta and Edo States of Nigeria. Methods: Standard methods were used for the phytochemical screening while the elemental analysis was done by the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: The results revealed high concentrations in mg/100g of the bioactive constituents; Flavonoids (2165, 2080, 2250 and 2285), Alkaloids (1955, 2450, 2610 and 2375) and Saponins (1850, 2080, 2250 and 2285) in Anambra, Imo, Delta and Edo states respectively. The mineral analysis indicates higher concentrations of Cl(38.47mg/100g, 42.37mg/100g, 51.23mg/100g and 47.57mg/100g) in Anambra, Imo, Delta and Edo states followed by Fe++ in mg/100g (6.57, 5.87, 7.23 and 7.77) in Anambra, Imo, Delta and Edo states respectively. Conclusion: The leaf of Vernonia amygdalina contains mineral elements and phytochemicals that are nutritionally and medicinally important for human health;it also shows that those grown in Delta and Edo States are relatively richer in both their mineral and phytochemical contents than those grown in Anambra and Imo States. Key words: Vernonia amygdalina leaf, Phytochemicals, Minerals. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/2B141D455571 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.023 en Copyright © 2014 Mokogwu ATH, Okorie UP, Digban KA, Abubakar A, Mokogwu EE.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:120586D55436 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
The effect of the mixture of garcinia kola and honey on the liver of wistar rats Avwioro OG, Ogunbayo TJ, Ekhueorhan A, Onyije FM, Adedeji TM Aim: A mixture of honey and Garcinia kola has been used for the treatment of certain dry coughs and diseases. The effect of the recommended dosage of the mixture on the liver was investigated. Methods: Twenty five Wistar albino rats weighing between 170g and 190g were grouped into 5. There were 5 rats each group. The rats were fed twice daily at 8.00am and 6.00pm with a mixture of G. kola and honey 0.16g/kg + 0.5ml, 0.20g/kg + 0.5ml, 0.24g/kg + 0.5ml, 0.28g/kg + 0.5ml and normal feeds respectively for 14 days. The rats were sacrificed on the 15th day and blood and liver tissues were taken for biochemical analysis and histology respectively. Results: Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and total protein as well as the histology of the liver were not significantly different from the control animals. Conclusion: Oral intake of one nut G. kola along with 5 ml honey twice daily for 14 days does not have adverse effects on the liver of Wistar rats. Key words: Medicinal plant, Honey, Garcinia kola, Liver, Biochemistry Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/120586D55436 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.021 en Copyright © 2014 Avwioro OG, Ogunbayo TJ, Ekhueorhan A, Onyije FM, Adedeji TM
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:A11970D55401 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
Effect of cigarette smoke on some enzymes of the descending aorta of adult wistar rats (rattus norvegicus) Popoola, NA, Enaibe, BU , Adekomi, DA , Raheem, SA , Olajide, OJ , Mustapha, T Aim: The effect of cigarette smoke on the aorta of Wistar rats was investigated for possible enzymatic destruction. Methods: Thirty six Wistar rats 200plusmn;10g were randomly grouped into 3 of 12 rats in each group. One group was exposed to cigarette smoke (Benson and Hedges containing 1.1mg nicotine) once daily at 18.00hours. The second group was exposed to smoke from cotton wool of equal weight as of the cigarette. The third group was the control and was not exposed to smoke. The animals had feeds and water ad libitum. The rats were sacrificed on 14th and 28th days, the aortae excised, homogenized in 0.2M sucrose and assayed for Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PDH), Lactase Dehydrogenase (LDH) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP). Results: A significant decrease in ALP and LDH and an insignificant increase in G6PDH over a period of 14 days were observed. However, the activities of the three enzymes were significantly decreased over a period of 28 days. Conclusion: Exposure to cigarette smoke can affect certain enzymes of the wall of the descending aorta. Key words: Descending aorta, G6PDH, LDH, ALP Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/A11970D55401 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.018 en Copyright © 2014 Popoola, NA, Enaibe, BU , Adekomi, DA , Raheem, SA , Olajide, OJ , Mustapha, T
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:0E5E70855410 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
Prevalence of parasitic agents associated with diarrhoea in children less than 5 years old in Lagos, Nigeria Ogbonna FN, David AN, Ezeugwu SMC, Onyejepu N, Ajayi MB Aim: Diarrhoea has been a common cause of morbidity and mortality in children less than 5years old. This work was intended to see if the level of hygiene is a reflection of the type of water taken by children. Methods: One hundred and five stool samples were collected from children in two health facilities in Lagos: Ajegunle (52) and Surulere (53) from April to July 2012. The samples from children who had diarrhoea were examined using direct microscopy to detect ova, cysts and motile parasitic agents. Positive samples were further examined using WHO method as detailed in Kato-Katz cellophane technique. Results: A total parasite prevalence of 51.4%, with 37.1% in males and 14.3% in females was observed. Specific prevalence of individual parasites is as follows, Entamoeba histolytica (32.4%); Ascaris lumbricoides (24.3%); Entamoeba coli (18.9%); Gardia lamblia (10.4%); Hookworm (8.1%) and Trichuris trichura (2.7%). Children that consumed water from open wells were more infected with parasites (17.1%). Lack of deworming programmes and routine clinical check-ups were seen to be significant for parasitic infection and diarrhea in the children in the study. Conclusion: The study showed that Entamoeba histolytica has contributed more to the cause of diarrhoea in children less than 5 years than other parasites. Key words: Diarrhoea, Parasites, Children Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/0E5E70855410 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.019 en Copyright © 2014 Ogbonna FN, David AN, Ezeugwu SMC, Onyejepu N, Ajayi MB
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:C9B93E155424 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2014
The effect of oral administration of the mixture of honey and garcinia kola on the kidney of wistar rats Avwioro OG , Demehin AO , Onyije FM , Bini N , Oladele AA , Umukoro S Aim: Honey and Garcinia kola have long been used separately by the traditional medical practitioners as remedies for cough and other ailments. Recently, a combination of both as a remedy for cough is common. This work was intended to see the effect of this synergy on the kidney. Methods: Twenty five Wistar albino rats weighing 180plusmn;10g were grouped into 5 (A, B, C, D, E) of 5 rats each. They were fed twice daily for 14 days with a mixture of G. kola and honey: 0.16g/kg + 0.5ml, 0.20g/kg + 0.5ml, 0.24g/kg + 0.5ml, 0.28g/kg + 0.5ml and normal feeds respectively. The rats were sacrificed on the 15th day and blood and kidneys were taken for biochemistry and histology respectively. Results: Sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, urea, creatinine, as well as the histology of the kidney of the test rats were not significantly different from the control rats. Conclusion: Oral intake of one nut Garcinia kola along with about 5 ml honey twice daily for 14 days has no adverse effect on the kidney. Key words: Honey, Garcinia kola, Liver, Medicinal plant Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/C9B93E155424 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH14.020 en Copyright © 2014 Avwioro OG , Demehin AO , Onyije FM , Bini N , Oladele AA , Umukoro S
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:E0B172B55645 2015-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2015
Common artifacts and remedies in histopathology (a review) Ekundina VO, Eze G The essence of preparing a biological specimen for microscopic studies is to get adequate and accurate medical information that is a true representation of the specimen, be it for research or diagnostic purposes. An artifact can be defined as unrelated, self-colored artificial feature found in tissue sections. This has been an age long cause of misinterpretation leading to misdiagnosis to microscopists. The processing of specimen for medical information is subject to a procedure that results in a tissue fit for diagnosis and interpretation. The procedures themselves are subject to human and material errors and the result is an artifact that in the least may interfere with adequate diagnosis or at the most render the tissue so distorted as to be undiagnosable. The need to recognize these artifacts and attempt to overcome them is the single biggest challenge in the histopathology Laboratory. This article focused on identifying artifacts and their potential cause so that misinterpretation and difficulty in diagnosis can be overcome, and help microscopist to come into definite diagnosis. Keywords: Artifacts, Histopathologist, Microscopist, Diagnosis Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/E0B172B55645 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH15.002 en Copyright © 2015 Ekundina VO, Eze G
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:870DB9855643 2015-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2015
Plasma urea and electrolytes profile in different stages of hiv infection in Ekpoma, Nigeria Eshiet EM, Jemikalajah DJ, Okogun GRA Aim: Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) is one of most dreaded diseases today. This study aims at the determination of electrolyte profile (Na+ , K+ , Cland HCO3 - ), urea levels and CD4 count of patients diagnosed with HIV infection in Ekpoma, Nigeria. Methods: Sixty patients and 40 apparently healthy individuals as controls were examined from January 2013- September 2014. Electrolytes were assayed using flame photometry and titration method for Na+ , K+ , Cl- and HCO3 - respectively. Urea was determined using Urease-berthlot method and CD4 count by partec cyflow counter. Results: The mean values of K+ ; 3.59plusmn;0.43, Na+ ; 133.48plusmn;3.79, HCO3 - ; 23.44plusmn;3.78, and CD4 count; 502.77plusmn;317.74 were decreased and showed a significant difference (plt;0.05) when compared to controls; 3.98plusmn;0.28, 137.18plusmn;2.44, 27.40plusmn;2.40 and 847.98plusmn;69.25 respectively. The level of urea; 22.2plusmn;8.95 was raised but showed no statistical significance (pgt;0.05) when compared to the control; 20.87plusmn;6.49 while that of Cl; 100.08plusmn;1.93 was decreased but showed no statistical significant difference (pgt;0.05) when compared to the control; 100.55plusmn;2.01. Conclusion: This study has shown that decreased K+ , Na+ , Cl, HCO3 - , CD4 count and raised urea level may be a valuable index in the diagnosis and monitoring of HIV infected patients. Keywords: Serum urea, Electrolytes, HIV, Infection Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/870DB9855643 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH15.001 en Copyright © 2015 Eshiet EM, Jemikalajah DJ, Okogun GRA
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:FFD112E55362 2015-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2015
A review of global guinea worm eradication: emphasis on the Nigerian situation Ezeugwu SMC, Afocha EE, Ajayi MB Aim: The horror and misery of guinea worm with its attendant negative effects on human health and agricultural production is well documented. This study highlights the efforts made so far globally and nationally to eradicate the scourge. Methods: An update on global guinea worm eradication with emphasis on the Nigerian situation was examined. Documented reports by various experts on guinea worm were examined. There was a brief presentation on some vital facts on guinea worm disease focusing on: what is guinea worm disease, what causes guinea worm, scientific classification, geographical distribution, habitat, transmission/life cycle, economic importance and the eradication efforts. The global eradication efforts covered from 1980 to 2014 while the Nigerian eradication processes covered from 1961 to 2014. Results: The global eradication efforts culminated in the present (2015) situation with only 4 countries (South Sudan, Chad, Ethiopia and Mali) still having reported cases of guinea worm. The Nigerian eradication efforts culminated in the present (2015) situation when the WHO officially certified Nigeria as a guinea worm-free country (13th December, 2013) and subsequently presented the official certificate to President Goodluck Jonathan declaring Nigeria as a guinea worm-free nation on 17th March, 2014. Conclusion: Nigeria is now free of Guinea Worm Disease. However, four African countries: South Sudan, Mali, Ethiopia and Chad still habour guinea worm presently with 143 cases. Keywords: Guinea worm, Update, Eradication, Global, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/FFD112E55362 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH15.004 en Copyright © 2015 Ezeugwu SMC, Afocha EE, Ajayi MB
