2020-02-22T20:59:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:8C6AE5A11062 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2007
Incorporation of peanut as a substitute for egg in a master mix of a pastry product: composition and acceptability studies Evelyn N. Bede Full Length Research Paper The composition and acceptability of a pastry product lsquo;chin chinrsquo; prepared by substituting egg with peanut in the master mix has been studied. Six different samples of the pastry product were produced. One sample was produced with neither egg nor peanut incorporated. Another sample had only egg incorporated while four samples had ground raw peanut incorporated in them at 5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w relative to the flour content. Sensory studies showed that all the lsquo;chin chinrsquo; samples incorporated with peanut showed higher acceptability than the samples produced with egg. They also showed higher protein content which varied from 20.52 to 26.25% as against the protein content of the sample prepared with egg which was 18.51%. The sample containing 10% w/w peanut was the most preferred of all the samples. The use of 10% w/w peanut in the production of lsquo;chin chinrsquo; as a substitute for egg will reduce the cost of the protein source in the pastry product by about 85%. Key words: Pastry, chin-chin, incorporation, peanut. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/8C6AE5A11062 en Copyright © 2007 Evelyn N. Bede
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:655B69711075 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2007
Characterization of two isolated lactococcal strains with respect to bacteriocin-concentrations Babalola Olubukola O. Full Length Research Paper Lactococcus lactis strains present in wara (local cheese), and nunu (skimmed sour milk) were isolated. These were L. lactis WO81 and N13L. Nisin assays were by agar diffusion test and turbidimetric assay. There was no successful detection of an inhibition zone with wara. However, L. lactis strain WO81 from wara was able to produce nisin. Exponential growth occurred for about 14 h after some lag phase. The optimum incubation time of 2 to 6 h was established. Nisin concentration decreased with a subsequent increase in the incubation period. The effect of inoculum size was found not to be conclusive but directional to an optimal size of 1.0% (V/V). The suitable working temperature of 30oC and the pH value of 6 were discovered. Investigations into the phosphate sources revealed KH2PO4 as the best phos-phate source. A physiological link is proposed between these functions, growth and nisin concentra-tion. In the presence of sufficient glucose, growth was increased with the periodic addition of NaOH. Maximum nisin concentration was obtained when, at pH 6, the medium was buffered. In this study essentially it is noted that nisin has a lytic bactericidal mode of action. Key words: Local cheese, lsquo;wararsquo;, lsquo;nunursquo;, nisin, bacteria, bacteriocin. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/655B69711075 en Copyright © 2007 Babalola Olubukola O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:A04A2FA11082 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2007
Microbial quality assessment of kunun-zaki beverage sold in Girei town of Adamawa State, Nigeria Elmahmood, A. M. and Doughari, J. H. Full Length Research Paper Thirty Kunun- zaki samples were obtained as freshly formulated beverages from 10 different local hawkers in Girei town, Adamawa State, Nigeria and screened for microbial contamination. The pH of the samples ranged between 3.44 - 4.34 and total bacterial count ranged between 1.0 x 103 - 1.8 x 104 cells/ml. The presence of high microbial loads was indication of poor hygiene and/or poor quality cereals and water used in the preparations. The microorganisms recovered were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococuus pyogenes, Rhizopus nigricans, Penicillium digitatum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Monilia sitophila. The types and density of microorganisms recovered from calls for urgent measures to be taken by regulatory authorities in the processing and handling of the product before being sold to the unsuspecting general public. Key words: Microbial quality, Kunun-zaki, microbial load, microbial contamination. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/A04A2FA11082 en Copyright © 2007 Elmahmood, A. M. and Doughari, J. H.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:EAC5F1711127 2007-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2007
Energy and nutrient contents of “waterfufu and eru” Abia W. A., Numfor F. A, Wanji S. and Tcheuntue F. Full Length Research Paper Because of persistent reports of malnutrition in some parts of Cameroon, a popular Cameroonian food, ldquo;waterfufu and erurdquo; was analyzed for its energy value and nutrient content in order to determine to what extent it satisfies recommended dietary allowances (RDA). Results showed that average serving size of the dish was 409 g. This amount provided 601 kcal of energy, 281 g of moisture, 82 g of carbohydrate, 30 g of lipids, 11 g of protein and 5 g of ash on fresh weight basis. Micronutrients were found to be 1402 mg iron and 123 mg zinc. After due adjustment for absorption and bioavailability and considering the one serving size, constituted one of a three meal/day regime, although there was no significant difference (P gt; 0.05), lipid, zinc and iron contents of the dish satisfied RDAs of all groups of consumers while energy value, carbohydrate and protein contents did not. This suggested that dependence of communities on this diet for supply of their daily needs may partly be responsible for the reported prevalence of malnutrition in these areas. It was suggested the food be improved upon through fortification and/or supplementation with the necessary elements. Key words: Malnutrition, Cameroon, ldquo;waterfufu and erurdquo;, RDAs. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/EAC5F1711127 en Copyright © 2007 Abia W. A., Numfor F. A, Wanji S. and Tcheuntue F.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:C54409E11144 2007-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2007
Breadfruit flour in biscuit making: effects on product quality Olaoye O. A, Onilude A. A and Oladoye C. O Full Length Research Paper Breadfruit was processed into flour and used to supplement wheat flour, in the percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25, for biscuit production. The proximate composition, sensory evaluation and microbiological quality, in terms of aerobic plate count, were evaluated. The crude fibre and ash contents (%) increased with increase in the proportion of breadfruit flour (BF) level, with the 25% BF level having the values of 4.98 and 6.78 respectively. Lowest values of 11.54, 24.15, and 40.80 were however observed for the biscuit with 25% BF level in terms of crude protein, ether extract and carbohydrate respectively, showing decrease with corresponding increase in the BF levels. The microbiological analysis indicated that the aerobic plate count (APC, log CFU/g) ranged between 1.00 and 1.75. The sensory evaluation showed that breadfruit supplemented biscuits (BSBs) were not significantly different (plt;0.05) from whole wheat biscuits (WWB) with respect to sensory attributes of texture, appearance and general acceptability, at all levels BF supplementation. In terms of crispiness, aroma and taste, significant differences were not observed only up to 20% BF level, at the same level of probability (plt;0.05). Key words: Breadfruit flour, wheat flour, proximate composition, composite biscuit, sensory evaluation, aerobic plate count. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/C54409E11144 en Copyright © 2007 Olaoye O. A, Onilude A. A and Oladoye C. O
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:4228DB011155 2007-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2007
Immunoaffinity column as cleanup tool for an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay of ractopamine detection in various tissues of swine Wentao Xu, Kunlun Huang, Aike Deng, Baiqiang Zhai, Heng Zhao, Yingcong Li, Zhihong Liang and Yunbo Luo Full Length Research Paper Ractopamine has been developed to be the main beta;-agonist substance used illegally in meat producing animals. A simple and efficient extraction and purification procedure for ractopamine was developed by means of the immunoaffinity column (IAC) as a cleanup tool. Purified polyclonal antibodies against RCT were produced and coupled covalently to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. Both the binding conditions and elution protocols were optimized and the capacity, reusability, precision and accuracy of IAC were determined. The IAC was successfully employed to isolate and purify the RCT from the various tissues of swine. Subsequently, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures were established further on to measure RCT. The antibodies showed negligible cross-reactivity with other beta;-agonists. IAC-ELISA allowed 0.2 ng/mL of RCT to be detected in urine and 0.5 ng/mL to be detected in other various tissues of swine, which makes this method an acceptable screening tool to access RCT. IAC-ELISA for the detection of RCT was validated by LC-MS and the correlations between the results from LC-MS and those from IAC-ELISA were all high (above 0.89). Key words: Purification, ractopamine, swine, immunoaffinity column, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/4228DB011155 en Copyright © 2007 Wentao Xu, Kunlun Huang, Aike Deng, Baiqiang Zhai, Heng Zhao, Yingcong Li, Zhihong Liang and Yunbo Luo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:DB82EAC11177 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2007
Effects of (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids compositions of three live prey enrichments on the survival and growth of common dentex’s larvae (Dentex dentex, L) Ali Ait Ali, Nadia Rharbi, Houda Akharbache and Said Sedki Full Length Research Paper The rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (S-type) and Artemia were fed with three enrichment types (Nanno: Nannochloropsis occulata, CEP: Commercial Enrichment Products: Selcoreg; from INVE Aquaculture NV and CLO: Cod Liver Oil emulsion). The polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in the regimes was tested to estimate survival and growth of common dentex larvae. During rotifers feeding phase, EPA (20:5n-3) contents were of 4.6 plusmn; 1.46 mg g-1 DW for Nanno regime, 5.1 plusmn; 0.22 for the CEP regime and 6.1 plusmn; 0.87 mg g-1 DW for the CLO regime; for DHA (22:6n-3), CLO regime contains the highest level (7.2 plusmn; 1.26 mg g-1 DW) than the two other regimes. During Artemia feeding phase, EPA contents were 2.4 plusmn; 0.05, 3.2 plusmn; 0.03 and 8.3 plusmn; 0.41 mg g-1 DW and in DHA 0.4 plusmn; 0.00, 4.4 plusmn; 0.13 and 8.6 plusmn; 0.69 mg g-1DW respectively for Nanno, CEP and CLO enrichments. The weight growth of larvae showed a significant difference (p lt; 0.05) for the rotifers and Artemia feeding phases. The respective SGR for the three enrichments are 8.8, 8.9 and 9.2 and survival rates were of 3.15, 4.03 and 8.35% respectively for Nanno, CEP and CLO regimes. Key words: Dentex dentex, live-preys, n-3 HUFA, larvae, growth, survival. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/DB82EAC11177 en Copyright © 2007 Ali Ait Ali, Nadia Rharbi, Houda Akharbache and Said Sedki
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:88F3E9211186 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2007
Physico-chemical changes and diastatic activity associated with germinating paddy rice (PSB.Rc 34) G. S. Ayernor and F. C. K. Ocloo Full Length Research Paper Paddy rice was germinated for 0, 5, 7 and 9 days period at 32deg;C. Physical and chemical characteristics, as well as diastatic activity were determined using standard methods. Drastic decreases in thousand-grain weight, starch content, and viscosity of malt paste with significant increases in sugar content and diastatic activity were observed during germination (Plt;0.05). The 9-day malted rice had a diastatic activity of 94.5-degree Lintner, with shorter starch conversion time. The paddy rice studied was therefore suitable for germination and use as an alternate source of enzymes for starch hydrolysis. Key words: Physico-chemical, diastatic activity, germination, malted rice. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/88F3E9211186 en Copyright © 2007 G. S. Ayernor and F. C. K. Ocloo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:8CD01B411236 2007-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2007
An innovative solid-liquid extraction technology: use of the naviglio extractor® for the production of lemon liquor Daniele Naviglio, Fabiana Pizzolongo, Raffaele Romano, Lydia Ferrara, Biagio Naviglio and Antonello Santini Full Length Research Paper This document is a review on solid-liquid extractive techniques and describes an innovative solid-liquid extraction technology using the Naviglio Extractorreg;. Also explained is an application for the production of alcoholic extract from lemon peel. The alcoholic extract, mixed with a sugar and water solution in the right proportions is used to make a well known Italian lemon liquor commonly named quot;limoncelloquot;. Lemon liquor is obtained utilizing the Naviglio Extractorreg;; the procedure used is fast and efficient and uses about half the weight of lemon peel per volume of ethyl alcohol used for the extraction of the odorous and taste responsible compounds, compared to the commonly used extraction procedures. To test the consumerrsquo;s preference and compare the taste of the liquor obtained with that obtained by peel maceration from the same lot of lemons and obtained using the traditional recipe, a consumer test has been carried out. One hundred people, chosen from among frequent consumers of limoncello, tasted the two lemon liquors, and evaluated intensity of aroma, colour, alcohol taste and sweetness. In about 81% of the preferences, the liquor obtained using the Naviglio Extractorreg; was preferred. The extraction process used allows the ethanol from used up lemon peel to be totally recovered so that these can be disposed of as non toxic waste or used in agriculture or as cattle feed. Key words: Lemon liquor, lemon peels, Naviglio Extractor, maceration, solid-liquid extraction, limoncello. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/8CD01B411236 en Copyright © 2007 Daniele Naviglio, Fabiana Pizzolongo, Raffaele Romano, Lydia Ferrara, Biagio Naviglio and Antonello Santini
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:ACB90F811268 2007-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2007
Anti-allergic effects on addition of hydroperoxide to dough fermentation T. Toyosaki Full Length Research Paper The anti-allergic effects on dough fermentation of hydroperoxides produced by lipid peroxidation through lipoxygenase induction were studied. The anti-allergic effect of hydroperoxides to dough fermentation on antigen-antibody reaction involving IgE was examined. Crude proteins extracted from the dough including hydroperoxides showed weaker antigen-antibody reactions on allergic tests such as precipitin ring test with human-specific IgE, and the IgE binding activity on ELISA. This inhibitory effect on the antigen-antibody reaction increased with increased hydroperoxide and a parallel relationship was observed between hydroperoxide level and inhibitory effect. The crude proteins extracted from the dough with hydroperoxides were applied to an affinity choromatography column of immobilized-trypsin chitin. Then proteins having affinity was recovered. The recovered proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. Each proteins was examined for the IgE binding activity on ELISA. Therefore, ovomucoid, which is present in egg, was identified as the main allergen. Crude proteins of baked bread made from dough including hydroperoxides showed weaker IgE binding activity on ELISA than proteins of baked bread made from dough without hydroperoxides. Suppression of antigen-antibody reactions with IgE due to denaturation of allergen protein (ovomucoid in the present study) present in dough by the produced hydroperoxide may be identified as a major factor. The importance of hydroperoxides as an ingredient of baked bread was confirmed. Key words: Hydroperoxide, IgE, allergy, dough, baked bread, ELISA. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/ACB90F811268 en Copyright © 2007 T. Toyosaki
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:6D2F97411394 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Hypolipidemic and antioxidant potency of heat processed turmeric and red pepper in experimental rats Hanumanthappa Manjunatha and Krishnapura Srinivasan Full Length Research Paper The hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant potency of both raw and pressure-cooked turmeric and red pepper were evaluated in experimental rats rendered hypercholesterolemic by feeding 0.5% cholesterol enriched diet and maintained for 8 weeks on 5% spice diet. Dietary turmeric and red pepper, either raw or heat processed significantly countered the extent of hypercholesterolemia. Serum total cholesterol was 31 and 32% lower as a result of feeding raw and heat processed turmeric. The same was lower by 16 and 23% in animal groups fed raw and heat processed red pepper. The reduction in blood cholesterol brought about by these two dietary spices was predominantly in the LDL-cholesterol fraction. Dietary red pepper, both raw and heat processed fully countered the increase in serum triglyceride content of hypercholesterolemic rats. Increase in hepatic cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic animals was moderately countered by dietary red pepper, either raw or heat processed. Both dietary turmeric as well as red pepper significantly countered the increase in hepatic triglyceride level in hypercholesterolemic rats. Total thiols in serum were slightly but significantly increased by raw turmeric and raw red pepper both in basal and in hypercholesterolemic rats, but not by heat processed spices. Serum a-tocopherol was significantly enhanced (81 - 113%) by both dietary turmeric and red pepper in hyper-cholesterolemic animals. Hepatic lipid peroxides were significantly lower (9 - 15%) as a result of dietary turmeric and red pepper in hypercholesterolemic situation. Thus, the results of this animal study suggested that although heat processing of turmeric and red pepper by pressure cooking resulted in a considerable loss of the active principles ndash; curcumin and capsaicin, the hypolipidemic potency or the antioxidant potency of the parent spices were not significantly compromised. Key words: Antioxidant effect, heat processing, hypocholesterolemic effect, red pepper, turmeric. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/6D2F97411394 en Copyright © 2008 Hanumanthappa Manjunatha and Krishnapura Srinivasan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:B7758D611415 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Detection of dilution of milk with the help of glass transition temperature by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) T. K. Goswami and S. K. Gupta Full Length Research Paper Glass transition temperature of pure milk, milk diluted with water, and pure milk in which sugars like glucose, fructose and sucrose were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The glass transition temperature Tg of pure milk (containing 89.2 kg water and 10.8 kg total solids per 100 kg milk) varied between -114 to -118oC. Effect of change in composition of the milk varying the amounts of water and total solids content (77.47, 81.56, 83.81, 84.31, 85.76, 86.69, 89.43, 92.15, 93.16, 95.71 and 96.38 kg water to make each 100 kg milk sample) on the glass transition temperature of milk showed a linear relationship between glass transition temperature and composition of the milk expressed in %moisture content (w.b.). The addition of sugars (glucose, froctose and sucrose) also showed a significant change in glass transition temperature. Under applied conditions, adulterations in milk by dilution with water only and water and sugars were detectable even at 0.5 and 5 % respectively. Key words: Milk, glass transition temperature, differential scanning calorimetry, adulteration. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/B7758D611415 en Copyright © 2008 T. K. Goswami and S. K. Gupta
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:92C163D16157 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Effect of hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge on liquid foods (milk) G. M. El-Aragi and Y. M. Abedel Rahman Full Length Research Paper Pulsed high voltage discharges have been recently developed as sterilization method to replace the traditional thermal processes for the sterilization of liquid foods such as milk. The gas-liquid hybrid discharge (HD) reactor consists ofplexiglas cylinder containing the liquid of high voltage electrode above liquidrsquo;s surface and grounded electrode submerged in the liquid. The HD could produce both arc discharge in gas and liquid phases. The high energy plasma arc produces a pressure shock wave, which kills the targeted micro organisms by causing physical damage to their cellular matrix either by the sudden recoil of the cell or by the micro-eddies created on the internal cell structure. Bacterio assay, has shown that the number survivor micro organisms after treatment by 13.5 msec pulse discharge N = 0.388 x 109 CFU/ml versus the initial number of viable micro organisms in the control sample before treatment (NO) = 1.456 x 109 CFU/ml which translates to log reduction of about 0.57. The applied electric field strength (of about 2.5 MV/m ) has more pronounced effect on inactivation the microorganisms than the length of the treatment time. The decimal reduction time or time required for a 1-log cycle reduction in the microbial population is about 24 msec. Bacterol analysis, has shown that the Proteus mirabilis and Enterobactericloacae (enterobacteriaceae) that were appearing in the control sample before treatment, were disappeared from treated sample. Key words: Pulse discharge, sterilization, hybrid discharge, thermal processes, shock wave. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/92C163D16157 en Copyright © 2008 G. M. El-Aragi and Y. M. Abedel Rahman
