2020-02-22T19:25:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:A2C461740906 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2009
Semantic map and ideology in select Nigerian poetic discourse Romanus Aboh Full Length Research Paper Since its acceptance within linguistic studies, the concept of ideology has generated an unimaginable array of interest within linguistics. Linguistic scholars are of the opinion that no linguistic construction is lsquo;neutralrsquo; in its real sense. As well, numerous linguistic investigations have proved that ideology is woven in our everyday linguistic interaction but none of these have been able to work within the parameters of a semantically orientated grammatical concept such as semantic map or web to show that the ideological position of some poets is evident in their linguistic strategies. This paper attempts to do so by employing the procedures of semantic web and critical linguistics to investigate the ideological positions of socially situated texts. Is mechanical discourse such as poetic rendition ideally neutral, or politically free? Or is it woven in some positions between these two limits? The contention is that no socially situated text such as poetry is lsquo;ideally freersquo; of the ideological categories of its writers and time. This paper examines two lsquo;newrsquo; Nigerian poets- Ademola Dasylva and Joe Ushie, and holds that the ideological orientations of some Nigerian poets are embedded in grammatical features. Key words: Semantic map, ideology, CDA, poetic discourse. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/A2C461740906 en Copyright © 2009 Romanus Aboh
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:DC5485B40905 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2009
The role of referendum: A case of Ghana Norman, A. S and Kwadwo, Sarfo Kantanka Full Length Research Paper This article presents a discussion on the role of the referendum in Africa with a case study of Ghana. It reveals the importance of referendum and the types of referendum as experienced in many countries with concentration on Ghana. It has concluded that referendum is important as allows majority stance to be assimilated as a decision as opposed to few who make decisions in most decision making organs. It expresses a true will of the people, and reveal aspirations and ambitious of the communities. On the other side it does away with decisions that are of the few yet termed of the majority. It is however, worthy and of merit when these referenda are used on only important concerns of the nation and for the nation. Key words: Referendum, decision making. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/DC5485B40905 en Copyright © 2009 Norman, A. S and Kwadwo, Sarfo Kantanka
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:FDD6C3940911 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2009
Prospects for the asset-based community development approach in Epworth and Ruwa, Zimbabwe: A housing and environmental perspective Innocent Chirisa Full Length Research Paper This paper explores the dynamics of community building and development within the satellite towns to Harare, namely Epworth and Ruwa, based on a comparative analysis of the role of communities in the housing and habitat sector. That the poor are creative, co-operative and constructive in providing for themselves is undoubted. The 2 satellite towns of Epworth and Ruwa exhibit the multi-dimensions of self-aided housing and shelter provision. This article examines how the burgeoning populations of the 2 satellite towns can be accommodated in an increasingly #39;shrinking#39; urban space where institutions can be formed to collaborate with the urban poor in the delivery of housing, environmental amenity and security within the study areas. This is to ensure that the urban sustainability agenda is achieved. The acknowledgement of the application of the asset-based community development (ABCD) approach shows that there is a considerable potential of self-sustenance in the poor. Key words: Community building, housing delivery, sustainability, habitat, built environment, capital. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/FDD6C3940911 en Copyright © 2009 Innocent Chirisa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:797858B40912 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2009
Traditional psychiatric healing in Igbo land, Southeastern Nigeria Nwoko Kenneth Chukwuemeka Full Length Research Paper In recent times there have been debates among health professionals on the desirability of integrating traditional health practices into orthodox medicine. This thinking was influenced by the resistance of some ailments to the orthodox healing methods as well as the proven efficacy of traditional healing processes in the treatment of some ailments. In Nigeria, the ambience of psychiatric victims or madmen at every corner and under bridges has raised some concerns on the actual role of psychiatric hospitals and their efficiency and effectiveness in contemporary times. The need for new ways of handling psychiatric cases led to new interest in traditional healing processes which have been shown to be effective in the management of ailments. Consequently traditional practitioners have availed themselves the opportunity of this debate to call for recognition as partners in the provision of effective and affordable health care. This paper explored the traditional psychiatric healing processes in Igbo land, Nigeria. It analyzed the various concepts, processes, perspectives and dimensions of traditional psychiatric healing in Igbo land and argued for the integration of this aspect of psychiatry into modern system of psychological or psychiatric intervention and general health care Key words: Traditional, Igbo, psychiatric, healing, culture, empirical, intervention. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/797858B40912 en Copyright © 2009 Nwoko Kenneth Chukwuemeka
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:CC0F1EB40910 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2009
Rethinking religious encounters in Matabeleland region of Zimbabwe, 1860-1893 Sabelo J. Ndlovu-Gatsheni Full Length Research Paper This article provides a new interpretation of the religious encounters that unfolded in Matabeleland region in the period between 1860 and 1893 from the perspective of Gramscian concept of hegemony and John and Jean Comaroffrsquo;s concept of cultural and colonial encounters. The focus of the article is on the nature of encounters, uneasy religious dualities, conversations, contestations, blending, rivalries, negotiations and transformation of consciousness that developed at the centre of the meeting of the Ndebele speaking people and Christian missionaries prior colonisation. The article challenges previous scholarship that informed by the inflexible lsquo;domination and resistancersquo; perspective that had no room for the agency of the African communities involved in colonial encounters. Key terms: Religion, worldview, christianity, traditional religion, hegemony, colonial encounters, conversion. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/CC0F1EB40910 en Copyright © 2009 Sabelo J. Ndlovu-Gatsheni
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:AC846D840977 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2009
The strength of political parties in Tanzania - A focus on local government councilor’s by-elections A. S. Norman Full Length Research Paper This paper examines the strength of political parties in Tanzania Mainland focusing on the local government councilors by-elections of 2004. The first part provides an introduction, which explains the two types of strengths; that is, the number of voters supporting the party and the number of contestants willing to contest through the same. The second part covers the administration of local government elections in Tanzania. The third part covers the strength of political parties and the number of parties which participated in the elections and their stances. Managing political parties is the fourth part, and the conclusion is the fifth part. I find that the strength of political parties varies and is associated with several factors, including youthfulness and ability to manage political parties as organizations. However, the strongest party in terms of the averages of votes attained is United Democratic Party (UDP), while the strongest party on the aggregate of the factors assessed is Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM). On the other hand the party that has experienced the most drastic fall is NCCR-Mageuzi and the party that is experiencing most tremendous growth is Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA). The study has further revealed that Civic United Front (CUF) has kept pace in winning more electors in the Tanzania mainland than in the past elections. Key words: Political parties, strength, elections. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/AC846D840977 en Copyright © 2009 A. S. Norman
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:2EFD9A640980 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2009
Strangulated federalism’, resource rights agitations and the deepening crisis in the Niger- Delta Victor Ukaogo Full Length Research Paper This paper contends that the inverse application of the ideals of federalism is central to the festering crisis and bloodletting in the Niger-delta that have had a long history of injustice visited on the people. The population have in like manner responded with violence. From imperial humiliation through colonial exploitation, the region has journeyed to the present crisis of ldquo;internal slavery and colonialismrdquo; by the combined actions and inactions of a cabal that has chosen to collaborate with foreign interests. It affirms that as the region boils over, the option left for the beneficiaries of the series of injustices against the people is to reverse their inhuman actions and institutionalize equity and justice with a measure of good conscience that should heal the wounds inflicted on the people for long. The paper concludes that a pure return to true federalism is a direct cure for the agitations in the region. This is anchored on the fact that all cosmetic palliatives concocted by succeeding regimes has had little or no effect on the character of restiveness in the region. Key words: Federalism, resource rights, resource control, Niger-Delta, multinational corporations. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/2EFD9A640980 en Copyright © 2009 Victor Ukaogo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:08D886C40985 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2009
Role of public participation in achieving development agenda of developing countries: The case of communities affected by surface mining of gold in the Asutifi district of the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana Jones Lewis Arthur Full Length Research Paper The cumulative evidence of increasing human vulnerability to environmental change calls for a significant policy response and action on several fronts. At least since the 1960s, when environmental politics became institutionalised within western developed countries, scientists, interest groups, the media and local protests have been significant in shaping the development definition and resolution of environmental issues. Of recent, there has been a shift in focus of environmental policies from centralization to decentralization. The onset of conditions that give rise to threats and vulnerability can often be gradual or inconspicuous. The paper examines the transition period in participatory environmental governance in Ghana with a focus on surface mining of gold and the extent of the involvement of the affected communities in mining. Particular reference was drawn from the experience of communities in the Asutifi district where surface mining of gold is on a progressive ascendancy. Field data as well as available literature were reviewed. It was resolved that there are various levels of consultancy and public participation in the operations of Newmont Ghana Gold Limited (NGGL) in the Asutifi district. Communities are violently reacting to inefficient participation as a result of the lsquo;massesrsquo; being considered as inappropriate for lsquo;insiderrsquo; roles in mining. More so, the findings proved that Ghana has gradually moved from a state of near stifling of community participation to the phase where it makes affected communities key participants in the achievement of social and economic development. Public participation is a key to socio-economic development and effective environmental growth. Mining companies should realise and work with communities and note that the protection of the environment would not necessarily bring economic cost. The government should also empower and mandate communities, whilst their resources are being used for wealth generation, to negotiate their benefits and challenges with mining companies. Mining companies should also desist from the idea of using intimidation and legal frameworks to restrict community empowerment and desire to fight for their share of the economic lsquo;cakersquo;. Key words: Public participation, decentralization, transitions, mining, environmental protection. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/08D886C40985 en Copyright © 2009 Jones Lewis Arthur
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:59B39F340988 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2009
A history of land measurement in Shashemene (Ethiopia), 1941 - 1974 Temesgen Gebeyehu Full Length Research Paper In history, land tenure system refers to the social and administrative concept. It does not show physical or geographical concept. Land has been one of the most highly valued possessions of human society. In Ethiopia, the rules to measure, share and use land have evolved over time. In this regard, there are ample sources at Teshafe Tezaz Wolde-Mesqel Tariku Research Center. The collection of the Center Contains many surprises. There are ample of materials on the twentieth century Ethiopian History, particularly, in relation to land tenure and measurement. For a historian working with such archival materials is entertaining and stimulating. The archives are indispensable sources for the study of the twentieth century Ethiopian land tenure. It is possible to arrive at an impressive conclusion on political economy of Ethiopia particularly on land matters, with all its implications and complexities, if one writes and researches with reference to the center. This study highlights several points of paramount importance. To begin with, this paper investigates the factors that made land measurement in Shashemene District too sensitive and challenging. Secondly, an attempt was made to bring out the historical, political, economical and social dimensions of the process. Thirdly, an attempt was made to assess the degree of originality and authenticity of the available literature in the topic under consideration. That is, all documents will be compared and contrast with the texts. Finally, this study also fills in some gaps in the study of land tenure and measurement in the district under study. Key words: Land measurement, Ethiopia, history. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/59B39F340988 en Copyright © 2009 Temesgen Gebeyehu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:99285E940995 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2009
Fake heroines and the falsification of history in Zimbabwe 1980 - 2009 Dorothy Goredema and Percyslage Chigora Full Length Research Paper The ideology of femocracy is so entrenched in Zimbabwean politics that it has become a tradition. It started as a tendency during the liberation struggle of making room and integrating a few women into politics. After independence, it developed into a habit of promoting the same women who had been exposed during the liberation struggle into political offices. Finally, at independence it became a tradition whereby the state confers heroine status to the very women who had held position during the war. However, one feature that stands glaring at the national heroesrsquo; acre is that the heroines who were lay, are all related to men in political positions in both current ruling party and the state. This paper will demonstrate that most Zimbabwean heroines are forgotten. It also proves that even at death the patriarchal nature of Zimbabwean politics manifests itself when one considers that the number of male heroes vis-agrave;-vis the heroines who lay at the acre. Finally the paper will show how femocracy as an ideology has led to the falsification and misrepresentation of historical facts all in an attempt to promote nationalist history. Key words: Heros, heroines, femocracy, Zimbabwe. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/99285E940995 en Copyright © 2009 Dorothy Goredema and Percyslage Chigora
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:FFD5AB941002 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2009
Cultivation of positive cultural values and practices: A blueprint for African development Opafola S. Olayinka Full Length Research Paper This paper investigates the influence of culture on development within the context of cultural values and practices in African societies. It limits its searchlight to the communal stage of African development. It operates on the assumption that a dialectical relationship exists between the past, the present and the future. It supposes that a faithful consideration of the merits and demerits of past events can serve as a compass for the navigation of present and future events. The paper tries to provide answers to the following questions, among others: Why is it necessary to hold and promote positive cultural values and practices? What are the causes and consequences of frustrations, tensions and conflicts, among other developmental problems prevalent in Africa? What are the solutions to the problems? The paper recommends some solutions. It then submits that the cultivation and sustenance of positive cultural values and practices can promote African positive development. Key words: Culture, values, practices, Africa, development, blueprint. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/FFD5AB941002 en Copyright © 2009 Opafola S. Olayinka
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:81CD16D40917 2010-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2010