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:F39610B55354 2015-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2015
Sorghum bicolor extract: a suitable counter stain in hibiscus extract nuclear staining of liver and kidney Benard SA , Muhammed AO , Fowotade AA , Afolabi OO, Olutunde OA. Aim: To investigate the suitability of alcoholic extract of Sorghum bicolor stalk as a counter stain for Hibiscus extract stained nuclei. Method: Formalin fixed kidney and liver biopsies were processed by the paraffin wax technique, sectioned, stained with Hibiscus extract solution and counterstained with 10% alcoholic extract of Sorghum bicolor stalk. Parallel sections were stained with Hamp;E as control. Results: Results show distinct dark - violet nuclear staining with light-brown staining of collagen and other components. Conclusion: Sorghum bicolor stalk alcoholic extract could be a useful substitute to eosin in histology for the demonstration of collagen and other cytoplasmic components especially when H. sabdariffa is used as the nuclear stain. Keywords: Hibiscus, Nuclear staining, Sorghum bicolor extract Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/F39610B55354 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH15.003 en Copyright © 2015 Benard SA , Muhammed AO , Fowotade AA , Afolabi OO, Olutunde OA.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:DB2C53355376 2015-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2015
Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart) on cd4+ cell count and liver enzymes in HIV infection at Lokoja, Nigeria Itodo GE , Enitan SS , Samanu VO , Ehiaghe FA , Akele YR , Olanyanju OA , Aim: To assess the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on CD4 + cell count and liver enzymes in HIV-infected patients six months post-therapy based on age and sex distribution. Methods: A cohort of 200 (66 males, 134 females) consenting HAART naiuml;ve patients, aged between 16 and 65 years with confirmed cases of HIV infection (by Western blot method) at Lokoja, Nigeria having a baseline CD4 + cell counts le;350 cells/ L were initiated on HAART for six months. Two blood samples were collected, one at pre-HAART (baseline) and the other at post-HAART (follow-up) phase. CD4 + cells were counted and liver enzymes levels were evaluated using the Partecreg; Cyflow Counter and Reflotronreg; Plus Auto-Analyzer, respectively. Results: The immunological outcome of 6 months HAART shows that there was slight increase (statistically, considered not significant, Pgt;0.05) in the post-HAART meanplusmn;SEMCD4 + cell count in the different age and sex strata investigated, when comparison was made with the pre-HAART meanplusmn;SEMCD4 + cell count. Also, the post HAART liver function test show that the liver enzymes levels were not significantly (Pgt;0.05) elevated when compared to the baseline values. Conclusion: Six months of HAART repleted CD4 + cell counts of HIV-infected patients of different age and sex strata, with no risk of liver damage. Keywords: HIV, HAART, Immune response, CD4 + cell, Liver enzymes Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/DB2C53355376 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH15.005 en Copyright © 2015 Itodo GE , Enitan SS , Samanu VO , Ehiaghe FA , Akele YR , Olanyanju OA ,
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:57704B755404 2015-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2015
Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart) on cd4+ cell count and liver enzymes in HIV infection at Lokoja, Nigeria Itodo GE , Enitan SS , Samanu VO , Ehiaghe FA , Akele YR , Olanyanju OA Aim: To assess the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on CD4 + cell count and liver enzymes in HIV-infected patients six month post-therapy based on age and sex distribution. Methods: A cohort of 200 (66 males, 134 females) consenting HAAR naiuml;ve patients, aged between 16 and 65 years with confirmed cases of HIV infection (by Western blot method) at Lokoja, Nigeria having a baseline CD4 + cell counts le;350 cells/ L were initiated on HAART for six months. Two blood samples were collected, one at pre-HAART (baseline) and the other at post-HAART (follow-up) phase. CD4 + cells were counted and liver enzymes levels were evaluated using the Partecreg; Cyflow Counter and Reflotronreg; Plus Auto-Analyzer, respectively. Results: The immunological outcome of 6 months HAART shows that there was slight increase (statistically, considered not significant, Pgt;0.05) in the post-HAART meanplusmn;SEMCD4 + cell count in the different age and sex strata investigated, when comparison was made with the pre-HAART meanplusmn;SEMCD4 + cell count. Also, the post HAART liver function test show that the liver enzymes levels were not significantly (Pgt;0.05) elevated when compared to the baseline values. Conclusion: Six months of HAART repleted CD4 + cell counts of HIV-infected patients of different age and sex strata, with no risk of liver damage. Keywords: HIV, HAART, Immune response, CD4 + cell, Liver enzymes Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/57704B755404 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH15.007 en Copyright © 2015 Itodo GE , Enitan SS , Samanu VO , Ehiaghe FA , Akele YR , Olanyanju OA
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:B8B4B5155399 2015-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2015
A study on the stage of presentation of acute kidney injuries to clinics in Western Nigeria Odewusi OO, Oyedeji SO Aim: The research was primarily set to assess the stages at which acute kidney injuries (AKI) are presented for clinical appraisal. Methods: The research was carried out in southwest Nigeria. A total of 151 participants were included, 101 were AKI patients. The remaining 50 were apparently healthy individuals who had no history of AKI, who served as control. Estimation of plasma creatinine was carried out on the subjectsrsquo; blood sample. Values were then subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS 17. The diagnosis and staging of AKI was based on history taken and a rise in plasma creatinine to set cut off points. AKI patients were therefore grouped into three with respect to the plasma creatinine content of the first blood sample collected on presentation. The three stages were titled 1, 2, and 3; 1 and 3 being mild and severe respectively. Result: A significant rise in plasma creatinine was observed when the AKI patients were compared with control. The frequencies of patients at each AKI stage were 17, 5, and 79 for stages 1, 2, and 3 respectively. The age groups and frequency of AKI were: up to 10 years (31), 11 to 20years (6), 21 to 30 years (27), 31 to 4 years (33), 41 to 50 years (4), 51 to 60 years (5), and 60 years and above (6). Conclusion: It appears that in the absence of etabolic diseases, the frequency of AKI is higher in children and between the age group of 21 to 40. Key words: Acute kidney injury, Staging, Creatinine, Nephrotoxic substances Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/B8B4B5155399 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH15.006 en Copyright © 2015 Odewusi OO, Oyedeji SO
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:E2EA72C55435 2015-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2015
Serum biochemical changes in Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica) experimentally infected with salmonella enterica serovar gallinarum BardeIJ, Bale JOO, Oladele SB, Fatihu MY, Kumbish PR, Rimfa AG, Ahmed JS,Okewole PA Aim: To determine the serum biochemical changes in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) experimentally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum Methods: A total of 160 (108 males and 52 females) Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were used for the experiment. Four weeks old quails were randomly selected and assigned into four groups (A, B,C and D) of forty quails each. Groups A, B and C were infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum per os at the dose of 106,104and102, respectively, while group D served as the control. Sera were used for the determination of biochemical parameters. Results: There were significant changes (Plt;0.05) in serum glucose,total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and urea concentrations between infected groups and the control group.Significant changes (Plt;0.05) in these biochemical parameters were also observed post-infection compared to pre-infection within each infected group. Conclusion: FT in quails results in severe multi organ dysfunction and damage as demonstrated by the serum biochemical changes noticed suggestive of immediate cause of mortality in FT infection. Key words: Serum biochemistry, Quail, Salmonella, Nigeria Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/E2EA72C55435 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH15.008 en Copyright © 2015 BardeIJ, Bale JOO, Oladele SB, Fatihu MY, Kumbish PR, Rimfa AG, Ahmed JS,Okewole PA
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:CF50A4155448 2015-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2015
Selected markers of oxidant challenge in essential hypertensive smokers Odewusi OO, Tope-ajayi AA, Adeshina AA. Aim: The study was set to assess the relationship between antioxidant status, smoking and hypertension, the argument being whether there would be a significant difference in antioxidant status and perhaps, a significant difference in blood pressure. Methods: A total of105 samples were collected. 36 samples were collected from type I hypertensive smokers; 47 from hypertensive non smokers, the remaining 22 were collected from normal non smokers, who served as control. The blood pressure of each subject was measured. Determinations of SOD activity and TBARS content were carried out on each of the samples. Determination of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also carried out using a digital sphygmomanometer. The results of all investigations were thereafter subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS 17, the studentrsquo;s t test being the tool of choice. Significance was tested at Plt;0.05. Results: The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressureof hypertensive smokers and non smokinghypertensives was found to be significantly increased. Similarly the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure of hypertensive smokers was found to be significantly increased. SOD activity was significantly decreased while TBARS levels were significantly higher in both hypertensive groups. Lipid peroxidation was significantly higher while SOD activity was significantly lower in hypertensive smokers when compared with hypertensive non smokers Conclusion: It appears that cigarette smoking as a social lifestyle depletes SOD levels but increases lipid peroxidation. It also seems to favour the progression of essential hypertension from mild to severity. Keywords: Smoking, Hypertension, Reactive oxygen species, Antioxidant enzymes Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/CF50A4155448 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH15.009 en Copyright © 2015 Odewusi OO, Tope-ajayi AA, Adeshina AA.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:42F55E455458 2015-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2015
Effect of ethanolic extract of ocimum gratissimum on sodium nitrite-induced cerebral cortex toxicity in adult wistar rats Ibegbu AO, Eze SM, Livinus PP, Adamu SA, Hamman WO, Umana U, Musa SA Aim: The effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum on sodium nitrite-induced cerebral oxidative stress in adult Wistar rats was evaluated. Methods: Twenty four adult Wistar rats of weight between 150g to 250g were divided into six groups of four rats each. Group I was the Control and received 2ml/kg bwt of distilled water, Group II received 54mg/kg bwt of NaNO2, Group III received 750mg/kg bwt of the extract and 54mg/kg bwt of NaNO2, Group IV received 375mg/kg bwt of the extract and 54mg/kg bwt of NaNO2, Group V received 54mg/kg bwt of NaNO2 and 2ml/kg bwt of Olive oil while Group VI received 2ml/kg bwt of Olive oil. The administration was oral for 21 days after which the animals were sacrificed and blood collected for hematological and biochemical analyses and the tissues processed for histological studies. Results: The result showed a dose dependent decrease in the mean body weight of the animals in Groups III and IV and a significant increase in serum levels of MDA and decrease in SOD, GPX and CAT in Group II(P Histological studies showed degenerative changes in Group II with less degeneration in Group IV. Conclusion: The result showed that O. gratissimum in a dose-dependent manner may be used in the management of neurodegenerative conditions that involve free radical production. Key words: Sodium nitrite, Cerebral cortex, Ocimum gratissimum Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/42F55E455458 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH15.010 en Copyright © 2015 Ibegbu AO, Eze SM, Livinus PP, Adamu SA, Hamman WO, Umana U, Musa SA
