2023-01-27T19:03:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:80805E911143 2007-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Discrimination of Scutellospora castanea from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated in TENE primary forest (Centre west Côte d’Ivoire) and detection of repeated DNA sequences from its genome Adolphe Zeacute;zeacute;, Yao Casimir Brou, Diederick Van Tuinen Full Length Research Paper Primers SC1 and SC2 primarily developed to be specific to Scutellospora castanea were used to unambiguously discriminate this species among endogenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi collected in Cocirc;te drsquo;Ivoire. The cloning of genomic DNA from this fungus allowed the isolation of repeated DNA sequences. Sixteen inserts were randomly selected from the genomic bank and hybridized with total DNA from the spores of the identified fungus as probe. Repeated DNA sequences were obtained in the form of intense signals. Five fragments gave intense signals of hybridization showing that they are repeated elements in the genome. One of these sequences ScaCI2 having 1000 pb was characterized. It is dispersed in the genome of this AM fungus and accounts for 0.03% of this one. Key words: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Scutellospora castanea, Cocirc;te drsquo;Ivoire, detection. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/80805E911143 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000032 en Copyright © 2007 Adolphe Zeacute;zeacute;, Yao Casimir Brou, Diederick Van Tuinen
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:7BB3A4A11154 2007-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Framing Vulnerability and Adaptation to Environmental Change in Africa Oladele A. Ogunseitan Editorial Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/7BB3A4A11154 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000053 en Copyright © 2007 Oladele A. Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:11B521311179 2007-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Using nutrient utilization patterns to determine the source of Escherichia coli found in surface water Jacinta C. Uzoigwe, Eric H. Orsquo;Brien and Edward J. Brown. Full Length Research Paper Identifying the sources of fecal contaminants in surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes and beaches is of importance for environmental safety, public health safety, food safety and regulatory purposes. Nutrient utilization patterns (NUPs) were used as a bacterial source tracking technique to identify the possible sources of fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coliin Silver Lake, Delaware County, Iowa. A total of three hundred (300) E. coli isolates collected from different sources (water, birds, geese, cattle, hogs and soil contaminated by feces) were analyzed. A database was built from these isolates by using discriminant analysis to identify the nutrient utilization patterns that best classify all 300 isolates by source. The average rate of correct classification by source was 89.5% when applying the nutrient utilization patterns database. After this verification, the NUP for E. coli isolates from Silver Lake water were measured. Based on the NUPs of the Silver Lake isolates, 73.1% were found to originate from cattle and hogs. Smaller percentages were predicted to be coming from birds and geese. None of the isolates were predicted to be originating from the human source. The results indicate that livestock are the primary contributors to fecal pollution in this hypereutrophic Iowa lake. Key words: Nutrient utilization patterns, Escherichia coli, bacterial source tracking, Silver Lake, Delaware, Iowa. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/11B521311179 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000130 en Copyright © 2007 Jacinta C. Uzoigwe, Eric H. Orsquo;Brien and Edward J. Brown.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:C0A8D9911193 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Top Ten Environmental Priorities for Africa Oladele A. Ogunseitan Editorial Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/C0A8D9911193 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000123 en Copyright © 2007 Oladele A. Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:68F1D0B11204 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Microarray analysis of genes affected by salt stress in tomato Suping Zhou, Shu Wei, Braden Boone and Shawn Levy Full Length Research Paper Large-scale gene expression affected by salt stress was analyzed with tomato seedlings (Lycoperson esculentum Mill cv. Money Maker) by a cDNA microarray (Tom1). The significantly differentially expressed genes (5% Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate) consisted of 1757 sequences in the analyzed tissues (cotyledons + shoot tip). Genes with over 2 fold difference were selected from the list and further categorized into different function and cellular processes. Tomato homologous genes for the chaperone proteins, antioxidant enzymes (catalase and peroxidase), and ion transporters (Na+-driven multidrug efflux pump, vacuolar ATPase, and others) were induced. The ACC oxidase and ethylene-responsive gene tomato homologs had higher transcript level after salt treatment. Multiple members with different expression patterns were identified for the bZIP, WRKY, and MADS-box transcription regulator. Different genes in the signal transduction pathway, such as the protein kinases (Shaggy kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, ethylene receptor neverripe, and others), protein phosphatases, calmodulin, G-protein, and the N- myristoyltransferase were regulated by salt stress. Most of the protease and the inhibitor homologs were suppressed by salt stress. In addition, different isoforms of cytochrome P450, genes for polyamine biosynthesis (putrescine and proline) and detoxification compounds (glutathione and thioredoxin), several key enzyme genes in the metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids, were also affected by salt treatment. This study has provided a set of candidate genes, especially those in the regulatory machinery that can be further investigated to define salt stress in tomato and other plant species. Key words: Antioxidants, cellular metabolism, cell wall, chaperonine, ethylene, protein kinase, tomato, transcription regulator, translation regulator, salt stress. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/68F1D0B11204 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000074 en Copyright © 2007 Suping Zhou, Shu Wei, Braden Boone and Shawn Levy
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:0FCA2C911222 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
The cost of environmental lead (Pb) poisoning in Nigeria Oladele A. Ogunseitan and Timothy R. Smith Full Length Research Paper The pervasiveness of human health impacts and ecosystem effects of lead (Pb) is not controversial, but there are serious arguments about the pace at which Pb should be eliminated from consumer products. Presumably, these arguments can be resolved by converting costs and benefits of Pb use to similar units, a notorious methodological challenge for health impacts in developing countries. To estimate the costs of Pb poisoning attributable to petrochemicals in Nigeria, we conducted a meta-analysis of measured blood lead levels (BLL) and we used published Relative Risk values for disease categories to estimate the proportion of overall disease burden attributable to Pb. We modeled the health costs of Pb exposure and we compared this to the cost of banning Pb. We estimate that Pb exposure accounts for 7 - 25% of the disease burden among Nigerian children, costing the health and education sectors $0.38 ndash; 1.15 billion year-1 for every 1 mg/dL increase in BLL. In comparison, we estimate that a Pb abatement program in Nigeria will cost $0.076 ndash; 0.23 billion year-1. If a Pb phase-out program is instituted now to lower the national BLL to 1 mg/dL by 2020, a savings of $2.7-8.0 billion would be realized. Key words: Lead (Pb) poisoning, Cost-benefit analysis, Diseases, Petrochemicals Africa. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/0FCA2C911222 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000111 en Copyright © 2007 Oladele A. Ogunseitan and Timothy R. Smith
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:764E71C11250 2007-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
The Local Language of Global Environmental Knowledge Oladele A. Ogunseitan Editorial Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/764E71C11250 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000115 en Copyright © 2007 Oladele A. Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:25169D611270 2007-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Relationship between management practice and organisation performance under European Union directives such as RoHS: A case-study of the electrical and electronic industry in Taiwan Ming-Kuei Chien, and Li-Hsing Shih Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the European Union Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) directives set by the European Union on the financial and environmental performances of Taiwanrsquo;s electrical and electronic companies adopting the green supply chain management. A literature review, in-depth interviews and questionnaires were used as our hypothetical supports. One hundred and fifty-one certified International Organization for Standardization14001 electrical and electronic companies were randomly selected as the study subjects. Data analyses and hypothesis tests were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, and Structural Equation Modelling was used to analyse the pathway model and to test the hypothetical structure in this study. We found that these companies mostly adopted green manufacturing practices and green purchasing practices in order to meet the RoHS and WEEE directives. The results of pathway diagram analysis using structural equation modelling (SEM) also showed that the green supply chain management adopted by the study companies had a positive effect on both their financial (p lt; 0.01) and environmental (p lt; 0.01) performances, and therefore might be used as a reference for Original Equipment Manufacturing and Original Designing and Manufacturing industries in other Asian Pacific countries. Key words: RoHS, WEEE, green supply chain management, financial performance, environmental performance. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/25169D611270 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000091 en Copyright © 2007 Ming-Kuei Chien, and Li-Hsing Shih
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:E5217B711299 2007-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Regional scaled mapping of gully erosion sensitivity in Western Kenya Yusuke Katsurada Full Length Research Paper East African Rift regions suffer from serious gully erosion. As a preliminary step to assess gully erosion and to establish appropriate managements of geological/geomorphological conditions of the East African Rift escarpments, slope gradient, vegetation coverage, and sediment hardness in western Kenya, were used as mapping factors and overlayed to create separate channels in RGB color space. Pixels highlighted in this mapping can be considered as indicators of sediment erosion potential and runoff sensitivity of igneous rocks. The precision of the model for gully erosion sensitivity may be improved by including soil properties and topographic information. Key words: Gully erosion, East African Rift, Kavirondo Rift, Lake Victoria basin, GIS, remote sensing, RGB color space. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/E5217B711299 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000090 en Copyright © 2007 Yusuke Katsurada
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:3F7F68C11314 2007-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Social and ecological mediators of environmental Lead exposure in Nigeria Oladele A. Ogunseitan and Timothy R. Smith Full Length Research Paper This study aimed to identify socio-ecologic variables contributing to lead poisoning among children in suburban regions of Nigeria. We surveyed 306 children and their families to determine the statistical association between specific social ecological factors and measured blood lead levels (BLL). The BLL among children (lt; 6 years old) ranged from 2.1 to 31.8mg/dl (mean = 9.4 mg/dL; SD = 4.2), with 35% of the children exhibiting a BLL gt; 10 mg/dL. Mean BLL was significantly associated with household size, maternal literacy, parental occupation, home floor type, time spent outside the home, residential proximity to a ceramics shop, and by parental employment in a print shop (p lt; 0.05), but not with age, years of parental education, housing situation, drinking water, and frequency of hand-to-mouth behavior. Although gasoline remains the main source of environmental lead, occupational circumstances also contribute to the predisposition of children to high exposures. Key words: Lead (Pb) poisoning, cottage industry, exposure assessment, maternal literacy, ceramics manufacturing, printing shop, Leaded gasoline, children, Africa, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/3F7F68C11314 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000096 en Copyright © 2007 Oladele A. Ogunseitan and Timothy R. Smith
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:F5F958211359 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Harmattan Haze and Environmental Health Oladele A. Ogunseitan Full Length Research Paper Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/F5F958211359 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000060 en Copyright © 2007 Oladele A. Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:379634111391 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Economic framework for integrating environmental stewardship into food security strategies in low-income countries: case of agroforestry in southern African region Oluyede Clifford Ajayi , Festus K. Akinnifesi, Gudeta Sileshi, Sebastian Chakeredzaand Patrick Matakala Review One of the greatest challenges in many Sub-Saharan Africa countries especially where seasonal food deficits occur frequently, is how best to achieve a balance between the goals of food security and agricultural production on the one hand, and the concerns for the conservation of environmental quality and natural resources capital on the other. A number of agricultural production technologies (based on natural resource management principles) exist that offeropportunities for achieving the two seemingly divergent goals because they have the characteristics to produce joint multiple outputs, i.e, they produce food and provide environmental services. However, farmer adoption of these technologies has generally been limited. Drawing from natural resource economics, this study presents a conceptual framework that provide environmental-economic logic for establishing incentives that internalize the environmental services produced by multiple-outputs land use technologies. Using a land use practice based on agroforestry principles (that is, ldquo;improved tree fallowsrdquo;) as a case study, this paper synthesizes studies carried out in southern Africa region for over a decade. It then discusses how the potential impacts of the technological advances made in research and development are affected by policy and institutional constraints, among other challenges. Withparticular emphasis on the socio-economic context in southern Africa, the paper identifies options for addressing these institutional and policy constraints in order to facilitate adoption of multi-output land use practices by farmers and unlock their potential to meet food production goals for individual households and environmental services for the wider society. Key words: Adoption, Agri-Environmental quality, Environmental services, Natural resource economics, Payment for environmental services, Science-policy linkages. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/379634111391 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000038 en Copyright © 2007 Oluyede Clifford Ajayi , Festus K. Akinnifesi, Gudeta Sileshi, Sebastian Chakeredzaand Patrick Matakala
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:DDACCA611406 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Contributions of agroforestry to ecosystem services in the miombo eco-region of eastern and southern Africa Gudeta Sileshi, Festus K. Akinnifesi, Oluyede C. Ajayi, Sebastian Chakeredza, Martin Kaonga and P. W. Matakala Review The miombo, the most extensive tropical woodland formation of Africa with particular ecological and economic importance, is threatened by deforestation, land degradation and loss of biodiversity. Over the past two decades, agroforestry has been studied as one of the integrated natural resource management interventions for addressing various environmental and social problems. This has helped to establish a solid knowledge-base on the functions and capabilities of agroforestry. However, little attempt has been made to synthesize and publicize the knowledge on ecosystem services provided by the various agroforestry practices in southern Africa. This has led to lack of appreciation of the environmental benefits of the practices, and hence less attention being paid to accelerating their adoption and institutionalization in national agricultural and natural resource programmes. The objective of this review was to summarize the state of current knowledge on ecosystem services of agroforestry.From the studies reviewed, it is concluded that agroforestry practices provide (1) provisioning services such as food, source of energy and fodder, (2) regulatory services including microclimate modification, erosion control, mitigation of desertification, carbon sequestration and pest control, and (3) supporting services namely, soil fertility improvement, biodiversity conservation and pollination in the miombo eco-region. The paper also outlines challenges to wider adoption of agroforestry and makes recommendations for future research, development and policy to capitalize on ecosystem services. Key words: Biodiversity, carbon sequestration, deforestation, fire, soil erosion. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/DDACCA611406 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000030 en Copyright © 2007 Gudeta Sileshi, Festus K. Akinnifesi, Oluyede C. Ajayi, Sebastian Chakeredza, Martin Kaonga and P. W. Matakala
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:A3588B911431 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Soil nutrient content, soil moisture and yield of Katumani maize in a semi-arid area of Kenya Maina Muniafu and J. I. Kinyamario Full Length Research Paper Many farmers in Kenyarsquo;s semi arid lands cannot afford to purchase inorganic fertilisers to improve their crop yields. They thus rely on traditional agronomic practices such as addition of crop residues, animal manures or intercrops of cereals and legumes. This study investigated soil parameters and their influence on yield. It was carried out at the University of Nairobirsquo;s Dryland, Research and Utilisation Station located at Kibwezi. Soil parameters measured included soil organic carbon, total soil nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil moisture and soiltexture and nitrogen mineralization rates. There was significant correlation (plt;0.05) in the growing seasons, between soil moisture and soil organic carbon (r = 0.66, 0.81 and 0.65 for seasons 1, 2 and 3 respectively) as well as, total soil nitrogen (r = 0.73, 0.79 and 0.70 for seasons 1, 2 and 3 respectively) and available phosphorus (r = 0.55 for season 1). Where rainfall was low, maize yield correlated negatively (plt;0.05) with percent clay content (r = -0.4) in season one and showed no significant correlation (r=0.21) in season 3. Where rainfall amounts were high, (as in season 2), the correlation was significant (r = 0.75). Nitrogen mineralization rate did not seem to have a direct influence on yield but its effects were modified by soil moisture, soil texture and carbon to nitrogen ratios of the soil. Overall the organic inputs seemed to have minimal impact on yield though goat manure and pigeon pea intercropping hadamelioration effect on the soil. Key words: Soil nutrients, maize yield, semi-arid, Kenya. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/A3588B911431 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000099 en Copyright © 2007 Maina Muniafu and J. I. Kinyamario