Culture and curriculum development in Nigerian schools E. D. Nakpodia Full Length Research Paper This paper was concerned with cultural bases of curriculum. It examined the influence of culture on curriculum development in Nigerian Schools since education is regarded as the transmission of culture in a process known as enculturation. It is a process of initiating the growing and inexperienced persons into the way of life in his society based on factors of culture which bring about changes in school curriculum. The school does not work in a vacuum, but has to operate in co-operation with the home, church and all other agencies of society that influence the development of the child. One of the primary tasks of the teacher is to use the culture and school curriculum in helping pupils to make satisfactory adjustments as regards curriculum components and programs designed. Hence this paper was concerned with the question whether curriculum in the school is in any way based on culture. Has curriculum any connection with culture of the society? This task is impossible unless the school employee understands well the phenomena of family, church, peer groups, and community life. The paper therefore dealt with the meaning and classification of culture; the diagnosis of curriculum development; influence of culture on childrenrsquo;s learning; the context of curriculum development; and agencies in the educative process and curriculum development. Key words: Influence, culture, education, curriculum development, Nigerian. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/81CD16D40917 en Copyright © 2010 E. D. Nakpodia
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:51DB6F640919 2010-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2010
Ama Ata Aidoo’s ‘black-eyed squint’ and the ‘voyage in’ experience: Dis(re)orienting blackness and subverting the colonial tale[1] lhoussain Simour Full Length Research Paper This essay endeavors to read Ama Ata Aidoorsquo;s Our Sister Killjoy; or Reflections from a Black-eyed Squint with a postocolonially inflected consciousness. It aims at demonstrating how her work could be read as a sophisticated postcolonial revision of the colonial travel narrative whereby the protagonistrsquo;s black-eyed squint operates as lsquo;the all-seeing-eyersquo; to subvert the historically unbroken legacy of the Orientalist ideology. It tries to demonstrate how Sissie assumes authority and voice in an act that destabilizes the traditionally established modes of western representation. It is also an investigation into how Aidoorsquo;s text adopts processes which ldquo;undo the Eurocentrism produced by the institution of the Westrsquo;s trajectoryrdquo; (Gross, 1996:240) through diverse acts of resistance and lsquo;various strategies of subversion and appropriationrsquo;. Her counter discursive strategies of resistance are shaped up in various ways by a feminist consciousness that attempts to articulate a distinct African version of identity and preserve cultural distinctiveness. Key words: Orientalism, Africaness, discursive resistance, interracial lesbianism, politics of race, the migrant intellectual. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/51DB6F640919 en Copyright © 2010 lhoussain Simour
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:8F4F74C40921 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2010
War, violence and language in Ken Saro-Wiwa’s Sozaboy Chijioke Uwasomba Full Length Research Paper This essay is based on Ken Saro-Wiwarsquo;s novel, titled Sozaboy. Apart from using this novel to interpret [DBMS1] and locate the history and politics of Nigeria within a particular period, the essay tried to look at the 1967 - 1970 Nigeriarsquo;s civil war as fictionalized by Ken Saro-Wiwa, the nature of the language and implications on the English language in Nigeria. It also attempted an understanding of the moral and political consequences of war on humanity in general and the special effect of the Nigerian civil war on the minority areas within the Biafran enclave in particular as epitomized by Dukana, the setting of Sozaboy. The essay concluded that the novel itself was a bold attempt at experimentation with language, considering the fact that it was written in what the author himself described as ldquo;rottenrdquo; English. Key words: Dukana, Nigerian pidgin, civil war, sozaboy, refugee camp. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/8F4F74C40921 en Copyright © 2010 Chijioke Uwasomba
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:BE5991A40922 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2010
Place of religion in nation building and security in Nigeria: A historical survey of Aro expedition of 1901 Ezeh Mary-Noelle Ethel and Okonkwo Uche Uwaezuoke Full Length Research Paper National security is a sine qua non for political stability and socio-economic development of any nation. Religion is one of the recognized factors that can enhance or destabilize the security of any nation at any given period of history. Religious value systems play very significant role in collective self-awareness and identity, which draw together individuals, families and regions, and pull them towards greater self-consciousness needed to build and animate a nation from within. Religion can be manipulated as an instrument of destruction and disintegration, which threatens the peace, stability and security of a nation. It is in recognition of this double-edge function of religion that this paper sets out to study the place of religion in the socio-political structure of Nigeria and its role in national security. The analysis begins with an examination of the pretensions of the colonial administration, which enable it to demonize and destroy local shrines of peoples, south of the Niger-Benue, in the early years of the formation of Nigeria as a nation. The paper notes that the privileged position enjoyed by the Christian and Islamic religions, during the colonial era, did not necessarily lead to greater integration towards common self-consciousness as a nation of multi-religions. Hence the independent era has witnessed an unprecedented level of religious violence, which is threatening the peace, stability and economy of Nigeria. This paper posits that peace and security in the country will be enhanced if an end is put to the manipulation of religion for parochial reasons. Key words: Security, nation building, Aro expedition. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/BE5991A40922 en Copyright © 2010 Ezeh Mary-Noelle Ethel and Okonkwo Uche Uwaezuoke
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:CFDBA1F40925 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2010
Interplay between philosophy and history: Additional justification for course enrollments across disciplines Chukwugozie Maduka and Leo Otoide Full Length Research Paper This paper seeks to revisit the bonds between history and philosophy and to unravel not just the enormously fertile ground lying fallow for so long between them, but also the inevitability of one to the other. In the main body of the study, it was discovered that any serious claim to explore what the term lsquo;historyrsquo; stands for must strive, first of all, to surmount some inherent epistemological, semantical, syntactical, interpretative, metaphysical and valuation (that is philosophical) problems. On the other hand, from the definitions of philosophy we are quick to realize that since historical events are contingent, they necessarily provide the veritable raw materials on which universalizable philosophical truths can be built. The study went on to show, for example, how the cyclic, progressionist, perfectibility and other theories of history are conveniently explicated in philosophical terms. The last portion of the paper dwelt on the contribution of history to philosophy from the viewpoints of the contributions of Russell, Darwin, Chardin, Huxley and Kuhn. Key words: History, philosophy, temporality, interpretation, empathic understanding, values, cyclic theory, progressionist theory, moral progress, perfectibility, Darwinism. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/CFDBA1F40925 en Copyright © 2010 Chukwugozie Maduka and Leo Otoide
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:437514240927 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2010
Identity politics and the Jos crisis: Evidence, lessons and challenges of good governance Terhemba Nom Ambe-Uva Full Length Research Paper Concerns with identity politics especially those woven around conflict have got an almost outrageous timeliness. The salient global role of ethnic and religious identity as it affects everything from democratic development to risk of disruptive communal conflicts at domestic level has become an important dimension of present-day world societies, looming largely in multiethnic societies. This paper takes a critical look at identity politics and conflict in Jos, a setting once regarded as ldquo;the home of peace and tourism in Nigeriardquo;. The point of departure is a critical examination of the 28 November, 2008 crisis in Jos North LGA. Using in-depth interviews and content analysis of opinions, the study situates the conflict within the relationship between the ldquo;indigene-settlerrdquo; syndrome and the state, with its ugly hydra-headed manifestations. It argues that the conflict with a colouration of ethnic and religious garb was also orchestrated under the faccedil;ade of politics. It is suggested that the commitment of good governance and the institutionalisation of democracy remains the surest means of nipping in the bud the crises in Jos. The findings have important implications for aggregate research on ethnic and religious conflicts in Nigeria. Key words: Identity politics, ethnic and religious conflicts, indigene-settler, Jos, good governance. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/437514240927 en Copyright © 2010 Terhemba Nom Ambe-Uva
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:2BB3BD340929 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2010
Cotton in West Africa: The economic and social stakes (2006). Book review, OECD publishing, Paris, pp. 127, ISBN: 92–64–022505 7 Peter Makaye Review Since their inception multilateral institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Trade Organisation (WTO) have always been at loggerheads with Africans and African producers. These institutions have been blamed for advancing an agenda that exploits third world countries (3WCs) resources for the benefit of the north, debates at WTO forums have been most acrimonious with the suspension of the Doha lsquo;development agendarsquo; trade negotiations in July 2006 due to an impasse on the issue of reforming rich countriesrsquo; farm subsidies. The north has been accused of subsidizing its agricultural producers and exporters to the detriment of 3W farmers who try but find it hard to penetrate international markets. It is against this backdrop that the book cotton in West Africa comes in as a welcome contribution that further exposes the mal-trade practices perpetrated by the developed countries. Key words: Peasant producers, multilateral institutions, survival strategies. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/2BB3BD340929 en Copyright © 2010 Peter Makaye
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:BA820E740930 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2010
A pragmatic appraisal of the translation of Yoruba discourse markers into English M. A. Alo Full Length Research Paper This paper examines the translation of discourse markers in Yoruba with the aim of identifying their pragmatic functions and constraints faced in their translation into English. The methodology of contrastive analysis is adopted in our analysis to identify similarities and differences in the use and function of specific discourse markers (lsquo;yesrsquo; and lsquo;thank yoursquo;) in both languages. The analysis is carried out within the pragmatic perspective based on the theory of speech acts and illocutionary force of utterances (Searle, 1969). The study also employs a contrastive linguistic pragmatic methodology which seeks to identify similarities and differences in the functions of discourse markers in Yoruba (source language). The findings from the data analysis show that translatorsrsquo; choices are constrained by cultural and pragmatic differences between SL and TL. They also demonstrate that a good knowledge of pragmatics can enrich the study and practice of translation. Key words: Translation, discourse markers, pragmatic constraints, illocutionary force, speech acts. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/BA820E740930 en Copyright © 2010 M. A. Alo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:F61512F40932 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2010
Minoan culture and tourism Snezana Besermenji, Tatjana Pivac, Miroslav Vujicic and Athanasios P. Stamos Review The Greek culture was enormously influenced by the Minoan culture, as was its foundation stone. It had been developing in Crete from the 3rd millennium to 2ndmillennium BC and being an ode to joy and life. The frescoes representing noble dresses and jewelry of Cretan females, pleasure in sports activities and nature, as well as serene and happy people are genuine masterpieces. A substantial number of sites with remains of Minoan culture have been discovered on the island of Crete. Pendlebury, a renowned British archaeologist, listed nearly sixty sites of that type in the first phase, above twenty in the second and above sixty in the last phase of Minoan age. The well-known and most significant sites of Minoan culture are Knossos,Festos, Malia, Zakros and Agia Hagia Triada. The most interesting archaeological site is the Palace of Knossos reconstructed with its surroundings, including the cereal storerooms, porches and gardens. The Palace of Knossos, with its Grand Staircase with columns, numerous rooms and the throne room, was the palace of the oldest kingdom in Europe. The elegant throne with its high back, carved in stone has been standing in the same place, flanked by the Griffin (mythological creature half lion, half eagle) fresco. Today, the Minoan culture might be observed at archaeological sites and museums, which have been successfully valorized for tourism purposes. H. du Cros model for tourism valorization will be used to highlight what makes a successful tourism valorization of archaeological sites and museums representing the Minoan culture from the aspect of tourism. Moreover, subindicators in tourism sector analyzing market attractiveness and importance factors in tourism product design as well as management sector analyzing cultural significance and robustness will be applied. Key words: Minoan culture, archaeological sites, museums, management. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/F61512F40932 en Copyright © 2010 Snezana Besermenji, Tatjana Pivac, Miroslav Vujicic and Athanasios P. Stamos
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:750949E40934 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2010
Relationship between capacity building and employee productivity on performance of commercial banks in Kenya Kadian W. Wanyama and S. N. Mutsotso Full Length Research Paper This article of this paper is based on a research project carried out on commercial banks in Kakamega Central District, Kenya focusing on the influence of employee productivity on organizational performance which investigated the impact of capacity building and employee productivity in commercial banks since this leads to increase in performance as empirical research has proved. Kenya has experienced banking problems since independence in 1964 culminating in major Bank failures (37 failed banks as at 1998). Some of these problems like weak supervision and equipping employees with expertise, necessary skills and knowledge can be addressed through employee productivity to improve performance of the banks. Banks in Kenya and Kakamega in particular have experienced poor service delivery, organizational ineffectiveness, poor public relations, customer dissatisfactions, and some of these banking institutions have posted a decline in profitability. Research focusing on the firm-level impact of human resource management practices such as employee productivity, satisfaction and motivation has become popular in recent years. This has revitalized interest in the subject of employee productivity and its impact on the performance of organizations. Most studies tend to indicate that employee competence has a positive effect on the organizational performance. Therefore the findings from the study added value to the expanding scope of existing research studies on the influence of employee productivity on the organizational performance. This paper also provides vital information to organizational managers in the banking sector and academicians to encourage employee motivation, satisfaction and future research. Key words: Capacity building, employee productivity and performance. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/750949E40934 en Copyright © 2010 Kadian W. Wanyama and S. N. Mutsotso
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:A26407440935 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2010
Cultural theory and cultural dialogue in the 21st century Ameh Dennis Akoh Review Art is necessarily a cultural system, and culture in its mutation moves in the direction of societal becoming in the same manner as it dictates the direction of artistic creations and recreations. However, as the world, especially Africa, is being dragged along in the imperialist project of globalization, this paper interrogates the fate of cultural theory again, as it especially affects literary criticism of African texts. In the midst of what has been termed lsquo;nationalityrsquo;s maladyrsquo;, some would opt for cultural dialogue rather than effacing non-dominant lsquo;culturesrsquo;. There is therefore a call for an ambitious rethinking of cultural theory in order to make sense out of the grand narratives in which it is presently enmeshed, while it seeks this dialogue. Key words: Cultural theory, cultural dialogue, literature, Africa. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/A26407440935 en Copyright © 2010 Ameh Dennis Akoh
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:BE6DAE040936 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2010
Teachers’ and students’ perceptions of psychological factors contributing to violent behaviour among public secondary school students in western province, Kenya Moses Wesangrsquo;ula Poipoi, John O. Agak and Eric K. Kabuka Full Length Research Paper Violence is not a new phenomenon in the modern educational system. It is manifested in the form of rioting, sexual violence, fighting and bullying. The purpose of this study is to establish teachersrsquo; and studentsrsquo; perceptions of psychological factors contributing to violent behavior among public secondary school students in the western province of Kenya. The study was based on the social learning theory by Albert Bandura and a descriptive survey research design was adopted. The study population was composed of 638 principals, 6,354 teachers and 65,969 form two students. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select students from 213 secondary schools, while purposive sampling technique was used to select teachers. Questionnaires and in-depth interview guide was used to collect data from the respondents and a pilot study was carried out to establish the reliability and validity of the data collection instruments. However, qualitative data were transcribed and reported according to emerging themes, while quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, means and percentages. As such, inferential statistics such as t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were applied. The findings of the study indicated that forms of violence in schools included: sexual violence, rioting, bullying and fighting, while the perceived psychological factors contributing to violent behavior were: anxiety problems, ethnic violence, mental problems and fear of being punished. Generally, analysis of the problem revealed that students, regardless of their gender and/or type of school they attended, perceived causes of violence alike. Recommendations of the study were that: guidance and counseling should be reinforced in schools, students with mental and psychological disorders should be referred to medical doctors and psychiatrists, ban on caning of students should be encouraged, proper communication channels ought to be established in order to maintain a tranquil environment in schools and ranking of schools by Kenya National Examination council should be abolished. Key words: Aggression, perception, perceived factors, psychological factors, violent behavior. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/BE6DAE040936 en Copyright © 2010 Moses Wesangrsquo;ula Poipoi, John O. Agak and Eric K. Kabuka