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:F1C804F55467 2015-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2015
Prevalence of mycobacterium tuberculosis in Human immunodeficiency virus patients at art centre Agbor, Nigeria Adu ME , Ezie E , Isibor CN , Jemikalajah DJ Aim: The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients is a dual epidemic problem of major concern worldwide especially in Africa where there is upsurge of the disease. This study is set to determine the prevalence of PTB among HIV patients. Methods: A total of 489 patients were recruited into the study, 173(35.4%) were males, while 316 (64.6%) were females between January 2012 and December 2013. HIV status and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were determined using WHO systems two and Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) staining technique respectively. Results: Prevalence of 10.6%, 79.6% and 9.8% was obtained for HIV/PTB co infection, HIV and PTB respectively. A prevalence of 5.1% recorded for HIV/PTB co infection is highest among age group 31-45years, followed by 2.7% and 1.6% in the age groups 16-30 and 46-60years respectively. The lowest prevalence of 0.2% each was observed in the age groups 61-75 and 76-90 years. Conclusion: There is need for more advocacy and proper monitoring of infected patients to check the spread of HIV infections especially in a depressed economy like Nigeria in order to further reduce cases of PTB. Keywords: Pulmonary tuberculosis, HIV, Prevalence, Delta State. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/F1C804F55467 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH15.011 en Copyright © 2015 Adu ME , Ezie E , Isibor CN , Jemikalajah DJ
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:87299F455478 2015-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2015
Evaluation of serum proteins in some immunocompromised patients in Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria Okogun GRA , Jemikalajah DJ , Adu ME , Saliu R Okogun GRA , Jemikalajah DJ , Adu ME , Saliu R Aim: Immuno compromised state is a condition of alteration in the immune status of an individual, thereby promoting progression of a disease. This work investigated serum proteins in immuno compromised individuals. Methods: 5ml venous blood was collected from 120 volunteers which comprised 20 tuberculosis patients, 40 Human immunodeficiency virus patients, 40 pregnant women and 20 age ndash;sex matched apparently healthy individual as controls in Central Hospital Auchi, Edo State. Standard colorimetric method was used to determine the serum total protein, albumin, and globulin as well as albumin/globulin ratio. Results: A significant increase in total proteins, albumin, and globulins as well as albumin/globulin ratio of Tuberculosis and HIV patients but decrease in pregnant women when compared with control subjects was observed. Conclusion: Serum protein is a significant diagnostic index in the management of immune-compromised patients. Keywords: Immuno-compromised, HIV, Tuberculosis, Pregnancy Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/87299F455478 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH15.012 en Copyright © 2015 Okogun GRA , Jemikalajah DJ , Adu ME , Saliu R Okogun GRA , Jemikalajah DJ , Adu ME , Saliu R
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:8CEC3F955483 2015-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2015
Isolation and serological detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae using a combined mg/ms enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit in indigenous chickens in Niger State, Nigeria Ahmed JS, Lawal SM, Fatihu MY, Moses DG, Barde IJ, Kumbish PR, Oladele SB Aim: The present study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of mycoplasma infection and possible isolation from local chickens in Niger State, Nigeria. We have looked into this problem using a combined MG/MS ELISA kit and cultural isolation. Methods: A total of 552 blood samples were randomly collected from exanguinated chickens for serology. Tracheal swabs were collected into screwed cap bijou bottles containing 2ml of mycoplasma broth medium. Results: The sero prevalence of indigenous chickens from Niger State was 91.83% by MG/MS Elisa. A total of 126 swabs yielded to the growth of avian mycoplasma on mycoplasma agar. Key words: Isolation, Mycoplasma species, Avian, indigenous chickens Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/8CEC3F955483 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH15.013 en Copyright © 2015 Ahmed JS, Lawal SM, Fatihu MY, Moses DG, Barde IJ, Kumbish PR, Oladele SB
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:16FD54955489 2015-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2015
Effect of a cassava based diet (gari) on some renal function parameters in albino rats Adegoke O.A , Bamigbowu E.O , Georgendash;Opuda M. I , Awopeju T A , Mbata CA, Braide SA , Ekwusa O. V , Odunfa T Aim: The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of Gari (a cassava based diet) on renal functions in albino rats. Methods: Thirty five Wistar albino rats divided into seven groups were fed Gari mixed with normal rat diet at concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% respectively for 3 weeks and the renal parameters (Creatinine, Urea, Sodium and Potassium) monitored in the animals. Results: There were dose dependent increases in urea, creatinine, potassium and sodium of albino rats fed Gari diet. Using analysis of variance (ANOVA), there were significant differences in the urea, and creatinine concentrations when compared to their respective controls (Plt;0.05) while sodium and potassium did not show any significant difference (Pgt;0.05). Conclusion: Therefore this study showed that Gari caused changes in renal function based on the concentration of the Gari. Keywords : Renal, Gari, Creatinine, Urea, Electrolytes Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/16FD54955489 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH15.014 en Copyright © 2015 Adegoke O.A , Bamigbowu E.O , Georgendash;Opuda M. I , Awopeju T A , Mbata CA, Braide SA , Ekwusa O. V , Odunfa T
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:A3FEB8B65690 2016-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2016
A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECT OF COMMERCIAL pH BUFFERS ON EPITOPE RETRIEVAL OF ‘HER-2/neu’ PROTEIN Enemari JO, Avwioro OG, Osadolor HB, Idoko J, Yaro JD, and Odigie BE Aim: The significance of immunohistochemistry standardization became important with the disclosure of alarmingly high records of inconsistent results in the assessments of HER-2/neu expression status in women with breast cancers. Formalin-Fixed-Paraffin-Embedded tissue usually presents with conformational macromolecular changes, masking the epitope with sub-optimal staining of HER- 2/neu protein. The pH of epitope retrieval solution appears to significantly influence the completion of the unmasking process. The present study therefore examines the impact of commercial buffers on epitope retrieval of lsquo;HER-2/neursquo; protein so as to optimize diagnosis and management of breast cancers. Methods: The study examined three pH buffers, non-retrieved sections and distilled water as a control on a 3+ HER-2/neu FFPE tissue block by water-bath epitope retrieval procedure and subsequently stained immunohistochemically. Results: The pH of the buffers does not significantly influence the staining quality of HER-2/neu protein. However, pH 6 appears to be the most optimal as associated with other buffers examined. Conclusion: pH 6 buffer in conjunction with water-bath procedure is strongly recommended as the first-choice buffer for epitope retrieval of HER-2/neu protein. Keywords: pH, Buffers, Epitope Retrieval, HER-2/neu, Immunohistochemistry Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/A3FEB8B65690 en Copyright © 2016 Enemari JO, Avwioro OG, Osadolor HB, Idoko J, Yaro JD, and Odigie BE
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:1FCFBC465694 2016-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2016
REPRODUCTION AND TRYPANOSOMA CONGOLENSE IN NIGERIAN WEST AFRICAN DWARF EWES: II. GENITAL AND ENDOCRINE LESIONS Abubakar YU, Oyedipe EO, , Eduvie LO , Ogwu DO , Adeyeye AA Aim: The study was designed to determine the effect of Trypanosoma congolense on the genital and endocrine organs of West African Dwarf (WAD) ewes. Methods: Ten WAD ewes obtained for the study were divided into two groups comprising 5ewes each. Group A was infected with Trypanosoma congolense, while group B was uninfected and allowed to run for eight weeks. At the end of the study period, three infected and two control ewes were sacrificed. The weights of the ovaries were determined and sections taken for histopathological examination. Sample sections from other parts of the reproductive tract, brain, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus were also taken. Results: The mean ovarian weight, number of follicles and number of corpera lutea of the infected ewes decreased compared to the control ewes but were not statistically significant (pgt; 0.05). No parasites were seen following impression smears conducted on the ovaries. However, there were slight areas of necrosis and mild degeneration of the ovarian stroma. These were absent in the control ewes. No detectable gross lesions were seen in the adenohypophysis of both the infected and control ewe, although slight areas of focal necrosis were seen at histology. There were no detectable gross and histological lesions in the uterus, cervix, vagina, brain and hypothalamus of both infected and control ewes. Conclusion: The findings from this study are of great importance for the economic exploitation of WAD sheep in tsetse infected area. Keywords: Adenohypophysis, Ovaries, Trypanosoma congolense, WAD Ewe. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/1FCFBC465694 en Copyright © 2016 Abubakar YU, Oyedipe EO, , Eduvie LO , Ogwu DO , Adeyeye AA
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:AA4295F65692 2016-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2016
HISTOPATHOLOGICAL PATTERN OF SKIN LESIONS IN USMANU DANFODIYO UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL SOKOTO, NIGERIA Abubakar SD, Tangaza AM, Sahabi SM, Legbo JN Aim: Skin diseases are a common and important cause of morbidity globally. However, there is no study on skin lesion available in Sokoto to add to the existing dermatological knowledge in the sub-Saharan region. This research aims to determine the histopathological pattern of skin lesions in Sokoto. Methods: A total of 329 skin samples were thoroughly analysed in the study. 28 had inadequate data ranging from indeterminate gender to unspecified age and were hence not used. 301 samples were therefore used for the study. Results: Pre-malignant and malignant tumours accounts for 26.25% of all skin lesions followed by tumours of the dermis with 22.92%. The age group, 20-29 years presented the highest frequency of Skin pathology with 20.60%. Skin pathology was slightly higher in males than in females. The average rate of neoplastic lesion was 67.1% and malignant conditions accounted for 43.6% of such cases. Chronic inflammatory dermatoses was the most frequent skin lesion with 16.9% Conclusion: Chronic inflammatory dermatoses is the highest occurring skin lesion in Sokoto, Nigeria. Key Words: Skin, Pathology, Malignant, inflammation Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/AA4295F65692 en Copyright © 2016 Abubakar SD, Tangaza AM, Sahabi SM, Legbo JN
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:B5DC83765698 2016-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2016
SKELETAL MUSCLE MITOCHONDRIAL ALTERATIONS IN CARBOXYL TERMINUS OF HSC70 INTERACTING PROTEIN (CHIP)-/- MICE Jonathan C. Schisler, Cam Patterson, Monte S. Willis Aim: Hereditary ataxias are characterized by a slowly progressive loss of gait, hand, speech, and eye coordination and cerebellar atrophy. A subset of these, including hypogonadism, are inherited as autosomal recessive traits involving coding mutations of genes involved in ubiquitination including RNF216, OTUD4, and STUB1. Cerebellar CHIPopathy (MIM 615768) is a form of autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia (SCAR16) and when accompanied with hypogonadism, clinically resembles the Gordon Holmes Syndrome (GHS). A causal missense mutation in the gene that encodes the carboxy terminus of HSP-70 interacting protein (CHIP) protein was reported for the first time in 2014. CHIP-/- mice were found to phenocopy the motor deficiencies and some aspects of the hypogonadism observed in patients with STUB1 mutations. However, mechanisms responsible for these deficits are not known. Methods: In a survey of skeletal muscle by transmission electron microscopy, Results: CHIP-/- mice at 6 months of age were found to have morphological changes consistent with increased sarcoplasmic reticulum compartments in quadriceps muscle and gastrocnemius (toxic oligomers and tubular aggregates), but not in soleus. Conclusion: Since CHIP has been implicated in ER stress in non-muscle cells, these findings illustrate potential parallel roles of CHIP in the muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, a hypothesis that may be clinically relevant in a variety of common muscular and cardiac diseases. Key words: STUB1, muscle, ER stress Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/B5DC83765698 en Copyright © 2016 Jonathan C. Schisler, Cam Patterson, Monte S. Willis