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:5E7817D11448 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Assessment of the ClimGen stochastic weather generator at Cameroon sites Munang Tingem, Mike Rivington, Sayed Azam-Ali and Jeremy Colls Full Length Research Paper Simulation of agricultural risk assessment and environmental management requires long series of daily weather data for the area being modelled. Acquiring and formatting this data can be very complex and time-consuming. This has led to the development of weather generation procedures and tools. Weather generators can produce time series of synthetic weather data of any length, interpolating observed data to produce synthetic weather data at new sites. Any generator must be tested to ensure that the data that it produces is satisfactory for the purposes for which it is to be used. The aim of this paper is to test a commonly used weather generator, ClimGen (version 4.1.05) at eight sites with contrasting climates in Cameroon. Statistical test were conducted, including t-test and F-test, to compare the differences between generated weather data versus 25 years observed weather data. The results showed that the generated weather series was similar to the observed data for its distribution of monthly precipitation and its variances, monthly means and variance of minimum and maximum air temperatures. Based on the results from this study, it can be concluded that ClimGen performs well in the simulation of weather statistics in Cameroon. Key words: Weather generators, weather data, Cameroon, climate change. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/5E7817D11448 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000012 en Copyright © 2007 Munang Tingem, Mike Rivington, Sayed Azam-Ali and Jeremy Colls
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:03F834411491 2007-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Toxic Imports and the African Environment Oladele Ogunseitan Editorial Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/03F834411491 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000124 en Copyright © 2007 Oladele Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:8CA4B7511506 2007-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Bacteria associated with the coral Echinopora lamellosa (Esper 1795) in the Indian Ocean - Zanzibar Region Magdalena Piskorska Garriet Smith and Ernesto Weil Full Length Research Paper Infectious diseases are now known to have major effects on the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems throughout the world. The number of recognized coral diseases has increased dramatically. The problem was first recognized in the Caribbean in the early 1970rsquo;s but has now been reported to affect coral communities worldwide. There is little information regarding bacteria associated with diseased corals in the Indian Ocean. However, one of the most common disease signs observed is a rapid loss of tissue leaving exposed white skeleton in contact with compromised tissue, followed by necrosis. These signs have been referred to as white plague in the Caribbean. Similar signs have been observed in the Indo-Pacific and are referred to as white syndrome. The pathogens associated with these disease signs depend on the species and geographic location of the corals. In the Caribbean, the disease was associated with Aurantimonas coralicida and in the Red Sea with Thalassomonas loyaeana, both newly described species. During exploratory surveys in the reefs near Zanzibar in the Indian Ocean, mucus samples were collected from healthy and apparently diseased Echinopora lamellosa (with signs of white syndrome) colonies. Samples were plated on two solid media: GASW (a nonspecific medium) and TCBS (Vibrio selective medium). Growth on TCBS was only found with diseased samples. Culturable isolates were characterized using metabolic profiling. A relatively high prevalence of Class Gamma Proteobacteria was found with diseased samples compared with healthy samples and Vibrio species were well represented in diseased samples. Key words: Disease, coral reef, echinopora, Indian Ocean, white syndrome. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/8CA4B7511506 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000013 en Copyright © 2007 Magdalena Piskorska Garriet Smith and Ernesto Weil
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:955016011516 2007-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2007
Application of remote sensing and GIS inLand use/land cover mapping and change detection in a part of south western Nigeria Daniel Ayalew Mengistu and Ayobami T. Salami Full Length Research Paper Mapping land use/land cover (LULC) and change detection using remote sensing and GIS techniques is an area of interest that has been attracting increasing attention. This paper is an attempt to assess the changes in land use/land cover in some parts of south-western Nigeria over a 16 year period. The study made use of LandSat imageries of 1986 and 2002. The images were classified using Maximum Likelihood classification method. The results show that disturbed/degraded forest constituted the most extensive type of land use/land cover in the study area. The increasing population and economic activities were noted to be putting pressure on the available land resources. This paper highlights the importance of remote sensing and GIS techniques in apprehending the situation in south-western Nigeria. Key words: LULC, conversion, modification, forest reserve, change detection, classification scheme, encroach-ment. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/955016011516 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000008 en Copyright © 2007 Daniel Ayalew Mengistu and Ayobami T. Salami
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:1B1A84811175 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
On the matched pairs sign test using bivariate ranked set sampling: an application to environmental issues Hani M. Samawi, Mohammad F. Al-Saleh and Obaid Al-Saidy Full Length Research Paper The matched pairs sign test using bivariate ranked set sampling (BVRSS) is introduced and investigated. We show that this test is asymptotically more efficient than its counterpart sign test based on a bivariate simple random sample (BVSRS). The asymptotic null distribution and the efficiency of the test are derived. The Pitman asymptotic relative efficiency is used to compare the asymptotic performance of the matched pairs sign test using BVRSS versus using BVSRS. For small sample sizes, the bootstrap method is used to estimate P-values. Numerical comparisons are used to gain insight about the efficiency of the BVRSS sign test compared to the BVSRS sign test. Our numerical and theoretical results indicate that using BVRSS for the matched pairs sign test is substantially more efficient than using BVSRS. Illustration using palm trees data from sultanate of Oman is provided. Key words: Bootstrap method, bivariate ranked set sample, power of the test, P-value of the test, Pitmanrsquo;s relative efficiency, sign test Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/1B1A84811175 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000080 en Copyright © 2008 Hani M. Samawi, Mohammad F. Al-Saleh and Obaid Al-Saidy
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:361B2BD11182 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Traditional strategies used by pastoralists to cope with la nina induced drought in Kajiado, Kenya Mworia, J. K. and J. I. Kinyamario Full Length Research Paper Pastoralists traditionally relied on herd mobility to cope with drought. In the pastoral areas of Kajiado, Kenya this strategy is now threatened by increased individual land ownership as compared to communal access. Drought frequency as related to El-Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is predicated to increase with climate change. The aim of the study was investigate the use of herd mobility strategy in the ENSO related 1999/2000 la Nina induced drought under different land tenure types and varying household cattle wealth. The study found that despite changes in land tenure, herd mobility was used as a coping strategy. Households rich in livestock applied the herd mobility strategy more than the poorer ones by moving a larger proportion of their herds. Poorer households applied the strategy of keeping drought resistant animals more than richer ones by having a higher proportion of goats and sheep than cattle. Institutional land units of Kiboko Range Research Station and Chyulu National Reserve which had higher herbaceous biomass were the most favored refuge areas for livestock during the drought. In conclusion poorer families are likely to be impacted more from increased incidents of ENSO droughts due inability to use the herd mobility option. Key words: La-Nina, climate change, drought, pastoralist, herd mobility, land use type Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/361B2BD11182 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000125 en Copyright © 2008 Mworia, J. K. and J. I. Kinyamario
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:5D80E0911190 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Growth characteristics of two tropical forest species Warburgia ugandensis and Polyscias fulva seedlings grown under contrasting light conditions J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wangrsquo;ombe, J. Wanyondu Full Length Research Paper Growth parameters for seedlings of two forest trees, Warburgia ugandensis andPolyscias fulva, were measured under various light growth conditions. Leaf area and plant height were significantly higher under low light (lt; 42% full sunlight) than high light (65% of sunlight) growth conditions (Plt;0.001). Plant leaf area ranged from 238 cmsup2; under full sunlight to 376 cmsup2; under dense shade in P. fulva and from 33 cmsup2; under full sunlight to 178 cmsup2; under dense shade in W. ugandensis.Plant heights ranged from about 20 mm under full sunlight to 38 mm under dense shade in P. fulva; and from about 36 mm under full sunlight to 89 mm under dense shade in W. ugandensis. P. fulva had more leaves than W. ugandensis but both species increased their leaf numbers from 28 (full sunlight) to 37 (dense shade) and 21 (full sunlight) to 29 (dense shade) respectively (Plt; 0.05). P. fulva accumulated more biomass (from 4 to about 9g) than W. ugandensis (from 0.6 to 2.4g) under all light conditions (Plt;0.05). The shoot/root ratios were highest (1.84 for P. fulva and 6.42 for W. ugandensis) under low light conditions in the two species (Plt;0.05). Highest specific leaf areas were recorded under low light growth conditions for the two species (198 cmsup2; g-1 forP. fulva and 220 cmsup2; g-1 for W. ugandensis). W. ugandensis was found to be more shade tolerant than P. fulva. Key words: Forest tree seedlings, Warburgia, Polyscias, light, growth Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/5D80E0911190 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000059 en Copyright © 2008 J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wangrsquo;ombe, J. Wanyondu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:DF1CC0A11163 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Exploration and Environmental Exploitation (1908 – 2008) Prof. Oladele A. Ogunseitan Editorial Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/DF1CC0A11163 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000050 en Copyright © 2008 Prof. Oladele A. Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:654F8F411421 2008-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
The need for reducing plastic shopping bag use and disposal in Africa Dr. Sierra Rayne Editorial Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/654F8F411421 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000116 en Copyright © 2008 Dr. Sierra Rayne
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:24057B511427 2008-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Ground water pollution due to aquaculture in east coast region of Nellore district, Andhrapradesh, India Ramesh Reddy Putheti, R N Okigbo, Madhusoodan sai Advanapu andRadha Leburu Full Length Research Paper Ground water quality parameters were studied for pollution due to aquaculture in the east coast region of district Andhrapradesh, India. Over a period of two years, 46 groundwater samples were collected for analyses. The results showed that the alkalinity ranged from 120 - 482 mg/L, and pH ranged from 7.1 to 8.6. The chloride concentration ranged from 65 ndash; 4950 mg/L, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) was 2 to 8.4 mg/L, and Biochemical Oxygen Demand was 3 to 23 mg/L. Conductivity ranged from 68 to 8200 umho/cm. Approximately 86 % of water samples exceed the international chloride standards for drinking water (200 ndash; 250 mg/L). The Dissolved Oxygen (DO) concentration was within the acceptable standards of 6 mg/L. The DO concentration of the ground water satisfied the DO requirement for aquaculture. However, open well number 12 has less (3.1 mg/ml), potentially indicating contamination from aquaculture farm effluents. Low concentrations of Dissolved Oxygen in nearby well water provided further evidence that these wells are contaminated with biodegradable organic compounds. The effect of aqua farms on the ground water quality was discussed in line with public health standard. Key words: Ground water pollution, aquaculture, water quality, physical-chemical, Parameters Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/24057B511427 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000058 en Copyright © 2008 Ramesh Reddy Putheti, R N Okigbo, Madhusoodan sai Advanapu andRadha Leburu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:750F0BA11433 2008-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
The willingness to pay (WTP) for the conservation of wild animals: Case of the Derby Eland (Taurotragus derbianus gigas) and the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in North Cameroon Tsi, E. A., Ajaga, Nji, Wiegleb, G. and Muuml;hlenberg, M. Full Length Research Paper Data on the perception of and willingness to pay (WTP) for the conservation of the Derby Eland and the African Wild Dog in North Cameroon were collected from August to October 2004 using administered questionnaires. The results show a positive attitude of respondents towards wildlife conservation. They indicated willingness to support actions geared towards the conservation of endangered species in National Parks. WTP often leads to a social dilemma of a choice between onersquo;s self interests and community or group interest. This choice often affects attitudes, motivations, perceptions, and values leading to different outcomes at the individual and group levels. The level of awareness of the need for wildlife conservation of endangered species in Cameroon National Parks is high and thus leads to a high approval of conservation plans. As a result respondents expressed the view that individuals have a moral obligation to cooperate in wildlife conservation effort. Where private operators and governments manage hunting zones (ZIC) and National Parks respectively, the results are not always excellent as they should be. Funds generated from taxes and individual contributions for specific conservation measures are neither used by officials for wildlife conservation as hoped nor to compensate farmers for damages caused by wildlife. Even though a positive environmental attitude influences the WTP for environmental goods, the WTP for environmental goods is certainly out of surplus and personal unique dispositions, perception, organization, understanding and appreciation of the environment. However, under the present management scheme, local communities around Faro and Benoueacute; National Parks benefit from tax quotas. Primarily because of the attractiveness and beauty of the Derby Eland and the African Wild Dog, respondents expressed favourable attitude towards their conservation despite their attractive tendencies and notorious labels as animals of prey. Key words: Conservation, gender, perception, willingness to pay, ecotourism Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/750F0BA11433 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000122 en Copyright © 2008 Tsi, E. A., Ajaga, Nji, Wiegleb, G. and Muuml;hlenberg, M.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:127B53611457 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Anthophilia and the Quality of Life Prof Dele Ogunseitan Full Length Research Paper Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/127B53611457 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000007 en Copyright © 2008 Prof Dele Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:C26571011462 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Temporal variations in the abundance of heterotrophic bacteria in ground water according to land use patterns in Mysore district, India Wadie Ahmed Mokbel and Sadanand M Yamakanamardi Full Length Research Paper Temporal variations in the abundance of heterotrophic bacteria were studied from February 2005 to January 2007, in ground waters from Agricultural, Domestic and Industrial land use areas. The lowest mean abundance (AODG ml-1) of Free Living Bacteria (2.2 times; 105), Particle Bound Bacteria (0.07 times;105) and Total Bacteria (2.28 times;105) was recorded in ground water of Agricultural area; and the highest (1.07 times; 106, 1.13 times;105 and 1.70 times;106, respectively) in that of Domestic area. In this investigation, 2.79% of the total bacteria determined by Acridine Orange staining in the ground water of Agricultural area could be grown on the artificial nutrient agar media and the comparative proportion in groundwater under the industrial area was 3.60 and 4.69% in the domestic area. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that several Physico-chemical parameter(Lab pH, air temperature, water temperature, conductivity, rainfall, BOD, CO2, alkalinity, hardness, ca, Mg, PO4, CL2, NO3, SO4, Total Anion of Strong Acid, Total Solids, Total Dissolved Solids and Total Suspended Solids) (p lt; .05) were potentially responsible for some of the temporal variations in heterotrophic bacterial abundance, suggesting the influence of landuse-specific environmental stressors on the biota in these ecosystems. Key words: Temporal variation, heterotrophic bacterial abundance, colony forming units, Acridine Orange Direct Count, Direct Epifluroscence Microscopic Technique, ground water, land use patterns Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/C26571011462 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000107 en Copyright © 2008 Wadie Ahmed Mokbel and Sadanand M Yamakanamardi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:3E8A25011466 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Predicting chromium (VI) adsorption rate in the treatment of liquid-phase oil-based drill cuttings Reuben N. Okparanma and Miebaka J. Ayotamuno Full Length Research Paper The adsorption rate of chromium (VI) on commercial activated carbon during the treatment of the flocculation effluent of liquid-phase oil-based drill-cuttings has been investigated in terms of contact time and initial chromium (VI) ion concentration. Homogenizing 1 g of the activated carbon with 100 ml of the flocculation effluent of known initial concentrations (1.25 rarr; 6.25 mg/l, in turn) in a flask, at a constant stirring speed of 80 rpm at 25oC for 180 min, the pseudo-second-order kinetics was observed to be more suitable in predicting the adsorption rate of chromium (VI) ion in the treatment process as experimental data fitted the model relatively better than the pseudo-first-order kinetics with R2= 0.9999. Adsorption took place in two steps: an initial high rate step before reaching a plateau at equilibrium in the low rate step. Equilibrium was attained in a contact time of 60 min and the equilibrium adsorption capacity of the activated carbon was 78.6%. Equilibrium adsorption data fitted the Freundlich isotherm well with R2 = 0.981. The intensity of adsorption was 1.32, which indicates a strongly favourable adsorption. This showed that a large proportion of the chromium (VI) ion was adsorbed at low concentration of the adsorbate in solution. Key words: Carbon adsorption, kinetic models, drill cuttings, chromium removal Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/3E8A25011466 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000085 en Copyright © 2008 Reuben N. Okparanma and Miebaka J. Ayotamuno