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:76B412C16189 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Quality estimation of cashew gum in the production of chocolate pebbles E. Gyedu- Akoto, I. Oduro, F. M. Amoah, J. H. Oldham, W. O. Ellis, K. Opoku-Ameyaw, F. Asante and S. Bediako Full Length Research Paper Due to the limited supply and high cost of gum Arabic, cashew gum (CG) was assessed as a quick coating agent in the production of chocolate pebbles, using gum from both young and mature cashew trees. Acute toxicity tests on rats did not reveal any abnormal changes attributable to ingestion of CG. Pebbles produced with CG samples were compared with those produced with gum Arabic. The ash contents of the three products ranged from 2.37 to 2.63% and the moisture content from 2.33 to 2.76% whilst the sugar concentration ranged from 26.05 to 29.66%. The microbial status of the three products conformed to specifications of the Cocoa Processing Company (CPC). Physico-chemical parameters determined showed significant differences among the three products (p lt; 0.05). Sensory analysis showed no significant difference among products in terms of flavour, hardness and smoothness. The overall acceptability of the products were similar and the mean scores were 7.4, 6.8 and 7.1 for pebbles produced with gum Arabic, that produced with cashew gum from young and mature trees respectively. On a 9-point hedonic scale, this range varies from ldquo;like moderatelyrdquo; to ldquo;like extremelyrdquo;. Pebbles produced with cashew gum compared favourably with that produced with gum Arabic. Key words: Cashew gum, gum Arabic, chocolate pebbles, acute toxicity. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/76B412C16189 en Copyright © 2008 E. Gyedu- Akoto, I. Oduro, F. M. Amoah, J. H. Oldham, W. O. Ellis, K. Opoku-Ameyaw, F. Asante and S. Bediako
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:59A233816252 2008-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Atherogenicity of Cucumeropsis mannii and Cucumis sativus oils from Cameroon Mercy Bih Achu, Elie Fokou,Clergeacute; Tchieacute;gang, Martin Fotso and Feliciteacute; Mbiapo Tchouanguep Full Length Research Paper The atherogenicity of Cucumeropsis mannii and Cucumis sativus oils was compared to that of corn oil and palm oil. Female wistar albino rats of 6 weeks old weighing 58 ndash; 65 g were randomly assigned to one of four diet groups: C. mannii and C. sativus oils (test diets) and corn and palm oil (control diets). There was weight gain in all the groups amounting to 128.65% (palm oil), 132.75% (C. mannii), 140.8% (C. sativus) and 153.45 (corn oil) with no significant difference. The weights of the livers ranged from 4.22 (palm oil) to 5.17 g (corn oil), ratio of weights of liver to that of rat, from 0.029 - 0.034 and percentage weight gain from 128.65 (palm oil) to 153.45% (corn oil). There was no significant difference in the values. For the atherogenic parameters measured, the triglyceride level ranged from 73 (palm oil) to 79.4 (C. sativus oil) with no significant difference. Total cholesterol levels ranged from 49.6 (corn oil) to 64.2 mg/dl (C. sativus oil) with significantly lower values in the corn oil group but similar values in the rest of the groups. HDL ranged from 18.94 (C. mannii oil) to 32.8 (palm oil) which was significantly high, LDL from 6.2 (palm oil) to 25.06 mg/dl (C. mannii oil) and atherogenic ratio (AR) from 0.2 (palm oil) to 1.61 (C. mannii) which was significantly high. The levels of these atherogenic parameters are far below the borderline level for oils to cause atherosclerosis, indicating that they could be potential good edible oils for reducing cardiovascular illnesses. Keywords: Atherogenicity, oils, Cucumeropsis mannii, Cucumis sativus. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/59A233816252 en Copyright © 2008 Mercy Bih Achu, Elie Fokou,Clergeacute; Tchieacute;gang, Martin Fotso and Feliciteacute; Mbiapo Tchouanguep
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:369BA2F16311 2008-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Role of agricultural biodiversity on dietary intake and nutrition status of preschool children in Matungu Division, Western Kenya Ekesa B. N, Walingo M. K and Onyango M. O. A Full Length Research Paper In order to determine the role of agricultural biodiversity on dietary intake and nutrition status of preschool children in western Kenya, a sample of 144 households with preschool children was systematically drawn from Matungu division. Structured questionnaires and anthropometric tools were used for data collection. Agricultural biodiversity was measured by variety of food crops grown, animals domesticated for food and food items from natural habitats. Dietary intake was measured in terms of dietary diversity and nutrient intake. Epi-Info software was used to compute nutrition indices and Pearsonrsquo;s correlation coefficient used to test for statistical associations between variables. Findings showed that households grew three types of food crops, kept two varieties of animals and obtained two food items from natural habitats. Preschool children were not meeting energy, fat, zinc, vitamin A, and calcium requirements, only 3% had consumed highly diversified diets and 35% of the preschool children were stunted. It was found that 48.5% of changes in dietary intake could be attributed to changes in agricultural biodiversity. In addition, 7, 3.6 and 8.1% of changes in underweight, stunting and wasting respectively, could be attributed to changes in dietary intake. Therefore, increased agricultural biodiversity enhances dietary intake thus improved nutrition status. Key words: Agricultural biodiversity, dietary diversity, nutrient intake. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/369BA2F16311 en Copyright © 2008 Ekesa B. N, Walingo M. K and Onyango M. O. A
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:53D212016416 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Effect of steeping time of milled grains on the quality of Kunnu-Zaki (A Nigerian beverage) Obadina, A.O, Oyewole, O.B, and Awojobi, T.M Full Length Research Paper Millet grains were steeped in water for varying period of time during ldquo;kunun-zakirdquo; production in order to study the effect of the duration of steeping on the quality of ldquo;kunu zakirdquo;. Other processing factors were kept constant in the course of this study. Kunun zaki produced from millet grains steeped for 36 h was rated best in terms of sensory characteristics. The steeping period had no significant effect on the specific gravity of the produced ldquo;Kunun zakirdquo;. As expected the titratable acidity and pH were inversely proportional, with the latter decreasing and the former increasing during the fermentation-steeping period. The protein content increased between 12 and 48 h steeping time. During the steeping period, the carbohydrates decreased rapidly in the first 12 h. However, the rate of carbohydrates decrease reduced beyond the first 12 h. This may be due to the decrease in the rate of fermentable sugars. Key words: Kunun-zaki, millet, steeping, quality, pH, titratable acidity, sensory. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/53D212016416 en Copyright © 2008 Obadina, A.O, Oyewole, O.B, and Awojobi, T.M
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:444A90016442 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Extraction of pure lycopene from industrial tomato waste in water using the extractor Naviglio® Daniele Naviglio, Fabiana Pizzolongo, Lydia Ferrara, Biagio Naviglio, Alejandro Aragograve;n, and Antonello Santini Full Length Research Paper In this paper an innovative process for the extraction of pure lycopene from tomato-waste in water that uses the Extractor Naviglioreg; and water as solvent is presented. The use of water as extracting solvent considerably reduces the cost of the entire process if compared with the commonly used solvent-based procedure or with the newer supercritical extraction process of lycopene from tomato-waste. Exhausted tomato-waste treated with water can be then easily dried at room temperature and further used, e.g. in agriculture or as food ingredient in animal nutrition. Lycopene, not soluble in water, was recovered in a quasi-crystalline solid form and purified by SPE (Solid Phase Extraction) using a small amount of organic solvent. The alltrans lycopene was obtained at a very high grade of purity, not less than 98% (w/w), with an average recovery from tomato waste of 14% (w/w). The availability of high purity all trans lycopene allowed us also to measure the molar absorption coefficient, unique for each molecule. An alternative procedure for the HPLC analysis, that uses a phenyl-hexyl silicone stationary phase as inverse phase and a linear gradient in water and acetonitrile, is also described. Key words: Lycopene, Extractor Naviglioreg;, tomato-waste, HPLC-Diode array, solid-liquid extraction, chromatography, solid phase extraction. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/444A90016442 en Copyright © 2008 Daniele Naviglio, Fabiana Pizzolongo, Lydia Ferrara, Biagio Naviglio, Alejandro Aragograve;n, and Antonello Santini
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:AEF9E2016474 2008-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Inclusion of marine fish in traditional meals improved iodine status of children in an iodine deficient area Amund Maage, Jogeir Toppe, Mathilda Steiner-Asiedu, Ebenezer Asibey- Berko and Einar Lied, Full Length Research Paper The present study was carried out in an iodine deficient area in Northern Ghana, and the purpose of the study was: (1) to undertake a food dietary survey on school children in an iodine deficient area, (2) measure the iodine content in the staple food of this area, (3) carry out an intervention study with a traditional food supplemented with marine fish as a natural iodine source. Sixty school children, in the village of Sekoti in the Upper-East region of Ghana, participated in the study. The dietary survey was performed as repeated 24 h recall, and staple foods were analysed for iodine by ICP-MS. A traditional diet fortified with 10% codfish-powder was given to the children every day for two weeks, and iodine status was measured before and after the intervention. The foodstuffs normally eaten by the children contained little iodine. However, beans prepared at a market nearby had surprisingly high values of iodine, explained by the addition of saltpetre, which contained very high amounts of iodine. About 60% of the children in the study area had goitre and the prevalence was highest among girls. Following the intervention period, the urinary iodine concentration was significantly increased and the TSH level in serum was significantly decreased, indicating an elevated iodine status. The children having goitre had the strongest tendency to elevate their iodine status. Key words: Iodine, fish, goitre, urinary iodine, TSH. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/AEF9E2016474 en Copyright © 2008 Amund Maage, Jogeir Toppe, Mathilda Steiner-Asiedu, Ebenezer Asibey- Berko and Einar Lied,
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:3D89F6316493 2008-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Quality evaluation of canned fermented oil bean seed slices during ambient storage Victor N. Enujiugha and Charles T. Akanbi Full Length Research Paper African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed slices were prepared, fermented and canned in three different media using conventional batch retort procedures. The canned products were subjected to sensory evaluation using a 20 man panel of judges, and to six monthsrsquo; ambient storage with monthly analysis being carried out for total viable counts, peroxide values, free fatty acids and acid values of the sample oils, as well as for hardness and appearance indices of the canned seed slices. The results show that after 6 months storage the total viable counts were 9.3 x 103 cfu/g, 1.7 x 104 cfu/g, and 6.0 x 103 cfu/g for the brine-canned, refined groundnut oil-canned and tomato sauce-canned samples, respectively. Peroxide values and free fatty acids had lowest concentrations in the product canned in refined groundnut oil; whereas the same product was least accepted organoleptically in terms of aroma and overall acceptability. The hardness and appearance indices show increased softening and colour darkening with prolonged storage period, although the samples were still considered acceptable after 6 months tropical ambient storage. Key words: fermented oil bean seeds, canning, quality attributes, storage. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/3D89F6316493 en Copyright © 2008 Victor N. Enujiugha and Charles T. Akanbi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:8B3B8E516526 2008-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Physico-chemical properties of cashew tree gum E. Gyedu-Akoto, I. Oduro, F. M. Amoah, J. H. Oldham, W. O. Ellis, K. Opoku-Ameyaw and Rasheed Bin Hakeem Full Length Research Paper The physico-chemical properties of cashew gum (CG) collected from four cashew growing districts, Sampa, Wenchi, Bole and Jirapa in Ghana were studied to help promote the utilization of cashew gum in the food industry. The gum was collected from trees of two different age groups, those that were 10 years and below and those above 10 years. Physico-chemical properties of CG were compared to those of gum Arabic. Parameters studied included pH (3.8 - 4.2), total ash (0.5 - 1.2%), protein content (1.27 - 1.80%), total sugars (0.96 - 2.10 mg/g), total phenols (0.21 - 2.26%), moisture content (9.8 - 13.2%) and insoluble matter (1.9 - 4.8%). Gum from mature trees was generally found to have higher levels of protein, moisture, sugars and phenols than that from young trees, with the exception of pH which was lower in gum from mature trees. There were also variations in some of the physico-chemical properties of the CG from the different locations. The predominant minerals in cashew tree gum were Ca, K, Na and Fe and their nutritional benefits is discussed. This study showed that CG possesses good physico-chemial properties and high levels of minerals Key words: Cashew gum, physico-chemical, gum Arabic, nutritional benefits. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/8B3B8E516526 en Copyright © 2008 E. Gyedu-Akoto, I. Oduro, F. M. Amoah, J. H. Oldham, W. O. Ellis, K. Opoku-Ameyaw and Rasheed Bin Hakeem
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:39FD93216730 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Chemical composition and pasting properties of tapioca grits from different cassava varieties and roasting methods Adebowale, A. A., Sanni, L. O. and Onitilo, M. O. Full Length Research Paper This study investigated the chemical composition and pasting properties of tapioca grits from different cassava varieties and roasting methods. Tapioca grits (partially gelatinized irregular flakes from roasted cassava starch), were produced from three different cassava varieties (Odongbo, TMS 30572 and Oko-iyawo) and two roasting methods (traditional and rotary dryer). The chemical composition and pasting properties of the tapioca grits were evaluated. The results showed that the effect of cassava variety and roasting methods on chemical composition of tapioca grits was significantly different (Plt;0.05). The principal component analysis (PCA) of variation in the chemical properties of the tapioca grits indicated that moisture, sugar and starch accounted for 83% of the variation in the chemical properties of tapioca grits. This study showed that peak and hot paste viscosities are the key pasting parameters in characterizing tapioca grits from the cassava varieties and roasting methods studied and that variation in peak viscosity of the tapioca grits might be due more too varietal influence than the roasting method. Key words: Cassava, variety, roasting, tapioca grits, chemical, pasting. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/39FD93216730 en Copyright © 2008 Adebowale, A. A., Sanni, L. O. and Onitilo, M. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:508C72E16775 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Drawback of loop-mediated isothermal amplification Wang Deguo, Huo Guicheng, Wang Fugui, Li Yonggang and Ren Daxi Full Length Research Paper Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was a novel nucleic acid amplification method that amplified DNA with high specificity, efficiency and rapidity under isothermal conditions using a set of four specially designed primers and a DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity. In our research, LAMP was developed to detect foodborn Salmonella in raw milk, a set of six primers, two outer, two inner and two loop primers, were designed from Salmonella genomic DNA targeting invA. Temperature condition for detection of Salmonella was optimized to be 61deg;C. At the same time, LAMP was found to be effective when the template was pure; however, the usefulness of LAMP methods can be limited by the presence of inhibitors in the analysis of raw milk, unlike all the reports about LAMP, the sensitivity of LAMP was lower than that of PCR methods. Key words: Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification, LAMP, foodborn Salmonella, raw milk, sensitivity. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/508C72E16775 en Copyright © 2008 Wang Deguo, Huo Guicheng, Wang Fugui, Li Yonggang and Ren Daxi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:EC9779716892 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Evaluation of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) -wheat composite flour and bread Ade-Omowaye, B. I. O., Akinwande, B. A., Bolarinwa, I. F. and Adebiyi, A. O. Full Length Research Paper Consumer interest in dietary fiber has continued to increase as more information about its potential impact on health has become available. Among the underutilized crops in Nigeria is tigernut which could find useful application in baking industry because of its high level of dietary fibre and other inherent properties. This study therefore aimed at widening tigernut utilization in the country. Substituted wheat flour (WF) with tigernut flour (TF) at varying proportions (100:0; 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40; 50:50) was evaluated for proximate composition and physico-chemical properties. Physico-chemical properties of dough as well as sensory and physical properties of the bread produced from the different flour samples were also evaluated. The proximate composition of the flour samples showed a reduction of about 14 to 38% in protein content but with a significant enhancement in the fibre content (167 to 967%) depending on the level of substitution. The fat and ash contents, as well as the pH of the flour samples increased with increase in the proportion of the tigernut. Dough with good viscoelastic properties and acceptable bread with qualities similar to 100% wheat bread was produced from 10% tigernut flour addition. Key words: Wheat, tigernut, composite flour, bread, proximate composition. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/EC9779716892 en Copyright © 2008 Ade-Omowaye, B. I. O., Akinwande, B. A., Bolarinwa, I. F. and Adebiyi, A. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:D4D748D16936 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Residues of CymelarsanR in camels (Camelus dromedaries) and Nubian goats infected with T.evansi in Sudan F. M. Youssif, T. Hassan, O. S. A. Mohammed Full Length Research Paper Ninety out of hundred Nubian goats were experimentally infected withTrypanosoma evansi and twenty out of twenty-five camels naturally infected with the same parasite were used in this experiment. Single I / M doses of Cymelarsan were given to four groups at rates of 0.125, 0.25, 0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg. Other four groups were also given the drug via I / M route at rates of 0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg / week for two weeks and daily for 8 days. Three groups of camels were given Cymelarsan in single I / M doses at rate of 0.25, 0.612 and 0.125 mg/kg weekly for three successive weeks. Specimens of different tissues, serum, urine and bile were collected immediately after death or slaughter. A weekly slaughter program 14 days post cessation of the drug for surviving animals was conducted for successive five weeks (two goats/ week and one camel / week). Total arsenic of CymelarsanR residues detected in samples was measured. The concentration of arsenic was increased in serum, urine, bile and tissues of goats infected with T. evansi and given Cymelarsan in single I / M doses (0.125 - 0.625 mg/kg) and gradually returned to normal by the end of the experiment. In the remaining groups arsenic concentration in collected samples did not returned to normal level. In camels, the amount of arsenic in the different tissues, serum, urine and bile returned to normal by day 42 of last cessation of the drug. We conclude that camels tend to excrete arsenic from the body more rapidly than goats. Key words: Nubian goats, camels, Trypanosoma evansi, cymelarsan, residues (arsenic). Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/D4D748D16936 en Copyright © 2008 F. M. Youssif, T. Hassan, O. S. A. Mohammed