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:4C7993365696 2016-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2016
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF PALM BUNCH ASH AND TRONA ON THE LIVER OF ALBINO RATS Okoye JO, Oranefo NO, and Okoli AN Aim: To evaluate the haematological, biochemical and histological effects of palm bunch ash (PBA) and trona when used as tenderizers. Methods: Thirty male albino rats were randomly grouped into five designated 1(control), 2, 3, 4 and 5, and were orally given 2 ml of distilled water, 486 mg/kg of trona, 972 mg/kg of Trona, 486 mg/kg of PBA, 972 mg/kg of PBA, respectively for 21 days. Results: The study showed decreased body and liver weights (195.00 plusmn; 20.50 to 152.80 plusmn; 27.81{plt;0.05} and 9.13 plusmn; 1.28 to 7.38 plusmn; 1.59 {pgt;0.05}, respectively) and higher relative weight (4.68 plusmn; 0.98 to 4.83 plusmn; 0.34 {pgt;0.05}) and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (165.83 plusmn; 16.73 to 349.67 plusmn; 201.99 {pgt;0.05}). Significant differences in lactate dehydrogenase activity (plt;0.05) and insignificant differences in the estimated haemoglobin, packed cell volume, serum amylase and transaminases were also observed (pgt;0.05). Liver microscopy in the test groups revealed evidences of hepatitis and cholestasis. Conclusion: this study suggests that both trona and PBA are more toxic at 972 mg/kg but less toxic at 486 mg/kg body weight. Thus, lower concentrations are advised when used as tenderizing agents. Key words: Trona, Palm bunch ash, Tenderizer, enzymes Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/4C7993365696 en Copyright © 2016 Okoye JO, Oranefo NO, and Okoli AN
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:EF1487E65700 2016-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2016
IMPACT OF COPPER, LEAD, IRON AND ZINC ON OCCUPATIONAL PHOTOCOPIER OPERATORS AND REPAIRERS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF BENIN COMMUNITY- A PILOT STUDY Osadolor HB Vittu OD, and Idemudia UO Aim: Photocopying serves as a good source of employment to many Nigerian youths and its importance cannot be overemphasized. Photocopiers are used on a regular basis without any protective measure. This study seeks to ascertain the complexity of copper, lead, iron and zinc accumulates in the body of occupational users of photocopiers and their possible health hazards. Methods: Seventy subjects including tests and controls (non users of photocopiers) of 18 years and above were recruited for the study. Plasma was analysed for copper, lead, iron and zinc using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: The meanplusmn; standard error of mean of copper, lead and iron in professional operators of photocopiers (91.50 plusmn; 3.66, 0.00 plusmn; 0.00, and 100. 2plusmn; 3.18 respectively) were surprisingly significantly lower when compared with their controls (non-users) (161.48 plusmn; 8.78, 0.01plusmn; 0.00 and 140.22 plusmn; 8.78 respectively). The mean plusmn; standard error of zinc was slightly higher in occupational users of photocopiers (98.45 plusmn; 1.59) when compared with controls (98.11 plusmn; 4.39) though this was not significant. Conclusion: Plasma copper, lead and iron were significantly lower in operators of photocopiers who come in contact with toner powders than in their control while plasma Zinc was slightly higher. Key words: Toxic metals, FAAS, Photocopiers. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/EF1487E65700 en Copyright © 2016 Osadolor HB Vittu OD, and Idemudia UO
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:2850C0A65702 2016-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2016
SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS OF WISTAR RATS TREATED WITH METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF JATROPHA GOSSYPIFOLIA Ubah SA, Inyang IE, Waziri MA, Ogunbodede MA, Oladele GM, Ode OJ, Adeyeye AA Aim: The study was designed to determine the effect of methanolic leave extract of Jatropha gossypifolia on semen characteristics in Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty-five male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E) comprising 5 rats each. Rats in group A served as control, and were administered distilled water per os for 21 days, while rats in groups B, C, D and E were administered oral 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg/kg bodyweight of Jatropha gossypifolia leaf extract for 21 days, respectively. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were humanly sacrificed and semen was collected by open castration and evaluated. Results: There was a dose dependent decrease in the mass activity, sperm motility, sperm concentration and percentage live sperm cells of the treated groups. These were significantly (plt;0.05) different from the control group except group B. Percentage abnormalities characterized by detached head, double head, curved head, giant head, coiled tail, curved tail and curved mid-piece were seen during the study. These abnormalities were significantly (plt;0.05) higher in the treated groups (C ndash; E) than the control. Conclusion: It was concluded from the study that Jatropha gossypifolia leave extract above 100 mg/kg is capable of disrupting the reproductive process of male Wistar rats through poor semen characteristics. However, extract at not more than100 mg/kg body weight may be safe. Key words: Jatropha gossypifolia, Sperm abnormalities, concentration, motility Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/2850C0A65702 en Copyright © 2016 Ubah SA, Inyang IE, Waziri MA, Ogunbodede MA, Oladele GM, Ode OJ, Adeyeye AA
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:EA360A965706 2016-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2016
HEMATOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF ABINO RATS ORALLY ADMINISTERED PYRETHROIDS FORMULATION Iteire AK Aim: This study was carried out to determine the effect of Mortein on some hematological parameters. Methods: Fifty adult Albino rats (150- 200g) were acquired from the animal house of the College of Health Sciences, Delta State University Abraka and placed into four groups. Groups 1- 3 contained 15 rats each, while 4 contained 5 rats. Groups 1-3 were further sub-divided into 3 sub-groups of 5 rats each. The rats in Groups 1-3 were treated with 3 different doses of M for 7, 21 and 40 days respectively while Group 4 was given water as placebo. The rats were later sacrificed and blood samples were collected for hematological analysis. The data generated were presented as mean and standard error of mean. Significant differences were obtained by One Way Analysis of Variance at (p le; 0.05) with the aid of SPSS version 21. Results: Significant decrease in total white blood cell count was observed in rats treated with M in dose and time-dependent manner when compared to rats of the control group. There was also a consequent time-dependent significant decrease (p le; 0.05) of lymphocyte, significant increase (p le; 0.05) of neutrophil and slight increase of monocyte when compared to the control. Subsequently, PCV significantly (p le; 0.05) reduced in treated rats compared to the control. Conclusion: Over exposure to the insecticide, Mortein reduces total white blood cells and packed cell volume. Keywords: Mortein, Albino Rats, Hematological, Blood, Pyrethroids Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/EA360A965706 en Copyright © 2016 Iteire AK
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:284DB8D65704 2016-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2016
EFFECT OF PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE AND EXTRACT OF TAMARINDUS INDICA PULP ON THE CEREBRAL CORTEX OF WISTAR RATS Usman IM, Buraimoh AA, Ibegbu AO Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic pulp extract of Tamarindus indica (EPTI) on the cerebral cortex in prenatal ethanol exposure in Wistar rats. Method: Twenty four pregnant rats were divided into 7 groups. The Control received 1ml of water, Groups 2 and 3 received 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg body weight (bw) of EPTI and Vitamin E respectively, Group 4 received 0.1ml of olive oil, Group 5 received 30%v/v of ethanol, Groups 6 and 7 received 30% v/v of ethanol and 200mg/kg bw of EPTI; and 30% v/v of ethanol and 300mg/kg bw of Vitamin E respectively. All administrations were via oral route, from prenatal day 7 to 14. At littering the brain tissues of the pups were collected for histological studies while some pups were used for Neurobehavioral studies. Results: The result of elevated plus maze test showed significant increase in the time spent in the closed arm, rearing and grooming in Group 5 compared to the Control (plt;0.05). Histological studies showed normal architecture in Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, Group 5, 6 and 7 showed degenerative changes compared to the Control. Conclusion: Treatments with EPTI and Vitamin E have shown some potential protective effects on the Cerebral cortex of Wistar rats during prenatal ethanol exposure. Key words: Cerebrum, Ethanol, Prenatal, Tamarindus indica Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/284DB8D65704 en Copyright © 2016 Usman IM, Buraimoh AA, Ibegbu AO
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:184BA3765708 2016-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2016
HIBISCUS EXTACT-IRON-VAN GIESON: A NEW MORPHOLOGICAL STAINING TECHNIQUE IN NEURO-HISTOLOGY Benard SA, Afolabi OO, Olutunde OA Aim: To investigate the suitability of Hibiscus extract mordanted with ferric chloride and counterstained with Van Gieson in the demonstration of brain histomorphology. Method: 10% formol saline fixed brain tissues from cerebellum, cerebrum and basal ganglia were processed by the paraffin wax technique, sectioned and stained with Hamp;E labeled A, Hibiscus/Van Gieson stain labeled B and Weigertrsquo;s Van Gieson stain labeled C as control. Results: Photomicrographs from all the staining techniques presented all the brain cells especially the molecular cell layer and the granular cell layer of the cerebellum in comparable manner. The cells were stained blue-black with the Hibiscus-Van Gieson (B) and Haematoxylin van Gieson (C) methods. Conclusion: The suitability of Hibiscus extract-Iron-van Gieson in the histomorphological demonstration of brain tissue is established. Key words: Hibiscus stain, Van Gieson, neuro-histology, roselle. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/184BA3765708 en Copyright © 2016 Benard SA, Afolabi OO, Olutunde OA
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:1C4D07365710 2016-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2016
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL EXPRESSION OF p16(INK4A) PROTEIN IN CERVICAL DYSPLASIA AND CARCINOMA IN PATIENTS ATTENDING FEDERAL TEACHING HOSPITAL, GOMBE, NIGERIA Umar A, Avwioro OG, Muhammad AT, Mohammed I, Mohammed MO, Ibrahim KK, Sahabi SM, Abdullahi K, Mohammed SA, and Ajayi AS Aim: This study was conducted to determine and compare the immunohistochemical expression of p16(INK4a) in cervical dysplasia and carcinoma in Gombe, Nigeria. Materials: Seventy eight cases of cervical neoplasm; comprising 17 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), 53 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 6 cases of adenocarcinoma and 2 cases of adenosquamous carcinoma. All samples were stained using p16(INK4a) Rabbit monoclonal anti-CDKN2A/p16(INK4a) antibody. Results: The p16(INK4a) expression was graded as negative, focal and diffuse positivity. The study showed p16(INK4a) expression in CIN I, CIN II and CIN III as 0%, 80.0% and 83.3% respectively. Majority of SCC (88.7%), adenocarcinoma (83.3%) and adenosquamous carcinoma (100%) showed p16(INK4a) expression. Conclusion: Immunohistochemical detection of p16(INK4a) can be a useful diagnostic marker for all degrees of cervical dysplasias and carcinomas. Key words: Dysplasia, Carcinoma, Immunohistochemistry, HPV, p16, Neoplasia, Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/1C4D07365710 en Copyright © 2016 Umar A, Avwioro OG, Muhammad AT, Mohammed I, Mohammed MO, Ibrahim KK, Sahabi SM, Abdullahi K, Mohammed SA, and Ajayi AS
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:BDE803A55370 2017-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2017