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:16AF0FB11475 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Urban sprawl development and flooding at Yeumbeul suburb (Dakar-Senegal) Cheikh Mbow, , Aminata Diop, Amadou Tahirou Diawand Cheikh Ibrahima Niang Full Length Research Paper Rapid development of urban centers in Africa is becoming a serious challenge for the coming decades with a wide range of foreseen social, economical and environmental implications. With the natural growth of the population, urban demography has been boosted by rural exodus triggered by serious droughts and increasing rural poverty. With the small resources available for an adequate urban management and the lack of efficient urban policy, Dakar capital of Senegal is characterized by an out of control urbanization process. Among the many impacts noted, flooding has appeared recently as a major threat for poor population leaving in the suburbs of Dakar. This study carried out at the outskirts of the town, in Yeumbeul District (17deg;24rsquo; North, 14deg;46rsquo; West), tries from rainfall variability, Digital Terrain Model and land cover change analysis since 1954 to track the interactions between natural and human causes of flooding occurring regularly since 1989. This integrated approach shows that the flooding process is not a mere climate variability related issue, it is tightly bound with poor urban management and occupation of irregular, unsuited land devoted to natural process. Satisfaction of housing needs was, for most poor rural dwellers, only possible through informal land markets, forcing them to settle in cheap yet risky lands. The recent extreme rainfall events reveal that most of these urban sprawls are located in flood prone areas. Environmental impacts of these flooded settlements have been examined. Serious flooding of 2005 has been a great momentum for the State and several other stakeholders to initiate various strategies that are discussed in this paper. Key words: Flooding, rural migration, irregular settlements, Dakar, Senegal Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/16AF0FB11475 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000129 en Copyright © 2008 Cheikh Mbow, , Aminata Diop, Amadou Tahirou Diawand Cheikh Ibrahima Niang
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:475221211546 2008-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Clean Carbon Communism Prof Dele Ogunseitan Editorial Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/475221211546 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000021 en Copyright © 2008 Prof Dele Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:F707D6E11549 2008-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations in soil and some selected crops at a landfill in Nigeria E. A. Oluyemi, G. Feuyit, J. A. O. Oyekunle and A. O. Ogunfowokan Full Length Research Paper In this study, the seasonal variations in concentrations of the heavy metals - As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn - in soil and crops from a farm near the refuse dump site of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria were investigated during the two major seasons of Nigeria. This was done to assess the pollution status of the farm and hence the safety levels of the crops produced. Soil and crop samples collected during the 2005/2006 rainy and dry seasons were treated and digested using standard wet digestion methods. Heavy metals were determined with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Analytical results of soil from landfill indicated that in the wet and dry seasons, values for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Cr, Zn, Co and Pb were higher than normal levels of a typical agricultural soil, but As (3.20 and 4.13 mg/kg) was found to be within the acceptable range while Mn values of 597.00 - 828.37 mgkg-1 were slightly above the usual background levels. The study showed highest concentrations of As (8.31 mg/kg), Cr (9.00 mg/kg) and Ni (40.00 mg/kg) inManihot esculenta leaves; Cu (25.0 0 mg/kg) and Fe (176.00 mg/kg) inXantosoma mafaffa tuber; Cd (14.50 mg/kg), Co (22.50 mg/kg), Mn (189.50 mg/kg), Pb (680.00 mg/kg) and Zn (440.59 mg/kg) in Talinum triangulare. In general, the levels of heavy metals in soil and crops were higher in the dry season than in the wet season, but this difference is not statistically significant. Particularly, the levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb were above the critical toxic level in plant leaves in both dry and wet seasons while Zn and Cu occurred at toxic levels only in the dry season. Key words: Contamination, heavy metals, landfill, refuse dump, transfer factor Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/F707D6E11549 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000094 en Copyright © 2008 E. A. Oluyemi, G. Feuyit, J. A. O. Oyekunle and A. O. Ogunfowokan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:A44ADD511551 2008-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Local institutions for sustaining wetland resources and community livelihoods in the Lake Victoria basin Jacob K. Kibwage, Paul O. Onyango, and Hilary Bakamwesiga Full Length Research Paper What should policy makers do in deciding between institutions promoting community livelihoods or sustaining wetland resources within an impoverished community? Prioritizing community livelihoods without understanding the impact of local institutions on wetland resources may only aggravate impoverishment. However, prioritizing sustainable wetland resource use may lead to short-term impoverishment with positive long-term effect on both community livelihood and sustainable wetland resources. This paper tries to address this difficulty by assessing local level institutions such as property rights and those that govern extraction of wetland resources in three wetland communities of Lake Victoria. The paper argues that reassessing institutions on lsquo;tenure systemrsquo; and lsquo;access torsquo; resources are desirable policy objectives that should guide such decisions. Key words: Sondu-Miriu, Katonga, Simiyu/Duma, wetland sustainability, community livelihoods, local institutions, Lake Victoria Basin Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/A44ADD511551 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000070 en Copyright © 2008 Jacob K. Kibwage, Paul O. Onyango, and Hilary Bakamwesiga
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:14E5B9111555 2008-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Changes in soil properties and plant uptake of heavy metals on selected municipal solid waste dump sites in Ile-Ife, Nigeria Oyedele, D. J., Gasu, M. B and Awotoye, O.O. Full Length Research Paper In a study to evaluate the contributions of open municipal waste dump to soil heavy metals contamination and the modification of other soil physical and chemical parameters, soil samples were collected at various depths from the vicinity of major dump sites in Ile-Ife (latitudes 7deg;27and 7deg;32, longitudes 4deg; 22#39; and 4deg; 29#39;), Nigeria. The samples when analyzed, showed that soils in the vicinity of dump sites had significantly higher pH regime compared to the control soil. Soils of the dump sites were found to be enriched with the heavy metals (Zn, Cu and Cd) more than the adjacent soils (control) but were still within tolerable /critical level with the exception of Pb which had a high value of 109.7 ugg-1above the critical value of 100 ugg-1. There was significant relationship between the soil heavy metal content and plant uptake. Transfer factor (TF) expressed as the ratio of the heavy metal concentration in plants to that of soil varied significantly amongst the dump sites and also amongst the species of the heavy metals. The ten years old dump sites recorded the highest TF value ranging from 0.29 for Zn to 4.05 for Pb. The study therefore showed that changes in physico-chemical characteristics at dump sites could be attributed to interactions of different soil properties rather a single factor. Key words: Heavy metal contamination, seasonal changes, soil pH, soil texture, specific adsorption mechanism, transfer factor, food chain. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/14E5B9111555 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000017 en Copyright © 2008 Oyedele, D. J., Gasu, M. B and Awotoye, O.O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:9D7F88F11560 2008-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Urban effluent pollution from the Mghogha flow of the west, margin of the Mediterranean sea, Morocco Bouzid Saiuml;da, Andaloussi Houda, Aboumaria Khadija and Er-Raioui Hassan Full Length Research Paper Tangiers bay, located in the extreme west of the Mediterranean Sea, and in the north west of Morocco, receives various pollutants through the Mghogha canal from urban and industrial rejections of Tangiers city. This survey was focused on physicochemical and geochemical characterization of the more exposed sites situated on Mghogha canal and on the bay coastline. Physicochemical analysis (Temperature (21 - 23deg;C), pH (6 - 7.5), suspended matters (70 ndash; 300 mg/l), dissolved oxygen (1.15 - 4.5 mg/l), chemical and biochemical demands of oxygen (345 ndash; 975 m/l and 55 ndash; 245 mg/l respectively)) showed an important pollutant load in samples taken from Mghogha canal. This finding has been confirmed by geochemical analysis results (total organic carbon (1.5 - 2.7%), Rock-Evals pyrolysis (S1:0.52 - 2.10 and; S2:3.68 - 18.98 mg/g) and extraction of hydrocarbons (1.55 - 10.45 mg/g and 19mg/l)). The water quality does not meet the hygienic quality classification of the main local beaches allowed for public swim, in accordance with Moroccan norm (NM 03.7.200 for quality surveillance of swimming waters). The high pollution load drained by the primary effluent from Tangiers district have prompted the conclusion of a cityrsquo;s wastewater treatment project to lower pollutant levels by 50%, which is still insufficient for a fragile ecosystem such as the Mediterranean. Key words: Physicochemical analysis, geochemical analysis, urban rejection, organic load, Mghogha canal, Tangiers bay Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/9D7F88F11560 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000128 en Copyright © 2008 Bouzid Saiuml;da, Andaloussi Houda, Aboumaria Khadija and Er-Raioui Hassan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:38AE52A11568 2008-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Pathogenic diversity of Sclerotium rolfsii isolates, a potential biocontrol agent against Parthenium hysterophorus L. Rekha Shukla and A. K. Pandey Short Communication Parthenium hysterophorus L. is a wide-spread weed creating problems for agriculture and public health. Microbes and their by products is now proved to be a worthy alternative to toxic chemicals used for weed management. We determined the relative pathogenicity of ten Sclerotium rolfsii isolates recovered from diseased parts of Parthenium collected during a survey of various habitats in Central India. There was a considerable diversity amongst various isolates. The isolate designated Par # 02 from Jabalpur showed the maximum disease incidence (80%) whereas isolate Par#10 also from Jabalpur showed the lowest infection rate against targeted hosts (30%). The wide range of pathogenicity among S. rolfsii support the view that strain breeding for biological control of P. hysterophorus L. is warranted. Key words: Parthenium hysterophorus, variability, pathogenicity, Sclerotium rolfsii. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/38AE52A11568 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000083 en Copyright © 2008 Rekha Shukla and A. K. Pandey
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:A74B22011584 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Homo periculosus var. infestus Prof Dele Ogunseitan Editorial Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/A74B22011584 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000062 en Copyright © 2008 Prof Dele Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:383F4AE11588 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Influence of varying light regimes on photosynthesis and related variables on tree seedlings of Warburgia ugandensis Sprague and Polyscias fulva (Hiern) harms J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wangrsquo;ombe and J. Wanyondu Full Length Research Paper The physiology of seedlings of Warburgia ugandensis and Polyscias fulva were studied at varying light levels. Photosynthesis was significantly higher in P. fulva(1.4 mmols CO2 m-2 s-1) than in W. ugandensis (0.3 mmols CO2 m-2s-1) when grown in full sunlight. However, photosynthesis was not significantly (P gt; 0.05) different under moderate and dense shades (PPFD about 600 mmols m-2s-1 and 350 mmols m-2s-1 respectively) for both species (and ranged between 0.4 and 0.5 mmols CO2 m-2s-1). Generally, P. fulva seedlings had significantly (P lt; 0.05) greater reductions (from 1.0 to 0.4 mmols CO2 m-2s-1) in photosynthetic rates in response to increasing shade than did W. ugandensis (0.6 to 0.4 mmols CO2 m-2s-1). However, W. ugandensis attained significantly (P lt; 0.05) higher photosynthetic rates under shade conditions (0.6 mmols CO2 m-2s-1) than full sunlight conditions (0.3 mmols CO2 m-2s-1). Leaf temperatures were highest (30deg;C) in full sunlight and lowest (27deg;C) in dense shade for both species. Generally, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency showed significantly (P lt; 0.05) higher values for shade grown W. ugandensis and full sunlight grown P. fulva. Water use efficiency for P. fulva (2.3 mmols CO2 mmol-1 H2O) was significantly (P lt; 0.05) higher that for W. ugandensis (1.5 mmols CO2 mmol-1 H2O) in full sunlight than. It was concluded that P. fulva was also less adapted to growth at low light intensity while W. ugandensis was better adapted to growth at low light levels because of its significantly greater ability to maintain higher rates of photosynthesis in low light intensity. Therefore in East Africa P fulva can be a better agroforestry species than W. ugandensis. Key words: Net carbon exchange, forest tree seedlings, shade, Warburgia ugandensis, Polyscias fulva Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/383F4AE11588 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000065 en Copyright © 2008 J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wangrsquo;ombe and J. Wanyondu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:9D2CB4C11594 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
The current pollution status of the new Calabar river in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria: A survey of antibiogram profiles of its bacterial isolates Gideon O. Abu and Chidiebere Egenonu. Full Length Research Paper The incidence of environmental pollutants on bacterial strains isolated from the New Calabar River in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria were investigated in order to ascertain the possible effects on antibiotic resistance and patterns. The physico-chemical parameters of the water samples assayed included temperature, pH, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, salinity, chloride, nitrate, phosphate, total dissolved solids, sulphate, oil and grease, cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, mercury and iron. Antibiogram of bacterial isolates from the water samples were sought using the disk diffusion method. Results showed multiple antibiotic resistance patterns among the bacterial isolates. The levels of resistance exhibited by the isolates to specific antibiotics were: Ampicillin 66.7%, Rifampicin 66.7%, Tetracycline 53.3%, Cephalothin 46.7%, Erythromycin 46.7%, Novobiocin 40%, Chloramphenicol 33.3%, Nalidixic acid 33.3%, Streptomycin 33.3%, Cotrimoxazole 26.7%, Norfloxacin 13.3%, Ciprofloxacin 6.7%, Ofloxacin 6.7%, Amikacin 0%, Gentamycin 0% and Pefloxacin 0%. Higher incidence of antibiotic resistance was observed at sites with pronounced industrial and human activities, suggesting possible effect of pollutants on the ecosystem. There was weak correlation (r = 0.28) between incidence of antibiotic resistance and faecal coliforms. This suggests that the antibiotic resistance patterns of these bacterial isolates may be due to factors that are not linked to faecal pollution. The presence of chemical pollutants may have contributed to the increased antibiotic resistance observed at sites with pronounced industrial and human activities. Key words: Antibiogram, New Calabar river, pollution, coliforms, physico-chemical Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/9D2CB4C11594 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000112 en Copyright © 2008 Gideon O. Abu and Chidiebere Egenonu.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:3A551C111601 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Soil carbon and nutrient accumulation under forest plantations in southern Rwanda D. Nsabimana, , L. Klemedtson, B.A. Kaplin, G. Wallina Full Length Research Paper Tree and soil interactions may result in changes in soil carbon and nutrient contents. Forest plantations made up of monodominant stands of 17 different species, some native and some exotic to Rwanda, as well as a stand with mixed native tree species were investigated. Biosequential sampling was used followed by basic soil chemical analyses. Results revealed that the plantation species composition influenced the soil chemical properties. Total soil C and N, C: N ratio, available P, pH, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) differed significantly between plantation stands of different species (P lt; 0.001, N = 54). Increases in the levels of soil C, total N, CEC and base saturation (BS) were observed mainly in mixed native species (MNS), Polyscia fulva, Casuarina equisetifolia andEucalyptus saligna. The pH declined slightly in soil beneath some Eucalyptusspecies treatments and increased in others. The high nutrient uptake by fast-growing trees and the acidic parent material were involved in the acidification process. The findings suggest that the species used in afforestation maintain soil fertility and protect the environment. It is recommended that afforestation of abandoned and less productive lands in Rwanda should utilize fast growingEucalyptus species in combination with agroforestry and native species in order to maintain or improve soil chemical properties. Key words: Afforestation, base saturation (BS), cation exchange capacity (CEC)forest plantation, soil carbon, total N, Rwanda Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/3A551C111601 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000098 en Copyright © 2008 D. Nsabimana, , L. Klemedtson, B.A. Kaplin, G. Wallina
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:9A6907811615 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Greening Evolution Prof Dele Ogunseitan Editorial Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/9A6907811615 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000057 en Copyright © 2008 Prof Dele Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:40352BB11617 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Chemical carcinogenesis and chemoprevention: Scientific priority area in rapidly industrializing developing countries Anetor J. I, Anetor G. O, Udah D. C and Adeniyi F. A. A Review Occupational cancers are now a serious concern in industrializing developing countries where exposure levels to hazardous chemicals considerably exceed regulatory limits established in industrialized countries. The association between increasing use of chemicals and associated disorders and chemoprevention or anticarcinogenesis is insufficiently recognized in these countries. The eradication of chemicals would assist in cancer prevention. This is however, not pragmatic, thus the need to seek alternative means of cancer prevention. Cancer chemoprevention or anticarcinogenesis is the process of exposure of an animal including humans to a substance that will reduce the incidence of cancer that would otherwise develop. Lack of knowledge of the multiple pathways by which chemically induced cancer may arise has led to the erroneous view for a long time that the study of chemoprevention was academic. While this field is gaining an increasing and sustained attention in the developed countries it has received little attention in the industrializing developing countries where the incidence of cancers appears to parallel the pace of industrialization. Sub-optimal intake of specific micronutrients so common in developing countries may contribute to greater susceptibility to cancer. Micronutrient deficiency disorders (MDDs) is considered orders of magnitude more important than radiation because of constancy of exposure to a milieu promoting DNA damage. Zinc (Zn) for instance is an antioxidant, a component of p53 and a critical factor in gene expression. Poor Zn nutrition may be an important risk factor in oxidant release and development of DNA damage and cancer. A deficiency of Zn ranks among the top ten leading causes of death in developing countries. As chemo preventive agents are present in natural human foods abundant in developing countries, this should be one of the highest research priorities of the rapidly industrializing developing countries. Key words: Chemical carcinogenesis, chemoprevention, DNA damage, oxidative stress, Industrialization, p53 protein, mutation Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/40352BB11617 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000020 en Copyright © 2008 Anetor J. I, Anetor G. O, Udah D. C and Adeniyi F. A. A