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:3F6493017021 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Effect of partially defatted soybeans or groundnut cake flours on proximate and sensory characteristics of kokoro P. I. Uzor-Peters, N. U. Arisa, C. O. Lawrence, N. S. Osondu, and A. Adelaja Full Length Research Paper Kokoro a local maize snack was made from substitution of maize flour with either defatted soybean or groundnut cake flour (9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7 and 1:9 substitution ratios) were evaluated for proximate and sensory qualities. Increase in substitution ratio produced kokoro with higher nutritional content (28.46 and 35.10 percent protein for those made from 1:9 substitution ratio respectively). Increase in substitution with the two substitutes progressively increased protein and fat content but reduced the ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents. More over the crispiness and over all acceptability of the kokoro decreased with increasing substitution. Products made from 9:1 substitution were well accepted and compared favourably with whole maize product. Key words: Maize, soybeans, groundnuts, defatted, substitution, nutrition. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/3F6493017021 en Copyright © 2008 P. I. Uzor-Peters, N. U. Arisa, C. O. Lawrence, N. S. Osondu, and A. Adelaja
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:5AA6F1417075 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Some properties of starches from cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) and cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) grown in Malawi Davies E. Mweta, Maryke T. Labuschagne, Elizma Koen, Ibrahim R. M. Benesi, and John D. K. Saka Full Length Research Paper The physicochemical and functional properties of starch from cocoyam and ten varieties of cassava grown in Malawi were studied to unravel their potential in industrial application. The properties of starch varied significantly with crop and among varieties. Cocoyam starch granules exhibited polygonal truncated shapes and small sizes (average of 7 m) while the cassava starch granules were rounded, irregular with oval and truncated ellipsoidal-granules with average size of 10.14 m. The cocoyam starch gave lower values of amylose content and paste clarity but higher phosphorus content, maximum wavelength of iodine complex absorption and blue value than cassava starches. Cassava starches gels were more stable to freeze thawing releasing 28.40 ndash; 46.92% of the water than cocoyam which released 54.06% of its water. Swelling and solubility of both cocoyam and cassava starches increased with temperature (60-90deg;C). Cocoyam starch exhibited lowered swelling power and solubility than cassava starches. Gelatinization and retrogradation studies gave similar enthalpy values of gelatinization of cocoyam and cassava starch; cocoyam starch displayed higher retrogradation tendencies than cassava starches. Key words: Cocoyam, cassava, amylose, blue value, swelling, solubility, paste, freeze-thaw, gelatinization, retrogradation. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/5AA6F1417075 en Copyright © 2008 Davies E. Mweta, Maryke T. Labuschagne, Elizma Koen, Ibrahim R. M. Benesi, and John D. K. Saka
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:263809317127 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Comparison of the degree of fermentation and fungal profiles of raw cocoa beans sourced from three Ivorian main producing regions Tagro S. Guehi, Nrsquo;Dri D. Yao, Niamien P. Manizan, Koffi R. Nevry, Louis B. Koffi and Yao M. Konan Full Length Research Paper The degree of fermentation and incidence of contaminating fungi were determined in 90 raw cocoa bean samples. Excessive moisture content and low percentages of brown beans are recorded in cocoa samples from Soubreacute; and Aleacute;peacute;, corresponding to maximum value of percentages of purple, mouldy and insect infested beans. Differences in mould counts were detected in cocoa beans according to the producing regions; cocoa from Aleacute;peacute; was most contaminated by moulds. Six fungi were commonly isolated that is, Absidia corymbifera, Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus tamarii, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium chrysogenum. Nearly all of the fungi recovered can be considered as storage fungi. Studies of cocoa samples revealed that raw cocoa beans collected from Dueacute;koueacute; appeared to be of better quality than that from Aleacute;peacute; and Soubreacute;. Key words: Cocoa, fermentation, fungi, quality. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/263809317127 en Copyright © 2008 Tagro S. Guehi, Nrsquo;Dri D. Yao, Niamien P. Manizan, Koffi R. Nevry, Louis B. Koffi and Yao M. Konan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:206269E17156 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Extraction performances of polar and non-polar solvents on the physical and chemical indices of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) seed oil Titus Ugochukwu Nwabueze and Kalu Sunday Okocha Full Length Research Paper The physical and chemical indices of African breadfruit (Treculia Africana) seed oil extracted with polar (isopropanol, Hexane and butanol) and non polar (Acetone) solvents were investigated. The oil (19.85%) and energy contents 452.35 (Kcal) suggest that African breadfruit seeds are a high-energy food. The yields were significantly (P le; 0.05) different with hexane extracted (non-polar solvent) oil having 19.85% whilst oil extracted with polar solvents ranged from 15.58 -19.30%. Melting points were 34, 27, 26, 21 ͦC for oil extracted with hexane, isopropanol, butanol and acetone respectively. Smoke points were within the limits of 170 ndash; 255 ͦC for the four oil samples. Iodine values ranged from 14.50 (hexane extracted) t0 25.17 (acetone extracted). Saponification values ranged from 125.89-267.85 while peroxide values were 3.20 mg/kg (hexane) and 3.60-3.83 mg/kg for polar solvents. Free fatty (oleic) acid of oil extracted with hexane was 1.71% and polar solvent extraction ranged from 1.65-1.78%. Hexane had the least peroxide value (8.74 mg/kg) compared to higher values for oil extracted with the polar solvents (9.10 - 9.83 mg/kg). Keywords: African breadfruit, Treculia Africana, oil extraction, saponification, fatty acids, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/206269E17156 en Copyright © 2008 Titus Ugochukwu Nwabueze and Kalu Sunday Okocha
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:513A58817257 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Nutritional evaluation of four optimized cassava-based complementary foods O. O. Onabanjo, , C. R. B. Oguntona, Bussie Maziya-Dixon, I. O. Olayiwola, E. B. Oguntona and A. G. O. Dixon Full Length Research Paper Complementary foods were formulated and their nutritional composition analyzed from three yellow and one white cassava varieties. The composites were analyzed for proximate, mineral, fatty acids and amino acids. The mean values for the proximate composition of the diets are moisture (41.4 g kg-1) wet weight, ash (47.4 g kg-1), crude protein (145.8 g kg-1), crude fat (106.7 g kg-1), crude fiber (21.1 g kg-1), total carbohydrate (633.5 g kg-1), and energy (409.2 kcal). The diets supplied adequate amounts of most minerals, except iron (about 65% of the standard). The composites contained all the essential amino acids with adequate chemical score for most amino acids. The complementary diets contained moderate to high proportions of alpha;-linolenic acids (18:3n3) and a high proportion of linoleic acid (18:2n6), which resulted in a high total n-6/total n-3 ratio and a high linoleic/ alpha;-linolenic acids ratio. Micronutrient improved cassava varieties can be effectively used to formulate complementary food as acceptable micronutrients supplement. Key words: micronutrient-improved, cassava, complementary foods, children. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/513A58817257 en Copyright © 2008 O. O. Onabanjo, , C. R. B. Oguntona, Bussie Maziya-Dixon, I. O. Olayiwola, E. B. Oguntona and A. G. O. Dixon
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:A326E8D17335 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2008
Effect of deep frying on furazolidone anticoccidial drug residues in liver and muscle tissues of chicken Anakalo A. Shitandi, Oketch Aila, Stellah Ottaro, Leakey Aliongrsquo;o, Grace Mwangi, Harish Kumar- Sharma and Matofari Joseph Full Length Research Paper This study investigated the effect of deep frying (210oC/15 min) on furazolidone residues in liver and muscle tissues of chicken. Furazolidone was administered (2 mg/kg body weight) orally to chicken daily for five days. The hens were then sacrificed at 1, 5, 24 168 and 264 h after treatment stopped and liver and muscle tissue samples obtained. The samples were deep fried, blended with distilled water and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for five minutes. The supernatant was analyzed for the concentration of the drug using a using the Delvotest SP microbiological assay. A detection limit of 11.0 mu;g/ml was obtained with spiked liver tissues contaminated with Furazolidone. Furazolidone residues were detected in fried liver and muscle tissues 264 h post treatment. It was concluded that furazolidone drug residues in chicken liver and muscle tissues were not destroyed by deep frying. Key words: Furazolidone, depletion rate, delvotest test, poultry, deep frying. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/A326E8D17335 en Copyright © 2008 Anakalo A. Shitandi, Oketch Aila, Stellah Ottaro, Leakey Aliongrsquo;o, Grace Mwangi, Harish Kumar- Sharma and Matofari Joseph
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:4DD3C1A17348 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Effect of processing conditions on cyanide content and colour of cassava flours from West Africa Franck Hongbeacute;teacute;, Christian Mestres, Noeuml;l Akissoeacute; and Mathurin Coffi Nago Full Length Research Paper The evolution of cyanide content and colour were monitored during the processing of lafu, traditional flour and improved flour from five cassava cultivars from Benin. In addition, the total phenol, polyphe-noloxidase (PPO), peroxydase (POD) and linamarase activities were assessed. The processing of cassava in lafu and improved flour proved superior for producing safe and white non-fermented and fermented cassava flours with total cyanide mean values of 16.6 and 11.4 mg HCN/kg, db and DE values of 9.2 and 12.1, respectively. Detoxification appeared to be only linked to processing, in particular to the size reduction level of cassava roots, regardless of the initial cyanide level and the linamarase activity of the fresh roots. Cassava flour yellowness was closely linked to the phenol content (r = 0.95) that decreased after steeping and pressing. The PPO and POD activities did not appear to be linked to flour discoloration. Key words: Manihot esculenta, cassava processing, cyanide, colour, total phenol, polyphenoloxidase, peroxydase, linamarase. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/4DD3C1A17348 en Copyright © 2009 Franck Hongbeacute;teacute;, Christian Mestres, Noeuml;l Akissoeacute; and Mathurin Coffi Nago
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:9A6968717353 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Growth of Lentinus squarrosulus (M.) Singer on sawdust of different tropical tree species Abbot O. Oghenekaro, John A. Okhuoya and Emmanuel O. Akpaja Full Length Research Paper Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer was cultivated on the sawdust of five economic tropical tree species, Chlorophora excelsa, Celtis zenkeri, Gueracedrata, Nesogordenia papaverifera and Brachystegia nigerica, collected during processing at the sawmill. The highest yield of dry fruiting bodies (16.17 plusmn; 1.25 g) was observed on B. nigerica sawdust supplemented with 1% CaCO3, 1% sugar and 20% wheat bran. The lowest yield (4.56 plusmn; 1.84 g), was observed on N. papaverifera sawdust without supple-mentation. The results of this study demonstrate that L. squarrosulus mushroom did not show any particular trend with increase in supplementation level. The study underscores the need for guided use of sawdust types along with the required appropriate supplements. Key words: Agro-industrial waste, bioconversion, cultivation, edible mushroom, sawmill waste. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/9A6968717353 en Copyright © 2009 Abbot O. Oghenekaro, John A. Okhuoya and Emmanuel O. Akpaja
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:E2B645C17357 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
The influence of cultural and physical conditions on the antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin produced by a newly isolated Bacillus megaterium 22 strain Rowaida Khalil, Fatima Djadouni, Yasser Elbahloul and Sanaa Omar Full Length Research Paper Bacillus megaterium 22, a soil isolate, produced a bacteriocin that exhibited a broad range of inhibitory activity against food-spoilage microorganisms includingSalmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity peaked at the early stationary phase. De Man Rogosa Shrarpe (MRS) was the best medium for bacteriocin production, where growth of B. megaterium 22 for 12 - 18 h at 30oC, pH 6 - 6.5 resulted in maximum inhibitory effect on the pathogenic indicator strains. Supplemen-tation and/or replacement of medium nutrients demonstrated higher values of bacteriocin activity in the presence of 5 - 10% sucrose, 1% beef extract, and under limited aeration. Bacteriocin activity was significantly stimulated at concentrations of up to 3% NaCl, or 1% KCl. Low levels of spices (curry, red and Black pepper) synergistically stimulated the bacteriocin activity, except for garlic and rosemary where higher concentrations (1%) considerably influenced the activity. The bacteriocin was heat stable for 15 min of exposure to a wide range of temperatures, and over a pH range of 2 - 8 after 1 h of exposure. The bacteriocin was stable for up to 30 min of exposure to UV light, and when stored at 4oC for 90 days. The activity was inhibited by proteolytic enzymes and tested organic solvents. SDS-PAGE revealed that the apparent molecular weight of the partially purified bacteriocin ranged from 3.496 to 6.512 kDa. Results presented here support the idea that the bacteriocin may propose some industrial advantages that render it as a good natural food bio preservative candidate. Key words: Bacillus megaterium, antimicrobial activity, bacteriocin, biopreservation, growth media, spices, storage, indicator strains. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/E2B645C17357 en Copyright © 2009 Rowaida Khalil, Fatima Djadouni, Yasser Elbahloul and Sanaa Omar
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:36A3C4920019 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Physical and nutritive properties of fermented cereal foods Osungbaro, Taiwo O. Full Length Research Paper Fermented cereal porridge, ldquo;Ogirdquo; is made from maize, sorghum or millet. Fermented cereal porridges (and gels) are important staple food items for people of the West African sub- region and are also important weaning foods for infants. The qualities of these foods are measured in terms of their nutritive values evidenced in the biochemical properties and the textural characteristics. These qualities are influenced by many factors of types of cereal grains and the kind of treatments these grains undergo during processing. Many workers seeking to enhance Ogi nutritional status have investigated the ways in which these factors influence its physical and biochemical properties. This review attempts to bring into focus these various efforts. Key words: Fermented cereal porridges, physical and nutritional properties. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/36A3C4920019 en Copyright © 2009 Osungbaro, Taiwo O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:9D7AB2E20037 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Evaluation of physical and sensory properties of Iranian Lavash flat bread supplemented with precipitated whey protein (PWP) Hossein Jooyandeh Full Length Research Paper Flat bread is the main staple food for most Iranians and Lavash is commonly consumed flat bread. In this investigation, the effects of addition of precipitated whey protein (PWP) and fermentation time on the physical properties and sensory characteristics of Lavash breads were studied. Dough were prepared with four substitution levels of PWP (25, 50, 75 and 100%, instead of water used for dough making) and fermented at three different fermentation times (30, 60 and 90 min). Increasing level of supplementation with PWP generally caused an increase in all sensory scores of Lavash samples. This improvement was more obvious when fermentation time was increased. Penetrometer values of Lavash samples showed that increasing fermentation time and supplementation up to 75% created significantly softer breads compare to control. In general, increase in the level of supplementation and fermentation time significantly increased bread yellowness (b* value) and redness (a*) and decreased lightness (L* value). Key words: Flat bread, Lavash, precipitated whey protein, fermentation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/9D7AB2E20037 en Copyright © 2009 Hossein Jooyandeh
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:EA5A59220058 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Hazards analysis critical control points (HACCP) and microbiology qualities of sea-foods as affected by handler’s hygience in Ibadan and Lagos, Nigeria I. O. Okonko, O. D. Adejoye, A. A. Ogun, A. A. Ogunjobi, A. O. Nkang,and B. C. Adebayo-Tayo Full Length Research Paper This study reports the hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) and microbiological qualities of seafood products as affected by hygiene of handlers in Ibadan and Lagos, Nigeria. Seafood products were purchased at four different processing plants, two each from Ibadan and Lagos. This study consisted of observing the raw materials, water used, the utensils used and the environment, monitoring all steps of the processing and packaging, recording temperatures during preparation, storage and display and collecting samples of seafood products for total viable counts, coliforms, Salmonella and Shigella counts and fungi counts. A microbiological survey of seafood processors/handlers was also performed. Palms of processors/handlers were swabbed and analyzed for the presence of indicator organisms of sanitary quality. The total viable bacteria count decreased with time from raw to packaging and to when ready for consumption. Coliforms, B. cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp, and fungi were isolated and had count higher than 103 cells/ml before processing and after processing with few exceptions. A total of 186 organisms were isolated and identified. Almost all palms of the handlers sampled haboured Micrococcus sp. [36(21.1%)] and Enterobacter sp. [30(18.0%)], followed by Bacillus sp. [24 (14.0%)], Flavobacterium sp. [19 (11.1%)], Staphylococcus sp. [17(9.9%)],Escherichia coli [15(8.8%)], Proteus sp [8(4.7%)], Salmonella sp. [7(4.1%)],Citrobacter sp [3(1.8%)], Klebsiella sp [4(2.3%)], Pseudomonas sp. [3(1.8%)], Serratia sp. [3(1.8%)] and Achromobacterium sp [2(1.2%)], Aspergillus formigatus[3(20.0%)], Aspergillus niger [2(13.3%)], Fusarium sp [2(13.3%)], Mucor mucido[3(20.0%)], Neurospora crassa [2(13.3%)] and Rhizopus sp [3(20.0%)]. Seafood processors/handlers may be sources of microbial chance inoculation, microbial food poison, food intoxication and food spoilage hence, processors/handlers may be counter productive by being responsible for public health hazard and loss of revenue. The level of counts appears high for processed and unprocessed products; the presence of coliforms, S. aureus, B. Cereus, Salmonella and fungi showed that processing of these seafood products in a highly contaminated environment and holding at frozen temperature for sale could be risky. Using current WHO/FAO/NAFDAC guidelines and standards for foods and water, none of the food processors/handlers, the utensils and the products were within acceptable standards. There were significant correlations between bacteriological quality and food hygiene training, and waste product management polices. The findings of this study suggests that there is need to improve on hygienic practices as well as HACCP implementation in public food service outlets in order to obtain relatively safe processed seafood products for consumption. The new approach to supervision of food hygiene and sanitary quality, the HACCP system works rationally as it is based on analysis of systematically assembled data on the causes and conditions which evoked the illness of the consumers by food products or meals. Therefore, education of owners of seafood processing plants, processors/handlers on hazards, critical control points and the importance of hygienic environment is imperative. The control measures and monitoring procedures for seafood processing and packaging are thus advocated. Key words: Coliforms, contamination, frozen seafood, hazards, food hygiene, CCP, control measures,monitoring, microbiological quality, sanitary standards. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/EA5A59220058 en Copyright © 2009 I. O. Okonko, O. D. Adejoye, A. A. Ogun, A. A. Ogunjobi, A. O. Nkang,and B. C. Adebayo-Tayo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:167227020072 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Some physicochemical properties of flour obtained from fermentation of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) sourced from a market in Ogbomoso, Nigeria Adejuyitan, J. A., Otunola, E. T. Akande, E. A., Bolarinwa, I. F. and Oladokun, F. M. Full Length Research Paper Yellow variety of tiger nut used was obtained from Sabo market, in Ogbomoso, Nigeria The nuts were cleaned, sorted, washed, and were soaked in water and left to ferment for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively. The nuts were drained, dried in an oven and ground into flour. The flour samples were passed through a 45 mu;m mesh size sieve. The flour was analyzed for proximate composition and some functional properties. There were changes in some constituents of the flour with fermentation time. There was an increase in protein content (7.73 - 9.23%) and reduction in fat content, likewise with the ash, and starch content. There was also an increase in the sugar content over the fermentation time (7.31 - 9.69%). For the functional properties, 0.56 - 0.62 g/ml were recorded for loose bulk density, within the fermentation time of 24 ndash; 72 h. For packed bulk density 0.83 - 0.91 g/ml were recorded, 123 ndash; 141 g/100 g for water absorption, 67.6 - 71.3 g/ml for oil absorption capacity within the fermentation time of 24 - 72 h. Changes in the pasting characteristics of the flour samples were also noticed. Key words: Tigernut flour, fermentation, proximate composition, functional properties. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/167227020072 en Copyright © 2009 Adejuyitan, J. A., Otunola, E. T. Akande, E. A., Bolarinwa, I. F. and Oladokun, F. M.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:3E4D59B20088 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Storage influence on the functional properties of malted and unmalted maize (Zea mays L ssp mays) and soybean (Glycine max L Merrill) flour blends Adetuyi, F. O, Badejo, O. F., Ikujenlola, A. V. and Omosuli, S. V Full Length Research Paper The complementary blends of maize (Zea mays L ssp mays) and soybean (Glycine max L Merrill) were stored for a period of 12 weeks. The maize grains were malted by subjecting it to cleaning, washing, steeping, sprouting, drying, desprouting, milling and packaging. A portion of the maize flour was blended with soybean flour at the ratio of 70:30 (malted maize flour: soybean flour; unmalted maize flour: soybean flour). The resulting products were stored in polyethylene and plastic containers. The functional properties (Bulk density, viscosity, water and oil absorption capacity, swelling capacity, peroxide value and least gelation concentration) of the products were determined. The result showed that the bulk density and the peroxide value of both malted and unmalted maize flour reduced significantly (Pgt;0.05) when blended with soybean. The swelling capacities of the malted products were lower than those of the unmalted blends and it also decreased though not significantly (Pgt;0.05) with the period of storage. The malting process reduced the viscosity of the products, however; inclusion of soybean flour increased the viscosity. The viscosity and the peroxide value increased significantly (Pgt;0.05) in the two storage containers as the storage period increased. The result revealed that the packaging materials had no significant effects on the parameters assessed. Key words: Unmalted maize, malted maize, soybean blends, bulk density, swelling capacity, water absorption capacity. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/3E4D59B20088 en Copyright © 2009 Adetuyi, F. O, Badejo, O. F., Ikujenlola, A. V. and Omosuli, S. V