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:DC331CF40938 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
Enhancing local governance through local initiatives: Residents’ associations in Zimbabwe Jephias Mapuva Review Residents associations are a local initiative by residents within a specific community. Through residents associations, citizens have been able to keep local authorities in check and to demand accountability. With the economic crises facing many countries across the globe and the world recession setting in, as well as the economic meltdown in Zimbabwe over the last few years, which was exacerbated by a hyperinflationary environment, local authorities have had to contend with shortages of resources to dispense services to local communities. This has increased restiveness on the part of residents. The article eclectically draws from the mobilisation theory whose premise is that a disgruntled citizenry is easy to mobilise. The study of the Combined Harare Residentsrsquo; Association (CHRA) has shown that residentsrsquo; associations are a conduit through which residents can demand accountability and participatory spaces in promoting good local governance. This article seeks to explore the extent to which residents associations have enhanced citizen participation and promote good local governance. This article deliberates on the prospects and challenges which residents associations as residentsrsquo; initiative can enhance citizen participation in local governance. Key words: Residents association, local governance, local authority, citizen participation, urban residents. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/DC331CF40938 en Copyright © 2011 Jephias Mapuva
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:B3842C840939 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
Reconstruction of the palaeoenviroment of Wadi Farja (Nile, third cataract) from zooarchaeological remains Yahia Fadl Tahir Full Length Research Paper Wadi Farja is a dry Holocene palaeochannel situated in northern Sudan on the eastern bank of the Nile, immediately north of the Third Cataract region. The human occupation of the Wadi peaked in the Neolithic (5000 to 3000 BC) through Kerma (2500 to 1500 BC) periods. The Wadi is relatively rich in bioarchaeological materials, such as mammalian bone fragments, fish bones and bivalve shells. It is concluded that the different classes of remains collected are indicative of the extent of animal palaeobiodiversity and the prevalence of savannah conditions at that time. The Wadi Farja was with a permanent water body, as the nearby Fad seasonal stream existing today. Key words: Palaeochannel, Farja, Fad, third cataract, holocene, neolithic, Kerma, bioarchaeological, savannah, hippopotamus, Coelatura, Etheria elliptica, Pila ovate, Lates niloticus). Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/B3842C840939 en Copyright © 2011 Yahia Fadl Tahir
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:905013040940 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
The politics of the government of national unity (GNU) and power sharing in Zimbabwe: Challenges and prospects for democracy Percyslage Chigora and Tobias Guzura Review September 2008 marked a new era in Zimbabwean politics, as a united front between the major political parties enabled the forging of an agreement that laid the foundation for a government of national unity. The unity government has brought hope not only to Zimbabweans but also to the international community for many view it as a purveyor of better moves for the country and its overall standing in the region and beyond. It is the purpose of this paper to provide an overview of the politics of governments of national unity in Zimbabwe from the first post-colonial government of national unity (GNU), the 1987 Unity Accord and the current 2008 GNU. It is the purpose of this research to bring to the fore, the dangers posed by the much-touted government of national unity to the prospects of the nascent democratic movement in Zimbabwe. The paper posits that among other factors, through the removal of a government in waiting, confinement to specific political parties, the exclusion of civil society and other new political players and critics of government policy in institutions promoting democracy; the GNU is clearly a negation of democracy. The paper also makes critical analysis of the viability, pros and cons of governments of national unity by, presenting the challenges that the GNUs encountered or, is likely going to encounter in Zimbabwe. For clarity and provision of a balanced analysis, the current GNU #39;s prospects of success are provided as well. Key words: Government of national unity (GNU), authoritarianism, power sharing, democracy, Zimbabwe. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/905013040940 en Copyright © 2011 Percyslage Chigora and Tobias Guzura
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:948357C40941 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
Real political empowerment or political Gimmick? An experience of women with guns under ZANU PF during the liberation struggle 1972-1980 Dorothy Goredema and Percyslage Chigora Review During and after the liberation struggle, ZANU PF boasted of having liberated women from the clutches of patriarchy by according women the same status with men in the liberation struggle. The party posed as the liberator of its women folk and mythologized female emancipation upon which it could congratulate itself. These writersrsquo; will demonstrate in these and other matters that the political empowerment of women in the liberation struggle was nothing but a political gimmick for the party to win the war and get international sympathy as a socialist democratic party. Key words: Gender, women, empowerment, liberation struggle, ZANU PF, Zimbabwe. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/948357C40941 en Copyright © 2011 Dorothy Goredema and Percyslage Chigora
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:4CD148340942 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
The relevance of migration to settlement pattern in Igbominaland E. O. Ibiloye Review Migration is an integral part of the history of mankind. Prior to the evolution of nation-state system, trans-continental migrations were the order of the day in all parts of the globe. Migration has also been part of Yoruba history taking from the classic version of the legend of Lamurudu/Oduduwa that associates the origin of Yoruba to migration from Mecca. It was as a result of migration of Oduduwa from Mecca to Ile-Ife that the seed of Yoruba kingdom was sown. The Igbomina, a dialectic sub-group of the Yoruba, which is the focus of this paper, also generally see their history in terms of migration. The two conflicting traditions of origin associating the founding of Igbomina kingdoms to two separate migrations are reconciled to show the relevance of these to modern political evolution in Igbomina land. The paper concludes that the myth and legend associating the founding of Igbomina kingdoms to migration under Orangun of Ilarsquo;s leadership cannot be credible, but that individual group migration spanning over several centuries was responsible for the present pattern of settlement. Key words: Migration, settlement, tradition, origin, culture. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/4CD148340942 en Copyright © 2011 E. O. Ibiloye
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:09FE24140943 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
Conflict and alternative dispute resolution among the Afar pastoralists of Ethiopia Kelemework Tafere Reda Full Length Research Paper A study was conducted on institutions of conflict resolution in the Northern Afar administration. The main objective was to examine alternative mechanisms of peace-making with a prime focus on informal indigenous structures. An attempt was made to assess such institutions vis-agrave;-vis changing circumstances in the political and socio-economic arena. The paper found out that, following disputes, people seem keen not to prolong hostilities that may eventually divide community members in blood feuds. Thus, elders and community leaders converge to discuss matters pertinent to stability thereby allowing disputes to subside. The Afar have local assemblies through which inter-clan conflicts are sorted out and thoroughly addressed. The local assemblies function as indigenous courts whose rules emanate from shared norms and mutually binding value systems. The traditional institutions maintain symbiotic relations with modern administrative and legal machineries. The prevalence of a complementary rather than competitive relations between the state and traditional system has contributed to the resilience and continued influence of the latter. The paper concludes that while the indigenous system is an efficient means of dealing with conflicts in the study area, an integration of the traditional and modern systems is needed for sustainable peace in the future. Key words: Conflict, peacemaking, indigenous knowledge, Afar pastoralism, Ethiopia. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/09FE24140943 en Copyright © 2011 Kelemework Tafere Reda
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:1B8060740944 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
Christianity as an Ideological Instrument: A postcolonial reading of Chinua Achebe’s Arrow of God Seyed Mohammad Marandi and Reyhaneh Sadat Shadpour Review This paper attempts to reveal how the Christian religion was used in colonizing African peoples according to Chinua Achebersquo;s Arrow of God. Colonists regularly use subtle and indirect ways to colonize people before and after independence; one of these methods was through ideology. The paper depicts the ways in which Christianity as an ideological instrument was used as a tool for colonization. Chinua Achebe, a major African postcolonial writer, has played a significant, though controversial, role in the fight against colonization and helping his country to regain its African identity. In this novel, Achebe has tried to create a new picture of African religion and has also described the process through which the white missionaries entered Africa and wiped out African religions. Key words: Christianity, ideology, postcolonialism, arrow of god. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/1B8060740944 en Copyright © 2011 Seyed Mohammad Marandi and Reyhaneh Sadat Shadpour
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:2F17A9740946 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
Gold mining and the socio-economic development of Obuasi in Adanse Emmanuel Ababio Ofosu-Mensah Full Length Research Paper This article seeks to project the important role played by gold mining in economic development of modern areas of Obuasi and Adanse in Ghana. It challenges those scholars who doubt the transformative, developmental and poverty alleviation roles of the mining industry in Ghana. The study is based on archival and oral research, and it arguments are articulated in a historical narrative fashion that link the past and the present while revealing the developmental role of the mining industry in Ghana. Key words: Gold mining, Obuasi, Adanse, Ghana, socio-economic, development. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/2F17A9740946 en Copyright © 2011 Emmanuel Ababio Ofosu-Mensah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:894321340948 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
A critique of modernization and dependency theories in Africa: Critical assessment J. Matunhu Review The way states and development specialists rationalize how to commit economic resources to development is influenced, to a greater extent by their level of persuasion towards specific development theories. The discourse assesses the influence of modernization and dependency theories on Africarsquo;s development. The conclusion is that both theories have failed to help develop Africa. The discourse pins hope on the African Renaissance theory of development. Key words: Modernization, dependency, rural underdevelopment, African renaissance. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/894321340948 en Copyright © 2011 J. Matunhu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:5418AB040950 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
Perceptions on cultural significance and heritage conservation: A case study of Sussan Wenger’s building, Osogbo, Nigeria Adedeji Joseph Adeniran and Fadamiro Joseph Akinlabi Full Length Research Paper The built environment is the history of man. The undying stones of monuments are the tables from which this history can be read. Thus, the life of man in the past, its values in the present and directions for the future are embellished on these stones. Historic cultural heritages cannot be expressed in any other better form than in buildings. Sussan Wengerrsquo;s building located in Osogbo, Nigeria is one of such buildings. The fabric of the building is synonymous to the history of this Austrian woman who indigenized and became a priestess of the Osun goddess in the course of which she was named ldquo;Adunni Olorisardquo;. The study was carried out to determine peoplersquo;s perceptions on the cultural significance and heritage conservation of the building because of the present non-identification of the building with Osun Grove World Heritage Site despite their obvious relationships. The building has history, features and associations with the Osun Sacred Grove which has earned recognition as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. 203 respondents who are residents of Osogbo were randomly sampled to determine their perceptions on this historic building. The data obtained were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis of means (x) and chi squares (chi;2) based on three hypotheses to find a correlation between respondents and sex, place of origin and rate of observation of the building. Result shows that attitudes towards the building favour the option of conversion of the building to a Museum of Art and Culture. Recommendations were made for the heritage promotions of the building through UNESCO. Key words: Conservation, Osun Grove, Sussan Wenger, cultural heritage, Osogbo, building, history. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/5418AB040950 en Copyright © 2011 Adedeji Joseph Adeniran and Fadamiro Joseph Akinlabi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:3A2B2F040951 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
Crisis of communal leadership: Post-colonial local government reform and administrative conflict with traditional authorities in the communal areas of Zimbabwe, 1980-2008 Godfrey Tabona Ncube Review Rural local government reform measures adopted by the new Government of Zimbabwe at independence in 1980 were largely inspired by the state#39;s modernization initiatives and the need to create a framework for expanded delivery of services to the peasant communities in order to redress the imbalances of colonial neglect. However, the reform measures also sought to undermine the authority of traditional institutions in judicial and land matters in the communal areas; firstly because of their perceived pre-independence role as functionaries of colonial oppression; secondly, because some elements within the new Government viewed traditional institutions as antithetical to their modernization project to transform rural society; and thirdly because other elements in the new Government perceived traditional institutions as centers of alternative authority to that of the formal state. The failure by the new Government to incorporate and co-opt traditional institutions into formal state institutions in the first two decades of independence lies at the heart of the confusion surrounding land administration in the communal areas after independence. This confusion at the local administrative levels was characterized by a lack of clarity on roles and functions between the traditional institutions of chief, headman and village head, and the elected leadership of village development committees (VIDCOs) and ward development committees (WADCOs) in land matters. It precipitated a crisis of communal leadership in the communal areas of Zimbabwe, whereby, on one hand, elected rural institutions had little real legitimacy according to traditional grassroots perspectives, while traditional leaders were not always acknowledged or respected by the formal state#39;s modernization initiatives. However, in many areas of the country, chiefs, headmen and village-heads illegally reacquired some of their defunct authority over land and proceeded to clandestinely allocate land. This crisis of communal leadership manifested itself in many land dispute cases that occurred at district level throughout the country for more than two decades, where there was clear evidence of hostility between the new and the old land administration structures. Key words: Traditional leaders, communal areas, village development committees, ward development committees, district councils, Chiefs and Headmen Act. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/3A2B2F040951 en Copyright © 2011 Godfrey Tabona Ncube
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:8DCB1CE40953 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