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:0FD65F011636 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Diversity and distribution of medicinal plants in North Sinai, Egypt Rafaat H. Abd El-Wahab, Mohamed S. Zaghloul, Wafaa M. Kamel and Abdel Raouf A. Moustafa Full Length Research Paper The present study aims to assess plant diversity and distribution of medicinal plants in relation to environmental factors at three geomorphological districts (Mediterranean coast, anticlines, and inland) and five main habitats (salt marshes, sand dunes, sand plains, wadis, and gorges) in North Sinai. The results revealed that North Sinai harbors 281 species with high taxonomic diversity (species/genera = 1.49) and high percentage of rare and very rare species (67%). Mediterranean coastal district and anticlines district are more diverse than inland district. Medicinal plants constitute 43% of North Sinai flora. Species richness, Shannon-Weiner H, and Margalef indices measurements indicated that gorges are the most diverse habitat in North Sinai followed by wadis. Plains have intermediate diversity followed by sand dunes. The lowest diversity indices were recorded at salt marshes habitat. Beta diversity measurements, using Wilson and Schmida index (beta;T), indicated significant changes in floristic compositions between different habitats. The lowest changes were among sand plain, wadi, and gorge habitats. North Sinai habitats support about 100 to 120 medicinal plant associations. The main dominant species include Artemisia monosperma, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Lycium shawii,Retama raetam, Stipagrostis scoparia, Tamarix nilotica, Zygophyllum album,and Zygophyllum dumosum. Soil physical properties in addition to soil salinity and topographic variations are the main driving factors controlling the distribution of medicinal plants in North Sinai. About 60% of medicinal plants are threatened due to intensive collection and other human activities. The threatened medicinal plants including Acacia pachyceras, Acacia tortilis, Anastatica hierochuntica,Asclepias sinaica, Capparis spinosa, Chiliadenus montanus, Citrulus colocynthis, Ephedra alata, and Juniperus phoenicea along with their habitats should have the first priority in management and conservation plan of medicinal plants in North Sinai. Public and private involvement in management and utilization of medicinal plants in sustainable way is essential to combat human pressures on these valuable natural resources. Key words: Conservation, diversity, habitats, human impacts, medicinal plants, vegetation. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/0FD65F011636 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000035 en Copyright © 2008 Rafaat H. Abd El-Wahab, Mohamed S. Zaghloul, Wafaa M. Kamel and Abdel Raouf A. Moustafa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:3124A4B11639 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Diversity in soil seed bank of Sinai and implications for conservation and restoration M. S. Zaghloul Full Length Research Paper Understanding the diversity level of seed bank is important for designing conservation and restoration programs especially in arid ecosystems. A diverse of diversity indices has been used in evaluating seed communities regardless of its suitability to measure the ecological quality of the targeted biological community. The current study aims to evaluate the spatial variability in the seed bank of Sinai Peninsula, and to evaluate the suitability of different diversity indices for application. Two hundred and twenty samples were collected from fifty-nine sites representing twenty-three localities in North and South Sinai. These localities belong to four main geomorphological districts; Mediterranean coast, northern anticlines, northern inlands, and southern mountainous massif. The content of soil seed bank in each sample was estimated by emergence method. Thirty-two species were identified including eight endemic and near-endemic species. The suitability of indices was evaluated by testing the relationships of the indices with the associating environmental factors and contribution of each index to group separation. The results of the study show that Sinai has a large scale of soil seed bank diversity that could be used in any conservation and restoration plans. The study suggests also, that the most suitable diversity indices to measure this diversity are Margalef and Q-Statistic without neglecting the importance of reporting on abundance and richness. Key words: Sinai, soil seed bank, arid environments, diversity indices, conservation, restoration Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/3124A4B11639 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000036 en Copyright © 2008 M. S. Zaghloul
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:C07B11811646 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Water quality parameters in the major rivers of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria Ajibade, W. A., Ayodele, I. A. and Agbede, S. A. Full Length Research Paper This study examined the physical and chemical properties of waters of the major rivers in Kainji Lake National Park for a period of twenty four months. The implications on the public health and aquatic organisms were also determined. The major rivers include; Oli, Manyera, Nuwanzurugi, and Poto. River Oli was sampled at the hippo pools at Kilometers 8 and 12 and two animal drinking points. Other rivers were sampled at two animal drinking points. Standard methods were used to monitor the physical and chemical parameters. Physical parameters that were considered include; temperature, colour, total suspended solid and turbidity. The chemical parameters include hardness, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), iron, manganese, calcium, chloride, nitrate, pH, phosphate, ammonium and electrical conductivity. Seasonal variation appeared to have influence on the physical and chemical parameters. Statistical analysis shows that there were significant differences between sampling points and locations mean values for the different physical and chemical parameters examined. The presence of hippopotamus affected some parameters such as BOD, DO, COD, pH and turbidity significantly. The BOD and COD were strongly, significantly correlated and positively correlated (r = 0.757, Ppound;0.05). The ammonium and nitrite contents are not significantly correlated but positively and weakly correlated (Plt;0.05, r = 0.141) between the dry seasons and wet seasons mean values. Key words: Water quality, Oli River, River Nuwanzurugi, River Manyera, River Poto Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/C07B11811646 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000132 en Copyright © 2008 Ajibade, W. A., Ayodele, I. A. and Agbede, S. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:216D2F011653 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Fitness and its variation among populations of Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana in Southern Sinai, Egypt M. S. Zaghloul Full Length Research Paper Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana (Fabaceae) plays an important role in the life of desert animals and is a major source of livestock feed and firewood for the native Bedouin people in Southern Sinai, Egypt. High mortality and low juvenile recruitment has been reported in recent years leading to decline in population size and number of this species. Small populations tend to be subject to an increased probability of stochastic extinction due to demographic, environmental and genetic factors. Therefore, this study aims to determine if A. tortilis subsp.raddiana populations suffer reduced fitness and its correlation or association with genetic diversity and mating parameters. Correlations and association between fitness, population size, genetic variation, and mating system parameters were tested using Spearman correlation and simple regression analyses. Stepwise regression analyses were used to identify useful predictors for fitness. The results revealed that A. tortilis subsp. raddiana populationsrsquo; fitness is generally low to very low (0.1 plusmn; 0.11). There was no relationship detected between A. tortilis subsp. raddiana fitness or population size and observed or expected heterozygosity. While there was no evidence for reduced fitness in A. tortilissubsp. raddiana populations, the study indicated that fitness is negatively associated with population size. Population size was associated also with the number of alleles (A) and number of alleles per polymorphic locus (AP). The study came to the conclusion that although the low to very low values, there is no evidence for reduced fitness in Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana small populations. Some of the studied populations (L6, L2, L3, and M4) are exceptionally fit which makes them the first candidates as seed source in restoration and both in situand ex situ conservation efforts. Key words: Acacia tortilis, Sinai, germination, establishment, fitness Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/216D2F011653 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000052 en Copyright © 2008 M. S. Zaghloul
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:4D781B411662 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Environmental aesthetics and athletics Prof Dele Ogunseitan Editorial Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/4D781B411662 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000043 en Copyright © 2008 Prof Dele Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:791568811669 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Microbiological characteristics of waters in the major rivers in Kainji Lake National Park Ajibade, W. A. Ayodele, I. A. and Agbede, S. A. Full Length Research Paper This research work determined the microbiological characteristics of the waters of rivers of Kainji Lake National Park. The implications on public health and aquatic life were also examined. The rivers include: Oli, Manyera, Poto and Nuwanzurugi. Samples were taken twice a year, that is, dry and wet seasons of each year. Standard methods were used for bacteriological examination plating. The results revealed high faecal pollution during the wet seasons. This was confirmed by the presence of the coliforms. Isolates include Pseudomonas spp.Escherichia coli, Acetobacter spp, Maroxalla spp, Bacillus spp, and Klebsiella spp. As a result water of the four rivers in the park is not potable during the wet seasons. Key words: Faecal pollution, bacteriological examination, E. coli, Klebsiella spp, potability Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/791568811669 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000075 en Copyright © 2008 Ajibade, W. A. Ayodele, I. A. and Agbede, S. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:2AB130811676 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Assessment of contamination of singed hides from cattle and goats by heavy metals in Ghana K. Obiri-Danso, J. N. Hogarh and P. Antwi-Agyei Full Length Research Paper Many local butchers in Ghana have been using scrap tyres as substitute for firewood to singe slaughtered ruminants. This study analysed such singed hides from seven goats and three cattle in unregulated local slaughtering operations near the Kumasi abattoir, for risk of heavy metal contamination (Mg, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrometry. Relative to un-singed control hides, singed treatments generally elevated heavy metal levels in both goats and cattle hides. Magnesium, Mn, Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations in un-singed goats hide increased by 23, 29, 54, 24 and 20% respectively to 108.63 plusmn; 3.85, 0.83 plusmn; 0.13, 1.63 plusmn; 0.13, 2.15 plusmn; 0.29 and 2.26 plusmn; 0.20 mg/kg in the singed material. Similarly, singeing increased Mg, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Zn concentrations in cattle hide by 94, 49, 130, 33, 174 and 1055% to 80.0 plusmn; 5.25, 2.13 plusmn; 0.26, 5.67 plusmn; 1.24, 3.50 plusmn; 0.17, 4.20 plusmn; 0.17, and 204.49 plusmn; 36.69 mg/kg respectively. Lead concentration in cattle hide on the other hand decreased by 34% upon singeing, from 4.61 plusmn; 0.30 mg/kg in un-singed controls to 3.06 plusmn; 0.26 mg/kg in singed material. High concentrations of the metals in singed hides could not be entirely attributed to the singed treatment alone, in view of considerable background levels of heavy metals recorded in the un-singed samples; a situation that probably reflected a larger problem of heavy metal pollution in the local environment. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in hides were above maximum permissible levels (MPLs) of 0.05 and 0.01 mg/kg respectively set by the European Commission Regulation, whilst Zn was also above MPL of 50.0 mg/kg, according to the Meat Food Products Order of India. It was concluded that the hides were potentially unsafe for human consumption. Key words: Heavy metal contamination, meat products, singed treatments, consumed animal hides Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/2AB130811676 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000009 en Copyright © 2008 K. Obiri-Danso, J. N. Hogarh and P. Antwi-Agyei
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:CF0B8ED11680 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Range use and dynamics in the agropastoral system of southeastern Kenya M. M. Nyangito, N. K. R. Musimba and D. M. Nyariki Full Length Research Paper Occurrence of equilibrium and non equilibrium system dynamics in semiarid environments present serious management challenges. In these areas, resource management strategies are increasingly based on equilibrium rather than non equilibrium dynamics that assume simple system dynamics and strong coupling of animal-plant responses. This management approach underlies increasing trends of range degradation and low livestock productivity in these environments. To reverse these trends dictates greater understanding and alignment of grazing resource extraction strategies in space and time to prevailing system dynamics behaviour. In this study, range use patterns by free ranging herds under agropastoral herding were studied in two cycles of four consecutive grazing periods, in semiarid southeastern Kenya. The bites count and herd locations per area methods were used. While grazing thresholds in the system were derived from biweekly sward biomass measured by the quadrant technique in the growing period and stocking rates applied to a growth-consumption rate model.The analysis tested the responsiveness of the agropastoral herding strategies to the predominant system dynamics in the area. In this environment, high rainfall variability ranging from 71 to 98% is experienced across years and seasons, pointing to non-equilibrium dynamics in the system. The agropastoralists practiced seasonal range use and tracking strategies. During the dry season, areas of concentrated drainage; river valleys, bottomlands and ephemeral drainage ways absorbed a greater grazing load, taking 57.1 to 60% of the grazing time by the animals. In contrast, areas of limited moisture concentration, the open sandy/clay plains, were mainly exploited in the wet season and accounted for 52.6 to 55.6% of the grazing time. The agropastoralists tracked forage availability through use of multispecies livestock (cattle, goats and sheep) that exploited different grazing resources in space and time. These range use patterns and strategies tend to stabilize nutrient and energy flow to livestock and thus productivity throughout the seasons. Based on the growth-consumption rate model, grazing thresholds in the system are achieved at 13800, 13000, 4000 and 12300, 4600 and 12000, and 5600 and 11000 kgha-1 of grass biomass at, 2.5, 5, 7, 8 and 10 TLUha-1, respectively. 7 TLUha-1 represent the upper stocking rate limit in the system during the growing period. In this system, resource use strategies are in line with the predominantly non-equilibrium system behaviour. However, sedentary land use interventions and limiting farm sizes that restrict livestock mobility and negatively affect grazing resource diversity will undermine system stability and sustainable livestock production in the area. Key words: Agropastoralists, range use, system dynamics Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/CF0B8ED11680 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000087 en Copyright © 2008 M. M. Nyangito, N. K. R. Musimba and D. M. Nyariki
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:B7D4E7411689 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Survey of the physico-chemical quality of the wastewaters of Biskra city rejected in Chabat Roba, Messdour and Wadi Z'ommor (Algeria) Souiki Lynda, Rouabhi Rachid, Berrebbah Houria and Djebar Mohammed-Reda Full Length Research Paper The wastewaters of the agglomeration of Biskra (Southeast Algeria) are poured without treatment in three main dismissals that are Chabat Roba (1st site), Messdour (2nd site) and Wadi Z#39;ommor (3rd site). The pollution charge determined in the 1st site is the order of 157.76 plusmn; 34.14 mg/L of O2 for the BOD5(Biochemical Oxygen Demand in 5 days) of 457 plusmn; 73.59 mg/L of O2 for the COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and 1109 plusmn; 110.56 mg/L for the TSS (Total suspended Solids). In the 2nd site, the polluting charge is in average of 156 plusmn; 29.72 mg/L of #39;O2 for the BOD5, 430.76 plusmn; 29.81 mg/L of O2 for the COD and 1157.92 plusmn; 76 mg/L of O2 for the TSS. The 3rd site, the polluting charge is represented by 152.92 plusmn; 27.76 mg/L of O2 of BOD5, 381.69 plusmn; 70.03 mg/L of O2of COD and by 1039 plusmn;106.65 mg/L of O2 of TSS. The follow-up of these parameters in the three sites puts in evidence instability of the organic charge during seasons. The COD/BOD5 report equal 3 for the 1st site, this elevated value, watch that these waters are characterized by an inorganic pollution probably due to the industrial origin. With regard to the 2nd and 3rd sites, the COD/BOD5 report is between 3 and 2.5 for the first and between 2 and 2.50 for the second. The results defined the urban nature of the rejection poured in these sites. Key words: Wastewaters, Biskra, COD/BOD5 report, pollution charge, TSS Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/B7D4E7411689 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000102 en Copyright © 2008 Souiki Lynda, Rouabhi Rachid, Berrebbah Houria and Djebar Mohammed-Reda
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:F4A3FAD11765 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Occurrence of elevated nitrate in groundwaters of Krishna delta, India N. C. Mondal, V. K. Saxena and V. S. Singh Full Length Research Paper Nitrate concentrations were measured in the groundwater samples of Krishna delta, India. The results indicate a large variation of nitrate from 10 - 135 mg/l. In 79 groundwater samples, about 39% shows high nitrate contents (gt;50 mg/l), which is more than the permissible limits in drinking water. In north Krishna delta 49% and in south Krishna delta 26% water samples were found to exceed the permissible limits. This study indicates that groundwater of north Krishna delta is more polluted than south. Nitrate pollution level is found more in dug wells compared to hand pumps/bore wells. In this region 49% dug wells and 31% hand pumps have exceeded the desirable limits. The possible sources for the high nitrate level in groundwater were identified as excessive utilization of nitrogenous fertilizers for agricultural purposes. Key words: Nitrate pollution, groundwater, Krishna delta, India Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/F4A3FAD11765 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000079 en Copyright © 2008 N. C. Mondal, V. K. Saxena and V. S. Singh