PRELIMINARY HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS FRUIT EXTRACT OF PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L. (DATE PALM) ON LEAD ACETATE-INDUCED CEREBELLAR DAMAGES IN WISTAR RATS Yusuf AO , Buraimoh AA , Agbon AN , Raji K B , Akpulu PS Aim: This study was to histologically assess the therapeutic effect of aqueous fruit extract of Phoenix dactylifera (AFEPD) on lead acetate-induced cerebellar damage in Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty four rats were grouped into six (Indash;VI; n=4). Group I (control) received distilled water (1 ml/kg). Group II received lead acetate (LA, 120mg/kg) only. Groups III and IV received LA (120mg/kg) followed by AFEPD (1000mg/kg and 1500mg/kg, respectively). Groups V and VI received AFEPD (1000mg/kg and 1500mg/kg, respectively). All administrations were by oral route. Treatment lasted 28 days; LA was administered from day 1 to day 14, while AFEPD was administered from day 15 to day 28 of the experimental period. Therapeutic activity of AFEPD was assessed by histological examination of the cerebellar cortex with H and E stain. Results: Findings revealed neurodegenerative changes in the cerebellar cortex like perineuronal vacoulations and cytoplasmic shrinkage in molecular layer cells and Purkinje cells in LA-intoxicated group. The administration of AFEPD remarkably ameliorated LAndash;induced cerebellar damage dose dependently. Normal cerebellar histoarchitecture was observed with administration of AFEPD only. Conclusion: Results suggest that AFEPD has therapeutic potentials against lead acetate-induced cerebellar damage in Wistar rats. Key words: Cerebellum, Lead acetate, Phoenix dactylifera Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/BDE803A55370 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH17.001 en Copyright © 2017 Yusuf AO , Buraimoh AA , Agbon AN , Raji K B , Akpulu PS
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:18C297E55385 2017-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2017
EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS GARLIC EXTRACT ON LEAD-INDUCED CHANGES ON CEREBELLUM OF WISTAR RATS Hamza GA , Ibegbu AO , Buraimoh AA Aims: The effects of aqueous garlic extract on lead-induced changes on the cerebellum of Wistar rats was investigated. Methods: Forty five Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups. Group 1 served as Control. Groups 2 and 3 received lead at low and high doses. Group 4 received lead and garlic extract at low doses while Group 5 received lead at high dose and garlic extract at low dose. Group 6 received lead at low dose and garlic extract at high dose while Group 7 received lead and garlic extract at high doses. Group 8 and 9 received lead and Succimer at low and high doses respectively. Blood samples were collected for estimation of oxidative stress and the cerebellum sections were stained using routine hematoxylin and eosin and cresyl violet staining. Results: Oxidative stress analyses of lead treated groups showed significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities and increased malondialdehyde level (Ple;0.05) while significant increase in antioxidant enzymes activities and decrease in malondialdehyde level was noted in the lead and garlic extract Groups. Sections of the lead treated groups showed deleterious effects on cerebellum while aqueous garlic extract ameliorates the severity of the lead induced chances. Conclusion: Our study suggests that aqueous garlic extract can reverse lead induced changes on the cerebellum. Key words: Lead, Garlic, Oxidative stress, Antioxidant, Cerebellum Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/18C297E55385 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH17.002 en Copyright © 2017 Hamza GA , Ibegbu AO , Buraimoh AA
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:DC2C7B055394 2017-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2017
SEROPREVALENCE AND HAEMATOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOME WILD AND SEMI-DOMESTICATED BIRDS NATURALLY INFECTED WITH AVIAN POX VIRUS IN ZARIA, NGERIA Andamin AD , AkadeFT , Samuel FU , Enam SJ , Aliyu HB , Abdu PA , Oladele SB Aim: To determine seroprevalence and haematological parameters of some wild and semidomesticated birds naturally infected with avian pox virus (APV). Methods: A total of 160 birds belonging to 12 species were used for the study. Serum samples obtained from these birds were analyzed for antibodies to Avian Pox Virus (APV) using agar gel precipitation test. Natt-Herricks methods and thin blood smear technique were used for the haematological analysis. Results: APV serum antibody positivity was 90%, 100%, 80%, 100%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 70%, 100%, 90%, 80% and 80% for Speckled pigeons, domestic pigeons and Mourning collar dove, Laughing dove, Village weaver, Cut throat fire finch, Cattle egret, Helmeted guinea fowl, Rose-ringed parakeets, African silver billed, Senegal parrots and Red-billed quelea, respectively. The highest PCV of 51.0plusmn;4.0%, Hb concentration of 16.7 plusmn; 0.8 g/dl and T.P (5.3 plusmn; 0.2 g/dl) were obtained from Rose-ringed parakeet, African silver billed and Laughing dove respectively. The mean range values for PCV, Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC and TP of all the birds in this study were between 28.0 plusmn; 2.3 to 51.0 plusmn; 4.0 %, 3.8 plusmn; 0.4 to 16.4 plusmn; 0.8 g/dl and 2.07 plusmn; 2.02 to 5.3 plusmn; 0.2 g/dl respectively. Also, the mean range values for mean corpuscular volume (MCV),mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) of all the birds were between 78.9 plusmn; 4.2 to 138.0 plusmn; 22.3 fl, 28.2 plusmn; 2.5 to 49.1 plusmn; 7.9 pg, 78.9 plusmn; 4.2 to 138.0 plusmn; 22.3 fl, 28.2 plusmn; 2.5 to 49.1 plusmn; 7.9 pg and 31. 6 plusmn; 1.19 to 37.7 plusmn; 1.7 g/dl and 31. 6 plusmn; 1.19 to 37.7 plusmn; 1.7 g/dl, respectively. Conclusion: Avian pox virus is present in some wild and semi-domesticated birds in Zaria and could spread to commercial poultry. Key words: Seroprevalence, Haematology, Wild birds. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/DC2C7B055394 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH17.003 en Copyright © 2017 Andamin AD , AkadeFT , Samuel FU , Enam SJ , Aliyu HB , Abdu PA , Oladele SB
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:2677E6255402 2017-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2017
A STUDY OF ULCER INDUCED STOMACH OF ALBINO RATS TREATED WITH IDOGU MIXTURE, A POTENT ANTI-ULCER HERBAL DRUG Adediran OA , Avwioro OG and Funsho-Agun AG Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the potency of the anti-ulcer drug, Idogun on the stomach of ulcer induced albino rats. Method: Six groups of locally bred albino rats were used. Each group containing five rats of either sex were orally treated respectively with distilled water (ulcer control group), omeprazole 20mg/kg (reference group) and 100, 200, 400 and 800mg/kg extract of Idogun anti ndash;ulcer mixture (experimental group). Rats were sacrificed one hour after oral administration of 1ml absolute ethanol to induce injury in the gastric mucosa. Results: Tissue sections from ulcer induced rats contained haemorrhage, dense infiltration by mixed inflammatory cells and extensive ulceration. These features were absent in the ulcer induced rats that were subsequently treated with the Idogun mixture. Mild tissue edema and presence of inflammatory cells were observed in the omeprazole treated section. Conclusion: Idogun anti-ulcer herbal mixture is a potent anti-ulcer drug. Key words: Idogun mixture, Stomach ulcer, Herbal Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/2677E6255402 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH17.004 en Copyright © 2017 Adediran OA , Avwioro OG and Funsho-Agun AG
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:EA3DBD355413 2017-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2017
EVALUATION OF THE TOXICITY OF PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS Adomi PO ,Owhe-Ureghe UB , AsagbaSO Aim: The study evaluated the acute and sub acute toxicity of the aqueous leaf extract of Phyllathus amarus Schum. and Thonn using Wistar albino rat. Methods: Sixty-one adult Wistar rats were grouped four groups with ten rats per group for acute study. Rats in group 2, 3 and 4 received 2000mg/kg, 4000mg/kg, and 8000mg/kg of the extract respectively. For sub acute study, rats were divided into three groups with seven per group. Rats in groups 2 and 3 received 2000mg/kg and 4000mg/kg of the extract respectively. Blood was obtained by cardiac puncture. The heart, liver and kidney of each rat were also excised, weighed and used for biochemical and histopathological analysis. Results: The acute toxicity study revealed that the oral administration of the extract was safe up to the dose level of 8,000mg/kg. Besides the significant (Plt;0.05) gt;lt;0.05) reduction in plasma ALT and significant (Plt;0.05) gt;lt;0.05) increase in kidney AST 48hrs after acute exposure and significant reduction in plasma ALP in sub-acute exposure, no abnormality in plasma and tissue biochemical markers was observed. There was noneffect on the renal function indices but increase in WBC after sub-acute exposure. The gross and histopathological examination of the kidney and liver after both acute and sub acute study showed minor abnormalities. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that P.amarus aqueous extract is safe, as oral administration has no adverse effect on rat liver and kidney. Keywords: Acute, subacute toxicity, Phyllanthus amarus, Medicinal plant Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/EA3DBD355413 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH17.005 en Copyright © 2017 Adomi PO ,Owhe-Ureghe UB , AsagbaSO
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:D9C9FD355209 2017-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2017
Male breast adenomyoepithelioma- A case report and literature review Wahab TA, Uwakwe H, Gillibrand R, Fafemi O Adenomyoepithelioma is an uncommon primary breast tumor characterized by a biphasic proliferation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells which was first described by Hampperl in 1970. The largest reported series had been by Tavassoli (1991) who in reported 27 cases. Most of the others have been one or two case reports. Except for two in male patients [Tamura et al., 1993, Berna et al., 1997] all the reported cases have been in females. We hereby report an additional case of adenomyoepithelioma in a young male patient. Keywords: Adenomyoepithelioma, Breast, Male, Presentation. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/D9C9FD355209 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH17.006 en Copyright © 2017 Wahab TA, Uwakwe H, Gillibrand R, Fafemi O
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:34BEC8955205 2017-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2017
Haematological changes in layers experimentally infected with salmonella gallinarum Chiroma Mohammed Adam, Adamu Sani, Gadzama Joseph John, Esievo King Akpofure Nelson, Abdulsalam Hassan, Sani Nuhu Abdulazeez, Joshua Luka, Muhammad Yarsquo;u Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the haematological changes in layers experimentally infected with Salmonella gallinarum. Methods: A total of 20 eighteen-week- old ISA Brown layers were used for the experiment. The birds were randomly divided into two groups, infected and control, of 10 birds each. To establish the infection, each bird in the infected group was orally administered 0.5 ml of the inoculum containing 9x108CFU/ml. Similarly, birds in the control group were each administered 0.5 ml normal saline only. Following the inoculation, all experimental birds were closely monitored for clinical signs of fowl typhoid. Blood samples were collected from each group at day zero (Day 0), 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42, post-infection (pi) and used for determination of haematological parameters. By day seven post infection, all birds in the infected group showed clinical signs typical of fowl typhoid; namely weakness, ruffled feathers, huddling together, somnolence, greenish-yellow diarrhea, weight loss, drop in egg production, decrease in feed and water consumption and mortality rate (50%). There were, however, macrocytic hypochromic anaemia, leuckocytosis and heterophilia. In conclusion, the experimental Salmonella Gallinarum infection induced acute anaemia, leukocytosis, heterophilia and lymphopenia. Keywords; Fowl typhoid, Salmonella, Inoculum, Leukocytosis Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/34BEC8955205 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPATH17.007 en Copyright © 2017 Chiroma Mohammed Adam, Adamu Sani, Gadzama Joseph John, Esievo King Akpofure Nelson, Abdulsalam Hassan, Sani Nuhu Abdulazeez, Joshua Luka, Muhammad Yarsquo;u
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:363E54F57687 2017-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2017