Colonialism and African cultural values Benson O. Igboin Review It is no longer a debate that pre-colonial African life was heavily influenced by religion. Almost every aspect of life was seen and interpreted in the supernatural. The belief that the ancestors played prominent roles in the maintenance of morality in the community hardly dies, even today. However, it is true that colonialism altered the belief and values of the Africans significantly, just as its structure was almost completely eroded. Today, the argument oscillates between a return to the lsquo;gloriousrsquo; pre-colonial past as the minimum requirement for moral rearmament and a total break with the past. This paper clarifies these positions and posits that even though it is not practically possible to have a total return to the past, there are certain cultural values that consistently define the African personality, history and belief that cannot be jettisoned without consequences. Through the gristmill of scholarly and analytical framework, this paper argues that these values are critical to African identity in a post-colonial, global community, and as such, there is the need to revisit some of them in order to keep pace with the history and identity in the face of current global challenges. Key words: Colonialism, Africa, values, religion, culture, morality. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/8DCB1CE40953 en Copyright © 2011 Benson O. Igboin
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:432166740955 2011-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
Mechanisms and challenges for managing disaster in Bangladesh Faraha Nawaz and Md Nurun Nabi Shah Review Bangladesh is a developing country in South Asia which has approximately fourteen core population. It is also known as a disaster prone country and is surrounded by thousands of rivers such as the Ganges, the Brahamaputra, and the Meghna and so on. The Himalayan range to the North and the Bay of Bengal in the South creates a complex weather system. Bangladesh is a common victim of natural calamities due to this unfavorable weather condition. Major natural calamities are tropical cyclones, tidal bores, floods, tornados, river bank erosions, earthquakes etc. A large number of poor people live in the vulnerable areas in the southern part of Bangladesh. The vulnerability is so miserable that they must resettle in the newly accreted land in the Bay of Bengal and its surrounding areas which are occasionally hit by tidal bores or devastating cyclones. The adverse impacts of these natural hazards affecting the socio-economic condition need to be reduced for sustainable development. Realization of this reality, the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) has undertaken a lot of plans and programs for disaster reduction through disaster management. Key words: Disaster, mitigation measures, community, disaster management mechanisms. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/432166740955 en Copyright © 2011 Faraha Nawaz and Md Nurun Nabi Shah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:8A2F1C740956 2011-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
Analysis of the socio-economic and cultural implications of environmental degradation in Northern Ghana using qualitative approach Isaac Agyemang Full Length Research Paper This article employs mainly the qualitative approach to study and interpret local peoplersquo;s understanding of environmental degradation in Northern Ghana. Environmental resources in the area are characterized by dry savannah climate and vegetation, poor soils, and irregular rainfall patterns leading to poor yields and low levels of output. The area is one of the most degraded regions in Ghana, and this is further complicated by high illiteracy rate, absolute poverty, complex land tenure system and high population growth rate. It is argued in this study that qualitative approach is an effective method for the acquisition, analysis and assessment of social data in developing countries. Through the approach, research participants discussed issues concerning environmental impacts that included loss of vegetation and the attendant effects on soil fertility leading to poor agricultural yields, cultural tensions with women disproportionately suffering the consequences of poverty and vulnerability to diseases. Key words: Socio-economic and cultural implications, environmental degradation, qualitative approach, northern Ghana. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/8A2F1C740956 en Copyright © 2011 Isaac Agyemang
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:DE7607640958 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
Theoretical framework towards understanding the economic development and underdevelopment of Nigeria Atare Otite Review The work focused on the theoretical understanding of the dynamics of Third World development and underdevelopment from the past. The desk study (DS) method of data gathering was used to gather data for this study. In the process, it was discovered that the present level of development and underdevelopment will not be clearly understood without actually taking a critical look at the past of the Third World countries. This is because, this has a lot to do with dynamics of the developmental level. Inline wit this, we therefore recommend, amongst others, that a thorough look at the past must be taken into consideration when formulating development policies in the present dispensation. Key words: Theoretical, understanding, dynamics, third world, development and underdevelopment. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/DE7607640958 en Copyright © 2011 Atare Otite
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:D3E84B640960 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
Trans-African identity: Cultural globalization and the role of the symbolic-aesthethic dimension in the present identity construction processes Francisco Javier Ullaacute;n de la Rosa Full Length Research Paper Globalization entails a process, in any case irreversible, of intensification of transnational, trans-societal and trans-cultural spaces, events, problems, economic transactions, conflicts and biographies, a process not necessarily unfolding in a centripetal, homogeneous and single way towards the formation of a single world society and culture but rather in a polycentric, multidimensional, ldquo;messyrdquo; way, dialectically contingent on the local. As far as the cultural dimension of globalization is concerned, the new concept of the ldquo;globalrdquo; comes into being as an identity of synthesis whereby such different groups as black communities across the Atlantic reaffirm their feelings of belonging, reconstructing them before the invasion of the global into their lives. This synthesis between the global and the local takes place by means of a dichotomy: the global takes possession of the infrastructural, structural and ethic axiological levels, leading societies towards a certain uniformization; the local remains at the aesthetic level of symbols and icons, shaping self-referred differential identities. The paper aims at exploring one of this new, postmodern, aesthetic, disembodied from a concrete set of cultural practices: one that we have labeled as the trans-African or black trans-national identity: that of all the communities that claim an African descent around the world. Key words: Black identity, cultural globalization, postmodernity, glocalization, africanity, trans-african. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/D3E84B640960 en Copyright © 2011 Francisco Javier Ullaacute;n de la Rosa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:4638C2540962 2011-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
The cultural logic of racism in Richard Wright’s Native Son Meryem Ayan Review Richard Wright in his astonishing novel, Native Son (1940) has created a controversial world shocking the sensibilities of both Black and White America by presenting the cultural and logical realities behind racism that has been a matter of question in the United States for centuries. In fact, race differences and prejudice attitudes always caused problem whenever Black and White wanted to unite and live together because the racial stereotypical picture held in both groups#39; mind/logic, made them act in a prejudice way that gave harm to both groups/cultures. Thus, this study aimed to discuss how the racial stereotypical picture held in both groupsrsquo; mind became destructive and double-edged racism by focusing on racism, race prejudice, fear, anger, cultural conflicts and cultural logic of racism in Wrightrsquo;s Native Son. Key words: Richard Wright, native son, racism, race prejudice, cultural logic. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/4638C2540962 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC10.024 en Copyright © 2011 Meryem Ayan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:5C00CFC40964 2011-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2011
A historical reflection of the University of Rabe Rashidi, Iran N. Behboodi, A. Kiani, A. Heydari Full Length Research Paper Rabe Rashidi has a large collection of academics and residents in the North West of Iran which return to Mughul patriarch periods. It was built in AH 8 century by Rashid al-Din Fadlallah in the government center of Tabriz. Based on proofs, Rashidabad city consist of two separate parts: Rabe Rashidi as one part and Rashidi city as the other part. Rube Rashidi as a castle was located in the central part of the city and it has some functions such as educational, religious and therapeutic. In order to achieve the main purpose of this paper, a reflection was made on the historical University of Rashidi city in ancient Tabriz region. Therefore, in the first stage of this paper, the physical system of Rashidi city was studied. Based on the data achieved from endowment design, a schematic assumption of Rashidi city was made. The methods applied on this research are content analysis and option idea through trial and multiple hypotheses. The analysis of the water supply system in its kind which uniquely helped to form basic fields of the city is schematic. In the third stage of this paper, we drew a city plan adaption with the situation of Rashidi castle lands. Results showed that Rashidi city is formed from different sectors and important city elements like: markets, mercers, bathrooms, Mosques, and the paper and paint factory located on it. However, all of these sets and their gardens were enclosed by a large barrier (Appendix 1). Key words: Physical space, Mughul Patriarch, Rube Rashidi, market, mosque. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/5C00CFC40964 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC11.032 en Copyright © 2011 N. Behboodi, A. Kiani, A. Heydari
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:615E7F240981 2012-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2012
Environmental ethics in the Hindu Vedas and Puranas in India R. Renugadevi Review The Indian religious traditions are intertwined with equally disparate cultural, social, linguistic, philosophical and ethical systems that have developed over a vast history, compounded with movement of peoples, foreign interventions, and internal transformations in structures and identities experienced over time. How does one then begin to talk about environmental values and concerns in the Indian religious traditions? Although, these can be randomly and selectively discussed, this study aims at tracing the contours of certain highlights and tensions in the traditional approaches to the question of the environment. Of special significance, the study will look at Brahmanical-Hindu, Jaina and Buddhist traditions, in their ancient to classical modalities, concluding with some contemporary responses to the supposed impact, or lack thereof, of traditional perspectives to ecological problems facing a rapidly modernizing South Asian nation-state, from Gandhi to Bhopal and after. Key words: Indian religious, cultural, social, Linguistic, philosophical and ethical systems. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/615E7F240981 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC11.042 en Copyright © 2012 R. Renugadevi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:D007F0A40991 2012-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2012
Retracing the concept of the subaltern from Gramsci to Spivak: Historical developments and new applications El Habib Louai Full Length Research Paper The aim of this paper is to retrace the historical developments and new implications of one of the most disputed concepts in post-colonial theory. The study of the concept of the subaltern deals first with preliminary definitions of this concept as it was initially used by the Italian Marxist political activist, Antonio Gramsci, in his widely known book ldquo;Prison Notebooksrdquo;. Later, this paper examined the new reflections of the subaltern concept as explicated by those critics and historians who defined themselves as members of the Subaltern Studies Group. A particular focus at this stage is laid on the key insights of the forefather of the group, Ranajit Guha, and on the latest assumptions and ideas provided by the prominent deconstructivist, post-colonial critic, Gayatri Spivak, mainly in her seminal essay: quot;Can the Subaltern Speak?quot; The study finally tackled some of the present day implications of the subaltern concept as it unfolds in a post-modern condition. The analysis at this stage focused on key ideas introduced by the post-modern scholar, Jean Baudrillard, and post-colonial critic, Homi Bhabha. Key words: Subaltern, post-colonialism, colonial discourse, subaltern historiography, political mobilization, domination, sexual division of labor, history, third world women, Sati women, globalized post-modern world, difference, identity, consciousness of subalternity, revolutionary voice, liminality, third space of enunciation. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/D007F0A40991 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC11.020 en Copyright © 2012 El Habib Louai
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:32CA93E41007 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2012
Politics and anarchy: Zimbabwe’s 2008 run-off presidential elections in context Zein Kebonang Review Following the ldquo;successfulrdquo; subvertion of the electoral process by President Mugabe in the 2008 run-off presidential elections in Zimbabwe and the subsequent formation of the Government of National Unity, this paper attempts to offer insights that may explain President Mugabersquo;s refusal to honour the outcome of the electoral process and the subsequent degeneration into authoritarian and repressive politics. Based partly on international relations theories and theories on the nature of political authority in Africa, this paper argues that the conduct of President Mugabe and the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) can best be explained from three ldquo;perspectivesrdquo;: The self-preservation; the apologetic and the neo-patrimonial perspective. Key words: Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU PF), sanctions, dialogue, power sharing, joint operations command (JOC), democracy, elections, movement of democracy change (MDC), government of national unity (GNU), civil society organizations (CSOs). Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/32CA93E41007 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC11.043 en Copyright © 2012 Zein Kebonang
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:E8BBCEB41012 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2012
Understanding community based adaptation strategies to climate variability in fishing communities of Rufiji River basin in Tanzania Shemdoe, Riziki Silas and Kihila Jacob Full Length Research Paper This paper provides a highlight of the existing local community adaptation strategies that fishing communities in Rufiji Basin, in Tanzania, are employing to counteract the negative impacts of climate change and climate variability. Data were collected through key informants interviews, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews using a structured questionnaire that was administered to 120 household heads from two fishing communities (marine and freshwater resources communities). Findings indicate that, communities have acknowledge existence of a significant change in rainfall patterns, wind direction and duration, temperature and variation in seasons. These have resulted into disappearance of some fish species and fish production in terms of lowering catches. Following the low catch and disappearance of some species, the fishing communities have developed some adaptation strategies including shifting to crop cultivation, fishing during both day and night, sailing long distances for fishing and zoning the fishing areas. From the findings obtained, a framework that integrates local communitiesrsquo; effective copying strategies that has been indicated to work better in the area and interventions geared to influence policy and institutions that are dealing either directly or indirectly with the impact of climate change and climate variability is recommended to aid decision making that will ensure the impacts of climate change and climate variability is reduced for the good of the fishing communities. Key words: Adaptation strategies, freshwater resources, marine resources Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/E8BBCEB41012 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC11.041 en Copyright © 2012 Shemdoe, Riziki Silas and Kihila Jacob
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:2ACD99841024 2012-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2012
The formation of a hybrid identity in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions Peiman Amanolahi Baharvand and Bahman Zarrinjooee Review Colonization was one of the bitterest phenomena during the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century. Imperial powers colonized some particular territories and plundered their capital. Beside economic damages, the colonizers obliterated local cultures of their colonies and imposed new ideologies on native people. Western cultural hegemony resulted in the formation of a new hybrid identity in the colonized natives. This article investigates Tsitsi Dangarembga#39;s Nervous Conditions (1988) through a postcolonial approach. Nervous Conditions relate the double suffering of females in Southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, a former colony of Britain. Rhodesia was a settler colony where the whitesrsquo; minority deposed local rulers late in the nineteenth century and began to administer the territory. The main discussion of this paper consists of two sections. The first part analyses gender discrimination as a great obstacle for women in the colonized Rhodesia, and the second part deals with racial discrimination practiced by colonizers, as well as the identity crisis experienced by the natives. Since colonization is one of the consequences of imperialism and postcolonial literature examines its consequences, this article begins with a brief introduction regarding postcolonial literature and British imperialism followed by a short background of Rhodesia. Key words: Nervous Conditions, postcolonial literature, imperialism, racial and gender discrimination, identity crisis. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/2ACD99841024 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC12.001 en Copyright © 2012 Peiman Amanolahi Baharvand and Bahman Zarrinjooee