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:EC06CE820131 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Quality of fufu processed from cassava mosaic disease (CMD) resistant varieties Etudaiye, H. A., Nwabueze, T. U. and Sanni, L. O. Full Length Research Paper Cassava fufu flours were produced from 43 Cassava Mosaic Disease resistant varieties. The cassava roots were washed, peeled and steeped in water in a 1:2 (v/v) for 48 h to ferment. The fermented pulp was sieved and mechanically milled into flour of 3.0 mm particle size. Proximate composition, functional properties and pasting characteristics of the lsquo;fufursquo; flours were assessed. Moisture content ranged from 5.52 to 12.25%, protein 0.35 to 2.80% and dry matter 87.75 to 94.48%. Water absorption capacity ranged from 0.70 to 2.20 g/ml. The CMD varieties 92B/00068 and M98/0068 had the highest water absorption capacity values. Bulk density ranged from 0.61 in the variety 98/2226 to 0.70 g/ml in varieties 98/0505, 98/0510, 95/0379 and 95/0289 while final viscosity of the fufu flours ranged from 76.00 in 96/1569 to 295.00 RVU in the 99/6012 and pasting temperature from 77.55 to 81.60oC. Given the economic and nutritional importance of cassava, the develop-ment and subsequently processing the CMD resistant varieties into fufu flour will help to improve food security and diversity not only in Nigeria but also beyond. Key words: Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), fufu, functional properties, pasting characteristics. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/EC06CE820131 en Copyright © 2009 Etudaiye, H. A., Nwabueze, T. U. and Sanni, L. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:F8C7A0A20143 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Trials towards reduction of fungal growth and aflatoxin G1 production in Arabic coffee using different additives Fardos Bokhari and Magda Mohammad Aly Full Length Research Paper Thirty samples of coffee beans were collected from different places of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to determine and identify fungal population. Twenty six species belonging to 7 genera were isolated using potato dextrose agar (PDA) and malt extract agar (MEA) media at 28deg;C. The most prevalent genera were Aspergillusand Penicillium. Aspergillus was present in 73 and 100% of the samples butPenicillium was present in 86.6 and 100% on the two mentioned media, respectively. Also, Fusarium, Mucor, Rhizopus and Alterneria were recovered in moderate incidences on the two media. Out of the thirty samples of coffee beans collected, thirteen were contaminated with mycotoxin (43.3%). Mycotoxin profiles were also determined in these samples. It was found that aflatoxin G1 (Afl G1) showed the highest incidence rates of occurrence. It occurred in about 23.3% of all samples analyzed and in 54% of the mycotoxin contaminated samples. The other toxins detected were aflatoxins B1 (16.6%), B2 (10%), G2 (6.6%), ochratoxin (10%), patulin (16.6%) and sterigmatocystin (6.6%). The factors affecting the Afl G1 production by Aspergillus flavus were studied. The results clarified that addition of caffeine up to 1 g/l reduced the toxin synthesis (Afl G1). The effect of some medicinal plants and spices added singly or in combination to the malt extract, on fungal growth and AflG1 production by A. flavus was also studied. Cinnamon and cloves affected fungal growth and mycotoxin production. No growth or toxins were detected in the presence of the two plants. Saffron and ginger did not affect fungal growth or prevented toxin production by A. flavus. In conclusion, coffee beans in Saudi Arabia are highly contaminated with toxigenic fungi, specially, A. flavus, which was found in this study to be the main producer of Afl G1. Medium, temperature, vitamin C, caffeine and some medicinal plants or spices which are used as a traditional additive in Saudi Arabia may affect fungal growth or/and toxin production. Key words: Aflatoxins, mycotoxin, Aspergillus, coffee beans, secondary metabolites, medicinal plant, spices, additives. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/F8C7A0A20143 en Copyright © 2009 Fardos Bokhari and Magda Mohammad Aly
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:8E13D5520154 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Antibacterial effects of extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and piper guineense on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus Nwinyi, Obinna C., Chinedu, Nwodo S., Ajani, Olayinka O., Ikpo Chinwe Oand Ogunniran, Kehinde O. Full Length Research Paper The upsurge in the prevalence of side effects of many synthetic antimicrobial agents and incidence of multidrug resistant bacteria has spurred scientists on the research for plant based antimicrobial of therapeutic potentials. Ocimum gratissimum and Piper guineense present such potential of high medicinal value. These plants are used in Nigeria traditionally as condiments and for treatment of various ailments such as pyorrhea, dysentery and bronchitis. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of O. gratissimum and P. guineense leaves were screened for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Both extracts were found to exhibit selective inhibition against the isolates. The diameter zones of inhibition exhibited by the extracts were between 2 + 0.01 ndash; 10 + 0.10 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined by the agar diffusion method was between 10.00 and 2.50 mg/ml-1. Ethanol extracts showed more inhibitory effect compared to the aqueous extracts. Results obtained show that the extracts of O. gratissimum and P. guineense possess some level of antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus. Key words: Ocimum gratissimum, Piper guineense, antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/8E13D5520154 en Copyright © 2009 Nwinyi, Obinna C., Chinedu, Nwodo S., Ajani, Olayinka O., Ikpo Chinwe Oand Ogunniran, Kehinde O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:434673620164 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Stability studies and mineral concentration of some Nigerian packed fruit juices, concentrate and local beverages Dosumu O. O., Oluwaniyi O. O., Awolola G. V. and Okunola M. O. Full Length Research Paper Time stability and mineral content of some Nigerian packet fruit juices, concentrate and local beverages (sobo drink, kunnu drink, pito and burukutu) were determined. The pH of the beverages was fairly stable throughout the 15 days the experiment lasted. The acid contents were within suitable range for human consumption and ranged from 0.041 M ndash; 0.205 M. The concentrate has the highest titratable acidity ranging from 0.098 M on day 1 to 0.205 M on day 15. Elemental analysis of the minerals showed that the beverages were rich in macronutrients. Potassium was found to be the most abundant with content ranging from 4.35 ndash; 5.85 mg/mL while manganese and copper were not detectable. Sodium content was between 1.300 ndash; 1.335 mg/mL; calcium 0.560 ndash; 0.925 mg/mL; magnesium 0.005 ndash; 0.06 mg/mL; iron 0.005 ndash; 0.025 mg/mL and zinc 0.005 ndash; 0.010 mg/mL. The results showed that the drinks contain safe levels of mineral elements for human consumption and are sufficiently stable and safe. Key words: Stability, fruit juices, beverages, concentrate, mineral content. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/434673620164 en Copyright © 2009 Dosumu O. O., Oluwaniyi O. O., Awolola G. V. and Okunola M. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:37A44E620183 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Effects of two processing methods on some nutrients and anti-nutritional factors in yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis) P. E. Akin-Idowu, , R. Asiedu, B. Maziya-Dixon, A. Odunola and A. Uwaifo Full Length Research Paper Raw and processed tubers from eight genotypes of yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis) were evaluated for their contents of iron, zinc, calcium, phosphorus, total carotenoids, vitamin C, phytic acid and tannin. The mean values obtained (in mg/kg on dry weight basis) were 7.2 for iron, 9.2 for zinc, 169.3 for calcium, 1331.3 for phosphorus, 181.8 for phytate and 353.6 for tannin. Similarly, 6.31 g/g of total carotenoids and 37.3 mg/kg of ascorbic acid were obtained on fresh weight basis. The genotypes differed significantly (P lt; 0.05) in tuber contents of zinc, calcium, phosphorus, total carotenoids and vitamin C but they were similar with respect to iron, phytate and tannin contents. Genotype TDc 95-65 had the highest levels of zinc, calcium, total carotenoids and phytate while TDc 95-294 had the highest levels of iron and phytate. Tubers of TDc 95-65, TDc, 95-294, TDc 04-168 and TDc 98-136 are good sources of iron, zinc and phosphorus. The two cooking methods had little effect on the minerals but significantly reduced the levels of total carotenoid, vitamin C, phytate and tannin contents. Key words: Antinutrients, boiling, Dioscorea cayenensis, phytic acid, pounding and tannin. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/37A44E620183 en Copyright © 2009 P. E. Akin-Idowu, , R. Asiedu, B. Maziya-Dixon, A. Odunola and A. Uwaifo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:556E3D920191 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
A comparison of some physical, chemical and sensory attributes of three pineapple (Ananas comosus) varieties grown in Ghana Wisdom Wardy, Firibu Kwesi Saalia, Matilda Steiner-Asiedu, Agnes S. Buduand Samuel Sefa-Dedeh The role of fruits and fruit juices in nutrition and health cannot be overemphasized. And as consumers look for better quality of fruits with regard to certain characteristics, new varieties are coming up to meet demand. It is against this background that this present study was carried out to assess the quality of MD2 pineapple variety with respect to the other varieties on the Ghanaian market. This study examined the physical, chemical and sensory quality of the MD2 pineapple variety compared to those of the sugarloaf and the smooth cayenne varieties on the Ghanaian market. Sugarloaf had the highest juice volume of 205.72ml/kg fruit, followed by MD2 (134-191) with smooth cayenne having the smallest volume. These differences were statistically significant, plt;0.05. There were no significant flavor differences (pgt; 0.05); although there were significant differences (plt; 0.05) in the overall preference for fruit juices which indicated that MD2 was most preferred pineapple fruit. MD2 compares very well with pineapple varieties already on the Ghanaian market. Its cultivation in Ghana has potential both for the local and international market and should be encouraged. Key words: Fruit, pineapple, MD2, sensory evaluation, chemical attributes, fruit juice. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/556E3D920191 en Copyright © 2009 Wisdom Wardy, Firibu Kwesi Saalia, Matilda Steiner-Asiedu, Agnes S. Buduand Samuel Sefa-Dedeh
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:EA59F1020197 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of different UHT milks available in market Ammara Hassan, Imran Amjad and Shahid Mahmood Full Length Research Paper The aim of the study was to diagnose physiochemical, microbiological, sensorial changes and to differentiate the milk collection systems of the commercial milk market competitor during storage of 12 weeks. The parameters used for physicochemical analysis are; sedimentation, solids non fats (SNF), fat and protein %, total titratable acidity and pH and for microbiological analysis; total plate, coliform, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilus, Escherichia coli and spore forming bacterial count were determined. Colour, taste and aroma were observed during storage. The results strongly reflect an increase in sedimentation value with the ice mixing or dilution before processing which disturbed the salt balance, protein charges and natural emulsion. There was increase in acidity and sedimentation of milk but pH, % of fat contents, SNF (solids non fats) and proteins decreased during storage. The negative changes occurred in colour, aroma and flavor with reference to these physiochemical changes. Microbial counts for coliforms (e.g. E. coli), B. cereus, B. subtilis and heat resistant spores forming bacteria were zero. These all factors collectively limited the shelf life of UHT (ultra-high temperature) milk. Key words: Physiochemical, microbiological, sensorial changes, heat resistant spores forming bacteria, UHT milk. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/EA59F1020197 en Copyright © 2009 Ammara Hassan, Imran Amjad and Shahid Mahmood
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:1B6280520208 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Evaluation of mineral content and functional properties of fermented maize flour blended with bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L) T. I. Mbata, , M. J. Ikenebomeh and S. Ezeibe Full Length Research Paper The mineral content, essential amino acids and selected functional properties of composite blend of maize flour (MF) and boiled bambara groundnut flour (BGF) in the ratio 70:30 w/w were investigated using standard processing technique. Results obtained showed that maize flour blended with 30% bambara groundnut in addition to germination significantly improved the mineral and amino acids profile of the composite blend. Functional properties (bulk density, water absorption capacity and foam capacity) were also affected by fermentation, which significantly lowered the water absorption capacity and bulk density increased the foam capacity of bambara-maizelsquo;ogirsquo;. Sensory evaluation indicated that the bambara-maizelsquo;ogirsquo; was generally acceptable. The application of bambara groundnut blend to traditional foods suggests a viable option for promoting the nutritional qualities of Africa maize-based traditional foods with acceptable cooking qualities. Key words: Fermented maize flour, bambara groundnut, mineralcontent, functional properties. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/1B6280520208 en Copyright © 2009 T. I. Mbata, , M. J. Ikenebomeh and S. Ezeibe
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:149DCA920217 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Effect of dry and wet milling processing techniques on the nutrient composition and organoleptic attributes of fermented yellow maize (Zea mays) Grace, T. O. Otitoju Full Length Research Paper The Study compared the chemical composition and sensory attributes of fermented yellow maize (Zea mays) processed by two methods. The grains were divided into two equal portions and fermented for 48 h. One portion was drained, sun-dried, dry-milled and subdivided into two equal parts: one was unsieved-dried-milled flour (UDM) and the other was sieved-dried-milled flour (SDM). The second portion of the grains was drained, wet-milled and subdivided into two equal parts unsieved-wet-milled flour (UWM) and sieved-wet-milled flour (SWM). The flours of UDM, SDM, UWM and SWM were analyzed for crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrate, crude fibre and ash. Gruels were prepared from the flour samples and their organoleptic attributes were tested for colour, texture, flavour and general acceptability. The nutrient content of UDM and SDM flour were significantly higher than the UWM and SWM in terms of protein, fat, ash and fibre contents. There was no significant difference in the carbohydrate levels based on the processing techniques used. Organoleptic attributes of gruels also showed no significant difference for SDM, UWM, and SWM. However, the effect of dry-milling without sieving seems to offer more benefits in conserving and improving the proximate (nutrient) levels of fermented maize ndash; lsquo;ogirsquo;. Key words: Nutrient composition, fermented maize, organoleptic attributes. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/149DCA920217 en Copyright © 2009 Grace, T. O. Otitoju