Histomorphology of seminal vesicle and testicular tissue of Wistar rats following administration of Carica Papaya Zenebo VC, Eric UC Full Length Research Paper Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of Carica papaya on male reproductive organs. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats were randomly grouped into 4 of 5 rats each. They were fed with 2.5g/kg, 5g/kg and 7.5g/kg of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya once a day. The first group was given water. The rats were sacrificed on the 14th day and blood and tissues were taken for biochemical and histological analysis. Results: There was significant increase (P0.05) in serum protein (83.60plusmn;3.209, 78.80plusmn;1.483 and 72.60plusmn;3.578) and alkaline phosphatase (95.80plusmn;2.387, 62.80plusmn;2.168 and 99.60plusmn;1.817) when compared with the controls (64.40plusmn;3.286 and 55.60plusmn;4.722) respectively. The histology of the tissues was also normal. Conclusion: Carica papaya leaf at various dosages in this research did not distort blood chemistry and the histo-architecture of the seminal vesicle and testicular tissue. Key Words: Spermatogenic cells, Herbal, Reproduction, Carica papaya. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/363E54F57687 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2018.0012 en Copyright © 2017 Zenebo VC, Eric UC
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:B6B40BA57940 2017-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2017
Ascorbic acid and testosterone efficacy in spermatoxic and histomorphological changes in Corpora cavernosa in priapism induced sprague-dawley rats Igwe O, Aniah J. A, Godam E. T, Yama O, E. Full Length Research Paper Aim: The histomorphological changes in the corpora cavernosa following priapism remains an interesting observation due to its pathological and reproductive implications. We investigated the attenuating effect of testosterone and vitamin C on the corpora cavernosa induced fibrosis in priapism of rats. Methods: Twenty-five Sprague ndash; Dawley male rats were randomly allocated into 5 groups of rats each Group 1 served as the control. Group 2 had only priapism. Group 3 was induced with priapism and then treated with vitamin C. Group 4 was induced with priapism and then treated with testosterone. Group 5 was induced with priapism but were treated with both vitamin C and testosterone. Priapism was induced for one week followed by 6 hoursrsquo; post priapism administration of testosterone and vitamin C. Results: Results showed fibrotic corpora cavernosa in all groups except the control group. Sperm parameters indicated oligospermia and reduced sperm motility especially in group 2 and 3 when compared with the control group. Conclusion: The results indicated that testosterone and vitamin C ameliorated priapism-induced ischemia ndash; reperfusion injury at different time intervals in rats. Key words: Priapism, Corpora cavernosa, Infertility, Testosterone, Vitamin C. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/B6B40BA57940 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath17.0011 en Copyright © 2017 Igwe O, Aniah J. A, Godam E. T, Yama O, E.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:DE4FB6157682 2017-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2017
Determination of median lethal dose of ethanolic extract of Sesamum Indicum seeds in adult wistar rats Yusuf M.K, Ibegbu AO, Agbon AN, Evang A Full Length Research Paper The aim of this research was to determine the median lethal dose of sesamum indicum seeds in Wistar rats. Methods: Twelve Wistar rats within the ages of five to six weeks and of weights, ranging from (98-160) g of both sexes were used for the experiment. They were categorized into two phases of I and II. Phase I consisted three (3) groups of three (3) animals each. While phase II consisted three (3) groups of one (1) animal each. The phase I group was orogastrically intubated with (10, 100 and 1000) mg/kg body weight of ethanolic extract of sesamum indicum seeds respectively with the aid of a 2ml syringe with an intubation needle of size 24 mounted on it. The animals in phase II were similarly administered 1600, 2900 and 5000mg/kg body weights of the extract respectively and observed for one hour and ten minutes after every two hours for twenty four hours. Result: No mortality or any physical signs of toxicity were observed in any of the groups. Conclusion: The LD50 of ethanolic extract of sesamum indicum seeds is above 5000mg/kg body weight in adult Wistar rats. Key Words: LD50, Sesamum seeds, Wistar rats. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/DE4FB6157682 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2018.0011 en Copyright © 2017 Yusuf M.K, Ibegbu AO, Agbon AN, Evang A
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:527975E57685 2017-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2017
Some plasma biochemical changes in layers experimentally infected with Salmonella gallinarum Chiroma Mohammed Adam, Adamu Sani, Gadzama Joseph John, Esievo King Akpofure Nelson, Abdulsalam Hassan, Balami Arhyel Gana, Enam Samson James, Muhammad Yarsquo;u , Atata Abdulhamid Jamila Full Length Research Paper Aim: The study was conducted to investigate some plasma biochemical changes in layers experimentally infected with Salmonella Gallinarum Methods: A total of 20 eighteen-week- old ISA Brown layers were used in the experiment. The birds were randomly divided into two groups; infected and control, of 10 birds each. Each bird in the infected group was orally administered 0.5 ml of the inoculum containing 9x108CFU/ml. Similarly, birds in the control group were each administered 0.5 ml normal saline only. All the experimental birds were closely monitored for clinical signs of fowl typhoid. Blood samples were collected from each group at day zero (Day 0), 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42, post-infection and used for determination of plasma biochemical parameters. Results: By day seven post infection, all birds in the infected group showed clinical signs typical of fowl typhoid; weakness, ruffled feathers, huddling together, somnolence, greenish-yellow diarrhea, weight loss, drop in egg production, decrease in feed and water consumption and mortality rate (50%). There were, however, marked increase in the plasma activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and the level of urea and significant hypoprotinemia. Conclusion: The experimental Salmonella Gallinarum infection induced alteration in the liver and kidney functions. Key Words: Salmonella Gallinarum, Typhoid, ISA brown layers. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/527975E57685 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2018.0010 en Copyright © 2017 Chiroma Mohammed Adam, Adamu Sani, Gadzama Joseph John, Esievo King Akpofure Nelson, Abdulsalam Hassan, Balami Arhyel Gana, Enam Samson James, Muhammad Yarsquo;u , Atata Abdulhamid Jamila
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:858B27057499 2018-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2018
Histological and histochemical assessements on the effect of ethanol fruit extract of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Date Palm) on cerebral cortex of lead acetate treated wistar rats Stephen Samuel Lazarus, Samuel Sunday Adebisi, Yusuf Tanko, Abel Nosereme Agbon and Michael Ndomi Budaye Full Length Research Paper This study histologically and histochemically assess the effect of ethanol fruit extract of Phoenix dactylifera L. (EFPD) on the cerebral cortex of lead acetate exposed Wistar rats. Twenty rats were grouped into five groups (A to E, n=4). Group A (control) was administered distilled water (2 ml/kg), while groups B to E were treatment groups. Cerebral damage was induced in rats by the administration of lead acetate (120 mg/kg). Groups B, C, D and E were administered lead acetate (120 mg/kg) for a period of 3 weeks, after which groups C and D were administered EFPD (500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively) and group E was administered dimercaptosuccinic acid (10 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. All administrations were via oral route, once daily. Microscopic examination of cerebral sections of lead acetate-treated rats revealed histo-architectural alteration; cortical degenerative changes, such as, necrosis, satellitosis, vacuolation and neuronal cytoplasmic shrinkage. However, administration of EFPD remarkably ameliorated lead acetate-induced cortical cerebral degenerative changes in the rats, in a dose dependently manner, as compared to the reference drug dimercaptosuccinic acid. Results suggest that EFPD is a potential therapeutic agent against lead acetate-induced cortical cerebral alterations in Wistar rats. Key words: Cerebrum, lead acetate, Phoenix dactylifera L, Wistar rats. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/858B27057499 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2018.0003 en Copyright © 2018 Stephen Samuel Lazarus, Samuel Sunday Adebisi, Yusuf Tanko, Abel Nosereme Agbon and Michael Ndomi Budaye
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:E960D2B57503 2018-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2018
Determination of egg production and weight in layers experimentally infected with Salmonella gallinarum Mohammed Adam Chiroma, Sani Adamu, Joseph John Gadzama, King Akpofure Nelson Esievo, Abdulsalam Hassan, Arhyel Gana Balami, Muhammad Yarsquo;u, Ibrahim Bulama and Lekko Yusuf Madaki Full Length Research Paper The present study was conducted to determine egg production and weight in layers experimentally infected with Salmonella gallinarum. Twenty layers were used for the research. The layers were purchased at the age of 18 weeks from certified commercial poultry farm in Kujama farm, Kaduna State, Nigeria and housed in the Animal Research Unit of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The birds were examined to certify that they were disease free by collecting samples from the cloacal. The birds were assigned to two groups (infected and control) of ten layers each. The infected group was challenged with Salmonella gallinarum orally at the dose of 0.5 ml of 9 x 108 CFU/ml. All the birds in the control group were orally given 0.5 ml of normal saline. After the infection, all the infected layers were closely observed for clinical signs of fowl typhoid. Percentage of egg production and body weight were measured from each group at days zero (Day 0), 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42, post-infection (pi). By day seven post infection, all birds in the infected group showed clinical signs typical of fowl typhoid, namely, ruffled feathers, weakness, somnolence, greenish-yellow diarrhea, huddling together, decrease in feed and water consumption, and five of the layers died. There were, however, significant drop in egg production and loss of body weight in the S. gallinarum infected group. Key words: Fowl typhoid, Salmonella, inoculum, layers, egg production, body weight. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/E960D2B57503 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2018.0006 en Copyright © 2018 Mohammed Adam Chiroma, Sani Adamu, Joseph John Gadzama, King Akpofure Nelson Esievo, Abdulsalam Hassan, Arhyel Gana Balami, Muhammad Yarsquo;u, Ibrahim Bulama and Lekko Yusuf Madaki
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:C6FC95858029 2018-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2018
Phenotypic detection of multidrug resistant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli from clinical samples Iliyasu M. Y., Uba A. and Agbo E. B. Full Length Research Paper A clinico-laboratory investigation of multidrug resistant (MDR) characteristics of extended spectrum beta;-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli pathotypes from some hospitals in Bauchi metropolis, Nigeria, was carried out. A total of 198 E. coli isolates were recovered from different patientsrsquo; age group (0 to above 70 years), comprising of 134 males and 85 females, as both out-patient (126) and in-patient (93). The antimicrobial susceptibility tests show a high multidrug resistance among Ampicillin (97.0%), Amoxycillin (96.0%), the newer generation Cephalosporins like Cefuroxime (81.3%), Cefotaxime (85.4%) and Ceftazidime (60.6%). The isolates were sensitive to Ceftriaxone (62.1%), Amikacin (71.7%) and Imipenem (80.8%). Out of the multidrug resistant isolates, 163 were ESBL producers, with frequency of (26.9%) found within age group (31 to 40 years), mostly in males (59.1%) and out-patients (51.5%). Fifty four (27.3%) of the isolates were recovered from stool specimens with MDR and ESBL prevalence of (27.1%) and (26.9%) respectively. Based on clinical diagnosis, prevalence of MDR (29.5%) and ESBL production (28.2%) was found among cases of Urinary tract infections (UTIs), followed by Gastroenteritis (25.3%) and (25.8) respectively. These results indicate a strong association between multidrug resistance and ESBL production in E. coli pathotypes. The Amikacin and Imipenem sensitivity in this study advocates the usage of the carbapenem as the therapeutic alternative in the event of the increasing resistance rates observed with conventional beta-lactam antibiotics. Key words: Multidrug resistant (MDR), extended spectrum beta;-lactamase (ESBL), urinary tract infections (UTIs), gastroenteritis, carbapenem, beta-lactam antibiotics. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/C6FC95858029 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2018.0004 en Copyright © 2018 Iliyasu M. Y., Uba A. and Agbo E. B.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:515131D58009 2018-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2018