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:99F5ED711752 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Effect of electroplating industrial waste on “available phosphorus” of soil in relation to other physico-chemical properties Sudarshana Sharma, Poonam Mehrotra and A. K. Bhattacharyya Full Length Research Paper Unorganized land disposal of industrial wastes contaminates land and ground water. The Wazirpur Industrial area of Delhi, a metropolitan city, generates highly acidic (pH 2 - 3.8) and toxic waste, and disposal remains a perpetual problem. This waste contains a high quantity of macronutrients as well as heavy metals because major industries are involved in metals finishing. Wastes of these industries were mixed with municipal waste at roads. Hence a study was undertaken to verify the suitability of land disposal of this toxic waste. The waste was first treated with three doses of lime (0, 0.5 and 1%) and then mixed with two types of soils from two different locations in three different proportions viz. 10, 20 and 30%, maintaining soil moisture level at 50% of water holding capacity. These samples were incubated for 120 days. All three waste amendments resulted in an increase in available phosphorus (AP) in both waste-amended soils as compared to the control soils. It is statistically significant at p = 0.05 level. During the 120 days of incubation highest value (36.41 plusmn; 0.01 ppm for site 1 soil and 30.40 plusmn; 0.03 ppm for site 2 soil) of available phosphorus had been found at 20th day of incubation for both the soils. Lime treatment at the rate of 0.5% gave in 10 and 20% treatments significantly positive result as compared to 0 and 1% treatment. Only in 30% waste amendment 1% lime treatment gave better amount of available phosphorus (27.77 plusmn; 0.01 ppm and 24.84 plusmn; 0.03 ppm for site 1 and site 2 soils respectively). The finding of the study evident that 0.5% lime treated 10% industrial waste can be used as manure for soil. The result is of further interest from a plant nutrition standpoint since the amount of potentially mobile-P measured in this study could be related to the amount of available phosphorous required for crop growth. Key words: Industrial waste, land disposal, incubation study, available phosphorus Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/99F5ED711752 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000039 en Copyright © 2008 Sudarshana Sharma, Poonam Mehrotra and A. K. Bhattacharyya
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:FD4E37511696 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Environmental Education and Research in Africa Prof Dele Ogunseitan Editorial Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/FD4E37511696 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000046 en Copyright © 2008 Prof Dele Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:287399711702 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Adaptation technologies and legal instruments to address climate change impacts to coastal and marine resources in Tanzania R. E. Sallema and G. Y. S. Mtui Review The increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the consequent pressures related to climate change are having significant impacts on the coastal and marine resources on which much of Tanzaniarsquo;s coastal population depends for its livelihood. A decline in mangrove cover, coral bleaching and mortality and the destruction of seagrass beds are some of these impacts. Coastal erosion also poses threats to the countryrsquo;s coastal tourism infrastructure. This study examines various approaches that integrate protection and conservation of coastal and marine resources. It briefly highlights the global and regional issues while emphasis is put on Tanzanian perspective. Guidelines and reports for management interventions and adaptive technologies are discussed. Environmental protection remains the most preferred approach with variety of options. An overview is given on soft and hard adaptation technologies. Furthermore, Tanzaniarsquo;s relevant policies and legislation that address climate change impacts to coastal and marine resources are reviewed. Key words: Climate change, coastal and marine resources, adaptation technologies, legal instruments Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/287399711702 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000004 en Copyright © 2008 R. E. Sallema and G. Y. S. Mtui
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:F2DF2CF11735 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Remediation of anthracene in mycorrhizospheric soil using ryegrass Deepali L. Korade and M. H. Fulekar Full Length Research Paper Rhizosphere bioremediation has become an effective technique that uses green plants to enhance biodegradation of persistent organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides and radionuclides. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, due to their hydrophobic nature were found to be retained in the soil. Plants could be grown at the PAH contaminated sites to stimulate the biodegradation in the rhizosphere. In the present study, biodegradation of anthracene was studied using ryegrass in mycorrhizosphere soil by laboratory scale pot culture experiments. Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was grown in pots containing soil contaminated with various levels of anthracene. Soil and plants from treated pots were sampled after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days and compared with uncontaminated planted pots. In the mycorrhizosphere, the concentrations of anthracene in the soil were found to be 5.2, 7.88, 15.43, 33.23 and 41.5 mg/kg at the 15 days harvest which further decreased to 0.31, 0.45, 0.89, 1.89 and 2.43 mg/kg over a period of 60 days when exposed to the initial concentrations of 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg amended in soil, respectively. Plant shoot and root dry biomass were observed to be significantly reduced at higher anthracene concentrations (75 and 100 mg/kg) whereas low concentrations had no distinct effect on plant biomass (plt;0.05). The increase in the microbial counts was also monitored and quantified along the degradation of the anthracene in the soil. The findings of this research show that there is rapid degradation of anthracene under the influence of ryegrass mycorrhizosphere. Key words: Rhizosphere bioremediation, Lolium multiflorum, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, PAHs Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/F2DF2CF11735 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000092 en Copyright © 2008 Deepali L. Korade and M. H. Fulekar
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:B25610211830 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Livelihood diversification and implications on poverty and environment in the Lake Victoria Basin Richard Y.M. Kangalawe, Emma T. Liwenga, Robert Kabumbuli and Mary K. Walingo Full Length Research Paper This paper on livelihood diversification is based on an ongoing study under VicRes programme being undertaken in the Lake Victoria Basin, in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. We examine how changing socio-economic and environmental conditions contribute to livelihood diversification, land-use changes, poverty reduction strategies and environmental conservation in the Lake Victoria Basin. The study was undertaken using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative methods included focused group discussions, key informant interviews and direct observations. Quantitative data were collected using a structured household questionnaire. Qualitative were analysed with the villagers by triangulation, while quantitative data were analysed using standard statistical methods. Findings from the study indicate that while agricultural production is prominent in the highland areas, the major activity in the lowland villages is fishing. Factors such as population increase, drought, and changes in macro and micro socio-economic conditions have resulted into livelihood diversification and land use changes in the Lake Victoria basin. Some of the livelihood activities influence the socio-economic dynamics, natural resource management, and the environment, leading to increased land degradation, low agricultural productivity, water pollution, food insecurity and poverty. The study also established decreasing trends in land availability over time attributed mainly to increasing population pressure and livelihood diversification. Key words: Livelihood diversification, land use changes, poverty alleviation, environment, population dynamics, Lake Victoria Basin Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/B25610211830 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000068 en Copyright © 2008 Richard Y.M. Kangalawe, Emma T. Liwenga, Robert Kabumbuli and Mary K. Walingo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:696B25811906 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Environmental lead pollution and contamination in food around Lake Victoria, Kisumu, Kenya Anselimo O. Makokha, Leonard R. Mghweno, Happy S. Magoha, Amina Nakajugo and John M. Wekesa Full Length Research Paper Exposure to lead (Pb) through food, water, or contaminated air has adverse health impacts that are particularly severe in children. Many countries have outlawed the use of leaded petrol, and enacted policies and regulations limiting lead pollution, and lead levels in foods. However, African countries, including Kenya, have generally been slow in adopting policies and regulatory structures concerning lead pollution. The main objective of this study was to determine lead contamination levels in the environment around Kisumu (Kenya). Lead content in samples of tap water and other surface water ranged from 140 to 260, and 140 to 690 ( g/g), respectively. All the tap water samples had lead content above10 g/g, the maximum WHO limit for lead in drinking water. The lead content in vegetables and fish ranged between 0.0 to 2.9 and 1.0 to 3.3 ( g/g), respectively. All the fish samples had lead levels above the WHO maximum limit of 0.2 ( g/g). Lead content in soil samples ranged from 0.2 to 3.9 ( g/g). These results indicate that there is considerable risk of lead poisoning from drinking water and eating some foods from these sites. Key words: Lead, pollution, environment, food safety Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/696B25811906 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000047 en Copyright © 2008 Anselimo O. Makokha, Leonard R. Mghweno, Happy S. Magoha, Amina Nakajugo and John M. Wekesa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:FB4A8E211898 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Indigenous knowledge of field insect pests and their management around lake Victoria basin in Uganda M. Mugisha-Kamatenesi, A. L. Deng, J.O.Ogendo, E. O.Omolo, M. J.Mihale, M. Otim, J. P. Buyungo and P. K. Bett Full Length Research Paper Food security and poverty alleviation has remained the primary agenda in the Eastern Africa regional food policies, and Uganda is no exception. Field pests that attack crops are among the greatest threat to increased food production. The subsistence farmers in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) rarely use synthetic pesticides in the field due to the high cost and availability issues. Therefore, some rely on the use of botanical pesticides and other natural methods of pest control. However, this indigenous knowledge (IK) on botanicals has remained largely unexploited with limited regional research and resources committed and these are the premises upon which this ethnobotanical fieldpests management survey was launched and conducted. Most of the respondents were women (59%). The study findings revealed that the major field pests reported by farmers in declining order of importance, included banana weevil, bean fly, cereal stem borers, pod feeders, grain moth, rodents, moths, termites, birds, aphids and cutworms. The anti-pest plants documented included, Capsicum frutescens,Tagetes spp, Nicotiana tabacum, Cypressus spp., Tephrosia vogelii,Azadirachta indica, Musa spp, Moringa oleifera, Tithonia diversifolia, Lantana camara, Phytollacca dodecandra, Vernonia amygdalina, Aloe spp., Eucalyptusspp., Cannabis sativa, Cofea species and Carica papaya. The study has demonstrated that usage of botanical pesticides in field pest management is normal around Lake Victoria basin for the subsistence farmers since all the 117 respondents had ever tried or used botanical pesticides. We recommend more specialized studies in the usage of the plant-based pesticides to ensure safety and effectiveness that will enhance food security and environment protection. In addition, appropriate recommendations generated on the issues investigated will be advanced as leads for further research, extension and regional industrial endeavors in the LVB. Key words: Indigenous knowledge, field pests, pesticide plants, Uganda, Lake Victoria Basin Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/FB4A8E211898 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000063 en Copyright © 2008 M. Mugisha-Kamatenesi, A. L. Deng, J.O.Ogendo, E. O.Omolo, M. J.Mihale, M. Otim, J. P. Buyungo and P. K. Bett
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:28B31F711890 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Does African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) affect rice in integrated rice-fish culture in Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya? Joseph Rasowo, Elmada Auma, Grace Ssanyu and Moses Ndunguru Full Length Research Paper An experiment was conducted for 98 days in the Lake Victoria Basin to investigate the interactions of fish and rice growth performance in rice paddies. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design, with rice cultivar as the main plot and method of rice-fish culture as the sub-plot. Treatments consisted of two levels of rice-fish culture and three cultivars of rice. Rice cultivars used were; ITA, BR 11 and IR 2793-80-1 obtained from the National Irrigation Board (NIB), Kenya. Clarias gariepinus, (15 plusmn; 0.4 g) were stocked at 6 m-2 and given supplementary diet containing 35% crude protein and 7% lipids at 2times; maintenance level. There was significantly less incidence of stem-borers in rice-fish polyculture compared to rice monoculture (Plt; 0.05). Rice-fish polyculture gave significantly higher rice yield than rice monoculture (453 plusmn; 1.0 gm-2). The seed yield differed significantly (Plt; 0.05) between the rice cultivars with ITA giving the highest yield followed by IR and BR. There were significant differences in growth performance of C. gariepinus in the treatments (F = 4.518,df = 2, P = 0.014) with best growth recorded in the Fish-ITA and least in Fish-BR. Mean net annualized fish production was highest (3,767 plusmn; 300 Kgha-1yr-1) in the ITA-Fish plots with no statistical differences recorded between BR-Fish and IR-Fish plots. Fish survival ranged from 79.9 to 82.6 percent in Fish-IR, Fish-BR and Fish-ITA respectively. Key words: African catfish, rice-fish culture, rice yield, fish yield Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/28B31F711890 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000037 en Copyright © 2008 Joseph Rasowo, Elmada Auma, Grace Ssanyu and Moses Ndunguru
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:28FD7B111885 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Sustainable wetland resource utilization of Sango Bay through Eco-tourism development Nyakaana Jockey Baker Full Length Research Paper Defining and achieving sustainable development is a major issue for policy debates both in the developed and developing countries. Eco-tourism as an important niche market in the world tourism industry has been embraced by developing countries like Uganda, which are trying to use tourism as an engine of national development. It embraces environmental conservation, maintenance of biodiversity, a satisfying experience for the visitors, study and appreciation of nature and sustainable community development. Eco-tourism development is expected to achieve three major goals (3P) namely: Profits (economic), People (Social cultural benefits to communities and tourists) and Place (biodiversity conservation). Based on a research conducted in Sango Bay wetland of Rakai district in Uganda, this paper evaluates the socio-economic benefits of consumptive utilization practices of wetland resources, the recreation and Eco-tourism potential of the wetland, its sustainability and contribution to poverty reduction among the surrounding communities. Secondary data from diverse sources was used to complement primary data collected through Focus Group Discussions (FGD) questionnaires and Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques. The results indicate dominance of consumptive resource utilization practices and the failure to reduce poverty levels. The eco-system is rich in flora and fauna which are important for eco-tourism development. Potential eco-tourism projects, which can be introduced in the wetland for sustainable resource utilization and poverty reduction, are proposed. Key words: Ecotourism, sustainable tourism development, poverty reduction Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/28FD7B111885 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000103 en Copyright © 2008 Nyakaana Jockey Baker
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:F32E20611879 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Recycling of wastes as a strategy for environmental conservation in the Lake Victoria Basin: The case of women groups in Kisumu, Kenya Wilfred K. Subbo and Margaret N. Moindi Full Length Research Paper This paper examines the roles, opportunities and challenges that women groups in Kisumu City face as they recycle polythene papers and water hyacinth plant materials to make various saleable products such as bags, mats and baskets. The study objectives were: To analyze the roles of women groups in environmental conservation; To examine the opportunities that the women groups had in the recycling of polythene papers and water hyacinth plants; To examine the challenges faced by the women groups in their recycling efforts; To analyze the policy implications of the recycling effort of the women groups involved in environmental conservation. The study utilized the following methodologies, structured interviews, participant observations, Key informants, focus group discussions. Thirty-five women groups were analyzed. The findings indicate that recycling of polythene papers and water hyacinth plants contribute to environmental conservation, as well presenting opportunities for the creation of wealth among women in the groups. Key words: Environmental conservation, recycling, women groups, roles, opportunities Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/F32E20611879 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000089 en Copyright © 2008 Wilfred K. Subbo and Margaret N. Moindi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:036E4CC11871 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Effects of land use practices on livelihoods in the transboundary sub-catchments of the Lake Victoria Basin Albinus M.P. Makalle, Joy Obando and Yazidhi Bamutaze Full Length Research Paper The Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) is experiencing changes in land use due to both anthropogenic and natural drivers which are critical to the sustainability of the resources and livelihoods of the communities. Indeed the resultant land use practices and decisions made by the communities on the use of the land rely on the changes in the basin. This paper presents an analysis of the land use practices in the Lake Victoria Basin using two sub-catchments of Mara River (Tanzania) and Sio River (Kenya-Uganda) as case studies. Collection of mainly socio-economic and environmental data involved in-depth interviews of 679 respondents from the midstream and downstream zones of the sub-catchments. The findings reveal conspicuous changes in community livelihoods as a result of expansion of cultivation, overgrazing on the river banks, increased use of wetlands areas, the disappearance and extreme fragmentation of forest, bush land and appearance and the diminishing of settlements. The hitherto common resources have become scarce forcing farmers to try intensifying and diversifying their farm production with little success due to poor traditional farming practices. Although local initiatives are leading to change, there is need for integrated approaches of indigenous knowledge, technical agricultural research, economic analysis, and policy studies and reforms. Key words: Land use practices, livelihoods, Indigenous knowledge, Lake Victoria basi Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/036E4CC11871 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000040 en Copyright © 2008 Albinus M.P. Makalle, Joy Obando and Yazidhi Bamutaze