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:607946220252 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Colours of Health Debasish Kundu Editorial Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/607946220252 en Copyright © 2009 Debasish Kundu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:C51FF2120266 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Adsorption isotherm modeling of soy-melon-enriched and un-enriched ‘gari’ using GAB equation M. O. Oluwamukomi Full Length Research Paper Fresh samples of soy-melon enriched and un-enriched (control) ldquo;garirdquo; (afermented, dewatered and toasted granule from cassava) widely consumed all over West Africa and in Brazil, were prepared and used to determine their sorption isotherms. The sorption isotherms were determined within a range of water activities of (0.20 - 0.92) at three different temperatures of 20, 30 and 40oC using the static gravimetric method. Results showed that the water sorption was temperature dependent as typical of food systems. The higher the temperature, the lower the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) at constant water activity (aw). EMC for soy-melon ldquo;garirdquo; ranged between 0.022 kgkg-1 (db) and 0.320 kgkg-1(db) within the temperature range of 20 and 40oC; while those of un-enriched (control) ldquo;garirdquo; ranged between 0.054 kgkg-1(db) and 0.335 kgkg-1(db). The GAB monolayer moisture values (Mo) were 0.044, 0.032 and 0.023 kgkg-1(db) at 20, 30, and 40oC respectively for soy-melon ldquo;garirdquo;; while for the control ldquo;garirdquo; samples, they were 0.080, 0.059, and 0.050 kgkg-1 (db). The lsquo;Mean relative percent modulusrsquo; (E%) values were 9.45, 7.37, and 9.61% at 20, 30 and 40oC respectively for soy-melon ldquo;garirdquo; samples; while for the control samples they were 3.76, 2.48, and 2.04%. The RSS values ranged from 0.0002 to 0.0008 for soy-melon gari while they ranged from 0.0001 to 0.0004 for the un-enriched gari at temperature between 20 and 40oC. All the E% values were below 10%. These showed that there was perfect fitness between the experimental moisture sorption and the predicted GAB sorption. However, the values for un-enriched (control) ldquo;garirdquo; samples were consistently lower than those of the enriched gari showing that GAB model could be used to predict the moisture equilibrium of control ldquo;garirdquo; samples better than those of soy-melon ldquo;garirdquo; at the range of water activities used in this study. Key words: Soy-melon ldquo;garirdquo;, supplementation, EMC, sorption isotherm. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/C51FF2120266 en Copyright © 2009 M. O. Oluwamukomi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:C778CEF20276 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Triple simultaneous stabilizing action of rosemary spice (Rosemarinum officinalis L.) in full-fat soya based flour rich in protein and β-carotene S. O. Oiye, A. M. Mwangi, J. K. Imungi and J. J. Sehmi Full Length Research Paper This study aimed at demonstrating the stabilizing effect of up to 0.4% (wt/wt flour) of rosemary spice (Rosemarinum Officinalis L.) in a flour-based protein-rich product intended for young children. The flour was made of full-fat soya flour, meat (beef) powder, and carrot flour as beta;-carotene source. Analysis was done for proximate composition, beta;-carotene content, microbial load and sensory evaluation for rancidity over time. Different levels of rosemary spice salvaged a net of 3.42 - 3.83 mg/100 g of beta;-carotene within a storage period of 7 weeks at 35deg;C accounting for up to 18% of beta;-carotene sparing as compared to the non-spicy sample. There was, however, no evidence of increased protection of beta;-carotene with increase in rosemary spice concentration. Rancid odors and flavour were detected in samples with spice, latter than in samples with no spice. Rosemary spice exhibited up to a net of 38% reduction in microbial load in spicy samples as compared to the non-spicy sample. In a protein, fat and beta;-carotene rich flour-based product, rosemary spice exhibits triple stabilizing action. The phenolic compounds (rosemarinic, carnosol and carnosic acid) in rosemary spice limits beta;-carotene degradation and decelerates the production of secondary products of lipid oxidation while the terpene fractions are implicated for halting the proliferation of micro-organisms. Key words: Rosemary spice, high protein beta;-carotene-rich flour, antioxidant effect, antimicrobial effect. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/C778CEF20276 en Copyright © 2009 S. O. Oiye, A. M. Mwangi, J. K. Imungi and J. J. Sehmi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:8F46AFA20290 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Bioavailability from electrolytic and reduced iron in humans is enhanced by NaFe-EDTA and vitamin A in corn and wheat flours. Effect of serum retinol status Maria N. Garciacute;a-Casal, Joseacute; Ramiacute;rez and Irene Leets Full Length Research Paper The objective was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo of the effect of NaFe-EDTA and vitamin A on iron solubility and absorption from corn and wheat breads fortified with electrolytic or reduced iron. Subjects (178) were randomly selected to receive breads containing electrolytic or reduced iron, NaFe-EDTA and a combination of one elemental iron and NaFe-EDTA. One meal also included vitamin A (300.3mgRE: 1000 IU). Meals contained radioactive and 5 mg cold iron/bread. Radioactivity in blood reflected iron absorption. Serum retinol was measured by HPLC. Solubility tests were performed increasing the pH of iron solutions from 2 to 6 and measuring iron in the supernatant. NaFe-EDTA significantly (p lt; 0.05) increased absorption from electrolytic and reduced iron above the calculated expected values of the compounds administered separately. The increase ranged from 12 to 49% depending on the elemental iron tested. Addition of vitamin A further and significantly (p lt; 0.05) increased iron absorption and there was a 55.7% prevalence of vitamin A deficiency. NaFe-EDTA also increased in vitro solubility of iron and vitamin A produced further and significant (p lt; 0.05) increments. Iron absorption and solubility from electrolytic and reduced iron was significantly enhanced by the inclusion of NaFe-EDTA and vitamin A in corn or wheat breads or in vitro. Serum retinol status was low in subjects studied and iron absorption was higher in retinol deficient subjects. Key words: Electrolytic iron, NaFe-EDTA, vitamin A, iron bioavailability, corn, wheat. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/8F46AFA20290 en Copyright © 2009 Maria N. Garciacute;a-Casal, Joseacute; Ramiacute;rez and Irene Leets
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:3C96AE720302 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Full Length Research Paper Chemical, functional and sensory properties of roasted bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L. Verdc) and cooking banana (Musa spp., ABB genome) weaning diet Ijarotimi Oluwole Steve, Oyewo Mary Temitope and Oladeji Babatunde Stephen Full Length Research Paper The cooking banana and bambara ground nut were processed into flour, mixed in ratios of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40 respectively and chemical, functional and sensory properties were evaluated. The protein contents of formulated samples were significantly higher than ogi, but lower than nutrend (p lt; 0.05). Also, the energy values of CBR4 (384.4 plusmn; 0.3 kcal.) was significantly lower than the nutrend (397.1 plusmn; 1.8 kcal.) (p lt; 0.05) and there was no significant difference with the ogi (383.1 plusmn; 0.1 kcal.) (p lt; 0.05). The mineral composition of CBR4 had the highest amount of calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, sodium and phosphorous when compared with other formulated food samples. The CBR4 had the highest water absorption capacity, least gelation capacity and swelling capacity, while CBR1 had the least values of the formulated food samples. The overall acceptability of the formulated food samples were significantly lower than the ogi and nutrend (p lt; 0.05). The amount of CBR3 and CBR4 needed to meet the RDA for energy, protein and minerals of infant were comparable with that of nutrend, but lower than ogi. The study concluded that the nutrient composition of CBR4 was better than ogi, but lower than nutrend. Hence, it may be used as a substitute for ogi and the expensive commercial weaning formula. Key words: Chemical composition, functional properties, cooking banana, bambara groundnut, infant mix. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/3C96AE720302 en Copyright © 2009 Ijarotimi Oluwole Steve, Oyewo Mary Temitope and Oladeji Babatunde Stephen
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:5EC2C3D20313 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Promotion of coconut in the production of yoghurt Rita E. Sanful Short Communication Yoghurt was produced from milk obtained from coconut milk and skimmed cow milk, by fermentation using starter cultures. The results obtained show that the pH of the various products ranged from 4.2 - 4.4. The acceptability of the yoghurt produced was investigated in a sensory evaluation study. The sensory evaluation study of the samples indicated that yogurt produced from skimmed cow milk did not differ from those produced from coconut and cow milk composites in all sensory quality attributes. Thus coconut milk can be used with cow milk to produce acceptable and affordable yoghurt since coconut milk is cheaper. The results also showed that middle aged coconut (7 - 8 months old) could be used for the production of acceptable yoghurt. Key words: Sensory evaluation, starter culture, coconut, substrate. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/5EC2C3D20313 en Copyright © 2009 Rita E. Sanful
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:CAC356120330 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Survival of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 during the storage of fermented peanut milk (PM) and skim milk (SM) products Barka Mohammed Kabeir, Abdul Manap Yazid, Muhammad Nazrul Hakim, Ali Khahatan, Anis Shaborin and Shuhaimi Mustafa Full Length Research Paper Survivability of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 in fermented peanut milk (PM) and skim milk (SM) directly or supplemented with fructooligosacharide (FOS) and human grade yeast extract was evaluated under refrigeration and 25deg;C for a period of 2 weeks. During the study period, the development of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic and butyric) were also examined. The fermented products were prepared utilizing inoculum of 0.67% and anaerobic incubation under control conditions using 1 l volume bioreactor to final pH less than 5. Initial mean viable number of strain G4 ranged between 7.12 - 8.35 cfu/ml fermented PM and 7.28 - 8.39 cfu/ml fermented SM based products. The viable strain G4 in fermented samples held at 25deg;C for 2 weeks decreased to a level of lt; 7 log cfu/ml due to the pH reductions, which were explained by increases in lactic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. This final viability of the fermented products is below the requirement to claim probiotic effects upon their consumptions, while at refrigeration (4deg;C) storage, the viability maintained in fermented products was higher exceeding the mean recommended level of 7 log cfu viable probiotic per ml product generally. Therefore, fermented PM products especially supplemented with FOS containing strain G4 could maintain probiotics effects under refrigeration for a period of 2 weeks. Key words: Bifidobacterium, storage, survival, organic acids, peanut milk. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/CAC356120330 en Copyright © 2009 Barka Mohammed Kabeir, Abdul Manap Yazid, Muhammad Nazrul Hakim, Ali Khahatan, Anis Shaborin and Shuhaimi Mustafa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:156979520347 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Effect of period of steaming and drying temperature on chemical properties of cashew nut S. B. Kosoko, L. O. Sanni, A. A. Adebowale, A. O. Daramola and M. O. Oyelakin Full Length Research Paper This study investigated effect of period of steaming (20, 30 and 40 min) and drying temperature (50, 60 and 70deg;C) on the chemical properties of cashew nut. The nuts were packaged in glass bottle, polyethylene bag and plastic bottle and stored under ambient condition (28 plusmn; 3deg;C) for 12 weeks. The samples were analyzed immediately after drying and at two weeks interval during storage for chemical properties. The ranges of the properties studied are - moisture content (4.16 to 6.76%), oil extracted (40.08 to 47.01%), oil colour intensity (0.08 to 0.58A), residual sugar content (1.57 to 6.04%), residual cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) (0.30 to 3.77%), acid value (0.58 to 12.32 ml/g), peroxide value (2.80 to 25.32 mEq/kg) and anisidine value (0.85 to 5.94 ml/g). Steam boiling time and drying temperatures has significant differences (p lt; 0.05) on the chemical properties of the dried cashew nuts. Cashew nuts processed by steam boiling for 40 min and dried at 70deg;C recorded the best quality, as it reduces both the residual CNSL and the moisture content of the kernel. It also had a positive influence on the % residual sugar of the sample. Key words: Cashew nut, steaming period, drying temperature, chemical properties. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/156979520347 en Copyright © 2009 S. B. Kosoko, L. O. Sanni, A. A. Adebowale, A. O. Daramola and M. O. Oyelakin
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:6B623C420359 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Studies on the microbiological, nutrient composition and antinutritional contents of fermented maize flour fortified with bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L) T. I. Mbata, , M. J. Ikenebomeh and J. C. Alaneme Full Length Research Paper The nutrient composition, antinutritional factors and microflora in spontaneously fermenting maize flour fortified with bambara groundnut were examined over a period of 72 h. Titratable acidity as well as pH changes was obtained at 12 h interval during fermentation by adventitious microorganisms present in the fortified product. Results obtained showed that microflora gradually changed from gram negative enteric bacteria, molds, lactic acid bacteria and yeast to be dominated by gram positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. All undesirable microorganisms such as coliforms and molds which were present at the start of fermentation were totally eliminated by 24 h of fermentation. Yeasts and LAB numbers in the fortified dough varied between 4.44 and 7.36 log cfu‑1. LAB number increased from 5.40 to 7.36 log cfu-1 during fermentation. Yeasts increased from 4.44 to 5.60 log cfu-1. The product pH decreased with concomitant increase in moisture, fat, ash, fibre and titratable acidity with increasing bambara groundnut addition. Bambara groundnut addition caused only minimal changes in the proximate composition with the exception of protein content, which increased remarkably from 18.40 to 21.68% with 30% bambara groundnut addition. Boiling, sprouting and fermentation significantly decreased the tannins and trypsin inhibitors levels. Boiling Bambara groundnut for 20 min before incorporation into the maize flour imparted a desirable flavour. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that the foods were well accepted. Based on the findings the application of bambara groundnut fortification to traditional foods can promote the nutritional quality of African maize - based traditional foods with acceptable rheological and cooking qualities. Key words: Spontaneous fermentation, fermented maize flour, Bambara groundnut fortification, micropopulation, nutrient quality, antinutritional factors, rheology. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/6B623C420359 en Copyright © 2009 T. I. Mbata, , M. J. Ikenebomeh and J. C. Alaneme
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:2AF57D720365 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Scoparia dulcis protects against Trypanosoma brucei-induced immunosuppression in experimentally infected rabbits N. E. J. Orhue, E. A. C. Nwanze and A. Okafor Full Length Research Paper The present paper summarizes our findings on the effect of Scoparia dulcis on the population of immune cells during a 28 day experimental Trypanosoma bruceiinfection in rabbits. The result obtained showed that infection resulted in an initial rise in both total white blood cells (WBC) and the absolute number of circulating lymphocytes followed by a progressive decrease in total WBC and all WBC subtypes namely; lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes, although the % lymphocytes (lymphocytes expressed as % of total WBC) remained consistently higher than normal throughout the study period. These changes are consistent with the development of trypanosome-induced immunosuppression in their mammalian host. Treatment with S. dulcis at a daily oral dose of 25 mg/Kg body weight significantly reduced the severity of the observed lesions (p lt; 0.05) when compared with untreated infected animals. Thus the herb demonstrates significant potency in protecting against the parasite induced decrease in the population of immunologically active cells. Key words: Trypanosoma brucei, Immunosuppresion, Scoparia dulcis, rabbit. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/2AF57D720365 en Copyright © 2009 N. E. J. Orhue, E. A. C. Nwanze and A. Okafor
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:9E6B67E20382 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
The nutritional composition, sensory evaluation and microbiological studies of fish cake made from shrimp bycatch Osibona Adesola Olayinka, Akinwande Akinpelu Tope, Ozor Patricia and R.Akande Gbola Full Length Research Paper This study reports on the nutritional composition, sensory evaluation and microbiological studies of fish cake made from shrimp bycatch. The yield of mince from the bycatch was 80.26% mince; 10.21% residue and 9.53% loss. The mince proximate composition was 66.32% moisture; 20.08% protein; 3.45% lipid and 3.93% ash. The proximate composition of the raw fish cakes was 64.40% moisture; 19.13% protein; 4.14% lipid; 6.11% ash and 6.22% carbohydrate. The deep fried fish cake had 60.12% moisture; 21.01% protein; 8.50% lipid; 6.30% ash and 4.07% carbohydrate. No significant difference (P gt; 0.05) was observed between the proximate composition of raw and deep fried fish cake. The peroxide values (PV) of raw and deep fried fish cake ranged from 7.20 - 22.00 mEqO2/Kg of lipid during six week storage period. There was significant correlation between storage time and peroxide values in both treatments. Microbiological analysis showed that the Total Viable Count (TVC) decreased with increase in frozen period. The results obtained were within the acceptable limit of International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Food. The organoleptic properties of the deep fried cake indicated that the product was acceptable until about the fourth week. The study showed that fish cake from shrimp bycatch is microbiologically safe and nutritionally high in protein, fat as well as calcium. Key words: Bycatch, fishcake, shrimp, sensory, proximate, mince, peroxide values, staphylococcus. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/9E6B67E20382 en Copyright © 2009 Osibona Adesola Olayinka, Akinwande Akinpelu Tope, Ozor Patricia and R.Akande Gbola
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:C7672F420392 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Assessment of vitamin A content and sensory attributes of new sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) genotypes in Ghana George Ofori, Ibok Oduro, W. O. Ellis and K. Harrison Dapaah Full Length Research Paper A study was conducted to assay the vitamin A contents of the leaves and roots of twenty four (24) newly bred sweet potato varieties and also assess the sensory attributes of the roots. Four months old genotypes of sweet potato leaves and roots were obtained from Fiaso, in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana, and were analysed using the Reverse Phase HPLC techniques for their alpha; ndash;, szlig;ndash; and total carotenoid contents. A farmer participatory approach was used in the assessment of the sensory attributes of both boiled and fried sample of sweet potato roots.Xushu 18 was the most preferred variety, followed by TIS 2534 and Beauregard 566613 for the boiled roots. SPK 004 was the best preferred variety for the fried roots, followed by VSP 4 and Beauregard 566613. The fresh sweet potato leaves recorded total carotenoid levels of 2228 ndash; 9173.8 g/100 g, beta;-carotene of 508.7ndash;3660.8 g/100 g and alpha;-carotene of 34.4 ndash; 1904.6 g/100 g. The data obtained for the roots ranged from 225.4 ndash; 5243 g/100 g for total carotenoid, 13 ndash; 2145.6 g/100 g for beta;-carotene and traces of alpha;-carotene with the exception of 8 samples that recorded values in the range of 0.1 to 473.9 g/100 g. It was observed that varieties or genotypes with high levels of leaf provitamin A carotenoid recorded low values in roots and vice versa. Beta; -carotene was the most dominant provitamin A carotenoid in both the leaves and roots of the sweet potato varieties. Varieties with high levels of carotenoid for both leaves and roots can therefore play a complementary role in initiatives designed to reduce vitamin A deficiency. Key words: Carotenoids, roots, participatory approach, complementary. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/C7672F420392 en Copyright © 2009 George Ofori, Ibok Oduro, W. O. Ellis and K. Harrison Dapaah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:8E0693D20401 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Broodstock feeding effects on spawning performances’ (fertility, eggs and larvae quality) of the Mediterranean red porgy (Pagrus pagrus, Linnaeus 1758) during two years Azeddine Abrehouch, Mohamed Idaomar, Ali AIT ALI, Hassan Nhhalaand El Mostafa Talbaoui Full Length Research Paper Spawning in captivity of two broodstock groups of red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) of the same age was studied during two consecutive spawning seasons. These two broodstock groups, designed as A and B, were fed with different regimes during the spawning period. Group A was fed on moist pellet while group B was fed on fresh fish. Total number of collected eggs was 22 and 36 million respectively for groups A and B during the first year. Fecundity was 474,966 and 769,186 eggs kg-1 female respectively. During the second year, total number of collected eggs was only 5 million for group A and 32 million for group B. The fecundity was 192,094 and 1.1 million eggs kg-1 female respectively. Statistically, there was a significant difference between the slopes of the two groups in terms of quantity and quality of spawning and larval survival recorded on the second and fifth day after hatching. The viable egg rate was positively correlated with the second day larval survival, which in turn was significantly correlated with hatching egg rate. These data showed that time of collecting eggs for incubation, does not affect hatching rate and larvae survival rate. Key words: Pagrus, red porgy, spawning, egg quality, fertility. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/8E0693D20401 en Copyright © 2009 Azeddine Abrehouch, Mohamed Idaomar, Ali AIT ALI, Hassan Nhhalaand El Mostafa Talbaoui