Comparative study of the effects of aqueous and ethanol fruit extracts of Phoenix dactylifera L. on the cerebellar cortex of Artesunate–Amodiaquine treated adult Wistar rats M. N. Budaye, S. S. Adebisi, A. A. Buraimoh, S. S. Lazarus and A. N. Agbon Full Length Research Paper This study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous and ethanol fruit extracts of Phoenix dactylifera on the cerebellar cortex of Artesunate-Amodiaquine (ASndash;AQ) treated Wistar rats. Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups (n=4). Group 1 served as the control; Group 2 received 2.86/8.75 mg/kg ASndash;AQ. Group 3 received 2.86/8.75 mg/kg ASndash;AQ + 100 mg/kg ascorbic acid; Groups 4, 5 and 6 received 2.86/8.75 mg/kg ASndash;AQ + 500 mg/kg aqueous extract of P. dactylifera (AEPD), 2.86/8.75 mg/kg ASndash;AQ + 1000 mg/kg AEPD and 2.86/8.75 mg/kg ASndash;AQ + 1500 mg/kg AEPD respectively. Groups 7, 8 and 9 received 2.86/8.75 mg/kg ASndash;AQ + 500 mg/kg ethanolic extract of P. dactylifera (EEPD), 2.86/8.75 mg/kg ASndash;AQ + 1000 mg/kg EEPD and 2.86/8.75 mg/kg ASndash;AQ + 1500 mg/kg EEPD respectively. All administration was orally done, and lasted for 28 days. Evidences of necrosis, chromatolysis and vacuolations were observed in the cerebellar cortex of the ASndash;AQ treated group. The histoarchitecture of the AEPD and EEPD treatment groups were preserved in a dose-dependent manner, and compared positively to the reference drug ascorbic acid treatment, with the AEPD-treated groups being better preserved. Amelioration of the severity of neurodegeneration by the extracts suggest that the extracts could have exerted their ameliorative effects by antioxidant activities ascribed to the phytochemicals present in the extracts. Key words: Phoenix dactylifera L. cerebellum, Artesunate-Amodiaquine, Wistar rats. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/515131D58009 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2018.0005 en Copyright © 2018 M. N. Budaye, S. S. Adebisi, A. A. Buraimoh, S. S. Lazarus and A. N. Agbon
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:91A36E458347 2018-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2018
Effect of Theobroma cacao on renal function of wistar albino rats induced with anaemia Adegoke O. Adebayo, Oluwatayo G. Beatrice and Ogbu U. Patience Full Length Research Paper The study investigated the effect of Theobroma cacao on renal function of phenylhydrazine induced anaemic albino rats. Forty albino rats were divided into 8 groups of five rats each namely control (group A), Phenyl hydrazine (group B) while groups C, D and E were given phenylhydrazine and administered with 100,200 and 500 mg/kg of T. cacao respectively while groups F, G and H were given 200,500 and 1000 mg/kg of T cacao only. The sodium, potassium, chloride, urea and creatinine were determined using Flame emission spectrophotometry, Mercuric nitrate, urease Berthelot and Jaffersquo;s method respectively and subjected to statistical analysis using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 18. There was significant difference (Plt;0.05) in sodium concentration (Mmol/l) of 130.602.74, 124.401.17, 130.001.40 and 131.731.26 in Control, Anaemia induced, Anaemia + T. cacao and T. cacao treated respectively while there was no significant difference (Pgt;0.05) in Potassium (Mmol) concentrations of 4.350.96, 5.540.74, 6.140.30 and 5.380.53 in Control, Anaemia induced, Anaemia + T. cacao and T. cacao treated respectively. There was no significant difference in Chloride (Mmol/l) concentrations of 140.0023.15, 137.6014.84, 142.916.74 and 124.407.47 in control, anaemia induced, anaemia + T. cacao and T. cacao treated respectively. Urea concentrations (Mmol/l) of 2.600.81, 2.850.40, 2.580.29 and14.7711.9547 in control, anaemia induced, anaemia + T. cacao and T. cacao treated did not show any significant difference as well as creatinine concentrations (umol/l) of 189.3110.71, 155.1810.25, 172.529.10 and 164.8812.12 in control, anaemia induced, anaemia + T. cacao and T. cacao treated. The result of the study suggested that T. cacao extract caused no reversal in the renal dysfunction caused by phenylhrazine. Key words: Renal, Theobroma cacao, anaemia, phenylhydrazine. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/91A36E458347 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2018.0015 en Copyright © 2018 Adegoke O. Adebayo, Oluwatayo G. Beatrice and Ogbu U. Patience
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:689E09E58342 2018-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2018
Some plasma biochemical changes in layers experimentally infected with Pasteurella multocida Joseph John Gadzama, Balami Arhyel Gana, Mohammed Adam Chiroma, Sani Adamu, Hassan Abdulsalam, Lekko Madaki Yusuf, Idoko Sunday Idoko, Sani Nuhu Abdulazeez, Samson James Enam and King Akpofure Nelson Esievo Full Length Research Paper The present study was carried out to investigate some biochemical alterations in layers experimentally infected with Pasteurella multocida. A total of 20 eighteen-week old ISA Brown layers were used in the experiment. The birds were randomly assigned to two groups (infected and control) of 10 layers each. To establish infection, each bird in the infected group was challenged by intra nasal (0.1 ml) and intramuscular (0.4 ml) administration of P. multocida inoculum containing 4.5 times; 108 CFU/ml. Meanwhile, birds in the control group were given clean drinking water and fed standard commercial layers mash ad libidum. All the experimental birds were monitored closely for clinical signs of fowl cholera. Blood samples were collected from both groups at day zero (Day 0), 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, post-infection (pi) and used to assay some biochemical parameters. By day 5 post-inoculation (pi), all birds in the infected group manifested clinical signs typical of fowl cholera; weakness, ruffled feathers, sneezing, greenish-yellowish diarrhoea, decrease in feed and water consumption, weight loss, drop in egg production and mortality rate of (20%). However, there were significant increase in the plasma activities of aspartate amino transferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and level of uric acid and significant hypoproteinaemia. The experimental P. multocida infection initiated hepatic, intestinal and renal dysfunctions. Key words: Pasteurella multocida, cholera, ISA brown layers. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/689E09E58342 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2018.0007 en Copyright © 2018 Joseph John Gadzama, Balami Arhyel Gana, Mohammed Adam Chiroma, Sani Adamu, Hassan Abdulsalam, Lekko Madaki Yusuf, Idoko Sunday Idoko, Sani Nuhu Abdulazeez, Samson James Enam and King Akpofure Nelson Esievo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:9AE449F58813 2018-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2018
Effect of formalin fixation on DNA purity and quantity, nucleic acid, and amplicon size in cervical human papilloma virus detection Oboma Y. I. and Ngokere A. A. Full Length Research Paper Tissue fixation with 10% formalin and molten paraffin wax embedding (FFPE) is routinely used protocol for tissue preservation in histopathology laboratory. We therefore aimed at comparing the differences in DNA quantity, DNA purity, nucleic acid and its effect on primers (PCR) amplicon (bp) sizes between fresh cervical tissues and formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE). The differences in DNA purity, quantity and nucleic acid were 2.02plusmn;0.42 versus 1.34plusmn;0.28, 47.73plusmn;37.45 vs. 21.84plusmn;25.52 (ng/ l) and 1.56plusmn;0.59 vs 0.49plusmn;0.46 between for fresh cervical tissue and FFPE respectively and were all statistically significant at plt;0.005. The difference in amplification successes was higher for the 120 bp than for the 450 bp primers. The distribution of cervical human papillomavirus for fresh tissues and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues studied was 39% and 13% respectively. Although, the present results showed that PCR genomic DNA can be extracted from both fresh cervical smear and 8 years duration FFPE archived tissue blocks. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks is not recommended for epidemiological study for detection and typing of cervical human papillomavirus using high molecular weight base pair primers and conventional PCR. Key words: Amplicon size, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cervical tissues. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/9AE449F58813 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2018.0009 en Copyright © 2018 Oboma Y. I. and Ngokere A. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:7DFAAEF60946 2019-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2019
CD34 positive stem cells recovered from cord blood remain viable after six months of cryoprotective storage process Muhibi M. A., Mabayoje V. O. and Komolafe J. O. Full Length Research Paper Cord blood can be used as an alternative source for bone marrow transplantation and its use is developing into a new field of treatment for patients presenting with haematological disorders, immunological defects and specific genetic diseases; including haemoglobinopathies. The aim was to assess the viability of frozen cord blood as a source of HSC which may be suitable for transplantation. Blood specimens were obtained from umbilical cords of 30 consenting mothers and dispensed into 5 cryovials with glycerine for freezing at -20deg;C; while quantitative assay was carried out on a fresh citrated sample by immunophenotyping using CD34 as marker of HSC. Partec Cyflow cube 6 was used to measure viable cells after labelling the cells with specific fluorochrome/antibody obtained from Sysmex Partec. A repeat quantification was carried out at one month interval for 5 consecutive months and results generated were analysed using T- independent test. The mean plusmn; standard error of mean (SEM) for the 6 consecutive counts were 20,798plusmn;2750, 19849plusmn;2691, 19223plusmn;2637, 18363plusmn;2582, 17052plusmn;2583 and 16184plusmn;2423. The p values obtained when the cryoprotected samples were compared to the baseline were 0.806, 0.681, 0.521, 0.325 and 0.213; reflecting that subsequent counts were insignificantly different from the baseline count. Thus, it is a safe alternative in resource-poor setting to store stem cells in a cryoprotective agent and freeze at -20deg;C for up to 6 months, without significant depreciation in viability. This alternative should be explored and further researches should be conducted with possibility of extending the number of months. Key words: CD34+ cells, immunophenotyping, stem cells, cryopreservation. Academic Journals 2019 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/7DFAAEF60946 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2019.0020 en Copyright © 2019 Muhibi M. A., Mabayoje V. O. and Komolafe J. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:84DCA1261226 2019-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2019
Temporal bone histopathology study on cochlear otosclerosis: A memoir for the cochlear implant surgeon Abdulazeez Ahmed Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study was to describe the pathologic changes in temporal bones with cochlear otosclerosis that may have implications for cochlear implantation. Fifteen human temporal bones with otosclerosis were used for this study. In each temporal bone was studied: (1) medial wall of the middle ear and in particular the horizontal segment of the facial nerve canal; (2) the round window niche and the corresponding part of the scala tympani; (3) the area of the labyrinthine segment and first genu of the facial nerve. Six temporal bones revealed otosclerotic pathology spanning the otic capsule between the cochlear endosteum and the facial nerve canal. The labyrinthine facial nerve was enveloped by otosclerosis in two cases, while the horizontal segment was involved in four temporal bones. Complete obstruction of the round window niche was observed in three cases, while round window niche obstruction was observed in four temporal bones. Otosclerosis presents difficulties for implant candidates. These otosclerotic changes with obstruction are usually present at the round window or at the scala tympani. The histology described underpins the need to counsel patients regarding the possibility of facial nerve stimulation and difficult implantation. Key words: Cochlear otosclerosis, histopathology, round window, obstruction. Academic Journals 2019 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/84DCA1261226 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2019.0019 en Copyright © 2019 Abdulazeez Ahmed