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:4D1F20A11853 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Socioeconomic constraints to sustainable cocoyam production in the Lake Victoria Crescent Serem, A. K., Palapala, V., Talwana, H., Nandi, J. M. O., Ndabikunze, Band Korir, M. K. Full Length Research Paper Cocoyam production has the potential of significantly improving the food security status and income levels of farmers in the Lake Victoria region. The study covered various areas of the three East African states, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania as follows: Kisumu, Kakamega and Siaya districts in Kenya; Bukoba in Tanzania; and Mukono, Wakiso and Kampala in Uganda. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from a total of 283 respondents. Results showed that farmers had an adequate level of education that enabled them utilize cocoyam production technologies. However, land scarcity was the major factor limiting cocoyam cultivation. This was attributed to the fact that cocoyam cultivation was restricted to wetlands, which was already a limited resource in the region. Other factors such as diseases, weeds, pests, scarcity of labour, unavailability of extension services and planting material and improved varieties, among others influenced the production of the crop. Research and development agencies in the study area need to develop appropriate cocoyam production technologies to mitigate existing constraints Key words: Cocoyam production, social and economic constraints, Lake Victoria region Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/4D1F20A11853 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000097 en Copyright © 2008 Serem, A. K., Palapala, V., Talwana, H., Nandi, J. M. O., Ndabikunze, Band Korir, M. K.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:2A069A111843 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Comparative analysis of production practices and utilization of pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima) by smallholder farmers in the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa Alice N. Ondigi, William W. Toili, Afihini S. M. Ijani and Stanley O. Omuterema Full Length Research Paper Study was carried out in 2007 in four districts of Lake Victoria Basin: Busia, Gucha, Tarime and Jinja. Rapid participatory appraisal approaches were used to assess the socio-economic, cultural, gender and environmental aspects related to cultivation, storage and utilization of pumpkins by the native communities living in the four selected districts. It was observed that majority of the farmers in the Lake Victoria basin do not consider pumpkins as first priority food crop as much as it is not considered as a viable commercial crop because it was ranked a fifth food crop in Jinja, Gucha and Tarime and sixth food crop in Busia while 96.4, 98.1 and 59.5% of the farmers in Busia, Gucha and Tarime, respectively reported that pumpkins was being planted for domestic consumption. Many of the pumpkin farmers in the districts appreciated the croprsquo;s nutritional and medicinal values since they said that pumpkins provided vitamins, minerals, starch and proteins up to 57, 32, 39 and 5%, respectively. It was found that pumpkins were mostly grown by low income members of the community who mainly utilize the leaves as vegetables and occasionally consume the fruit when cooked. Pumpkins were stored in raw form by carefully harvesting them with the stalk still attached. Management of the pumpkin stores was a prerogative of the female in all the areas the research was carried out. Pumpkin farmers stored seeds for future planting. Planting of pumpkins in the Lake Victoria basin was done during the long rains and the crop performed well in loamy soils. In isolated cases the crop thrived in clay and sandy soils an indicator of its resilience in various climatic conditions. Key words: Pumpkin, ethnobotanic studies, nutritional value, medicinal value, gender, culture, environmental. aspects Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/2A069A111843 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000026 en Copyright © 2008 Alice N. Ondigi, William W. Toili, Afihini S. M. Ijani and Stanley O. Omuterema
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:2AA29BE11839 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Integrating wildlife in natural resources management for tourism and community livelihoods in Lake Victoria basin: East Africa Nyakaana Jockey Baker and Edroma Eric Full Length Research Paper As human settlement continues to expand to the edges of protected areas, administrators and politicians are now questioning the value of protected areas vis-agrave;-vis human settlement. This demands for integrated planning and management of wildlife and other natural resources therein, to ensure that they sustain tourism and community livelihoods. Improving rural livelihoods through integrating wildlife with natural resource management is crucial for sustainable tourism and national development. In East Africa, land ownership is complex and areas of potential wildlife habitats outside protected areas have been fragmented into private land holdings. The paper analyses the current wildlife conservation and utilization practices in Lake Victoria basin as player in raising community livelihoods and the challenges encountered. The policy framework is discussed to give an insight on government efforts to integrate the wildlife sub-sector in the general management of natural resources in the basin. The results indicate deliberate promotion of strategies, revenue sharing schemes, wildlife user rights, collaborative management of protected areas and controlled community access to the natural resources that integrate conservation of natural resources for sustainable economic development and community livelihoods. The paper recommends operationalizing the integration of wildlife with natural resource management for sustainable community livelihoods. Key words: Wildlife, tourism, natural resources, community livelihoods, sustainable development Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/2AA29BE11839 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000066 en Copyright © 2008 Nyakaana Jockey Baker and Edroma Eric
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:68ECA6411837 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Consumption, indigeneous knowledge and cultural values of the lakefly species within the Lake Victoria region Monica A. Ayieko and Veronica Oriaro Full Length Research Paper Of the edible insects, lakeflies (Chaoborus and Chironomus sp) are least documented as items of human consumption. They are eaten by the Luo communities living within the Lake Victoria basin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the importance of lake flies as a source of food and its role in cultural practices. Edible Diptera species were identified, indigenous knowledge documented, and its cultural value analyzed. Data was collected in Nyanza Province within the Lake Victoria region in Kenya. The most commonly consumed type are Chaoborus sp. and Chironomus sp. Emergence of the flies is used to predict rainfall, and the size of swarms to predict the amount of rain, and the villagers prepare accordingly for cropping. Women feed their weak children with the Chaoborids biscuits to gain strength. Witchdoctors claim to use flies as lucky charms in business and romance. Some traditional medicine practitioners also add the fly powder to their concoctions to cure certain ailments. They claim that adding a portion of the fly to herbal medicine enhances efficacy. Major challenge in utilization of insects is their seasonality and difficulties in collection. The flies have economic potential for the natives of clean lake waters region. Key words: Lakeflies, entomophagy, indigenous knowledge, cultural values, Lake Victoria Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/68ECA6411837 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000029 en Copyright © 2008 Monica A. Ayieko and Veronica Oriaro
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:CA1275F11812 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
The “Eye” of Africa: A Vision of Lake Victoria Basin as an Environmental Observatory Prof Dele Ogunseitan Full Length Research Paper Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/CA1275F11812 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000109 en Copyright © 2008 Prof Dele Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:13EBB1412384 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Comparison of parasitic helminth infection between the different age groups of Clarias gariepinus from Asa dam Ilorin, north-central Nigeria Ayanda, Opeyemi Isaac Short Communication A total of 160 specimens of Clarias gariepinus comprising three age groups ndash; juveniles (standard length 10.0 ndash; 29.9 cm), sub-adults (fish length 30.0 ndash; 39.9 cm) and adults (fish length 40.0 ndash; 59.9 cm) were collected over a period of 8 months from Asa dam, a major river in Ilorin. The fish length and weight ranged from 12.5 to 41.0 cm and 152 to 597 g respectively. They were subjected to parasitological examinations. two cestode types - Amonotaenia sp and Polyonchobothrium clarias; two nematode types - Paracamallanus sp and Procamallanus laevionchus and one acanthocephalan ndash; Neoechino-rhynchus rutili were detected. Eighty-eight parasites were recovered. 27.5% of all fish examined showed parasitic infection. Helminth infection was found in juveniles and sub-adults only. Infection rate was higher in sub-adults than in juveniles. Key words: Parasite, helminths, Clarias gariepinus, Ilorin Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/13EBB1412384 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000028 en Copyright © 2008 Ayanda, Opeyemi Isaac
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:FF0BCA612380 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Distribution of nitrate in the water resources of Pakistan Muhammad Aslam Tahir and Hifza Rasheed Full Length Research Paper Water quality monitoring activities have recognized the nitrate contamination in the drinking water sources as one of the major quality issue of Pakistan. Adopting a uniform sampling design, 747 samples were collected from a wide range of irrigated or non-irrigated regions having distribution of samples in sixteen cities as Lahore (79), Kasur (46), Faisalabad (30), Khushab (50), Chakwal (51), Mianwali (30), Jhelum (53), Bahawalpur (60), Karachi (60), Mirpur Khas (55), Peshawar (38), Risalpur (35), Quetta (81), Ziarat (21), Loralai (21), Mastung (37). The results showed that 19% of the total samples have nitrate concentration beyond the permissible safe limit of 10 mg/L falling in the concentration range of 11-160 mg/L of nitrate. The highest percentage contamination (23%) is found in water samples collected from both the Balochistan and Punjab provinces. Comparatively higher nitrate levels of lt;70 % in the groundwater sources like hand pumps and wells support the possibilities of increased contamination in the areas cultivated using heavy doses of fertilizers. Findings of the study provide support for further epidemiological investigations and potential strategy for mitigating the issue in the affected regions. Key words: Nitrate-N, groundwater contamination, hand pumps, methemoglo-binemia, Pollution, nutrients, fertilizer, agriculture Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/FF0BCA612380 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000034 en Copyright © 2008 Muhammad Aslam Tahir and Hifza Rasheed
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:682FED112378 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north Moroccan atlantic margin N. Alaoui Mhammedi, B. El Moumni, A. El Hmaidi, A. Raissouni and A. El Arrim Full Length Research Paper The gulf of Cadiz is one of the most interesting areas to study mud volcanoes and structures related to cold fluid seeps since their discovery in 1999. In this study, we present results from gravity cores collected from Ginsburg and Meknes mud volcanoes and from circular structure located in the gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic Moroccan margin) during the cruise TTR14 in 2004 on board of the R/V Logachev. The clay mineralogical analysis by XRD shows a difference in clay mineral amounts mainly in smectite between the different studied structures. Ginsburg MV shows high percentage of smectite with an average of 44% whereas Meknes MV displays illite rich clay association, smectite average percentage is about 16%. In circular structure, amount of smectite is about 13%. This variation in clay mineralogy association between the mud volcanoes suggests different nature and depth of parent layers and fluids feeding the mud volcanoes in gulf of Cadiz. Key words: Mud volcano, clay mineralogy, geochemistry, mud breccias, North Moroccan Atlantic margin Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/682FED112378 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000077 en Copyright © 2008 N. Alaoui Mhammedi, B. El Moumni, A. El Hmaidi, A. Raissouni and A. El Arrim
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:9E766B412370 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Yaounde, Cameroon KUITCHA Dorice, KAMGANG KABEYENE Beyala Veacute;ronique, SIGHA NKAMJOU luc, LIENOU Gaston and EKODECK Georges Emmanuel Full Length Research Paper Population growth and rapid urbanization in Cameroon have led to major demographic changes in the urban centres, potentially resulting in serious environmental problems in the most populated cities such as Yaounde. In order to better understand the impacts on the hygiene conditions in certain quarters of this political capital, we carried out in March 2007, an investigation on the difficulties of water supply, sanitation and health problems. The investigation involved 1397 households distributed among 7 quarters with informal settlements.17% of households only had a private connection to national company of drinking water distribution (CAMWATER) because of the lack of infrastructure and the high cost of the connection. The households which are unable to afford the cost of getting connected to CAMWATER network, exploit water from CAMWATER public paying fountain (56% of households), wells (17% of households), springs (4% of households), bore-holes (0.07% of household)and rivers (0.001% of household) to satisfy their needs. The majority of these water points (wells, springs and rivers) could be polluted, because of the informal nature of settlements which leads to proximity of habitats to latrines and to points of discharge of waste (solid and liquids). The health problems issuing probably from these potential polluted water points which at times occur as stagnant ponds around the dwellings is shown by the population of the zone of study in particular cases of malaria (100% of households), diarrhoea (24% of household), dysentery (24% of household), typhoid (0.07% of household), skin disease (0.07% of households). These results highlight the problems to which the authorities in charge of the environment and health must first bring a solution in a context to fight against poverty in Cameroon. Key words: Environment, cleansing, drinking water, peri-urban zone, Yaounde Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/9E766B412370 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000134 en Copyright © 2008 KUITCHA Dorice, KAMGANG KABEYENE Beyala Veacute;ronique, SIGHA NKAMJOU luc, LIENOU Gaston and EKODECK Georges Emmanuel
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:6F50A2A12363 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Parasitism of host trees by the Loranthaceae in the region of Douala (Cameroon) Dibong Siegfried Didier, Din Ndongo, Priso Richard Jules, Taffouo Victor Desireacute;, Fankem Henri, Salle Georges and Amougou Akoa Full Length Research Paper The Loranthaceae constitute the most important parasite plants that cause variable damages: morphological, technological, ecological and socio-economic. These numerous and damaging effects make some parasitic angiosperms true agronomic threats, especially in developing countries. The Loranthaceae is represented in Cameroon by 26 species gathered into 7 genus. The study area includes four sites: a traditional plantation of Cola nitida situated at Penja (70 km Nord of Douala), the main road to Douala airport, one quarter (Logbessou) and Makondo village (80 km East of Douala) in an orchard dominated by Citrus. A total of 2643 individuals of DBH (diameter at breast height) greater or equal to 5 cm were inventoried. 637 individuals were parasitized. Eight known species were identified. Phragmanthera capitata is more frequent and more abundant (76.14%). The infested host trees belong to 16 species gathered into 12 genus and 10 families. The most parasitized host family is Sterculiaceae. The most sensitive host species to the parasitism of Loranthaceae is P. americana (21.51%), followed by C. nitida (17.27%) and Terminalia mantaly (13.65%). Lauraceae is infested by 7 Loranthaceae out of 8 parasites investigated. The consequences of the parasitism of the Loranthaceae demonstrate the need for establishing comprehensive ecosystem management programs. Key words: Host trees, inventory, Loranthaceae, parasites plants Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/6F50A2A12363 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000081 en Copyright © 2008 Dibong Siegfried Didier, Din Ndongo, Priso Richard Jules, Taffouo Victor Desireacute;, Fankem Henri, Salle Georges and Amougou Akoa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:2C805F812360 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Metal tolerant species distribution and richness in and around the metal based industries: Possible candidates for phytoremediation Anoliefo, G. O, Ikhajiagbe, B, Okonokhua, B. O, Edegbai, B. O and Obasuyi, D. C. Full Length Research Paper Plant species growing in and around 38 metal welding workshops in Benin City, Nigeria, were surveyed. Eragrostis tenella occurred most frequently in all the sites, followed by Amaranthus spinosus, Eleusine indica, while Cucurbita pepooccurred least. The family Poaceae, was identified in all the sites visited. The frequency of occurrence of any particular plant species was used as an indicator of tolerance to heavy metals. Margalef index (R1) showed the richest locations in the study to be workshops at Ekenwan Road Quarters with a value of 2.87, followed by those at Ikpoba Hill (2.75). Shannon-Weinerrsquo;s diversity index (H) which reveals the location with the most species diversity, showed that Ekenwan Road gave the most diverse with a value of 2.43, followed by Ikpoba Hill (2.17). Wire Road was least diverse in plant species (1.33). Ugbowo quarters had the highest evenness index of 0.96, followed by Sapele Road (0.95), with Wire Road being the location with least evenness (0.82). Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) occurred in soil samples obtained from the sites. Six of the ten locations (Ekenwan, Plymouth, Siluko, Sapele, Sakponba and Ikpoba Hill Road Quarters) had elevated cadmium in soil samples obtained outside the workshops, with the highest concentration of 1.2 mg/kg detected at Ikpoba. Lead concentration was highest at Ugbowo (53 mg/kg). Metal-tolerant plants obtained in the present study are suggested as possible phytoremediating agents. Key words: Welding workshops, metal tolerant plants, cadmium, lead, phytoremediation Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/2C805F812360 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000073 en Copyright © 2008 Anoliefo, G. O, Ikhajiagbe, B, Okonokhua, B. O, Edegbai, B. O and Obasuyi, D. C.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:4561BCF12353 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Heavy metals pollution profiles in streams serving the Owabi reservoir O. Akoto, T. N. Bruce and G. Darko Full Length Research Paper Water samples from five sampling points on four rivers, Owabi, Akyeampomene, Pumpunase and Sukobri, representing the main streams serving the Owabi reservoir were analysed for some pollution indicators using standard methods. Heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Cu, Pb and As) concentrations and some physical parameters of the water samples were determined. Electrical conductivity and pH of waters from all the streams were found to be within the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization (WHO). All the streams showed high turbidity values above WHO limits. Of the heavy metals determined in the water samples, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu concentrations in all the streams were within the acceptable WHO limits, whiles Pb and As appeared to be higher than the acceptable limits in all the streams. The highest concentrations of most of the heavy metals were recorded at the Kronum site on Owabi stream. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between pH and some metals at all the sample points (p = 0.05). The results showed that all the streams were polluted and must be treated before consumption. It was also recommended that, human activities within the catchments should be monitored closely to minimise their polluting impacts on the water quality. Key words: Heavy metals, Owabi, pollution, water quality, WHO Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/4561BCF12353 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000061 en Copyright © 2008 O. Akoto, T. N. Bruce and G. Darko