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:DF0B68D20411 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Effect of refining on the quality and composition of groundnut oil E. O. Aluyor, P. Aluyor and C. E. Ozigagu Full Length Research Paper Crude groundnut oil was obtained by solvent extraction from groundnut seeds and refined. The crude and refined oils were then analyzed. The results obtained show that the acid value decreased from 2.890 to 0.420 mg/KOH. Free fatty acid decrease after refining from 2.82 to 2.02%; phospholipids decreased from 23.11 to 5.53%; copper content decreased from 0.37 to 0.0361% and iron decreased from 3.98 to 0.31%. These can be viewed as an improvement in the quality of the oil after refining. Refining did not have much effect on the fatty acids composition except for slight inconsistent decrease in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Key words: Free fatty acids, phospholipids, crude, refined, gas chromatography. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/DF0B68D20411 en Copyright © 2009 E. O. Aluyor, P. Aluyor and C. E. Ozigagu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:503225A20422 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Assessment of electrical energy use efficiency in Nigeria food industry A. O. Aderemi, M. O. Ilori, H. O. Aderemi and J. F. K. Akinbami Full Length Research Paper This study examined various patterns of energy consumption; it identified the sources of energy wastage, and assessed the effectiveness of the strategies that were employed to reduce energy waste in the food companies. This was with a view to recommending policy measures that would enhance effective electrical energy savings in the industry. Random sampling technique was used to select the food companies in South-western Nigeria which represent more than 50% of the Nigerian food and beverage companies. Structured questionnaire, interview and direct observation were employed as research instruments. Analytical procedure as given by Knutson and ANSI/NEMP for calculating electrical energy lost to heat per hour (Wh/h) and power factor respectively was adopted for the study. The study showed that the pattern of electrical energy consumption in the food companies was mainly from generating set; this was due to either low voltage or epileptic power supply from national grid. Direct and indirect sources that lead to electrical energy waste and in-efficient energy utilization in the industry were identified such as energy loss as a result of worn out or slack / misaligned belts that need timely replacement or tensioning, training and retraining of staff, power factor of electrical equipment among others. Three out of eleven strategies were effective in reducing the companiesrsquo; electricity bill by 3% for the same quantity of production. These include: switching off most lighting during day time; instant replacement / tensioning of worn out / slack belts or chains and; disconnection of all faulty equipment. This finding shows that 72.8% of all the acclaimed strategies to reduce energy consumption were not effective. The study concluded that the factors that constituted electrical energy waste and energy use inefficiency in the food companies in the study area were very identical and recommendations for effective energy use efficiency in the firms were proposed. Key words: Electrical energy, efficiency, energy waste, food industry, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/503225A20422 en Copyright © 2009 A. O. Aderemi, M. O. Ilori, H. O. Aderemi and J. F. K. Akinbami
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:4305A2320429 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Simultaneous effect of divalent cation in hydrolyzed cassava starch medium used by immobilized yeast for ethanol production Okon, Anne Anthony and U. Nwabueze, Titus Full Length Research Paper Response surface methodology was adopted in a central composite design to optimize ethanol production from cassava starch hydrolysate medium. Starch hydrolyzate was prepared from TMS 98/0581, a genetically developed cassava mosaic disease-resistant variety. The yeast whole cell, Saccharomyces pastorianus, a lager brewing strain (726 x 106 cells/ml, 98.78% viability) and fungamyl and termamyl (a-amylase enzymes), used for the 120 h fermentation, were immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate gel. Effects of three divalent cationic concentrations Mg2+, Zn2+ and Ca2+ on ethanol yield were investigated at five variable combinations in 20 experimental runs in accordance with the experimental design. Maximum ethanol concentration of 12.53 %v/v was produced in the 96 h of fermentation when the divalent cationic combination was 64, 0.48 and 30 mg/l (Mg2+, Zn2+ and Ca2+), respectively. The study showed that effect of Zn2+ on ethanol yield was significantly (Ple;0.05) quadratic. Keywords: Ethanol, immobilization, Saccharomyces pastorianus, divalent cations, optimization, response surface methodology, cassava mosaic disease. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/4305A2320429 en Copyright © 2009 Okon, Anne Anthony and U. Nwabueze, Titus
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:8CA575F20441 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
The need for adequate processing to reduce the anti-nutritional factors in plants used as human foods and animal feeds: A review K. O. Soetan and O. E. Oyewole Review Anti-nutritional factors (ANF) are compounds which reduce the nutrient utilization and/or food intake of plants or plant products used as human foods or animal feeds and they play a vital role in determining the use of plants for humans and animals. Apart from cyanogenic glycosides, food poisoning arising from anti-nutritional factors, otherwise known as plantsrsquo; secondary metabolites has not been properly addressed in most parts of the developing world. People have died out of ignorance, poverty and inadequate nutrition information and education, especially within the African societies. There are reports from time to time of deaths after consumption of some type of beans despite cooking. Also, cases of renal and liver diseases are increasing and this calls for a need to properly address the issue of thorough and adequate processing of foods/feeds before consumption. The aim of this review is to emphasize on the adequate processing of foods/feeds and to educate the people on the dangers of consuming improperly processed foods especially legumes which are reported to contain very high concentrations of anti-nutritional factors. Key words: Processing methods, anti-nutritional factors, plants, human foods, animal feeds. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/8CA575F20441 en Copyright © 2009 K. O. Soetan and O. E. Oyewole
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:3E45C4020448 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Proximate composition and amino acid profile of two non-conventional leafy vegetables (Hibiscus cannabinus and Haematostaphis barteri) D. Kubmarawa, I. F. H. Andenyang and A. M. Magomya Full Length Research Paper Two non-conventional leafy vegetables namely Hibiscus cannabinus and Haematostaphis barteri consumed largely by the rural dwellers in Adamawa State of Nigeria were subjected to standard chemical analysis to determine proximate nutrient content, amino acid composition and anti-nutritional factors. The results of the proximate analysis showed high crude fibre in H. barteri (33.04%), H. cannabinus had percentage crude fibre (29.61%). The protein contents were relatively high in both vegetables (13.78 and 12.40%), respectively. Carbohydrate, lipid, ash and moisture contents were within the range of values expected for dry leafy vegetables. All the essential amino acids were present in good quantities in both vegetables. Only cysteine and methionine ranked below 50% in comparison to the WHO/ FAO reference protein. The anti-nutritional factors analysed in the vegetables namely, tannins, oxalates, and phytates were lower than the range of values reported for most vegetables. Key words: Hibiscus cannabinus, Haematostaphis barteri, vegetables, nutrients, anti nutrients. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/3E45C4020448 en Copyright © 2009 D. Kubmarawa, I. F. H. Andenyang and A. M. Magomya
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:011BD2F20459 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Rheological characteristics of food gum (Cissus populnea) Joseph Shi-an Alakali, Simon Verlumun Irtwange and Moses Mkavga Full Length Research Paper The rheological characteristics (consistency and flow behavior indices) of food gum (Cissus populnea) exudates obtained from the fresh leaves and stem as well as dried leaves and stem were determined at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60deg;C using a rotational viscometer at shear rates of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 rpm for effective design and simulation of its momentum transfer process and system. The experimental design used for the study of consistency and flow behavior indices ofC. populnea at 20 - 60deg;C was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The study revealed that consistency index (K) of C. populnea exudates generally increased with increase in temperature. The K values for the fresh were generally higher than the dried materials. The K values of the fresh stem exudates, which is more viscous, were significantly (Plt; 0.05) different from the less viscous fresh leaves exudates, but did not show significant (Pge; 0.05) difference with the dried leaves which became concentrated due to drying. The flow behavior index did not show any defined trend with changes in temperature, and was not significantly (Pge;0.05) different. The exudates generally exhibited pseudoplastic behavior at all the temperatures studied. A study of the apparent viscosity of the exudates between temperatures of 20 - 150deg;C shows that apparent viscosity increased with increase in temperature below the boiling point of 70deg;C. However, above the boiling point, the apparent viscosity decreased with increase in temperature. The viscosity-temperature data were fitted in Arrhenius-type equation and yielded activation energies between 0.997 to 2.431 KJ/moldeg;C, corresponding to temperature range between 20 - 70deg;C and 1.632 to 2.580 KJ/mol with K corresponding to temperature range between 70-150deg;C. Key words: Rheological characteristics, consistency index, flow behavior index, Cissus populnea. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/011BD2F20459 en Copyright © 2009 Joseph Shi-an Alakali, Simon Verlumun Irtwange and Moses Mkavga
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:20F64E420462 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Essential elements content in core vegetables grown and consumed in Ghana by instrumental neutron activation analysis D. K. Adotey, Y. Serfor-Armah, J. R. Fianko, and P.O. Yeboah Full Length Research Paper Food is the primary source of essential nutrients for man. Vegetables are essential part of the Ghanaian diet; therefore the nutritional status of vegetables is of importance. Vegetables that constitute an esse-ntial part of the Ghanaian diet have been analyzed for essential elements content (Ca, Mg, K, Co, Br, Mn, and Na) using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The purpose of the study was to design a nutrient database of the core vegetables grown and consumed in Ghana and in addition to ascertain the content of the essential elements in the vegetables. The accuracy of the method was verified by analysis of a compositionally appropriate reference material, IAEA -359 (CABBAGE). The results of the study revealed the presence of Br, Ca, Co, K, Mg, Mn, and Na in all the five vegetables studied. Ca, Mg, and K were present in the g/kg range in all five vegetables. The content of Na, Mn, Co and Br was in the mg/kg range in all five vegetables investigated. Key words: Vegetables, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, Elemental concentration, Ghana Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/20F64E420462 en Copyright © 2009 D. K. Adotey, Y. Serfor-Armah, J. R. Fianko, and P.O. Yeboah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:48D805520472 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Health implications of toxigenic fungi found in two Nigerian staples: guinea corn and rice Makun Hussaini Anthony, Gbodi Timothy Ayinla, Akanya Olufunmilayo Helmina, Salako A. Ezekiel and Ogbadu Godwin Haruna Full Length Research Paper A total of one hundred and forty eight fungi isolated from both guinea corn (67) and rice (81) in a previous fungal and mycotoxin survey in Niger State, Nigeria, were tested for toxicity potential in white albino mice. Of all these, 64.2% were found to produce toxic metabolites that were lethal to mice and were mainly species ofAspergillus spp, Fusarium spp, Penicillium spp and Trichoderma spp. Others include Syncephalastrum spp, Alternaria spp, Phoma spp, Curvularia lunata, Colletotrichum spp., Geotrichum candidum and Helminthosporium spp, Cladosporium werneckil, and Mucor spp. and the bacteria Cryptococcus neoformis. The novel, most toxigenic fungi found contaminating these two staples were Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg, previously known as Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon (CABI Biosciences is IMI 392668).The extract of the fungus caused lethality to mice at 40 mg /kg b. wt. The health implications of these toxic microbes in our diets were discussed. Key words: Guinea corn, rice, Nigeria, toxigenic fungi, mycotoxins. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/48D805520472 en Copyright © 2009 Makun Hussaini Anthony, Gbodi Timothy Ayinla, Akanya Olufunmilayo Helmina, Salako A. Ezekiel and Ogbadu Godwin Haruna
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:642CFDC20480 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Response surface optimization of D(-)-lactic acid production from Lactobacillus SMI8 using corn steep liquor and yeast autolysate as nitrogen sources C. J. B. de Lima, L. F. Coelho, K. C. Blanco and J. Contiero Full Length Research Paper The production of D (-)-lactic acid from Lactobacillus LMI8 sp. was optimizated by central composite design, using two low-cost nitrogen sources: corn steep liquor (CSL) and yeast autolysate (YA). The fermentation were performed in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 100 mL of production medium, maintained at 200 rpm and 37plusmn;1deg;C for 48 h. After data analysis by surface response method, it was revealed that Lactic acid production was significantly affected by the isolated CSL as well as the interaction between CSL and YA and the maximal production of D(-) lactic acid was 41.42 g/L ndash; a value located at the central point, which corresponded to 15 g/L of CSL and 5 g/L of YA. Key words: D(-)-Lactic acid, Lactobacillus, Corn steep liquor, yeast autolysate, response surface methodology. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/642CFDC20480 en Copyright © 2009 C. J. B. de Lima, L. F. Coelho, K. C. Blanco and J. Contiero
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:53412E920489 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Obtention of enzymatically hydrolyzed flour from epiphytes cactus phyllocladia (Epiphyllum hookeri (Link and Otto) Kimn.) Padroacute;n-Pereira, Carlos Alberto , Moreno-Aacute;lvarez, Mario Joseacute; , Montes-Hernaacute;ndez, Adriana Isabel, Oropeza-Gonzaacute;lez and Rafael Antonio Full Length Research Paper The purpose of this work was to obtain an enzymatically hydrolyzed flour from phyllocladia of Epiphyllum hookeri. The phyllocladia flour was subjected to the action of the commercial enzymatic prepara-tions using Rapidasereg; TF and Rapidasereg; LIQ Plus. Enzymes at the ratio of 1:1 under fixed conditions of temperature 35ordm;plusmn;1ordm;C; pH 5.7 plusmn; 0.1, and continuous agitation at 150 rpm. The optimum kinetic parameters studied were established: enzyme and substrate concentration optima, reaction time, Michaelis Menten constant, maximum velocity and turnover number. The fibrous constituents in the hydrolyzed fl-our sig-nificantly decreased (Plt;0.05), with exception of the reducing sugar which increased (Plt;0.05). The sugars yield was 2.89% (w/w). The hydrolysis produced modifications in the functional properties, presenting less capacity for water and oil absorption and cations interchange, and greater solubility in water. Key words: Cactus, Epiphyllum hookeri, phyllocladia, flour, enzymatic hydrolysis, functional properties. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/53412E920489 en Copyright © 2009 Padroacute;n-Pereira, Carlos Alberto , Moreno-Aacute;lvarez, Mario Joseacute; , Montes-Hernaacute;ndez, Adriana Isabel, Oropeza-Gonzaacute;lez and Rafael Antonio
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:B3368A920494 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
The microbial quality of pre-packed mixed vegetable salad in some retail outlets in Lagos, Nigeria R. E. Uzeh, F. A. Alade, and M. Bankole Full Length Research Paper Pre-packed mixed vegetable salad and salad ingredients- carrots, cucumber, cabbage, and lettuce were analyzed for their microbial quality. The salads were obtained from fast food outlets (well packaged at 4oC) and open markets (exposed at 35oC) within Lagos metropolis. The analysis was both qualitative and quantitative. Microorganisms isolated from salad samples from fast food outlets include Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichoderma spp, Staphylococcus aureus andProteus mirabilis, while those isolated from open market samples include Mucorspp, A. fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma spp, Neurospora crassa,Proteus vulgaris, S. aureus, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, andCorynebacterium spp. Those from salad ingredients include Mucor spp, A. fumigatus, Trichoderma spp, N. crassa, Rhizopus spp, A. niger, P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis, S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and C. fruendii. The total viable count was highest in salad samples from open markets (5.9times;106 cfu/g) and lowest in salad samples from fast food outlets (2.6 times; 104 cfu/g). The total viable counts obtained from the salad ingredients were generally lower than those obtained from salads. Among the salad ingredients the highest count was however obtained from carrot (3.0 times; 102 cfu/g) and lowest count from cucumber (1.3 times; 102 cfu/g). Gentamicin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazoleoflaxacin were most effective against the bacterial isolates yielding greater zones of inhibition. The storage temperature and the dirty nature of the open markets must have been responsible for the occurrence of more microorganisms in salad samples from open markets than those from fast food outlets. The need for safe salad can not be overemphasized. Key words: Vegetable salad, salad ingredients, microorganisms, fast food outlets, open markets. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/B3368A920494 en Copyright © 2009 R. E. Uzeh, F. A. Alade, and M. Bankole
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:9D6A17320501 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Investigation of the potential of fortified instant Matooke flour in rehabilitation of malnourished children. Part 1: Optimal level of fortification of instant tooke flour porridge and its nutritional quality attributes Florence Isabirye Muranga, Miriam Kanyago, Fabian Nabugoomu and James M. Ntambi Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study was to optimize levels of incorporation of soybean and sesame flours into instant tooke (cooking banana) flour (ITF) porridge with respect to sensory quality. The flours were prepared using conventional dehydration procedures. A mixture design was developed for incorporating sesame and soybean flours into matooke flour. From the design thirteen porridge formulations were developed on which sensory evaluation was determined using 9-point hedonic scale. Sensory parameters determined were taste color, flavor, consistency, mouth feel and overall acceptability. Based on sensory evaluation, one optimal formulation was identified. Nutritional quality attributes of the optimum formulation were determined. Viscosity was determined using the Rapid Visco-Analyser. The optimal formulation was 64.90, 16.34 and 18.76 % matooke, soybean and sesame respectively. The results indicated that incorporation of soybean and sesame into ITF porridge significantly (plt;0.001) enhanced its sensory quality attributes. Energy density and protein content of the optimum formulation was 502.12 Kcal and 11.1% respectively. Incorporation of sesame and soybean flours into ITF resulted in reduction in viscosity. The study suggested that fortification of ITF with soybean and sesame enhances sensory and nutritional quality. Key words: Matooke, fortification, Optimization. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/9D6A17320501 en Copyright © 2009 Florence Isabirye Muranga, Miriam Kanyago, Fabian Nabugoomu and James M. Ntambi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:24E7C5620515 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Investigation of the potential of fortified instant Matooke flour (ITF) in rehabilitation of malnourished children. Part II: Testing potential of ITF as a vehicle food for malnutrition intervention Florence I. Muranga, , Miriam Kanyago, , Fabian Nabugoomu and James M. Ntambi Full Length Research Paper This study was done to establish potential of instant Tooke (cooking banana) flour (ITF) as a vehicle food for malnutrition intervention. Hypotheses generated were: (1) There is a significant difference in response with respect to weight gain between malnourished subjects rehabilitated using fortified IFT and Mwanamugimu Diatery Regime (MDR); (2) There is a significant difference in response with respect to serum albumin, ferritin and retinol levels between fortified ITF and MDR. To test the hypotheses, 100 malnourished children admitted at Mwanamugimu Nutrition Unit in Uganda, were randomly allocated to a test (IFT diet from part I of study) or control (MDR diet) group. Growth rates and food intake were measured daily, while blood samples were withdrawn during recruitment and before discharge for testing serum albumin, ferritin and retinol levels. Means were compared using SPSS version 11. The test and control diets were adequate in protein but relatively lower for energy against RDA. Protein and energy intake in the test group was significantly (P lt; 0.05) higher for porridge, while protein intake in the control group was significantly (P lt; 0.05) higher for kitoobero. Weight gain in the test was significantly (P lt; 0.05) higher than the control group. However, both groups showed no significant difference in the bio-chemical indicators. The superiority of fortified ITF formulation over the MDR was proved with respect to weight gain but not for the biochemical indicators. Hypothesis one was accepted but two was rejected. Key words: Instant tooke flour (ITF), matooke, malnourished, rehabilitation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/24E7C5620515 en Copyright © 2009 Florence I. Muranga, , Miriam Kanyago, , Fabian Nabugoomu and James M. Ntambi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:B5F3ED320523 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Effect of flour production methods on the yield, physicochemical properties of maize flour and rheological characteristics of a maize-based non-fermented food dumpling Mathew K. Bolade Full Length Research Paper The study was aimed at investigating the influence of flour production methods (Grit Soaking Method [GSM], Grit Non-soaking Method [GNM] and Pestle and Mortar Dehulling Method [PMDM]) on the yield, physicochemical properties of maize flour and rheological characteristics of a maize-based non-fermented food dumpling. The flour yield from the production methods ranged between 56.6 and 62.3% with GSM and GNM giving the lowest and highest values respectively. There were variations in the mean particle size (203.3-220.5 m) and damaged starch content (12.2-14.5%) of flours obtained from the three production methods. The flours from the production methods also exhibited variations in the pasting temperature (73.2-74.6oC), peak viscosity (84.2-110.6 RVU) and final viscosity (111.4-147.4 RVU). The lightness indices (L*-values) of the flours (88.8-90.0) and maize lsquo;tuworsquo; (66.9-67.7) were affected by the flour production methods while the chroma (C-values) of the flours (14.6-14.9) and maize lsquo;tuworsquo; (8.9-9.1) were also affected though not significantly different (plt;0.05). The cohesiveness index (15.1-15.9%) and softness index (17.2-17.8 mm) of maize lsquo;tuworsquo; prepared from the flours also exhibited variations. Key words: Dumpling, flour, maize, #39;tuwo#39;, rheological characteristics. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/B5F3ED320523 en Copyright © 2009 Mathew K. Bolade