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:13912C741031 2012-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2012
Road transportation as lifeline of the economy in Western Nigeria, 1920 to 1952 Oladipo O. Olubomehin Full Length Research Paper The complex but vital interconnection between road transportation and the economy is what this paper seeks to explore. Our primary focus is not to determine whether road transportation developed or underdeveloped the economy; rather we want to see how road transportation served as a ldquo;vehiclersquo;rsquo; for the pursuit of economic goals. The paper discusses how the introduction of modern means of transportation by the British colonial administration brought about a change in the economic landscape of Western Nigeria. It shows that road transportation opened up new areas for economic activities, increased agricultural production, revitalised trading activities and impacted positively on urbanisation process. Although, there were other means of transportation such as rail and water in the study area, these means of transportation would have been greatly incapacitated but for the complementary role played by road transport in the economy. The paper concludes that road transportation indeed acted as the lifeline of the economy of the study region. The method adopted for the study is basically historical, involving the use of primary sources such as archival documents and oral interviews as well as secondary source-material. Key words: Road, transportation, economy, lifeline, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/13912C741031 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC12.002 en Copyright © 2012 Oladipo O. Olubomehin
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:915BA0E41038 2012-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2012
Influence of occupational health and safety programmers on performance of manufacturing firms in Western Province, Kenya Ezekiel M. Makori, O. M. J. Nandi, J. K. Thuo and Kadian W. Wanyonyi Full Length Research Paper Occupational health and safety continues to be one of the most critical but highly criticized issues within the discipline of human resource management. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of health and safety programmes on performance of manufacturing firms in Western Province, Kenya. The study presents the results on an empirical study conducted. The study utilized a convenient sample by using all manufacturing firms in Western Kenya. Content validity and reliability of the research instruments were done through test retest method using one of the manufacturing firms which was not included in the final analysis. Reliability coefficient yielded a Cronbachrsquo;s alpha of 0.88. The data from all the manufacturing firms was collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tools like Pearson correlation, simple regression and one way ANOVA. The study findings showed a moderate positive relationship between occupational health and safety programmes (OHSP) and organizational performance of manufacturing firms. This was an indication that OHSP were not efficient in the studied firms, thus, affecting organizational performance of these firms in terms of sales, profitability, production, order delivery, reputation, target achievement, product quality and production costs. Management of firms must put in place policies and structures for improving occupational health and safety. They should not wait to form ad hoc committees (after an accident has occurred), whose recommendations may not be implemented. Organizations should put in place active health and safety committees which should be given mandate to implement their recommendations. Everyone in the organization should adhere to laid down policies, rules and safety precautions to reduce accidents. The study results provide vital information to managers, researchers and academicians on the relevance of occupational health and safety in business organizations. Key words: Occupational health and safety programmes (OHSP), employee productivity, organizational performance. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/915BA0E41038 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC11.036 en Copyright © 2012 Ezekiel M. Makori, O. M. J. Nandi, J. K. Thuo and Kadian W. Wanyonyi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:82DDD2541041 2012-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2012
Assessing the driving forces of environmental degradation in Northern Ghana: Community truthing approach Isaac Agyemang Full Length Research Paper This article employs community truthing approach to interpret local peoples understanding and knowledge concerning the driving forces of environmental degradation in Northern Ghana. Through a wide range of participatory rural appraisal techniques, such as key informant interviews, focus group discussion and participantsrsquo; observation, selected people from the study community were given the chance to critically review, identify issues and add meanings in terms of the nature and causes of environmental degradation in their area of abode. Results revealed that the current state of the natural environment in the study area is as a result of complex interactions among several direct and indirect forces, the most important of which are small-scale legal and illegal mining and indiscriminate grazing which are driven indirectly by socio-economic and cultural forces such as poverty, high population growth, migration and loose tenure system. Key words: Community truthing, environmental degradation, driving forces, Northern Ghana. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/82DDD2541041 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC12.005 en Copyright © 2012 Isaac Agyemang
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:7F2317041049 2012-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2012
Expressing indigenous knowledge through dance Akas Nicholas Chielotam Review In many cases, indigenous knowledge has been orally passed from one generation to another. It encompasses the wisdom, knowledge and teachings of traditions to communities based on their social, economic, religious and political beliefs. The knowledge of indigenous and local communities is often embedded in a cosmology. These cosmologies are inextricably bound to ancestors, festivals and ancestral lands. To acquire indigenous knowledge, it may not be acquired by naturalistic trial and error, but through direct revelation and constant conversation with the people that own the various indigenous traditions. Therefore, this paper is aimed at using dance as an expressive tool in retaining indigenous knowledge. Key word: Indigenous, festival, aesthetic. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/7F2317041049 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC12.010 en Copyright © 2012 Akas Nicholas Chielotam
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:25F8A8741052 2012-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2012
The role of language in ethnic identity: The case of Akwamu in Ghana Ofosu-Mensah, Ababio Emmanuel and Ansah, Gladys Nyarko Full Length Research Paper Researchers in several disciplines within the social sciences, for example anthropology, sociology, history, linguistics and the humanities in general have explored the relationship among language, culture and identity from different perspectives. The general picture in the literature is the recognition that these three phenomena are connected to and affect each other in intricate ways. In this paper, we focus on a specific aspect of this relationship (the relationship between linguistic identity and ethnic/cultural identity). The paper provides a historical account of the rise and fall of the Akwamu Empire (a socio-politically powerful sub-Akan ethnic group in pre-colonial Ghana) and explore the role language may have played in the loss of the ethnic identity of the Akwamu after the fall of the Empire. We argue that the apparent loss of the Akwamu ethnic identity among several people of Akwamu origin is attributable to the loss of their linguistic identity resulting from extensive language contact situations. The paper is broadly situated within sociolinguistics, but specifically within contact linguistics. Key words: Akwamu Empire, language contact, linguistic identity, ethnic identity. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/25F8A8741052 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC12.003 en Copyright © 2012 Ofosu-Mensah, Ababio Emmanuel and Ansah, Gladys Nyarko
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:B85B5DC40987 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
White power, white desire: Miscegenation in Southern Rhodesia, Zimbabwe Munyaradzi Mushonga Review While European patterns of miscegenation in colonial situations tended to be influenced by the demographic composition of the population, and in particular the proportion of non-whites and the ratio of white women to white men, there are other factors that need more emphasis. First, miscegenation was used to control and dominate the colonised peoples, and second miscegenation itself can be looked at as proof of the white manrsquo;s desire and sexual appetite for the black woman. In the colonial situation, black women sat at the focal point where two exceptionally powerful and prevalent systems of oppression come together ndash; race and gender. The dynamics between race, sexuality, class and gender cannot be overstated. It is therefore plausible to argue that European men were prone to have sex with black women, not only from a shortage of white women, but also from the need to exercise power and authority as well as to satisfy their sexual desires for black women. The desire for domination and the desire for lsquo;othernessrsquo;, propelled by the sexual attractiveness of black women was at the centre of the white manrsquo;s obsession with sexuality, fertility and hybridity. But while European men sexually abused black women, they denied African men access to white women by legal means. This, they did under the guise of patriarchal tenets of lsquo;ownershiprsquo; of women and children and the old insecure feeling that white women might, if granted equality sexually prefer black men. This paper therefore makes two propositions about miscegenation in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). First, European men needed miscegenation to control, dominate and reinforce and sustain white domination and black subordination; and second, miscegenation itself was a testimony to the fact that white men saw black women as sexually desirable and attractive. Using the qualitative descriptive analytical approach, archival and secondary sources are interwoven to bring to the fore the said propositions. Key words: Miscegenation, matrix of domination, sex, desire, intersectionality, white women, black women, white men, black men, black peril. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/B85B5DC40987 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC12.019 en Copyright © 2013 Munyaradzi Mushonga
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:CEE528940989 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
Politics in environmental stewardship in Zimbabwe: Reflections on Ruwa and Epworth Innocent Chirisa Review This article outlines, explains and discusses the stewardship of the bio-physical environment in Zimbabwe with special reference to the policy instruments used at national and localized areas. Issues examined include aspects of the ecological footprint, the national environmental policy and housing with special reference to aspects including burial space, water and sanitation, deforestation challenges, solid waste management, perceptions and attitudes towards climate change, personal and environmental health and town expansion. These are examined at the microcosm space of Ruwa and Epworth, two peri-urban towns, satellite to Harare, Zimbabwersquo;s capital city. The bio-physical assets in peri-urban human habitats, like in any other setting are subject to a pressure cook of the forces of conservation and preservation vis-a-vis exploitation and consumption. How the stakeholders interact is a matter of politics. It is a power game. Perhaps it is a fight between rationality and some kind of political irrationalism. This is the thrust of this paper. Key words: Environment, power, politics, stewardship, conservation, utility, policy. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/CEE528940989 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC11.026 en Copyright © 2013 Innocent Chirisa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:98A4B1C41000 2013-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
Ayele Bekerie. Ethiopic: An African Writing System--Its history and principles. Lawrenceville, N.J., and Asmara, Eritrea: Red Sea Press, 1997. xiv + 176 pp. $18.95 (paper), ISBN 978-1-56902-021-0; $59.95 (cloth), ISBN 978-1-56902-020-3. Dereje Tadesse Birbirso Book Review Ethiopian history is notoriously a history abounded in mystifications, phantasms and de-Africanizations. A key aspect of these mystifying narratives is about the social origin of the so-called Ethiopic writing system. However, Ayele Bekeriersquo;s Ethiopic is the first break with reproduction of flaw. In his book about the history and principles of Ethiopic system, Bekerie exploits his ideographical, syllographical, astronomical, grammatological and theological knowledge and argues that Ethiopic is part of the Ancient African societiesrsquo; philosophy. For the conservative Abyssinianists, Bekeriersquo;s work is disconcerting, while for the few relatively liberal Ethiopianists it is disillusioning. Yet, for a critical Africologist, it is a step in the right direction. Yet, for non-Semitic scholars and peoples in the Horn of Africa it is a swerve between the former two, Abyssinianism and Ethiopianism. In other words, it is reificationmdash;a history book without human agents. Using theories in historical linguistics, discourse analysis, social semiosis and history of philosophy, this paper attempts to unveil these anomalies in Bekeriersquo;s Ethiopic. Directions for future research are also pointed out. Key words: Ayele, Bekerie, Ethiopic, Gersquo;ez, Oromo, Cush, writing, system. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/98A4B1C41000 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC12.026 en Copyright © 2013 Dereje Tadesse Birbirso
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:9BE597741006 2013-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
Natural resource, identity politics and violent conflict in post-independence Nigeria Fred Ekpe F. Ayokhai Full Length Research Paper Violent conflict is a recurring denominator of national life in Nigeria. This is exemplified by the recurrence of sectarian conflicts of violent dimension across the regions of the country, particularly since the return to civil rule in 1999. The Niger Delta is one of the regions of the country that has been particularly notorious for violent conflict. This is often rationalized on the struggles of the ethnic groups in the region to either exclusively appropriate or have a fair access to the appropriation of the natural resource in their homelands. The Niger Delta conflict does not only pose a major challenge to the state in Nigeria but also has serious international significance. This is not only because of Nigeriarsquo;s position in Africa but also because of the disruptive impact of the conflict on the exploitation of her oil resources which are critical to the survival and stability of Western economies and the Nigerian state, particularly in the era of the American war against terrorism. Thus, the Niger Delta region which hosts Nigeriarsquo;s oil and gas resources provides a classical illustration of violent conflict emanating from natural resource endowment. This has also brought about the formulation and reformulation of identities for political negotiation of the appropriation of national wealth. Consequently, the region, more than any other, comes into prominence in any serious discourse of identity politics, natural resource and conflict in post-civil war Nigeria. This paper thus interrogates the nexus between natural resource, identity politics and violent conflict in Nigeria. The findings reveal a positive correlation among the configuring variables. It concludes that Nigeriarsquo;s elitesrsquo; preoccupation with primitive accumulation is culpable for the protraction and degeneration of the Niger Delta question into violent conflict. Finally, it makes recommendations for the resolution of the conflict. Key words: Natural resource, resource control, identity politics, violent conflict. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/9BE597741006 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC11.011 en Copyright © 2013 Fred Ekpe F. Ayokhai
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:49A901740963 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
Bereavement: Festivities during mourning among the Tiv of Benue State, Nigeria Moses Ichongo Ukeh Full Length Research Paper Until recently, death used to be a solemn occasion among the Tiv. The Tiv mourning custom of festivities during period of mourning compels the bereaved to provide for sympathisers instead of being provided for. This switch of roles and its supposed implications on bereaves motivated this research. A qualitative case study approach was used for analysis. A total of 125 participants, 84 males and 41 females of varying ages from 16 years and above from 6 Local Government Areas of Benue State responded to in-dept interview guide and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Participantsrsquo; review was done to confirm the accuracy of perspectives. Findings indicated among others that the Tiv are affected by bereavement on several dimensions of health, but the ability or otherwise to organise festivities today seems to determine bereavesrsquo; outcome. This custom seems to be a product of redefinition of values by the elite to display affluence and is ignorantly copied within the society. Its practice has brought untold hardship on the poor but increased the status of the rich. The custom apart from being counter-productive, precludes younger Tiv from appreciating the functional aspects of funerals, thereby leading to distortion in recognition of the needs of bereaves. Education and re-orientation of the people to correct this anomaly is highly necessary. Key words: Tiv, festivities, mourning, bereave, Benue State. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/49A901740963 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0151 en Copyright © 2013 Moses Ichongo Ukeh
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:B7DE54540965 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