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:2C1D88112344 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Changing the Malaria Environment Prof Dele Ogunseitan Editorial Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/2C1D88112344 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000018 en Copyright © 2008 Prof Dele Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:5710B6612448 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Influence of intercrops on pests’ populations in upland rice (Oriza sativa L.) T. T. Epidi, A. E. Bassey and K. Zuofa Full Length Research Paper We conducted a 3 x 4 factorial experiment fitted into a randomized complete block design, using three intercrops: cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) at 0, 50,000, 100,000, 150,000 plants/ha; groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) at 100,000, 200,000, 300,000 plants/ha; and egusi-melon (Colocynthis vulgaris L.) at 10,000, 20,000, and 30,000 plants/ha to evaluate their influence on incidence of stem borer (Chilo zacconius) (Blesz) and the green stink bug (Nezara viridula (L.)) in upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) .The experiment was conducted during the wet and dry seasons of 2004. Rice/cowpea recorded the highest incidence of N. viridula(3.1, 3.3%) compared to rice/groundnut (1.3, 1.3%) and rice/egusi, (1.8, 1.8%) during the wet and dry seasons respectively. Intercrop with groundnut significantly (p le; 0.05) reduced stem borer (C. zacconius) incidence to 7.4 and 13.2% respectively for wet and dry season cultivation compared with the control (12.0 and 18.0%). Rice and groundnut (100,000 - 200,000 plants/ha) intercrop is recommended for reduced incidence of C. zacconius and N. viridula. This result demonstrates that a careful selection of crop combination and plant population could lead to reduced insect pestsrsquo; incidence in upland rice. Key words: intercrops, plant populations, pest incidence, Oryza sativa, Chilo zacconius, Nezara viridula Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/5710B6612448 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000064 en Copyright © 2008 T. T. Epidi, A. E. Bassey and K. Zuofa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:A0A24C312444 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Characterization of domestic and market solid wastes at source in Lagos metropolis, Lagos, Nigeria Oyelola, O. T and Babatunde, A. I Full Length Research Paper Waste management is an important element of environmental protection. Proper characterization of municipal solid waste is fundamental for the planning of municipal waste management services. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentage of various components of household and market waste generated from source and also the seasonal composition of household waste. The domestic and market solid wastes generated during a period of 48 days by a sampling of 200 households and 40 market waste samples of different socio ndash; economic characteristics were classified and weighed at source between March 2004 and April 2006. The household solid waste mainly consisted of putrescible waste (68.16%), paper (12.46%), nylon (7.68%), Plastic (3.64%), glass (1.78%), metal (2.08%), and garden waste/grit (4.20%). The market waste consisted of putrescible waste (68.98%); paper (23.57%), nylon (3.92%), Plastic (1.77%) and metal (1.77%). The seasonal composition shows a high generation of putrescible during the wet season and nylon during the dry season. Key words: Household waste, market waste, waste composition, Lagos metropolis Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/A0A24C312444 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000019 en Copyright © 2008 Oyelola, O. T and Babatunde, A. I
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:C15881A12417 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Douala, Cameroon Ndjama Joseacute;phine, Kamgang Kabeyene Beyala Veacute;ronique, Sigha Nkamdjou Luc, Ekodeck Georges, Tita Margaret Awah Full Length Research Paper With a view to contribute to the hygiene condition and improvement in the urban zones of Cameroon, a survey was carried out in March 2007 among 1400 households with respect to the water supply, sanitation and health risks in seven quarters of spontaneous habitat of Douala town. It results from this study that the majority of participants were married (76%). The populations are supplied with of water especially by CAMWATER network (49% of households) and wells (50% of households). The majority of participants evacuate solid waste in public refuse vats (56% of households). Householdrsquo;s wastewater is especially discharged around the houses (21% of households) and in rivers (20% of households). The companies present in the quarters discharge their wastewater in the drains. 52% of households deposit their excrements in latrines. We noticed in these quarters a prevalence of residences made out of hard materials (43% of households). Cholera (88.5% of households), Diarrhoea (70% of households), Dysenteries (74% of households), Typhoid fever (72% of households), Malaria (32% of households) and skin diseases (76% of households) were the most frequent diseases. These results highlight problems for which, it would firstly be necessary to attack in the research of the improvement strategies for hygiene conditions in the populations of an urban environment. Key words: Environment, sanitation, water, diseases, Douala Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/C15881A12417 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000133 en Copyright © 2008 Ndjama Joseacute;phine, Kamgang Kabeyene Beyala Veacute;ronique, Sigha Nkamdjou Luc, Ekodeck Georges, Tita Margaret Awah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:617FE8212404 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Long term effect of municipal solid waste amendment on soil heavy metal content of sites used for periurban agriculture in Ngaoundere, Cameroon R. Adjia, W. M. L Fezeu, J. B. Tchatchueng, S. Sorho, G. Echevarria, M. B. Ngassoum Full Length Research Paper An assessment of the impact of amendment using untreated municipal solid wastes on the trace element contents of periurban areas soils was carried out in Ngaoundere. Waste samples were collected in November and soil samples were collected in November, January, April and July. Heavy metal total concentrations in urban wastes differed significantly among sites and ranged from 0.48 to 7.64 mg/kg for Cd, 38.3 to 236 mg/kg for Cu, 44.06 to 58.03 mg/kg for Ni, 117 to 528 mg/kg for Pb and 270 to 2110 mg/kg for Zn. These levels were out of the critical level for agricultural use at Camp prison (for Pb and Zn), Norvegien (for Cd, Cu and Zn), and Sabongari Gare site (for Cd, Cu and Zn). The levels of Ni in urban wastes from all sites and the levels of all heavy metals in urban wastes from Douze Poteaux site were lower than the critical level. The results revealed that the soil total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were below the typical agricultural soil critical level for the soil control and out of the critical level for amended soils. The levels of Ni were found to be within the normal range at all sites. The highest available concentration of Zn (139.17 mg/kg) was found in November, Fe (843.23 mg/kg) and Pb (38.82 mg/kg) in January and Cu (19.09 mg/kg) and Ni (8.98 mg/kg) in July. The available concentrations of Cd did not differ among periods. The highest bioavailable factor (BF) of Zn, Ni and Pb was found at Douze Poteaux site and of Cd and Cu at Sabongari Gare site. Key words: Heavy metals, soils, municipal solid wastes, amendment, bioavailability factor Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/617FE8212404 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000072 en Copyright © 2008 R. Adjia, W. M. L Fezeu, J. B. Tchatchueng, S. Sorho, G. Echevarria, M. B. Ngassoum
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:639132B12398 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Recent data on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in N’Djamena, Chad Republic M. A. Hamit, M. T. Tidjani and C. F. Bilong Bilong Full Length Research Paper This cross sectional study assessed the prevalence of intestinal protozoan and helminth infections in Nrsquo;Djamena, Chad Republic, and determined the main epidemiological transmission factors of these pathogens in order to develop efficient control strategies of intestinal parasites. Four hundred and sixty two randomly selected persons, from eight quarters (administrative districts), of age less than one year to seventy six years old of both sexes, were examined in Nrsquo;Djamena town. Out of the 462 samples, 235 (51%) were found to harbour at least one parasite species. The prevalences of the eight (8) parasite species detected were: Entamoeba histolytica (30%), Hymenolepis nana (13%), Ascarislumbricoides (10%), Trichomonas hominis (6%), Giardia intestinalis (3%), hookworm (0.5%), and Schistosoma mansoni (0.2%). These pathogens appeared mostly in single infections. The quarters with higher infection indices were those that experienced floods (Abena and Chagoua) and where people do not use latrines (Naga and Goudji). The population customs and the environmental conditions in Nrsquo;Djamena still favour high faecal- oral transmission of intestinal parasites. Key words: Prevalence, intestinal parasites, protozoans, helminths, Nrsquo;Djamena, Chad Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/639132B12398 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000088 en Copyright © 2008 M. A. Hamit, M. T. Tidjani and C. F. Bilong Bilong
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:E48619712390 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2008
Scarcity on a Water Planet Prof Dele Ogunseitan Editorial Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/E48619712390 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000093 en Copyright © 2008 Prof Dele Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:8EE737B11677 2009-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Comparative study of percentage yield of pulp from various Nigerian wood species using the kraft process N. A. Ndukwe, F. O. Jenmi+, W. O. Okiei and B. I. Alo Full Length Research Paper Twenty Nigerian wood species namely, Akomu (Pycnanthus angolensis), Ofun (Avicennia germinans), Akun (Uapaca guineensis), Oporoporo (Pterygota macrocarpa), Abura (Hallea ciliata), Masonia (Masonia altissima), Afara (Terminalia superba), Agba (Entada gigas), Mahogany (Khaya ivorensis), Obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), Itako (Strombosia pustulata), Odoko (Ipomoea asarifolia), Itara (Sacoglottis gabonensis), Eki-Eki (Lophira alata), Iroko (Milicia exelsa), Araba (Ceiba pentadra), Erimado (Ricindendron heudelotii), Erun (Erythropleum suaveolens), Opepe (Nauclea diderrichii) and Okilolo (Symphona globulifera) were subjected to kraft pulping process in order to obtain pulp. The mean percentage yield of pulp obtained from the twenty hardwood species were found to be significantly different when the data were subjected to Duncanrsquo;s multiple range test at p = 0.05. Abura (H. ciliata), Afara (T. superba) and Okilolo (S. globulifera) gave the highest mean pulp yield of 50% each while Iroko (M. exelsa) gave the lowest pulp yield of 35%. The difference in pulp yields is typically attributed to lignin content and lignin type present in these wood species. The infra red analysis of the pulp obtained from the various wood species confirmed the chemical integrity of the pulps obtained from all the hard wood species surveyed. Key words: Kraft pulp, Nigerian wood species, pulp yield, cellulose Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/8EE737B11677 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST08.154 en Copyright © 2009 N. A. Ndukwe, F. O. Jenmi+, W. O. Okiei and B. I. Alo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:588BBEC11663 2009-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa: Auditing and characterization Robert Gumisiriza, Anthony Manoni Mshandete Mugassa Steven Thomas Rubindamayugi, Frank Kansiime and Amelia Kajumulo Kivaisi Full Length Research Paper Worldwide, fish industry wastes are an important contaminant having an impact on the environment. The recovery of value added products from these residues constitutes an important waste reduction strategy for the industry. In East Africa, Nile perch fish processing into chilled fish fillet for export along Lake Victoria generate large proportions of both solid and liquid wastes. However, no thorough auditing and characterization of the waste has been done that would guide potential value addition through bioconversions and waste management. Auditing by surveying and mapping the fish processing industries was conducted along the lake. Waste quantification was done using specific guidelines for assessment of fish wastes. Analysis of the waste was carried out using standard methods. Annual solid waste and wastewater generation was estimated at 36,000 tonnes and 1,838,000 m 3, respectively. The wastewater generated was high strength with a total chemical oxygen demand of 12,400 mg/l and solid content of 5,580 mg/l. The wastewater contained 6,160 mg/l of lipids and 2,000 mg/l of protein. The Nutrient content was 20 mg/l of total phosphorous, 340 mg/l organic nitrogen and 61 mg/l of ammonia nitrogen. The current fish waste management systems in place were found to be neither efficient nor profitable, thus profitable options of fish waste utilization and waste reduction strategies are imperative. Modern and economically viable options of fish waste value addition, decision scheme and waste reduction strategies have been highlighted in this paper. In conclusion, large amounts of fish waste generated are a rich source of lipids and proteins, which could be utilized for production of value added products through bioconversions Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/588BBEC11663 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST08.149 en Copyright © 2009 Robert Gumisiriza, Anthony Manoni Mshandete Mugassa Steven Thomas Rubindamayugi, Frank Kansiime and Amelia Kajumulo Kivaisi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:CB3480511642 2009-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Design and techno economic evaluation of biomass gasifier for industrial thermal applications N. S. Rathore, N. L. Panwar and Y. Vijay Chiplunkar Full Length Research Paper This paper addresses the design, performance and economic evaluation of biomass based open core downdraft gasifier for industrial process heat application. The gasifier is having feed rate as 90 kg h-1 and producing about 850 MJ h-1 of heat. The gasifier has been installed in M/S Phosphate India Pvt. Limited, Udaipur (27deg; 42#39; N, 75deg; 33#39; E) for heating and concentrating phosphoric acid. The system is in position to save 20 L of light diesel oil per hour. The techno economics of the designed system is also presented in the paper. Key words: Biomass, gasifier, downdraft, feed stock Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/CB3480511642 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST08.102 en Copyright © 2009 N. S. Rathore, N. L. Panwar and Y. Vijay Chiplunkar
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:2AE519711626 2009-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Biocidal activity of selected plant powders against Tribolium castaneum Herbst in stored groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Timothy T. Epidi and Esther. O. Odili Full Length Research Paper The efficacy of powders of plant parts from Telferia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Vitex grandifolia (Vitex) and Dracaena arborea (dragon tree) at 5g, 10g, and 15g/500g seeds was tested using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) against the storage pest Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in groundnut in the laboratory. At 28 days after application, mean number of seeds damaged/85 cm 3 scoop at the concentration of 5g powder/500g seeds was 2.00 for D. arborea and 3.00 for V. grandifolia and were significantly lower (p le; 0.05) than the control (6.67). Phostoxin gave complete control (0.00). Five grammes (5g)/500g of D. arborea and V. grandifolia were as efficacious as phostoxin in protecting groundnut seeds against damage by T. castaneum. No adults were recovered from seeds treated with 10g and 15g of D. arborea at 14 days after application of plant powders. Adult recovery (0.33) from seeds treated with V. grandifolia was equally poor and significantly lower (p le; 0.05) than the control (16.33). Larval recovery from seeds treated with V. grandifolia (0.33) and D. arborea (0.67) were significantly lower (p le; 0.05) than the control (10.00). At the end of three months of storage, mean weight loss from original weight of 500 g was 81.77g (16.35%) for untreated seeds, 28.58g (5.72%) for V. grandifolia and 28.56g (5.71%) for seeds treated with D. arborea. Phostoxintreated seeds suffered minimal loss (0.76%). D. arborea and V. grandifolia at 5g/500g of seeds are recommended for post-harvest control of T. castaneum in stored groundnut for planting. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/2AE519711626 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST08.030 en Copyright © 2009 Timothy T. Epidi and Esther. O. Odili
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:83232AF11613 2009-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
1909 – 2009: A Century in the African Bush, from Roosevelt to Obama Oladele A. Ogunseitan Editorial Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/83232AF11613 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000002 en Copyright © 2009 Oladele A. Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:F5CB1A811759 2009-02-27T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Effects of Soy-based allochthonous nutrient inputs on intensively cultured female Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) brooder’s growth performance and on the in-dwelling net microplanktonic populations Olaleye, V. F., Adewumi, A. A., Adedeji A. A. and Ogbogu S. S. Full Length Research Paper Portions of soybean meal autoclaved at 116deg;C and 1.2 kg/cm2 pressure for 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min were used to compound 4 experimental diets appropriately labeled SB10, SB15, SB20, SB25 and SB30 respectively. The experimental diets were fed to Clarias gariepinus female broodstocks intensively for 84 days. During the experimental period, the female fish broodstock growth performance as well as the water and the in-dwelling net microplanktonic quality were monitored. The feed inputs into the different culture media ranged between 13,759 g (SB15) and 15, 649 g (SB10). The highest weight gain was recorded in the female broodfish fed diet SB25. The assayed water quality parameters for the different treatment culture media were not statistically different from each other (P gt; 0.05). Four (4) phytoplank-tonic phyla containing 7 orders with 30 species were recorded in the various media receiving the different feed inputs. The richest floristic composition with 21 species and a Margalefrsquo;s Richness Index (R1) of 1.66 was obtained in the culture medium that received SB25 feed input. Twenty (20) micro-invertebrate species belonging to 2 phyla and 4 orders were recorded in the various media during the period of study. The rotifers (Order: Ploima) with 16 species dominated the microinvertebrate fauna. Results also showed that the culture medium which received SB25 diet had the highest micro-invertebrate fauna with 19 species. Key words: Soybean, feed input, Clarias gariepinus, water quality, microplankton. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/F5CB1A811759 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST09.069 en Copyright © 2009 Olaleye, V. F., Adewumi, A. A., Adedeji A. A. and Ogbogu S. S.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:BBA6C8112449 2009-02-27T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Electronic Waste and the African Environment Oladele A. Ogunseitan, Editorial Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/BBA6C8112449 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000042 en Copyright © 2009 Oladele A. Ogunseitan,