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:8560F5C20533 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Qualities of commercially and experimentally sun dried fin fish, Scomberoides tol Jamila Patterson and Govindan Ranjitha Full Length Research Paper Seafood is a popular food item and has been preserved by several ways. Curing is one of the simplest methods to preserve fish to meet out the need of the people. In India fishes are washed, gutted and sun dried on ground, surface of rocks, wooden platforms, palm leaves and also on sandy beaches. The ex-port of Indian cured fishery products are reduced because of their poor quality. The nutritive quality of one of the commercially sun dried fish, Somberoides tol was assessed. The same species was sun dried hygienically by keeping on fish drying rack under the direct sun light and moving air and their qualities were assessed. The present study reveals that the fish was dried experimentally on fish drying rack that had good nutritional qualities and hygienic than the commercially sun dried fish from the same species. Key words: Fin fish, Scomberoides tol, commercially and experimentally sun dried, nutritive and microbial quality. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/8560F5C20533 en Copyright © 2009 Jamila Patterson and Govindan Ranjitha
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:59CE54520542 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Physico-chemical properties of Chakiya variety of Amla (Emblica officinalis) and effect of different dehydration methods on quality of powder Poonam Mishra, Vijeyta Srivastava, Deepmala Verma, O. P. Chauhan and G. K. Rai Full Length Research Paper In present study a comparative study of wild variety and cultivated variety of Amlawere carried out; simultaneously effect of different drying techniques on physicochemical properties of Amla powder were also studied. The fruits of wild variety were found smaller than the cultivated variety. In case of wild variety, the total phenolic contents were found to be 32.32 g/100 g of gallic acid equivalent (dwb), whereas Chakiya variety had 24.50 g/100 g of gallic acid equivalent (dwb). The fruits of Chakiya variety were used to prepare the powder by different techniques like freeze drying, sun drying, spray drying, hot air drying and vacuum drying. Powder yield varied with type of drying method as sun drying (10.11%), tunnel drying (8.78%) and vacuum drying (12.48%), spray drying (4.90%) and freeze drying (2.23%). Significant differences (plt;0.05) in chemical composition ofAmla powder were observed when prepared by different techniques. The freeze dried powder had the highest ascorbic acid content followed by spray dried powder. The lowest concentration of ascorbic acid was found in sun dried powder. Freeze dried samples showed maximum mineral contents in terms of calcium (79.6 mg/100 g), phosphorus (12.38 mg/100 g) and iron (88.03 mg/100 g). Key words: Amla, dehydration methods, quality, polyphenols. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/59CE54520542 en Copyright © 2009 Poonam Mishra, Vijeyta Srivastava, Deepmala Verma, O. P. Chauhan and G. K. Rai
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:54C1ACD20553 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Influence of blanching on the drying and rehydration of banana slices K. A. Taiwo and O Full Length Research Paper This study examined the effect of blanching (60deg;C; 10 min) followed by drying (50 - 80deg;C) and rehydrating at 100deg;C for 15 ndash; 60 min on product characteristics (shrinkage, dry matter loss, moisture loss, electrical conductivity and rehydration capacity) of ripe and unripe banana samples. Increasing drying temperature resulted in greater moisture loss, higher shrinkage and higher rehydrating capacity with time. Changes in thickness were greater than the radial changes and mathematical equations gave a good fit when related to moisture content using a linear model. The electrical conductivity of the rehydrating solution increased as the initial temperature of drying increased and this resulted in greater dry matter loss, indicating greater loss of membrane integrity. Blanching improved moisture loss compared to untreated samples. The effect of product ripeness was not significant on product attributes (shrinkage, dry matter loss, moisture loss, electrical conductivity and rehydration capacity). Blanched samples had reduced ascorbic acid content. Key words: Pretreatment, drying temperature, moisture loss, shrinkage, rehydration characteristics, electrical conductivity. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/54C1ACD20553 en Copyright © 2009 K. A. Taiwo and O
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:D9EC1FB20559 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Utilization of cashew kernel meals in the nutritional enrichment of biscuit S. O. Aroyeun Full Length Research Paper A study was carried out on the utilization of cashew kernel meals (CKM) in the nutritional enrichment of biscuit. The biscuits were prepared from blends of soft wheat flour (SWF) and cashew kernel meals (CKM). The different ratios of SWF to CKM used were (A) 100: 0, (B) 90:10, (C) 85:15, (D) 75:25 and (E) 50:50 respectively. The digestive biscuit (DB) bought at the open market served as reference sample. The different biscuits produced were nutritionally analyzed. It was observed that all the samples contained desirable proportions of protein (14.3 - 28.6%), fat (16.21 - 29.62%) and digestible carbohydrates (33.48 - 64.66%). Protein contents, fat, ash and crude fibers increased with increase in CKM. Sensory evaluation results indicated that all the biscuits had high sensory ratings for all the attributes evaluated. There were significant differences among all the samples and the reference biscuit (DB) at p lt; 0.05 in taste, colour and flavour while samples A and B were not significantly different in terms of crispness and texture from the reference digestive biscuit (DB). The general acceptability showed DB gt; B gt; A gt; C gt; D gt; E. Key words: Biscuit, cashew kernel meal, nutritional enrichment, utilization. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/D9EC1FB20559 en Copyright © 2009 S. O. Aroyeun
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:948E1CA20563 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Studies on the functional properties and the nutritive values of amura plant starch (Tacca involucrata) a wild tropical plant S. G. Zaku, O. C. Aguzue , S. A. Thomas and J. T. Barminas Short Communication Starch, is a natural biodegradable biopolymer which is in high demand recently for use in many industrial products. However, this has greatly increased the search for more new sources of starch from plants. The plant Tacca involucrata is a wild plant that contains starch which is eaten when the flour is been cooked, usually by the villager or rural dweller in the Northen Nigeria as their food. A new starch was able to be isolated from these Amura tubers which yield 30.23% of starch on dry weight basis. The chemical composition; swelling power, solubility power, water-binding capacity, granular density, ash, moisture, crude protein, total lipid, crude fibre, amylose contents, phosphorus contents were determined. The chemical composition data were 9.15% moisture content, 0.20% ash content, 2.10% crude fibre, 0.39% crude protein, 0.09% total lipid and 98.80 ppm phosphorus. The starch exhibited high water binding capacity, solubility and limited swelling power behavior which were dependent on temperature. Based on the ability of the starch to be easily cooked and form gels, the starch may be a potential hydrocolloid for application in sauces and variety of new food products. Key words: Tacca involucrata, swelling power, solubilty power, bulk density, water binding capacity. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/948E1CA20563 en Copyright © 2009 S. G. Zaku, O. C. Aguzue , S. A. Thomas and J. T. Barminas
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:2F3CF6C20582 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Effect of crude oil contamination on the yield and chemical composition of Pleurotus tuberregium (Fr.) Singer Ogbo, Erute Magdalene and Okhuoya, John Ariyo Full Length Research Paper The effect of crude oil contamination which is a perennial problem in the Niger Delta of Nigeria on the yield and nutrient status of Pleurotus tuber-regium was investigated. In this study, after cultivating P. tuber-regium in crude oil contaminated soils to which sawdust, shredded banana leaf blades, NPK fertilizer and poultry litter were added, the yield and nutrient or chemical composition were determined. Crude oil contamination caused significant increase in the size and yield of the mushroom by increasing the pileus and stipe size and also fresh and dry weights showing a fertilizer effect. The addition of sawdust and poultry litter enhanced the fertilizer effect by further significant increases in size and yields of treatments that had them. The addition of NPK and shredded banana leaf blades to crude oil contaminated soils did not enhance the fertilizer effect of crude oil as there was significant decrease in the size and yield of P. tuber-regium in treatments that had them. The nutrient chemical composition of the mushroom was also affected by the presence of the crude oil and supplementation with the various materials. There was a reduction in the moisture and carbohydrate content caused by the addition of poultry litter and sawdust to the contaminated soils and an increase in the ash, fat, protein and fibre content of the mushroom. On the other hand, the addition of NPK and shredded banana leaf blades caused a reduction in the moisture, protein and carbohydrate content and an increase in the fat, moisture, ash and fibre content. The performance of the fungus in crude oil contaminated substrates can be optimized by the addition of sawdust and poultry litter but not shredded banana leaf blades and NPK. This is evident from the fact that sawdust and poultry litter enhanced growth while shredded banana leaf blades reduced growth in crude oil contaminated soil. The improvement in nutrient status of the mushroom indicates that the fertilizer effect of crude oil also affects the general well being of the fungus. Key words: Crude oil contamination, Pleurotus tuber-regium, fertilizer effect, nutrient status. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/2F3CF6C20582 en Copyright © 2009 Ogbo, Erute Magdalene and Okhuoya, John Ariyo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:41FB72820587 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Evaluation of cyanogenic potential and organoleptic properties in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) roots of improved varieties in Côte d’Ivoire S. Bakayoko, D. Soro, C. Nindjin, D. Dao, A. Tschannen, O. Girardin and A. Assa Full Length Research Paper Fourteen cassava varieties (13 new improved cassava varieties and 1 local variety control) harvested at maturity in Cocirc;te drsquo;Ivoire, were analysed for their cyanogenic potential of cassava root parenchyma with a picrate kit and organoleptic properties after boiling. Quantitative estimation of cyanogenic potential for cassava varieties was carried out by comparing the colour of picrate paper against those of known standard. The total cyanogens content of five improved varieties (98/2101, 98/0505, 98/0002, 96/1632 and TME419 with 9.1, 14, 10.5, 16.6 and 13.3 mg HCN kg-1 root fresh respectively) was significantly lower than that for the local variety control (ANADER2 with 36.2 mg HCN kg-1 root fresh) (p lt; 0.05). However, cyanogens levels in all cassava varieties were ranging from 9.1 to 36.2 mg HCN kg-1 root fresh, therefore, inferior to 50 mg HCN kg-1 root fresh, the safe level. All cassava varieties cooked, mealiness and melting qualities appear to be under genetic control. There were significant differences (p lt; 0.05) in the mealiness index between two improved varieties (98/0002 (1.8) and TME7 (1.7) and the local variety (ANADER2 (1.3). Results showed a strong correlation between mealiness and melting (R2 = 0.91), accordingly, melting could be predicted from mealiness. Key words: Cassava, improved varieties, cyanide, safe levels of cyanogens, mealiness, melting, Cocirc;te drsquo;Ivoire. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/41FB72820587 en Copyright © 2009 S. Bakayoko, D. Soro, C. Nindjin, D. Dao, A. Tschannen, O. Girardin and A. Assa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:062AEE520592 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Microbial characterization of fermented meat products in some selected markets in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana H. D. Zakpaa, C. M. Imbeah and E. E. Mak-Mensah Full Length Research Paper Fermented meat products are defined as meat that is inoculated with a microbial starter culture during processing under controlled condition, or meat allowed to ferment by natural fermentation meat microbial flora to give desirable characteristics. Fermentation of meat is mainly by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Their biochemical characteristics project them as sugar fermentative, catalase and nitration reduction negative bacteria. This report is based on a preliminary research of isolation and characterization of microbes in fermented meat products on selected Ghanaian markets. The work specifically seeks to isolate and identify both essential and pathogenic microbes in fermented meat. Identification of microbial species is important for consumer protection and food law enforcement. In this study, samples of fermented bush meats and fermented sausages from selected Ghanaian markets were analyzed for their microbial content and load. Isolated microbes in samples were identified as Lactic acid Bacteria species, Streptococci species, Staphylococci species and Micrococcus species. Lactic acid Bacteria species (LAB) and micrococci species are characterized as essentially non pathogenic bacteria species whiles streptococci species and staphylococci species are characterized as the pathogen species. Isolates obtained from fermented bush meat were identified as LAB, staphylococci and streptococci species whiles isolates of fermented sausage were also identified as LAB and micrococci species. The total variable count for fermented sausage on an average was 1.3times; 105 cfu, for smoked fermented bush meat the average loads was 2times; 105 cfu whiles for fresh fermented bush meat the load was 2.5times; 106 cfu. Key words: Meat, bush meat, fermented meat products, food microbiology, food safety, Kumasi, Ghana. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/062AEE520592 en Copyright © 2009 H. D. Zakpaa, C. M. Imbeah and E. E. Mak-Mensah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:4F947FE20598 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Population growth of Cathartus quadricollis (Guerin-Meneville) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) in products stored at different temperatures Adalberto Hipoacute;lito Sousa, Lecirc;da Rita Drsquo;Antonino Faroni, Fernanda Rezende, Marco Aureacute;lio Guerra Pimentel and Gutierres Nelson Silva Full Length Research Paper This study aims to assess the influence of temperature and food type on the instantaneous population growth rate of Cathartus quadricollis (Guerin-Meneville). ri was evaluated at 20, 25, 30 and 35deg;C in association with broken maize, wheat, sorghum and rice, maize flour and wheat bran. The optimum development temperature was also estimated for each food. The instantaneous growth rate of C. quadricollis was influenced by temperature and food type. ri values were low at the 20deg;C in all food types and increased at 25deg;C. There was a slight reduction at 30deg;C, but there was no insect development at 35deg;C, except for maize flour, with low ri (instantaneous population growth rate) values. Optimum temperature for C. quadricollis growth ranged from 26.26 to 27.14deg;C for the most suitable foods (broken maize, wheat and sorghum and maize flour). Under favorable conditions of food and temperature, C. quadricollis showed high population growth values in relation to other stored-product pests, indicating that this species has reproductive potential to become an important stored-product pest. Key words: Reproductive parameters, environmental conditions, food type. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/4F947FE20598 en Copyright © 2009 Adalberto Hipoacute;lito Sousa, Lecirc;da Rita Drsquo;Antonino Faroni, Fernanda Rezende, Marco Aureacute;lio Guerra Pimentel and Gutierres Nelson Silva
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:205962B20602 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Clustering acceptance and hedonic responses to cassava noodles extruded from cassava mosaic disease-resistant varieties Nwabueze, U. Titus and Anoruoh, A. Glory Full Length Research Paper Flours processed from eight cassava roots were selected from recently developed Cassava Mosaic Disease resistant varieties (92b/00061, 95/0289, 92/0057, 96/1632, 98/0505, 97/2205, TME419 and 92/0326). They were processed into noodles adapting a locally fabricated cold extruder as a single ndash;screw extruder. The extruded cassava noodles were cooked and subjected to expansion ratio analysis and clustering sensory studies. There were no significant (P ge; 0.05) differences in the expansion ratios of noodles from different varieties. However, there were significant (P le; 0.05) changes in expansion ratio due to processing. Those dried were about 1.98 times the diameter of the raw, while those cooked were up to 3 times the diameter of the raw. Principal component and cluster analyses of the parameters were adopted using the correlation matrix. Noodles made from 95/0289 CMD variety had the least acceptable sensory properties while those made from 98/0505 were most generally acceptable. No significant (P ge; 0.05) differences were noticed in taste, colour and general acceptability of all the samples. The sensory evaluation of noodles made from the 8 cassava varieties produced 2 principal components which accounted for 85.80% while the functional properties explained 81.30% of the variations. The key sensory properties that made the contributions, selected from the PC analysis based on their loadings (P ge; 0.5), were colour, taste, texture and general acceptability. The result showed that cassava flour could serve as a good substitute to wheat flour in noodle production and utilization. Key words: Cassava mosaic disease, cassava flour, noodles, extrusion, single-screw extruder, sensory evaluation, expansion ratio, principal components, cluster analysis, dendrogram, hierarchical tree, Eigenanalysis, correlation matrix. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/205962B20602 en Copyright © 2009 Nwabueze, U. Titus and Anoruoh, A. Glory
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:96AEEFB20608 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Effect of the addition of cassava flour and beetroot juice on the quality of fettuccine Elevina Peacute;rez and Liz Peacute;rez Full Length Research Paper The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of the addition of cassava (Manihot esculenta C.) flour, and beetroot juice on fettuccine quality. The proximate composition, physical and rheological parameters of semolina, cassava flour, and the blend (wheat: cassava) were evaluated. Also, the solid soluble content, titratable acidity and pH of the beetroot juice were evaluated. Additionally, the cooking time and solids losses, and microbiological enumerations of the fettuccine were analyzed. Finally, the fettuccine proximate composition and its sensorial acceptance were determined. Results showed that the protein content of the fettuccine lightly decreased with an increase in the blend of cassava flour, whereas it increased with the addition of beetroot juice. The cooking solids losses and the cooking time of the experimental fettuccine were similar to those of the control (100% wheat). The microbiological enumerations are in agreement with the requirements of the normative for pasta. The sensorial evaluation indicates that there was no significant difference between the fettuccines with respect to color, taste, texture and global appearance compared to the control (100% wheat semolina). Beetroot juice improves the diminution of protein content as a consequence of the substitution of wheat semolina with cassava flour. The fettuccine made with the blend showed similar quality and preference to the fettuccine made with semolina. Fettuccines with a good texture, physical properties, proximate composition and eating quality, and stable shelf life can be made with semolina, cassava flour and beetroot juice. These results could encourage the use of non conventional flours for development of food products. Key words: Non-conventional flour, fettuccine, composite flour, cassava flour, Manihot esculenta flour, beetroot juice. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/96AEEFB20608 en Copyright © 2009 Elevina Peacute;rez and Liz Peacute;rez