Exploring socio-economic factors in the exploitation of girls in the eastern province of Sierra Leone Johnson Adlyn O. Full Length Research Paper Access to formal education reduces the chances of the exploitation of children. However, with increased access to formal education comes the attendant problem of ensuring that children, especially girls, the sex that is disadvantaged in their participation in education, are able to complete their schooling. The aim of this paper is to investigate issues in the socio-economic exploitation of girls in the Eastern Province of Sierra Leone. The research was based on primary data collected from a sample of eight percent of the population of school girls at the lower secondary school level in the study area. Before the questionnaires were distributed to these girls, they were pre-tested to girls in another district and changes and corrections were made based on the realities on the ground. It was discovered that a lot of factors lead to the continued exploitation of girls in the home. Most of these girls come from humble backgrounds and are involved in income generating activities and chores that interfere with their schooling. It is important that organizations involved in the education of these girls focus attention on improving the socio-economic status of these homes as well as helping to increase the earning capacity of parents, especially the mothers. Key words: Exploitation, girlsrsquo; education, Sierra Leone, socio-economic factors. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/B7DE54540965 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC12.007 en Copyright © 2013 Johnson Adlyn O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:E013DDF40968 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
TIV elegiac poetry Amase, Emmanuel Lanior Article Oral poetry is a popular genre in Africa, largely due to the poetic nature of the African environment. Almost every activity in African communities calls for one form of poetic expression or the other. Oral poems are usually brought into service in various ways because they are concerned with different human experiences. Elegiac poetry is one of the several poetic forms that exist in Tiv land. It is basically concerned with mourning the dead and consists of funeral songs, eulogies, chants and recitations that are integral to the funeral and memorial rites in the communities. This paper examines the Tiv perception of death, cosmology and the concept of ancestral potency as reflected in their funeral songs. It shows how oral literature acts as an instrument of selfndash;control through the morals it teaches, thereby helping to bring order in the society. In addition to the theme of death, Tiv elegiac poetry is a repository of Tiv culture and tradition. In analysing the thematic concerns of the songs, the paper also highlights the literary and poetic devices employed by the performers in order to achieve the desired effect. Key words: Elegiac poetry, oral, death, mourn, literature, songs. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/E013DDF40968 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC12.028 en Copyright © 2013 Amase, Emmanuel Lanior
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:64CA7D440957 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
Attitude to education and academic performance for in-school adolescent girls in the eastern province of Sierra Leone Johnson Adlyn O. Conscious of the multiple hurdles that girls encounter in their participation in education, the government of Sierra Leone has embarked on a series of affirmative policies to encourage their participation. This paper sets out to find out whether girlsrsquo; have a positive attitude to education in this positive affirmative educational policy landscape. The study found out that girls have developed a good attitude to education despite problems that they have, which include: poor home and school environments. A null research hypothesis using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation at the 99.9% confidence level was advanced that there is no significant difference between attitude of girls to education and their school performance. The grades of these girls at their last school examinations were used for school performance. The result inferred statistically that there is a positive significant relationship between attitude that girls have to education and their school performance. The null hypothesis was rejected and the alternative hypothesis accepted. It is therefore proposed that affirmative programmes to encourage girlsrsquo; participation in formal education be continued. Key words: Attitude and performance, girlsrsquo; education, Sierra Leone. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/64CA7D440957 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC12.008 en Copyright © 2013 Johnson Adlyn O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:2D4471740959 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
Rural-urban migration and rural community development: A case of Kpongu community of Upper West Region of Ghana Agyemang Isaac and Abu Salia Raqib Full Length Research Paper The movement of human beings from areas of origin to area of final destination is a natural phenomenon among human societies. This study focuses on rural-urban migration with the aim of identifying the socio-economic and cultural causes of rural-urban migration, the socio-economic and cultural implications of migration from the study area to other areas of final destination, the coping strategies adopted by the community members with the aim of discouraging rural urban migration, what needs to be done to curb the movement from a community to other places. To this end the study made use of both primary data and secondary data to source information from members of the study community. Purposive sampling was used to select research participants, both key informants and focus group participantsrsquo; from the entire population. Research participants revealed that the people of Kpongu perceived development as provision of social infrastructure as well as improve standard of living which is a motivating factor for migration. To most of the respondents, migration was positive and brings about improved standard of living. It was revealed that some of the causes of rural-urban migration in Kpongu include lack of economic opportunities, inadequate social amenities among others. The study concluded with some measures put in place to mitigate migration as well as some recommendation to help reduce migration from the study area to areas of final destination. Key words: Rural-urban migration Kpongu community, rural community development. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/2D4471740959 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC12.009 en Copyright © 2013 Agyemang Isaac and Abu Salia Raqib
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:617712C40961 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
Panoply of selected Asante and Ijaw cultural practices: Comparative and descriptive study Kquofi, S., Olowonirejuaro, A. and Asante, E. A. Full Length Research Paper Even though Ghana and Nigeria have a myriad of diverse cultures, which highlight the philosophical foundations of the existence of the people, most of these cultural elements are similar in practice. By virtue of the proximity of the two nations, their practices are vital to foster unity as well as create a healthy cultural relationship for socio-cultural development of the two West African nations. This paper is a descriptive and comparative account of Asante and Ijaw of Ghana and Nigeria respectively, to establish their unique similarities for socio-cultural cohesion. The synthesis of the findings highlights that an in-depth cultural equilibrium exists between the two nations in terms of the economic, religious, political and social aspects of the cultural life of the Asante and Ijaw. Key words: Asante, cultural practices, ethnic, Ijaw, socio-cultural. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/617712C40961 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC12.018 en Copyright © 2013 Kquofi, S., Olowonirejuaro, A. and Asante, E. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:5A3AB3C40952 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
Elections and electoral processes in Africa: A gimmick or a curse? Jephias Mapuva Review This paper seeks to highlight the controversial way elections have been held in some countries, which have led to the loss of confidence with the results, in some cases, the disputed elections has led to civil wars, re-run of the electoral process or the formation of coalitions. Election time on the African continent has therefore brought about anxiety to both the contesting political parties and the electorate. In the battle for political hegemony, pre- and post-electoral violence has become commonplace. But the most susceptible victims of the battle for political supremacy have been the electorate who are swayed left right and centre by completing political parties. The aftermath of most elections has left citizens licking their wounds as they take stock of the brunt of supporting what-ever political party of their choice. To avoid outright defeat, most ruling political parties have been able to manipulate both the vote and state security machinery to their advantage. Legislation governing the conduct of free and fair elections has not been of much use either as it has also been manipulated. This paper explores the vagaries associated with elections on the African continent. The paper utilises available debates to support the argument of cases of flawed electoral processes on the African continent. Key words: Voters, election malpractice, elections, Africa, electorates, Kenya, Zimbabwe, South Africa. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/5A3AB3C40952 en Copyright © 2013 Jephias Mapuva
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:90198A740954 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
The relevance and legacy of Nelson Mandela in the twenty-first century Africa: An historical and theological perspective Godson S. Maanga Review Great people come and go out of this world, leaving behind great ideas which are easily forgotten by members of the society. This essay is written to remind people of the great ideas and impressive virtues bestowed on the person of Nelson Mandela. It candidly analyses Nelson Mandela ndash; a great statesman, exemplary humanist, freedom fighter, and a strong opponent of apartheid. The essay highlights Mandelarsquo;s immense contribution to the society ndash; morally, religiously, economically, politically, socially and culturally. It depicts Mandela as a legendary patriot and a sage of the century. Looking at the status quo in Africa, the essay calls upon African leaders to look at Nelson Mandela, a role model in good leadership, love and reconciliation. He has shown the world how to sympathize with sufferers as well as the condemned. Nelson Mandela has been exemplary in matters pertaining to good governance ndash; identified by transparency, independent judiciary and the rule of law. He has been a frontline champion in empowering the poor as well as assisting the marginalized and the forgotten. In the person of Nelson Mandela we see a living example of co-existence with people of different political ideology, race, religion, gender, and social stratification. To balance the kudos, some comments from Nelson Mandelarsquo;s critics are incorporated in the essay, to show that no human being is perfect or criticism-free. However, criticism does not erode Mandelarsquo;s global fame. He has done things which are so great and valuable that we need to look at them, preserving the ones worth preservation. Key words: Afrikaners, Apartheid, Black Consciousness Movement, Boers, German Holocaust, Green Belt Movement, Jen, Nationalists, Pan-Africanism, Ubuntu, Umkhoto we Sizwe. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/90198A740954 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC12.013 en Copyright © 2013 Godson S. Maanga
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:EA40DEB40947 2013-08-15T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
Poverty alleviation and empowerment of small-scale industries in Nigeria: The case of Tie and Dye Makers Association Bukola Adeyemi, Oyeniyi Review Using the experiences of the Tie and Dye Makers Association of Nigeria, this study examines how various governmental programmes on poverty alleviation, job creation, and empowerment have impacted the fortunes of informal sector operators in Nigeria. The study found that while the various programmes were not deficient on policy design and resource allocation, politics and corruption ensured that the masses saw and received little. For the most part, the dividend of the programmes ended up with politicians and civil servants who were in-charge of them. Given Adire-makersrsquo; efforts at formalizing their activities, to continue to allow regulatory and operational challenges hinder the formalization of the informal sector is like allowing a head of steam to pass without harnessing its horsepower. Key words: Poverty alleviation, empowerment, Tie and Dye Makers Association, informal economy, Nigeria, Africa. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/EA40DEB40947 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC11.006 en Copyright © 2013 Bukola Adeyemi, Oyeniyi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:AFFAF1F40949 2013-08-15T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
The psychology of unmarried men in Nairobi: A case study of three bachelors over forty Esther Gicheru Full Length Research Paper Equal number of males and females in Nairobi today says that they want to settle down and raise a family. More women than men, however, wish they were married and are currently in search for a life mate. However, although there are many marriageable women, some men still remain unmarried even after clocking the marriageable age. If we assume that marriage is a conscious and deliberate choice, then the internal logic, self-understanding, or rationales of such men should provide answers. This study therefore sought to discover and understand the perspective of men aged 40 and above who are still unmarried. The study explored the experiences of three men who are self acclaimed senior bachelors living and working in Nairobi. A convenient sample obtained through snowballing was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and the data tape recorded. Phenomenological immersion and thematic analysis were employed in the analysis of the transcribed data. A thematic description was provided narrating the essence of the phenomenon as experienced by the participants. The study found out that early childhood experiences relating to parental relationships have a cardinal effect on whether or not a male views the institution of marriage positively or with dread. Financial considerations and economics of scale also play a huge role in the choice to marry or not. Prescriptions that may encourage men to marry by age 40 and change the current social trajectory include public social policies geared towards strengthening marriages, such as issuing decrees to ensure some lucrative jobs in government were restricted to men, youthsrsquo; empowerment such as developing and implementing measures to promote the economic enfranchisement of young people which helps them to create choices in life. Key words: Marriageable age, phenomenological immersion, theme analysis, parental relationships, social trajectory. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/AFFAF1F40949 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC12.030 en Copyright © 2013 Esther Gicheru
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:07CA4A740945 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
Women’s right to resource access in Northern and Central Ethiopia: A historical survey of land tenure system from the 13th to 20th century Tamrat Haile Full Length Research Paper This article attempted to examine how the evolution of land tenure system in north and central Ethiopia historically resulted in unequal resource accesses as far as gender relations are concerned. The article is an outcome of historical research and the researcher has employed a qualitative research method. Accordingly, written historical documents related to the study were consulted carefully and important secondary sources were also referred to. Having analyzed the historical evolution of land tenure system, the study also tried to indicate that the question of access to land had not only been an economic issue, but also a political and cultural one at the state level for many centuries. As this study unraveled, in Ethiopia for at least two millennia, both the acquisition and inheritance of land had been highly patriarchal because the state mobilized the military who usually happened to be men to expand its territory. Hence, land was occupied and defended mostly by men. As the usual habit of the patriarchal system elsewhere, the claim to possession of land was based on belonging to a descent line of an original father who happened to be the first to occupy the land. Since unlike men, women usually did not get the chance to participate at the line of military confrontations that were launched for territorial expansions and land acquisitions, they were deprived of the right to land access. Consequently, this land tenure system in the 13th to 20th century Ethiopia resulted in the creation of a deep rooted gender biased socio-political structure that denied women the access to important economic, political and social privileges. Key words: Land tenure, siuml;rit, gender relations, riuml;st, gult, militarism, Ethiopian women. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/07CA4A740945 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0152 en Copyright © 2013 Tamrat Haile
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:0BD62AE40944 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
Military regimes and nation building in Nigeria, 1966-1999 AJAYI, Adegboyega Isaac Review The problems of nation building in Nigeria, most of which are congenital, dating to the birth of the nation through the amalgamation exercise of 1914, became protracted since then till the supposedly nationalistic and apolitical military came to power in 1966. The military solutions were examined in this study in a descriptive analytical manner. The discussion revealed that the low level of national integration achieved under military dispensations was as a result of coercion and strict authoritarian guidance and control. Nationalistic affectations and parochial dispositions were more prevalent under the military. The end result was that they left the nation worse than they met it. They left a legacy of a highly militarized social polity that elevated violence, corruption, intolerance and selfish pursuits to lofty heights. And the situation has been worsening progressively since their departure from power in 1999. We now have many ethnic militia organizations and extremist religious groups unleashing terror on the nation and hapless people in their bid to redress real and imagined grievances. There is therefore an urgent need to demilitarize the polity, ensure justice, equity, fairplay and a truly federal democratic arrangement. Key words: Integration, authoritarian, lsquo;centristrsquo; federalism, congruence, equity, militarize. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/0BD62AE40944 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0149 en Copyright © 2013 AJAYI, Adegboyega Isaac