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:F0902D161224 2019-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2019
Umbilical cord torsion leading to intrauterine fetal death Mohammed U., Panti A. A., Abdullahi K., Afolabi O. K., Sani H. and Ekochin K. O. Full Length Research Paper The umbilical cord is the critical organ that links the placenta and fetus. The intrauterine conditions and fetal activity influences the umbilical cord length. The normal umbilical cord is spiraled. By ultrasound, the spiral nature of the umbilical cord can be demonstrated early in the rst trimester. Most of the adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes are related to abnormal Umbilical Cord coiling Index (UCI). A 23 year booked G2P1+0 of about 4/12 pregnant is presented. She presented 4 h history of colicky lower abdominal pain and 1 h history of vaginal bleeding; there were passage of blood clot but no fleshy materials or vesicles. No history of urinary symptoms or trauma, she is not a known Diabetics, hypertensive or sickle cell diseases patient. On examination, was not in painful distress, not pale, afibrile (36.9deg;C), anecteric and no fedal edema. Other parameters were within normal limit. Pelvic examination reveals a vulva smeared with blood, the fetal membrane were bulging into the vagina, this rupture spontaneously, and the cervix was fully dilated. She was managed for inevitable abortion; she subsequently expelled a female abortus. The abortus and the placenta were taken for histology which shows ischemic infarction on the placental tissue and hyper coiling of the umbilical cord. She was placed on anti-malaria, antibiotics and heamatenics, and was discharged home for follow-up. Modern imaging techniques are useful in the evaluation of Umbilical Cord coiling Index especially during the second trimester. To predict the adverse prenatal and pregnancy outcomes with view of instituting appropriate measures to obviate them, therefore routine screening for the high index cases is suggested. Keywords: Umbilical cord, coiling index, torsion, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). Academic Journals 2019 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/F0902D161224 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2018.0001 en Copyright © 2019 Mohammed U., Panti A. A., Abdullahi K., Afolabi O. K., Sani H. and Ekochin K. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:A1FC08D61715 2019-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2019
A comparative study of cultural and molecular techniques for the identification of bacterial contaminants of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) O. D. Popoola, B. T. Thomas and M. O. Efuntoye Full Length Research Paper The increasing trends of insect associated bacterial infection in humans are severely hampered by disparaging number of bacteria obtained with the culture-based technique. This study therefore determined how the analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences would compare in terms of precision and reliability to the most adoptable culture-based technique. Results obtained depict enhanced accuracy of molecular technique over the cultural method as only 249 (69%) of the total isolates were correctly identified by the cultural method to represent a total of 114 (31%) discrepant species while 100% correct identification was observed with the molecular technique. The most predominant of these bacterial isolates from both the external surfaces and the gut environment was Escherichia coli 43 (20.8%) and 24 (15.5%) respectively. The Gram positive organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecalis with a prevalence rate of 8 (3.8%), 14 (6.7%), 8 (3.8%) and 9 (4.3%) from external surfaces and 2 (1.3%), 6 (3.9%), 2 (1.3%) and 7 (4.5%) from gut environment respectively. The least isolated organisms in the external surfaces were Serratia marscencens and Citrobacter werkmanii with a distribution rate of 3(1.4%) while Citrobacter freundii 2(1.3%) was the least isolated organism from cockroach gut environment. This study therefore showed that the molecular analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences is more efficient than culture-based technique for the identification of bacterial contaminants of cockroaches because occurrences of misidentification are very much abated by this method. Key words: Bacterial contaminants, Cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), cultural technique, molecular technique. Academic Journals 2019 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/A1FC08D61715 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2019.0022 en Copyright © 2019 O. D. Popoola, B. T. Thomas and M. O. Efuntoye
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:65BB6BA62423 2019-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2019
Assessment of the effect of post-natal lead exposure on the hippocampus of developing Wistar rats Oluwasegun Davis Olatomide, Sunday Samuel Adebisi and Sunday Abraham Musa Full Length Research Paper This study examined the effect of post-natal lead exposure on the hippocampus of developing Wistar rats. Nine pregnant Wistar rats were randomly distributed into three groups of three rats each, consisting of a control Group 1 which received distilled water and experimental Groups 2 and 3 orally administered with 60 and 90 mg/kg bwt of lead acetate, respectively. The pups of the experimental Groups 2 and 3 were exposed to lead acetate via lactation from dams that were administered lead acetate from post-natal day (PND) 1 - PND 21. On PND 22, all the pups were weighed, and then euthanized. The brains of the pups were excised, weighed; lead deposit was quantified and fixed in Bouinrsquo;s fluid. The results revealed a significant (plt;0.05) decrease in body weight, insignificant (pgt;0.05) decrease in brain weight, significant increase(plt;0.05) in brain somatic index (BSI), significant increase(plt;0.05) in lead deposition, weak staining for Nissl substance and distortion in cytoarchitecture of the hippocampus of Wistar ratrsquo;s pups exposed to lead acetate compared to the control. Post-natal exposure to lead acetate via lactation caused an increase in lead deposition, decrease in body weight and distortion in the cytoarchitecture of the hippocampus of developing Wistar rats. Key words: Lead acetate, hippocampus, post-natal, lactation. Academic Journals 2019 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/65BB6BA62423 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2019.0021 en Copyright © 2019 Oluwasegun Davis Olatomide, Sunday Samuel Adebisi and Sunday Abraham Musa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:5C970A562632 2020-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2020
Phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant studies on methanol extract of Vernonia calvoana leaf and its polar fractions: Preliminary study Nwaehujor Chinaka O., and Uwagie-Ero Edwin A. Full Length Research Paper This study aims to screen possible antioxidant potentials of methanol extract and polar fractions of Vernonia calvoana leaves and its phytochemical constituents since the leaves are used ethno medically in managing ailments like wounds, blood pressure, inflammation, arthritis, and bone diseases. Dried leaves (900 g) were ground and de-fatted with n-hexane. The dry marc was extracted using 80% methanol and water. Filtrate was concentrated using rotary evaporator at 40deg;C. Acute toxicity study and phytochemical analysis were performed with crude extract. Fractionation of crude extract using gradient concentrations of methanol and distilled water yielded 4 fractions - F1, F2, F3 and F4. Fractions with the crude were used for in vitro antioxidant studies. From the results, crude extract showed no signs of toxicity in mice at 2000 mg/kg orally. Phytochemical screening showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, steroids, saponins, terpenes, arthroquinones, carbohydrates and glycosides. The highest percentage antioxidant activity observed with crude extract was 72.37 at 500 g/ml in DPPH spectrophotometric assay. DPPH results showed percentage antioxidant activity of 81.4% at 500 g/ml of F1 and 67.73% at 500 g/ml of F2. The FRAP values of the crude extract, F1, F2, F3 and F4 at 500 g/ml were 1.957, 2.234, 1.731, 1.245 and 1.025 M respectively. These results showed that the activities of methanol extract of leaves of V. calvoana may be dependent on the concentration of the extracting solvent. Vernonia species are known to contain abundant saponins and flavonoids which are polar compounds and readily soluble in methanol. This may explain the above observed antioxidant activities and thus, the use of the leaves in different traditional curative therapies in Southern Nigeria. Key words: Vernonia calvoana, leaves, antioxidants, crude extract, phytochemicals. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/5C970A562632 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2019.0025 en Copyright © 2020 Nwaehujor Chinaka O., and Uwagie-Ero Edwin A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:3D4607662980 2020-02-29T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2020
Effect of n-butanol extract of Cannabis sativa L. extract on the cerebral cortex of adult Wistar rats Zachariah Richard, Adebisi S. Sunday, Uduak E. Umana, Adamu A. Sadeeq and Policy P. Adamu Full Length Research Paper The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of Cannabis sativa L. administration on neurobehavior and histology of the frontal cortex ofadult Wistar rats. Eighteen (18) adult Wistar rats (120 to 140 g) were divided into three (3) groups of six (6) animals per. Animals in group 1 (control) were given 1 ml/kg distilled water, while groups 2 and 3 were administered with 250 and 500 mg/kg of n-Butanol extract of Cannabis sativa L. respectively via the oral route, daily for 21 days. Motor function was assessed using Ladder rung walking while Haematoxylin and Eosin (Hamp;E) and Cresyl Fast Violet (CFV) stains were used for histological studies of the cerebral cortex. A treatment of rats with 250 and 500 mg/kg showed decrease in foot fault scoring in group 2, and 3 when compared with the control. Also, cytoplasmic vacuolation, dissolution of nucleolus were observed in 250 and 500 mg/kg treatment groups when stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (Hamp;E) and chromatolysis was observed in 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg treatment group. It was concluded that Cannabis sativa L. administration results in motor impairment which could be due to degenerative changes in the cerebral cortex of adults Wistar rats. Key words: Cannabis sativa L., n-butanol, cerebral cortex, Wistar rats, ladder rung walking. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/3D4607662980 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2019.0024 en Copyright © 2020 Zachariah Richard, Adebisi S. Sunday, Uduak E. Umana, Adamu A. Sadeeq and Policy P. Adamu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJCPath:07717A866911 2021-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJCPath AJCPath:2021
The study of attenuating effects of quercetin on spatial memory impairment and degenerative changes in hippocampus of lead exposed rats Musa O. Iliyasu, Sunday A. Musa, Sunday B. Oladele and Ibrahim A. Iliya Full Length Research Paper Lead neurotoxicity has been studied in animal models to induce neurodegeneration. The study was aimed to evaluate the attenuating effects of quercetin on spatial memory impairment and degenerative changes in hippocampus of lead exposed rats. Thirty (30) Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of five rats per group (each, n = 5). Groups I (control) and II were administered distilled water and lead, respectively for 42 days. Lead was co-administered with Quercetin and Succimer for Groups III and VI, respectively for 42 days. Groups IV and V were administered lead for 21 days and treated with Quercetin for Group IV and Succimer for Group V for another 21 days. The administration was orally, once per day and lasted for 42 days. Spatial memory was assessed using Eight-arm radial water maze (8-ARWM) test. The rats were anaesthetized with Ketamine at 75 mg/kg intraperitoneally and euthanized. Brain was harvested, processed, Haematoxylin and Eosin stains were used for histonot;logical study of the hippocampus and cells were counted. Results showed spatial memory was impaired and histopathonot;logy such as vacuolation, pyknotic and reduction in pyramidal cells count in CA3 region of hippocampus of lead exposed rats. Hownot;ever, treatnot;ment with quercetin improved spatial memory and histopathonot;logy. Thus, quercetin could be used as an antidote in lead neurotoxicity. Key words: Lead, quercetin, memory, neurodegeneration. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJCPath/article-abstract/07717A866911 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJCPath2021.0034 en Copyright © 2021 Musa O. Iliyasu, Sunday A. Musa, Sunday B. Oladele and Ibrahim A. Iliya