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:BA7D18820610 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
The effect of package types and storage period on characteristics of Tinca tinca Ramazan Şevik and S. Oğuz Korkut Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study was the effect of storage periods and package types on chemical changes in kadife fish (Tinca tinca). T. tinca living in rivers and lakes in inlands of Turkey could be source of human nutrition whether it is processed by suitable methods. T. tinca fumigated and vacuum packaged could be definitely proposed as a healthy processed fish product for human consumption. Increases in TBA and TVB-N values assign that vacuumed T. tinca could be safely stored to 60 days as per TBA values and 30 days as per TBV-N. Shelf life as vacuumed package is proposed as 30 days for T. tinca. Key words: Tinca tinca, package, storage, shelf life. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/BA7D18820610 en Copyright © 2009 Ramazan Şevik and S. Oğuz Korkut
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:7019FFF20614 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Evaluation of beverage quality and green bean physical characteristics of selected Arabica coffee genotypes in Kenya C. W. Kathurima, B. M. Gichimu, G. M. Kenji, S. M. Muhoho and R. Boulanger Full Length Research Paper Physical characteristics of green coffee bean have been reported to affect beverage quality to some extent. The objective of this study was to assess the beverage quality and green bean physical characteristics of forty two arabica coffee genotypes and to determine the relationship between the two attributes. Green bean physical characteristics were assesed through actual measurements, grading and weighing while beverage quality was determined by a panel of seven judges using the prescribed sensory evaluation procedures. Sensory data was used to calculate diversity in beverage quality among genotypes and to construct a dendrogram using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average. Data were also subjected to analysis of variance and differences declared significant at 5% level based on Duncanrsquo;s Multiple Range Test. Linear correlation was done to compare the relationship between variables. Cluster analysis results demonstrated 0 - 47% diversity in beverage quality among genotypes. There was close similarity among coffee tasters in ranking various beverage quality characteristics of the cultivars indicating that the panel was reliable in assessment of beverage quality. All sensory variables evaluated were positively and significantly correlated. However, correlations between the sensory variables and green bean physical characteristics were non-significant. Key words: Sensory variables, cuppers, Ruiru. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/7019FFF20614 en Copyright © 2009 C. W. Kathurima, B. M. Gichimu, G. M. Kenji, S. M. Muhoho and R. Boulanger
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:B686A2120621 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Functional, anti-nutritional and sensory acceptability of taro and soybean based weaning food C. A. Ikpeme-Emmanuel, J. Okoi and N. C. Osuchukwu Full Length Research Paper Functional, anti-nutritional and sensory acceptability of taro-and soybean based weaning food were investigated. Three weaning diets (A,B,C) each differing in the ratio of taro and soybean seed flours were formulated and fortified with vitamin mixture and sucrose. The diets were assayed for functional, anti-nutritional and organoleptic properties. Results showed that the levels of the anti-nutrients were significantly lower (p lt; 0.05) in diet A (Taro: 50.2%, soybean; 36%), than diets B (Taro; 46.2%, soybean; 40%) and C (Taro; 60%, soybean; 26.2%). Diet A was not significantly different (p lt; 0.05) from the Reference. Swelling index, water absorption capacity, and bulk density were significantly (p lt; 0.05) lower in diet A than in diets B, C and Reference. Diet A was most acceptable (p lt; 0.05) to the panelists and there was no significant different (p lt; 0.05) with Reference. The results showed that Diet A had the desired characteristics of a weaning food, hence could be used as low-cost weaning food to provide sufficient nutrients and energy for a growing child. Key words: Functional anti-nutrients, sensory properties, water absorption, swelling index, weaning food. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/B686A2120621 en Copyright © 2009 C. A. Ikpeme-Emmanuel, J. Okoi and N. C. Osuchukwu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:AE8966720625 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Microbiological quality of high-pressure (HP) treated fresh cheese of bovine milk Charles O. R. Okpala, John R. Piggott, Carl J. Schaschke and Brian McNeil Full Length Research Paper High pressure (HP) treatment at ambient temperature (25deg;C) was applied to freshly-prepared rennet-coagulated cheese of bovine (pasteurized) milk and the microbiological quality was examined for up to Day 31 using a Central Composite Design (CCD) of experiment. Bacterial counts were significantly (p lt; 0.05) reduced at the highest applied pressure. Estimated shelf life was 17 days for control samples but approached 31 days at HP treatments of 150 MPa at 1 and 15 min. Treatments above 150 MPa with treatment time up to 29 min caused highly significant reductions in bacterial counts (p lt; 0.01 to p lt; 0.001). Gram-positive cocci and rods as well as Gram-negative rods were found during spoilage of the fresh cheese. Key words: Response surface methodology (RSM), microbial quality, cheese, spoilage, shelf-life. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/AE8966720625 en Copyright © 2009 Charles O. R. Okpala, John R. Piggott, Carl J. Schaschke and Brian McNeil
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:4C73F7120634 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Microbial evaluation of probiotic beverage from roselle extract A. A. Aramide, S. H. Abiose and A. H. Adeniran Full Length Research Paper The study evaluated viability of probiotic lactobacilli in roselle extract at two different temperatures with view to producing acceptable and health beneficial probiotic beverage. Lactobacillus species isolated from fermented sorghum, maize grains and yoghurt samples were characterized and then inoculated into sterile roselle juice samples. Samples were stored at ambient (27 plusmn; 2deg;C) and refrigeration temperatures (4 plusmn; 1deg;C) over a period of four weeks and the viability of the probiotic isolates investigated by using standard methods. Antimicrobial effect of the probiotic isolates on two selected food borne-borne pathogens (Escherichia coliand Staphylococcus aureus) was also determined by the broth culture method. Results showed that the strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillusplantarum) remained viable in the beverage for 27 days. Except for L. acidophiluswhich decreased gradually after 21 days of storage, other strains (L. plantarum) (Ry and Rm) increased from an initial count of 1.0 x 106 to 6.4 x 106 and 9.8 x 106 cfu ml-1 respectively in samples kept at ambient temperature. The results further revealed that the probiotic isolates exhibited varying degree of inhibition against the two selected food-borne pathogens with greater inhibition exhibited against E. coli. Key words: Roselle extract, probiotics, viability beverage Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/4C73F7120634 en Copyright © 2009 A. A. Aramide, S. H. Abiose and A. H. Adeniran
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:7C6EA8120636 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Microbiological and biochemical changes and sensory evaluation of camel milk fermented by selected bacterial starter cultures Ibrahim E. Abdel Rahman, Hamid A. Dirar and Magdi A. Osman Full Length Research Paper The microbiological and biochemical changes that occur during fermentation of camel milk inoculated with each of five selected starter cultures at 43ordm;C for 6 h, were studied as well as the sensory evaluation of the products. The total viable counts of the starter cultures throughout fermentation period (6 h) showed that the combination of Lactobacillus bulgaricus CH2 plus Streptococcus thermophilus 37(1:1) had more counts and produce more acid (lower pH) compared to the single starter cultures. Also when comparing the different treatments, the amount of FAG released after 6 h was highest in the mixed starter cultures than in the corresponding single starter cultures. The final fermented milk products were free from pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Bacillus cereus, while the total coliforms, yeasts and molds counts were less than 10 cfu per ml. The results of the sensory evaluation study indicated that the camel milk fermented by mixed yogurt culture was the most accepted while the one fermented by Lactococcus lactis was the least. However, the consistency of all fermented camel milk products was watery and showed a fragile, poor structure (poor scores). In general mixed yogurt culture showed superior growth, acid production and proteolytic activity than single starter cultures and acceptable fermented camel milk. Key words: Cultures, pathogenic bacteria, yeast, molds, camel milk. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/7C6EA8120636 en Copyright © 2009 Ibrahim E. Abdel Rahman, Hamid A. Dirar and Magdi A. Osman
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:5E7A10920642 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Iron content of the formulated East African indigenous vegetable recipes Florence O. Habwe, Mary K. Walingo, Mary O. Abukutsa-Onyango and Mel O. Oluoch Full Length Research Paper Nutritional iron deficiency is the common cause of anaemia in developing world. However, Africa is endowed with African indigenous vegetables (AIVs) rich in micronutrients. Surveys within East Africa relate low AIV consumption to limited information on recipe preparation. The aim of this research is to determine iron content of various formulated indigenous vegetable recipes. Experimental research involved four randomly selected AIVs; African Nightshade (Solanum scabrum), Vegetable Amaranth (Amaranthus blitum), Slenderleaf (Crotalaria ochroleuca) and Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Four single and six vegetable combinations were boiled for ten minutes with and without traditional salt, then fried for five minutes using onions and tomatoes, giving rise to twenty recipes. Iron content was evaluated using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Iron content of raw indigenous vegetables was significantly (P lt; 0.05) lower than boiled and fried AIVs. Fried AIVs had significantly (P lt; 0.05) higher iron content compared to the boiled AIVs. Mean iron content of AIVs fried with lye was insignificantly (P gt; 0.05) lower compared to those fried without lye. Fried AIVs should be recommended in areas with high dietary iron deficiency; this could help alleviate anaemia. Key words: Iron content, recipes, lye, African indigenous vegetables Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/5E7A10920642 en Copyright © 2009 Florence O. Habwe, Mary K. Walingo, Mary O. Abukutsa-Onyango and Mel O. Oluoch
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:6DEFFAF20645 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Microbiological analysis of some vended sachet water in Ogbomoso, Nigeria I. C. Oladipo, I. C. Onyenike and A. O. Adebiyi Full Length Research Paper Water borne bacterial pathogens were isolated from sachet water vended in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. The isolates were characterized and identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus alvei, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the seven isolates was determined and it was discovered that 59.3% was found sensitive to the commercial antibiotic disc used while 40.7% was resistant. The effect of temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration on the growth rate of isolates was investigated. It was found that as temperature of incubation increased from 50 to 80deg;C, the rate of growth of all the isolate decreased and as the pH of the growth medium increased from 3 to 9, the rate of growth of all the isolates also increased. As the concentration of sodium chloride increased from 2 to 5%, the rate of growth of isolates also reduced. Key words: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus alvei, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis,sachet water, pH, temperature and sodium chloride. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/6DEFFAF20645 en Copyright © 2009 I. C. Oladipo, I. C. Onyenike and A. O. Adebiyi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:4CD550F20648 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Natural occurrence of AFB1 in maize and effect of traditional maize flour production on AFB1 reduction, in Malawi L. Matumba, M. Monjerezi, E. Chirwa, D. Lakudzala and P. Mumba Full Length Research Paper Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most harmful mycotoxins to humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. Maize, the most important staple food in most southern African countries, is susceptible to these fungi infections throughout its growth, harvest, transport and storage. In this study, we report on the incidence of AFB1 (determined by indirect competitive ELISA) contamination in maize from Malawi and the effect of traditional maize-flour production procedures on the final AFB1 levels. AFB1 was detected in 45.3% of the maize samples with 12.3% of them exceeding 5 g/kg (FAO median AFB1 MTL). The traditional flour production procedures reduced AFB1 significantly in the order: soaking of dehulled maize (72.4plusmn;5.4, 75.4plusmn;3.5 and 80.9plusmn;5.3% for 24, 48 and 72 h soaking periods, respectively) gt; dehulling of maize (mean 29.3plusmn;5.4%) gt; sun drying (11.7% max). Sun drying followed pseudo-first order kinetics in AFB1. A maximum AFB1 reduction of 88.1 plusmn; 3.1% was achieved using a sequence of dehulling, soaking for 72 h and sun drying the flour for 4.5 h. Key words: Aflatoxin B1, maize, Malawi. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/4CD550F20648 en Copyright © 2009 L. Matumba, M. Monjerezi, E. Chirwa, D. Lakudzala and P. Mumba
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:813F47220651 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Storage releases physiologically active content in milled maize and wheat Alastair M. Sammon and Frances M. Whittington Short Communication Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/813F47220651 en Copyright © 2009 Alastair M. Sammon and Frances M. Whittington
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:C6C61FB20655 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Agriculture for sustainable food, energy and industrial development in the Sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Nigeria J.T. Fasinmirin and F. Braga Review Global economic recession and the concomitant increase in food prices, unemployment, dilapidated infrastructures and poor industrial growth call for a concerted effort at ensuring a strong and efficient agriculture to meet the demands of ever increasing Nigerian population. No meaningful development can be attained without recourse to modern agriculture since virtually all facets of human endeavour relies primarily on products or bye-products of agriculture. This work evaluated Nigerian agriculture, the past, present and the challenges vis-agrave;-vis the Brazilian type of agriculture that fosters sustainable development in food and energy production. The main reason for the slow agricultural development in Nigeria despite the volumes of scientific information to engender improvement was traced to poor government involvement in agriculture at the level of policy formulation and implementation. The very poor approach to the adoption of appropriate technology and scientific information in agriculture has resulted to loss of arable upland soils to the forces of erosion and floods and increase in greenhouse gas emissions through indiscriminate felling of protection trees and bush burning. Therefore, in order to bridge the wide gap in agriculture between Nigeria and other developing economy like Brazil and China, there is urgent need for a sincere and pragmatic involvement of the government and other non-governmental organizations in agriculture, with the use of modern and appropriate technology such that enough biomass could be produced for sustainable food, energy and industrial development. Key words: Agriculture, mechanized farming, environment, soil tillage, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/C6C61FB20655 en Copyright © 2009 J.T. Fasinmirin and F. Braga
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:3BB031D20658 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Constructing C4 rice - the challenge of new green revolution Zhang Bianjiang and Jiao Demao Review The new green revolution is looking for a breakthrough in the world. Constructing C4 rice based on good plant type is a reliable and effective approach to enhance photosynthetic efficiency in leaf. The paper discusses the significance, techniques, physiological characteristics and future research directions of transgenic rice with C4 gene and makes some suggestions on breeding new cultivars with super-high yield and photosynthetic efficiency in high light intensity and high temperature area of China, especially in Africa. Key words: Rice, C4 photosynthesis gene, photosynthesis, physiological breeding. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/3BB031D20658 en Copyright © 2009 Zhang Bianjiang and Jiao Demao
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:4A0C01D20659 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
Manipulating seed storage proteins for enhanced grain quality in cereals N. K. Matta, Arvinder Singh and Yogesh Kumar Review The importance of proteins in our diet is well recognized. Cereals, the major group of our food crops have provided the main source of energy and dietary proteins since the period human ancestors resorted to domestication and cultivation of crops. Their proteins have an imbalanced distribution of essential amino acids which is due to the low content of these amino acids in their predominant seed protein fractions. Various strategies using conventional and molecular breeding towards improvement of nutritional value of food crops have been followed by plant scientists from time to time. The enormous information generated through characterization studies of their seed storage proteins and the development of new technologies for genetic engineering and plant transformations have formed the basis of improvement of grain quality in different cereals. Genes for this purpose have been stably integrated and efficiently expressed in transgenic cereals with useful results. Successful approaches towards this end have included manipulation of the expression levels of genes for homologous proteins, use of genes for heterologous proteins, modification of nutritionally inferior polypeptides by inserting codons for essential amino acids in their genes etc. The present review covers information on various achievements by different workers through initial attempts in this direction. Key words: Seed storage proteins, grain quality, transgenic crops, cereals. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/4A0C01D20659 en Copyright © 2009 N. K. Matta, Arvinder Singh and Yogesh Kumar
oai:academicjournals.org:AJFS:69E399A20661 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJFS AJFS:2009
A review of the origin, morphology, cultivation, economic products, health and physiological implications of raphia palm F. I. Obahiagbon Review Several species of the Raphia palm exists and are largely confined to tropical Africa, south of the Sahara, from sea level of about 2000m altitude. In Nigeria, it is found in the south-south geopolitical zone. It provides material for furniture, house construction, food, clothing, edible oil, and so on. Raphia palm is one of the most useful palms economically. The Raphia palm leaves are the largest amongst the palms in Africa. It produces sap which is drunk by millions of people in Africa. Over the last decade, the sap has attracted a lot of research interest. Consequently, the sap has been preserved. Useful nutrients have been detected in the sap, which could play active roles in human physiology and health. Products from the sap have been developed, which could be rehydrated and drunk like the original sap. The products could also act as sweeteners in food preparations. Increased cultivation of the palm could provide good income for small, medium and large scale farmers, as every part of the palm is useful. Key words: Raphia palm, origin, cultivation, products, palm sap/wine, physiological. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJFS/article-abstract/69E399A20661 en Copyright © 2009 F. I. Obahiagbon
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