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:41BB32911737 2009-02-27T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Copper, selenium and zinc content of canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria Orisakwe, O. E., Oragwu, C. I., Maduabuchi, J. M. U., Nzegwu, C. N. and Nduka, J. K. C. Full Length Research Paper The levels of copper, selenium and zinc in beverages purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The zinc levels ranged from 0.0 - 1.34 mg/L for the canned and 0.01 - 1.11 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. All had zinc levels below the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 mg/l set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The selenium levels ranged from 0.24 - 1.67 mg/L for the canned and 0.07 - 1.23 mg/L for non-canned beverages. 20 out of 21 (95%) canned beverages had selenium levels that exceeded the MCL whereas 90% of the non-canned products had selenium levels above the MCL. The copper levels ranged from 0.04 - 3.55 mg/L for the canned and 0.04 - 3.20 mg/L for non-canned beverages. 11 out a total of 21 (52%) canned beverages had copper levels that exceeded the MCL. 45% of the non-canned products had copper levels above the MCL. The mean and median values of copper and selenium exceeded the MCL in the beverages whereas the zinc levels did not exceed the MCL. The calculated amount of copper, selenium and zinc in three beverages were 14.57, 5.96 and 5.31 mg respectively. The worst-case scenario is assumed here to estimate the weekly intakes of Cu, Se and Zn, and results seem to pose some concern. 48 and 92% of the 50 beverages studied in March 2005 in Nigeria failed to meet the US EPA criteria for acceptable copper and selenium levels in consumer products. Key words: Copper, selenium, zinc, contaminants, beverages, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/41BB32911737 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST08.153 en Copyright © 2009 Orisakwe, O. E., Oragwu, C. I., Maduabuchi, J. M. U., Nzegwu, C. N. and Nduka, J. K. C.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:7BBA8AB11706 2009-02-27T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Improving soil productivity through biochar amendments to soils Yeboah E., Ofori P., Quansah G. W., Dugan E., Sohi S. P. Full Length Research Paper Biochar based soil management has not being fully exploited in the tropics. In a greenhouse study, two soil types (sandy loam and silt loam soils) and 6 treatments namely: 3t ha-l Biochar, 120 kg N ha-1, 120 kg N ha-1 + 3t ha-1biochar, 4t C ha-1 cattle manure, 4t C ha-1 cattle manure + 3t ha-1 biochar and control un-amended soil were evaluated for soil productivity. The treatments were replicated 3 times. Maize variety ldquo;mamabardquo; was the test crop. Shoot dry weight ranged from 41 to 45 g pot-l at the sandy loam soil at Ayuom and 28 to 35 g pot-lat the silt loam soil at Kwadaso. Shoot dry weight was significantly (P lt; 0.001) higher at the sandy loam soil compared to the silt loam soil. Soil pH declined in both soils. Biochar resulted in N recovery of 4 and 5% in maize shoot and root respectively on the sandy loam soil but caused less N recovery at the silt loam soil. The results show that N recovery can be improved by biochar application to sandy loam soil but not silt loam soil suggesting soil textural effect in the effectiveness of biochar application for soil productivity. Key words: Biochar, nitrogen use efficiency, soil texture. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/7BBA8AB11706 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST08.156 en Copyright © 2009 Yeboah E., Ofori P., Quansah G. W., Dugan E., Sohi S. P.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:2327F4811701 2009-02-27T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Hydrologic properties of grazed perennial swards in semiarid southeastern Kenya M. M. Nyangito, N. K. R. Musimba and D. M. Nyariki Full Length Research Paper Identification of plant resources that persist under grazing pressure, support desirable levels of production and at the same time protect the grazing environment is central to sustainable livestock production. This study assessed the infiltration capacity and soil loss associated with perennial swards subjected to different levels of utilization using simulated rainfall. The hypothesis was tested that grazed perennial swards have similar hydrologic properties and threshold removal levels below which runoff increases markedly. Infiltration capacity for the perennial swards increased with increasing stubble height before leveling off towards the highest stubble height. A 50% removal of current growth was the upper limit above which runoffs from the swards increased rapidly. Aggregate stability, organic carbon and percent ground plant cover were the most significant attributes that influenced infiltration capacity. Panicum maximum andEnteropogon macrostachyus were the most suitable perennial swards with favourable soil physical properties and infiltration capacities in the study area. The results support the existence of a threshold level of sward stubble height for minimizing runoff. Key words: Perennial swards, water infiltration capacity, runoff thresholds. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/2327F4811701 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST08.181 en Copyright © 2009 M. M. Nyangito, N. K. R. Musimba and D. M. Nyariki
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:747A55B11786 2009-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Environmentalists without Boundaries Oladele A. Ogunseitan Editorial Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/747A55B11786 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000048 en Copyright © 2009 Oladele A. Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:3FB70CB11801 2009-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Microbiological quality and metal levels in wells and boreholes water in some peri-urban communities in Kumasi, Ghana K. Obiri-Danso, B. Adjei, K. N. Stanley and K. Jones Full Length Research Paper Many communities in Kumasi, Ghana, are increasingly dependent on boreholes and hand dug wells. The aim of this study was to examine the drinking water suitability of 6 wells and 3 boreholes in peri-urban communities in Kumasi, between December 2003 and January 2005. Total coliforms, faecal coliforms and enterococci were enumerated using the standard most probable number method and membrane filtration methods. The heavy metals in the water samples were determined using the atomic absorption spectrometry method. Overall, significantly higher bacterial counts were recorded during the wet (rainy) season compared to the dry (harmattan) season. Faecal coliforms counts (FCC) in 3 borehole samples ranged between 3 x 101 and 3.5 x 107 per 100 ml (geometric means 1.82, 1.75 and 2.8 x 104) while mean numbers of enterococci were 103-105 times lower. The range and geometric means of FCC was similar in samples from wells but levels of enterococci were 8 times higher than in boreholes. Manganese and iron levels were well within the WHO standards for all 9 sites but lead levels except for one site (Boadi) were all higher than the WHO standard. A brief sanitation survey at each site suggested that wells and boreholes were frequently cited near latrines, refuse tips and other social amenities, and in the vicinity of domestic or grazing animals. In Kumasi, the water from shallow wells and boreholes, upon which the local communities depend is of poor quality. The data are being used to advise the local government. An integrated approach is required to minimise faecal pollution of wells and boreholes within peri-urban communities. Key words: Boreholes, enterococci, faecal coliforms, peri-urban communities, total coliforms, wells. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/3FB70CB11801 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST08.126 en Copyright © 2009 K. Obiri-Danso, B. Adjei, K. N. Stanley and K. Jones
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:F6FD07811822 2009-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Generation of digital elevation models (DEMS) for gullies in Irele local government area of Ondo-state, Nigeria Adediji, A, Ibitoye, M. O. and Ekanade, O. Full Length Research Paper This study attempts to derive the Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for gullies at Ode-Irele, Lipanu, Akotogbo and Ajagba town in Irele Local Government Area (LGA) of Ondo-State, Nigeria. Gully morphometric attributes such as surface slope, catchments area, average depth and width as well as cross-sectional area and volume of material/ soil excavated were determined. The DEM for each of the study gully catchments was derived from the values of the spot heights and coordinates of each point obtained through the use of GPS and processed using suffer 8.0 soft ware. The values of slopes in the study gully catchments ranged from approximately 0o58rsquo;27 at Lipanu to 4o51rsquo;31rdquo; at Ajagba. The DEMs of gullies at Idogun, Ajagba and Ado Quarter displayed slopes that appeared steeper than the gully at Lipanu. Also, the slope shapes as revealed from the DEMs are dominantly convex which implied that overland flow will be generated from all sides of the slope. Therefore, the convexity of most of the gully catchments coupled with the termination of drainage channel constructed half way as well as poor roads and drains maintenance by the community and government have led to the development of large deep gullies at Ode-Irele, Akotogbo and Ajagba in the study area. The development of gully in the area could be minimized by encouraging planting of cover grasses in the building surroundings rather than cement paving of the surface which further make the ground impervious. Key words: DEM, gully, GPS, accelerated erosion, Irele LGA. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/F6FD07811822 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST08.144 en Copyright © 2009 Adediji, A, Ibitoye, M. O. and Ekanade, O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:15FEF2511844 2009-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Effects of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) on the structure and function of thyroid gland Ashraf S. Yousif and Asma A. Ahmed Full Length Research Paper The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of two heavy metals, Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb), on the structure and function of the thyroid gland. Wistar albino rats were chosen for experimental purpose. The animals were fed on diet mixed with given doses of Cd and Pb salts. Blood serum was taken from treated rats recorded decrease in the thyroxine (T4) and the 3, 3prime;, 5-triiodothyronine (T3) levels with a concomitant rise in the Thyroid Stimulator Hormone (TSH) levels, while no change in glucose and cholesterol levels was shown. Microscopic examination of the cellular structure of the thyroid glands of treated ratrsquo;s recorded changes in the follicular cells of the thyroid tissues in the rats exposed to Cd and Pb in a comparison to that of the control animals. Histological results were confirmed by the findings of the serum analyses that recorded inhibition on the production of the thyroid hormones in the presence of Cd and Pb. This indicates that animals exposed to Cd and Pb may be at a risk of thyroid damage. Key words: Heavy metals, cadmium, lead, thyroid. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/15FEF2511844 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST08.157 en Copyright © 2009 Ashraf S. Yousif and Asma A. Ahmed
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:4333E0011854 2009-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
An evaluation of the effect of land use/cover change on the surface temperature of Lokoja town, Nigeria Ifatimehin Olarewaju Oluseyi, Ujoh Fanan and Magaji J. Y. Full Length Research Paper This research integrated remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to identified land use/cover types in Lokoja, including their temporal transformation and association with surface temperatures from the LandSat TM and LandSat ETM imageries of 1987 and 2001 respectively. As the built-up area increased in size (2667.6%) so was the surface temperature (6.48oC), vacant land (872%: 9.65oC), cultivated land (104.4%: 1.2oC) and water bodies (64.3%:0.94oC) while vegetation cover increased by 2.44oC while its area extent decreased (316.7%). These changes were responsible for the rise in the mean surface temperature from 38.39oC in 1987 to 42.61oC in 2001, indicating a 4.22oC increase in 14 years. The study revealed a direct relationship between the changing pattern among the various landuse/cover types and the variations in the surface temperatures of these landuse/cover types within the study period. If the rate of decline in vegetation covers is not checked, Lokoja may witness continuous increase in its radiant surface temperature as the cooling effect of vegetation cover is lost to impervious surfaces that litter the urban landscape. Therefore, policies that will help to provide more vegetation cover should be adopted to curb the effect of urban heat island on the environment and health of the residents. Key words: GIS, land Sat, landuse/cover, remote sensing, temperature, thermal. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/4333E0011854 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST09.014 en Copyright © 2009 Ifatimehin Olarewaju Oluseyi, Ujoh Fanan and Magaji J. Y.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:61F21B511900 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Assessment of pollution impacts on the ecological integrity of the Kisian and Kisat rivers in Lake Victoria drainage basin, Kenya Kobingi, Nyakeya, Raburu, Philip Okoth, Masese, Frank Onderi and Gichuki, John Full Length Research Paper Macro-invertebrate assemblages were used as bioindicators to assess the ecological integrity of Rivers Kisat (influenced by urban development) and Kisian (influenced by agriculture) using community attributes and the Index of Biotic Integrity. Six stations, three per river, were selected to correspond to different impact types and intensities along the rivers. Physico-chemical parameters and nutrients were determined for each station on a monthly basis from November 2007 to April 2008. Two-way analysis of variance was used to compare water quality and nutrient parameters, and macro invertebrate community attributes between the two rivers, with the river and station as the main factors. Significant differences were accepted at 95% confidence level. There were inconsistencies in the variation of physico-chemical parameters along the two rivers. However, River Kisat recorded higher values for all physico-chemical parameters considered, except pH and DO. Different indices and metrics representing the structural and functional organization of macro invertebrates were computed and evaluated for responsiveness to physico-chemical parameters and nutrient levels. Macro invertebrate diversity, richness and evenness values failed to delineate stations according to the different levels of degradation they were experiencing. However, the differences were captured by the index of biotic integrity, which separated stations into different classes of quality. River Kisat stations in urban areas scored lowest index values, less than 15 out of 25, while two river Kisian stations scored the highest value, more than 19. The index provided evidence of response to changes in ecosystem integrity exhibited by resident macro invertebrate assemblages to pollution arising from both point and non-point sources. Key words: Urban rivers, water quality, physico-chemical parameters, macro invertebrates. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/61F21B511900 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000011 en Copyright © 2009 Kobingi, Nyakeya, Raburu, Philip Okoth, Masese, Frank Onderi and Gichuki, John
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:E099AB411874 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Prizing the Environment Dele Ogunseitan Editorial Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/E099AB411874 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST.9000086 en Copyright © 2009 Dele Ogunseitan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:7D1037011893 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
An evaluation of a mesophilic reactor for treating wastewater from a Zimbabwean potato-processing plant Manhokwe S., Parawira W. and Tekere, M. Full Length Research Paper An evaluation of anaerobic treatment of potato-processing wastewater using an up flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor at 37deg;C was conducted. Wastewater from a potato-processing plant in Harare, with an average of 6.8 g COD/l, (COD = chemical oxygen demand) a high concentration of total solids (up to 6725 mg/l) and low pH of 4 - 4.9 was subjected to anaerobic treatment in an UASB reactor. The start up period, which was indicated by gas production and stabilization of COD reduction was 21 days. The organic loading rates (OLRs) investigated varied between 1.3 g COD/l/d and 13.1 g COD/l/d, the maximum methane yield was 0.3 l/g CODremoved at an organic loading rate of 6.6 g COD/l/d. An increase in OLRs to values above 13.1 g COD/ l/d resulted in digester failure. The maximum treatment efficiency (TE) in terms of COD reduction achieved was 90% at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.1 d and OLR of 3.3 g COD/l/d. The TE was reduced at higher reactor influent velocities, with a minimum TE (71%) recorded at HRT of 0.5 d. Total solids (TS) removal was inconsistent with an average reduction around 50% and phosphorus removal was poor and erratic. pH from the effluent oscillated around 7 with a notable decrease from 7.8 to 6.2 at HRT of 0.5 d. Based on these observations, the UASB process has potential to treat potato-processing wastewater as a pretreatment step before discharge into municipal sewerage system of Harare. Key words: UASB reactor, potato wastewater, anaerobic digestion, methane yield, organic loading rate. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/7D1037011893 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST08.032 en Copyright © 2009 Manhokwe S., Parawira W. and Tekere, M.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJEST:5FA01A011990 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJEST AJEST:2009
Hydrodynamic characterization of the Paleocene aquifer in the coastal sedimentary basin of Togo Gnazou M. D. T., Bawa L. M., Banton O. and Djaneye-Boundjou G. Full Length Research Paper The intense exploitation of shallow aquifers in the coastal basin of Togo provokes a rapid depletion of these reservoirs. The confined paleocene aquifer represents potential reserves that are yet little exploited. This paper presents the hydrodynamic characterization of this aquifer. Piezometric data established from 80 wells fluctuate between 1.17 and 3.42 m; and demonstrate the effect of pumping on groundwater level with a depression located in South-West of the study area. Major fluctuations higher than 2 m, are observed in some wells located in the North of the basin. These are a result of the recharging of the Paleocene by the shallow aquifer of the Continental terminal in the North of the basin where the two aquifers are in contact. Key words: Water table, aquifer, Paleocene, fluctuations, Togo. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/5FA01A011990 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST09.024 en Copyright © 2009 Gnazou M. D. T., Bawa L. M., Banton O. and Djaneye-Boundjou G.