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:66D523B40931 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
“Friendly Assistance: Archetypal Pawnship in Pre-colonial Akan Society” KWABENA ADU-BOAHEN Full Length Research Paper Debt bondage has been known in various forms in several societies in the world from the ancient period and it still exists in some cultures today. In pre-colonial Africa, it mainly took the form of pawning human beings to secure debt. Pawns served for debts they either personally contracted or, more often, for the indebtedness of senior members of their corporate kinship groups. This article examines the essential purpose of human pawning among the Akan of Ghana. It argues that the practice was not profit-oriented in that society, but a ldquo;brotherrsquo;s keeperrdquo; system in which the wealthy in a community assisted close neighbours caught in unexpected adversity and needed urgent financial bailout. It further argues that pawnship came to have oppressive features with the passage of time partly as an organic process, but mainly due to the impact of the emergence and growth of the Atlantic trading system. Key words: Akan, Gold Coast, debt bondage, pawnship, pawn, security, creditor, redemption. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/66D523B40931 en Copyright © 2013 KWABENA ADU-BOAHEN
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:2A7B50C40933 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
Recounting history through linguistics: A toponymic analysis of Asogli migration narratives Mercy Adzo Klugah Scholars seek to present the history of the Ewe in two main ways, namely, the symbolic and the scientific. Migration narratives constitute good examples of the symbolic historical genre. Using Tent and Blairrsquo;s toponymic typology, the paper tried to extract scientific historical information from some of the names of places contained in the migration narratives of the Asogli of the Volta Region. The paper found out that toponyms are history-preserving tools among the Asogli since they are used to mark certain important occurrences on the migration route. The linguistic approach used also revealed that Asogli migration narrative toponyms have brought various grammatical structures together through the process of agglutination. The paper, therefore, concluded that while scholars who adopt the scientific approach may rely, for example, on archaeology, a linguistic approach could provide a complementary alternative for gaining a holistic historical picture of the Asogli. Key words: Migration narratives, history, linguistics, toponyms, toponymy, agglutination. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/2A7B50C40933 en Copyright © 2013 Mercy Adzo Klugah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:085E48D40913 2013-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
Inter-group relations in historical perspectives: A case study of Yoruba and Hausa communities of Agege, Lagos, Nigeria Muhammad Mukhtar Gatawa Review This paper examines the phenomenon of inter-group relations amongst the Yoruba and Hausa communities in Agege, Lagos, Nigeria. Historically, Nigerian ethnic groups had achieved a high level of integration prior to the colonial conquest. Long distance trade, migratory movements and socio-economic inter-group relations had helped made ethnic and cultural integration an integral part in the evolution of modern Nigeria. In this paper, an attempt was made to scrutinize some popular, but defective, assertions relating to inter-group relations, ethnicity and national integration in such multi-cultural societies as Nigeria. The paper seeks to validate the claim that the concepts of lsquo;indigenersquo;/rsquo;non-indigenersquo; and lsquo;son of the soilrsquo;/rsquo;settlerrsquo; were, until recently, insignificant in the intergroup relations amongst Nigeriarsquo;s diverse ethnic communities. This was in contrast to the prominence now given to the lsquo;politics of belongingrsquo; in the Nigerian national discourse, in which the gap between the lsquo;native/son of the soilrsquo; and lsquo;stranger/settlerrsquo; is becoming wider by the day. The situation has degenerated into conflicts or threats by such natives to send away strangers who, like in the case of Agege, are second or even third generation descendants of pioneer Hausa migrants. The study equally confirms the assertion that the indigene/non-indigene dichotomy has posed greater challenges to the cohesion of Nigerian state and its citizens. Finally, the paper is part of the outcome of intensive fieldwork and interviews carried out by the author between 2006 and 2008 in the course of writing a Doctoral Thesis on lsquo;The Hausa Community in Lagos, 1861 ndash; 2007rsquo;. Key words: Migration, settlement, trade, Inter-group relations, integration. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/085E48D40913 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0154 en Copyright © 2013 Muhammad Mukhtar Gatawa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:E6194C140914 2013-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
Gender and power interrelationship: A review of the Jola indigenous socio-political organization of The Gambia Cajetan Ifeanyi Nnaocha Matters relating to the rights of men and women in our contemporary African society have been a major concern to academia. Thus, this article examines the indigenous Jola society with the aim of identifying the issues involved in gender and power relationship in their socio-political space. It locates the position of men and women in their socio-political system and identifies how power is distributed in the inter-personal relationships that exist among them. This study argues that power in indigenous Jola society is multifaceted, elusive and hence notes the different forms it possesses and the application it assumes in the Jola socio-political space. Hence, power is not concentrated on an individual or group but diffused within the system. Space in this regard, epitomizes the setting and means of negotiating and accessing power on a one-on -one basis for men and women. Thus he observes that teamwork and gender symbiosis characterize the indigenous Jola ethnic group of The Gambia. The author feels that the gender balance or mainstreaming as depicted in the traditional Jola society is a worthy practice which enhances checks and balances in any given polity. The complementary role of women in this ethnic group should be emulated by other ethnic groups which disparage the women folk. Key words: Socio-political organization, indigenous Jola society, relationships, The Gambia Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/E6194C140914 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0143 en Copyright © 2013 Cajetan Ifeanyi Nnaocha
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:B4A900C40915 2013-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2013
“Culture” ‘Sous Rature’: A critical review of the notion of “Culture”: Consideration from cultural and literary studies Ayman Abu-Shomar Review This paper offers a critical review of the concept of lsquo;culturersquo;, and argues that at this particular juncture of our recent times the case against the concept has become prima facie a strong one. By tracing the various conceptualisations of the notion, its paradigms and schools of thought underlying the study of lsquo;culturersquo; in Western academy and beyond, I argue that in the 21st century the notion of culture has little to offer in terms of reflecting peoplersquo;s ways of living. Following a post-colonial and Derridean deconstructionist repertories, I argue that the limitation of the term stems from its singular and latent form as it fails to reflect the mobility dynamicity, multiplicity and hybridity of current societies. The study is based on the premise that lsquo;lsquo;culturersquo;rsquo; is thought of as hybrid, contested, and in constant (re)construction; not a noun but a lsquo;verbrsquo;. I, therefore, put the concept lsquo;under erasurersquo; to challenge the taken for granted, fixed and unified meaning of the term and move beyond the limitations of several ways it has been studied and theorised. In so doing, I speculate on the relevance of the concept to the liquid post-modern era that is marked by the fragmentation of societies, the emergence of new identities, Diasporas, immigration and birth of cyber-cultures. Additionally, in post-colonial institutional contexts, I argue that the concept of lsquo;culturersquo; mirrors the honorific term of the lsquo;canonrsquo; or (the canonised English literary tradition). I contend that both concepts signify archaeology of lsquo;knowledgersquo; of the existing matrix of power relations in academia as well as in world relations. Both concepts signify the adoption of monolithic discourses that still perpetuate the regulation and dissemination of the lsquo;high culturalrsquo; or lsquo;canonical ideologyrsquo;, particularly in post-colonial academic contexts. I conclude that, both concepts should undergo critical revision or lsquo;erasurersquo; since they fail to reflect the discursive aspects of human and artistic life. The paper contributes to the wider debate of issues around ldquo;culturerdquo; and the literary canon by adopting a deconstructive post-colonial argument. Key words: Cultural studies, post-colonialism, cultural hybridity, cultural hegemony, English literature. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/B4A900C40915 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0156 en Copyright © 2013 Ayman Abu-Shomar
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:FD642A842919 2014-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Bahru Zewde (2002). A History of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1991), 2nd ed. Oxford: James Currey; Athens: Ohio University Press; Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University Press. xviii + 300 pp. ISBN 0821414402 12.95. Wuhibegezer Ferede Book Review In accordance to Bahru, one of Ethiopia#39;s eminent historians, the underlying principle and the inspiration for the preparation of the first edition of his book (1991), a History of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1974), was to provide solution for the jarring scarcity of general history of Ethiopia that could serve specialists and educators alike. Thus, he responded to quench the quest of historians and educators for comprehensive and preeminent history. Besides the author claims that the urgency was spared by the hurdle prompted by the great take off in Ethiopian historiography. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/FD642A842919 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0168 en Copyright © 2014 Wuhibegezer Ferede
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:BBDAA3842920 2014-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Folklore and society in transition: A study of The Palm- Wine Drinkard and The Famished Road Saradashree Choudhury Full Length Research Paper Folklore is found to be a favourite indigenous resource for an African novelist that s/he draws on for moulding the aesthetic concerns in novel writing. Considerable critical interest has grown around analysing the nuances of oral tradition, society and the novel in the context of Africa. Critics like Obiechina confirm that the oral tradition has survived in West Africa in spite of the introduction of lsquo;writingrsquo; as a Western phenomenon and a foreign tradition which it bears. In West Africa (like other parts of the continent), elements of folklore such as stories, proverbs, dance, song, rituals, and ceremonies provide a medium for experiencing reality. This paper is an attempt to study the importance and use of folklore in the writings of two novelists hailing from Nigeria, namely Amos Tutuola and Ben Okri through a reading of their select novels. Separated by decades, folklore is found to play an integral part in their writings, though their use of this resource is intricate and varied. A writer does not write in vacuum; both Tutuola and Okri are acutely alive to their contemporary realities. This study is focussed on Tutuolarsquo;s The Palm-Wine Drinkard and Okrirsquo;s The Famished Road to show how the folkore is employed in their novels to comment on different times and changing situations. Key words: Folklore, oral tradition, West-African writings. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/BBDAA3842920 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0158 en Copyright © 2014 Saradashree Choudhury
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:F1635D346487 2014-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Igue festival and the British invasion of Benin 1897: The violation of a people’s culture and sovereignty Charles .O. Osarumwense Full Length Research Paper The Benin Kingdom was a sovereign state in pre-colonial West Africa. Sovereign in the sense that the Kingdom conducted and coordinated its internal and external affairs with its well structured political, social-cultural and economic institutions. One remarkable aspect of the Benin culture was the Igue festival. The festival was unique in the sense that it was a period when the Oba embarks on spiritual cleansing and prayers to departed ancestors for continued protection and growth of the land. The period of the festival was uncompromising and was spiritually adhered to. It was during this period that the British attempted to visit the Oba. This attempted visit to the land was declined by the Oba. An imposition of the visit by the British Crown resulted in the ambushed and killing of British officers. This incident marked the road map to the British invasion of the Kingdom in 1897. This study presents the sovereign nature of the Benin Kingdom, its social-cultural and economic uniqueness rooted in the belief and respect of deities. The paper further argues that the event of 1897 was a clear cut violation of the sovereignty, culture and territorial rights of the Benin Kingdom under a crooked agreement called the Gallwey Treaty of 1892. The Gallwey Treaty was a treaty entered into between the sovereigns of Benin and Britain for trade relations. Key words: Igue festival, British invasion, violation, culture and sovereignty Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/F1635D346487 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0170 en Copyright © 2014 Charles .O. Osarumwense
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:24AFC9246490 2014-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Poultry industry in the Wa Municipality of the Upper West Region of Ghana: Prospects and challenges Isaac Agyemang Full Length Research Paper The poultry industry is known to be a major contributor to Ghanarsquo;s economy through employment creation and the enhancement of nutrition and food security. In spite of these contributions, the poultry industry is faced with a number of problems that necessitate solution. The study was conducted in the Wa Municipality of the Upper West Region of Ghana, with the prospects and challenges of the local poultry industry as its main objective. Ten poultry farmers were engaged as research participants using both structured and semi-structured interviews. Interactions with the poultry farmers in the municipality revealed that, poultry and its products provide some acceptable form of protein to humans to combat mal-nutrition, create employment and also give income to these farmers. Marketing of eggs does not present any problem at all with cash flow to farmers during egg collection. There is also abundant labor and land for poultry farming. The study showed that apart from the poultry farms, farmers also engage in crop cultivation as well as livestock rearing like goats, sheep, pigs, cattle, domestic fowls and ducks. All the farmers provided a well-ventilated house for housing their poultry birds (intensive system). The main management practices carried out by the farmers are; the provision of feed, security, water, regular replacement of litters and vaccination against diseases. Problems encountered by the farmers include inadequate capital, expensive feed and equipment, incidence of diseases and poor weather conditions. Other constraints of the industry in the municipality include; expensive vaccine, expensive veterinary services, management of sick birds, low patronage of live birds due to few restaurants and hotels in the municipality. The study concludes that, government should implement more stringent measures so as to protect the local poultry industry from dying and also support poultry farmers through subsidies. Key words: Poultry industry, prospects and challenges, Wa Municipality. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/24AFC9246490 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0163 en Copyright © 2014 Isaac Agyemang
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:448761E43661 2014-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
The role of cultural diversity in the enhancement of international co-operation: A Muslim perspective H. A. Abdulsalam Review The environment in which man is born or evolved plays a significant role in his life. It emits in him a special way of living a life which later develops to what is known as a culture. Thus man is caught in meshes of customs, superstitions, selfish desires and, possibly, incorrect teachings which, sometimes have undesirable bearing on him. This development may make him pugnacious, unclean, false, and slavish and hankering after what is wrong or forbidden and deflected from the love of his fellowmen and unconsciously from the pure worship of the one True God. It is against this backdrop that an attempt will be made in this paper to look at the role of cultural diversity in the enhancement of international co-operation. Keywords: Culture, cultural diversity, beliefs, customs. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/448761E43661 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC10.011 en Copyright © 2014 H. A. Abdulsalam
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:DD1B12143662 2014-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Study on historical memorial archways in ancient Huizhou: Tangyue memorial archway group Tao Chen and Zeneng Wei Review Memorial archways were built in ancient Huizhou as early as in 14th century. And they were regarded as culture symbols of Chinese ancient architectures of feudal society. Owing to the natural and man-made factors, many of them were damaged and even vanished. In this paper, the origin, evolution and culture connotation of Huizhou memorial archways were discussed with examples of existing Tangyue memorial archway group. Several risks to these memorial archways are presented, which can be categorized as natural reasons and man-made reasons. Weathering, flood, earthquake and landslide etc. are categorized as natural reasons while intended demolition, influences of adjacent modern constructions etc. are regarded as man-made reasons. Furthermore, the results of numerical analyses are presented to evaluate the buildingrsquo;s potential seismic performance of the archway. Keywords: Memorial archway, Tangyue, risks, numerical analysis. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/DD1B12143662 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC10.030 en Copyright © 2014 Tao Chen and Zeneng Wei
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:68BECC343663 2014-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Indian education development and school administration with special reference to Tamil Nadu- A historical perspective S. Kannan Full Length Research Paper Educational administration means the capacity of an individual or organization to manage all the activities of that educational institute. It is also defined as, the activity of a government or state in the exercise of its powers and duties. Educational administrators have education backgrounds similar to school guidance counsellors, librarians, curriculum coordinators, educational specialists and teachers. Understanding the requirements and expectations of various other educational jobs helps administrators lead others in an empathic capacity. Educational administrators usually have advanced degrees in teaching, administration or educational leadership. Most administrators have many years of experience as teachers, leaders and mentors. Additionally, many educational administrators are required to participate in ongoing training and professional development to learn new methods and policies of school leadership. Educational administration refers to secretarial and authority roles in an institution or school, and educational management is a role in management of grounds, security and repairs, etc. Keywords: School administration, education development, training, educational management. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/68BECC343663 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0178 en Copyright © 2014 S. Kannan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:9EC0BDD44126 2014-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Challenges and prospects of lake Tana island monasteries as a tourist site since 1950’s: The case of Kebran Gabriel Gizachew Andargie Full Length Research Paper Nowadays, tourism plays pivotal role for economic and social development of many nations. It is considered as the worldrsquo;s first investment movement of the 21st century. Thus, developing countries are giving due attention to service delivery industries like tourism that contributes a lot to their economy. Ethiopia has its own long centuries of history and rich culture. For instance, Amhara national regional state has been endowed with rare and endemic cultural and natural heritages. In this regard, the island monasteries of Lake Tana which are the green flower baskets of the lake have potentials for the development of tourism in the area but yet it is fully unexploited. Currently, tourism sector is facing multifaceted challenges, and it is attracting the intellectual gaze of many scholars from various disciplines. This article is a step in that direction. The grand objective of this article is to examine the historical vicissitude of tourism developments in the island monastery of Kebran Gabriel. Towards this end, archival sources are consulted and interview is made with informants. So, it is needless to say that this article attests the challenges and prospects of the island monastery of Kebran Gabriel as a tourist site since 1950rsquo;s. Key words: Kebran Gabriel, treasury, attraction, preservation, museum. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/9EC0BDD44126 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0173 en Copyright © 2014 Gizachew Andargie
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:36B715E44127 2014-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Aspects of Ughievwen Culture of Western Delta of Nigeria and the Influence of Westernism Felix Ejukonemu Oghi Full Length Research Paper The culture and tradition of a people represent their source of identity, pride and dignity. The Ughievwen people of Western Delta of Nigeria are no exception to this generalisation. However, the introduction of colonial rule to that part of Nigeria in the nineteenth century commenced a phase in the history of the Ughievwen, in which the people began to experience culture conflict. This eroding force gradually undermined the cultural values and practices of the people especially in areas of marriages and healing practices. These aspects of the peoplersquo;s cultural values and practices thus began an irreversible journey into the abyss of adulteration and extermination. This paper examines aspects of Ughievwen culture and points out areas of conflict with western culture and calls for the restoration of Ughievwen cultural pride. The papers also provide data for further academic research and suggests way forward. Key words: Culture, Nigeria, Ughievwen, Western Delta and Westernism. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/36B715E44127 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0182 en Copyright © 2014 Felix Ejukonemu Oghi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:067ED4D44128 2014-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Ethnic politics and post-election violence of 2007/8 in Kenya Opondo P. A Full Length Research Paper Based on primordial and essentialist theories of ethnicity, the paper critically interrogates the trajectory of politics since 1963 in Kenya. The objective was to explain the causes of ethnic politics in Kenya which led to the political assassination of the 1960s under Jomo Kenyatta, the ethnic clashes of Moi era and culminated into the 2007/8 post election violence of Kibaki presidency. Under Kenyatta (1963-1978), Kenya experienced relative political and economic prosperity and stability but with an entrenched authoritarianism and ethnic favouritism. The Moi regime (1978-2002) and Kibaki Government (2003-2013) fared no better. This paper seeks to analyze the ethnic praxis to find out the nature, extent and impact of negative ethnicity in the country. It is argued by most post-2007 literature that the causes of violence included poverty, underdevelopment, political marginalization, ethnic exclusion, manipulated electoral process, lack of institutions to mediate in case of election malfeasance and the long held historical injustices over how land distribution was managed in the Kenyatta regime after the end of colonialism. Pursuing a historical methodology, we argue that to prevent political violence in future, the principle of constitutionalism must be upheld. The 2010 Constitution suggested devolution, truth and justice commission, gender and ethnic parity in state appointments and a trustworthy electoral system as means of preventing future conflicts and violence. Key words: Ethnic politics, post-election, violence Jomo Kenyatta, and Kenya. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/067ED4D44128 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0146 en Copyright © 2014 Opondo P. A
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:866960544924 2014-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
The horn of Africa: Intra-state and inter-state conflicts and security. By Redie Bereketeab. London and uppsala: Pluto press and Nordic Africa institute, 2013, XI, 208 pp. Paperback. No price Temesgen Gebeyehu Baye Book Review Conflicts are natural and historical and hence they are everywhere and every time. They are part of social phenomenon of human life. The difference lies on the magnitude, complexity, sequel and repercussion. The horn of Africa, with some exceptions, is one of the most politically sensitive and fragile regions of the world. The virtue of this book lies in its providing comprehensive and critical examination of conflicts and their dynamics in the region under consideration. There is no space to deal with all issues discussed in the book but I will focus on the central issues of each contributors. The book has three parts. Each part has three chapters. The first part of the book describes the causes of conflicts including conceptual framework of conflicts and their types. The editor and author of the first chapter of the first part, Redie, critically outlines how conflicts evolve, develop and widespread in the horn. As a prelude to the presentation of classification of conflicts and methodology of conflict resolutions in general and the horn in particular within a theoretical frame work, the author gives a general description on factors that made the region to be fragile and insecure. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/866960544924 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0194 en Copyright © 2014 Temesgen Gebeyehu Baye
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:3C0BA0644925 2014-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Lessons in translation: The English to Tiv example Ikyer, Godwin Aondofa Review This paper examines the art of translation, the necessity of translation, the odd ends of translation, and how mistranslation can cause drastic changes in perceptions and policies and also alter a course of life and culture of a people. The paper supports its presentation with a historical analytical survey of misguided translation of English to Tiv lexicon and sentences, and how it affected an appreciation of the Tiv people and their psychology. It records how Christian religion of the colonial days in Tiv land was literally routed due to the ldquo;Traduttoru Traditorerdquo; misinformation given to its converts by her own translators. Finally, the paper provides a guide towards effective translation. Key words: Translation, culture, Traduttoru Traditore, Tiv. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/3C0BA0644925 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC12.027 en Copyright © 2014 Ikyer, Godwin Aondofa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:0F1FD2944926 2014-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Cultural values: A conduit of shaping managerial thinking in Zimbabwe’s industrial relations Farai Ncube Full Length Research Paper Knowledge production remains a game of power. Over the years certain discourses have tried to naturalise and reinforce the position that worldrsquo;s best practices are defined as Eurocentric and henceforth anything that is African is viewed as lsquo;traditionalrsquo; , lsquo;barbaricrsquo; and lsquo;bushrsquo;. The European lsquo;supremacyrsquo; in knowledge production has been emphasised across disciplines and human resource (HR) management is no exception. It has been argued that lsquo;truersquo; human resource management policies were lsquo;inventedrsquo; by Europeans. This has however, fanned discord in industrial relations in Zimbabwean organisations. Employing a theoretical and literature review approach, this research critically explores the extent to which harmony and productivity can be achieved in Zimbabwe if managers adopt the lsquo;truersquo; Zimbabwean cultural values and allow them to shape their managerial thinking. This study contends that best HR practices are as old as humanity itself in the African society and Zimbabwean culture in particular. This study explores concepts such as, team work, quality circles, total quality management, works councils, respect, harmony, collective bargaining, which have been part and parcel of the Zimbabwean culture since time immemorial and which are important as markers of HR practices. Key words: Culture, conduit, managerial thinking, industrial relations, Zimbabwe. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/0F1FD2944926 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2014.0186 en Copyright © 2014 Farai Ncube
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:881044346609 2014-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
A comparative analysis of the post-colonial culture and democratization processes in Kenya and Zimbabwe to 2012 Gilbert Tarugarira Review During the past four decades, no international political phenomenon has been more significant than the worldwide call and expansion of democratic governance. Holding elections in almost all of Africa has turned out to be a norm. Clearly observable has been a gradual evolution of democratic institutions and consolidation of democratic practices. The prospects for fostering democracy in Kenya and Zimbabwe have taken domestic and foreign - induced efforts. The basis of comparison between the two countries appears evident and tempting in a number of ways. Diagnoses of the causes of Kenya and Zimbabwersquo;s ailments might vary spectacularly but human rights activists have accused the governments of bullying opponents in the name of preventing enemies of the state from destabilizing the nations. The presidency continued to acquire too much power. The fear that an iron grip was slowly being applied to the nations led to a steady stream of criticism of the governments with intellectuals, professionals and the churches being vocal in condemning what they felt was an erosion of human rights. A political culture which encapsulates violence, intimidation and detention of the opposition, manipulation of both the constitution and electoral processes in favour of incumbents ultimately leading towards the consolidation of dictatorial tendencies emerges from analyzing the trends of these two countries. Even though the political experiences have not all been the same, commonalities have existed. Key words: Political culture, democracy, democratization, election, constitution. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/881044346609 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0164 en Copyright © 2014 Gilbert Tarugarira
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:ADA3A5646612 2014-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
The socio-cultural functions of Kafa proverbs Tesfaye Dagnew and Mesfin Wodajo Full Length Research Paper The objective of this study was to examine the social and cultural functions of proverbs told by the Kafa people in southern Ethiopia. Accordingly, field visits were made to the area to collect data. Fifteen proverbs were selected and classified to study issues related to agriculture, forestry and other social and cultural beliefs of the society. The analysis showed that the proverbs emphasized the hard work that is needed of the farmers in Kafa in order to avoid hunger and catastrophe. The care that the people show towards the conservation of forests and the environment is also represented in the proverbs. The high value that the society gives to righteousness, wisdom, and experience and the ways through which the society controls behaviors that it does not approve are also reflected in the proverbs. Key words: proverbs, values, norms. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/ADA3A5646612 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2014.0198 en Copyright © 2014 Tesfaye Dagnew and Mesfin Wodajo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:139F62B47371 2014-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
War saved in verse: Politics in Ezra Pound’s Canto XVI and T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land Bouzzit Mrsquo;bark Review Modernist poetry is rarely examined in the light of the very social and political agitations which accompanied its production. Some theorists claim that modernist poetry is apolitical; neglecting the fact that the poet can never exist in vacuum. Unquestionably, the poet is the product of his immediate conditions of existence. No matter how he conceals his social reality, his words reveal it all. This paper looks at two prominent poets, namely Ezra Pound and T.S Eliot to find out where the two allude to World War One in their poetical productions. This paper is an attempt to understand these hidden mysterious allusions (names of soldiers, politicians, and places) which disturb the indecipherable stream of consciousness prevalent in the two poems. This paper brings to life dead corps; it brings back the memory of those who passed away fighting on the fronts. It implicitly says that war still needs close examination as it is still horrendously practiced by the so-called the modern man. The paper also looks at the psychological torments which the two poets experienced and which led to the production of a very unique work of art. It implicitly says that the ideology behind war is fallacious and it still needs to be closely examined so as to avoid any future clashes. Key words: Modernism, poetry, politics society, war. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/139F62B47371 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2014.0185 en Copyright © 2014 Bouzzit Mrsquo;bark
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:0E1D4C047373 2014-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Cultural values influence on learning style preferences: A case of Leribe Senior Secondary School, Lesotho Mpholo Leoisa and Shanah Mompoloki Suping Full Length Research Paper This study was conducted with senior secondary schools Form Four learners doing science in the Leribe District of Lesotho. It sets out to probe the possibility of the influence of cultural values on studentsrsquo; learning style preferences and their possible differences by gender. Filled questionnaires were collected from the eleven schools from which the study was conducted. Also, focus group discussions, with equal representation of both genders, were conducted in six of the eleven schools representative of all the regions under study. The quantitative data were subjected to SPSS analysis and the MANOVA results gave significant multivariate main effect for school location. Results showed that the learners were culturally socialized to be respectful to authority and had a visual learning style preference in the Highlands and Lowlands with no gender differences. Key words: Learning style preference, Senior secondary school, Cultural values, Gender differences, Lesotho, Africa. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/0E1D4C047373 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2012.023 en Copyright © 2014 Mpholo Leoisa and Shanah Mompoloki Suping
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:9161CBB47375 2014-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Contributions of Ilorin scholars to Arabic and Islamic studies in Yoruba land: Focus on Shaykh Adam Abdullah Al-Iluri F.O. Jamiu Review Ilorin, the haven of Arabic and Islamic scholars, is multi-lingual and multi-ethnic community popularly known to some people as ldquo;GerinAlimirdquo; (the town of Alimi) and to many others as ldquo;Ilorin Afonjardquo; (Ilorin of Afonja); it has contributed and still contributing in no small measure to development of Arabic and Islamic studies not only in Yorubaland but also in Nigeria and beyond. As one of the Arabic and Islamic Centres in Yorubaland, Ilorin scholars have turned out numerous scholars who have occupied enviable positions in different spheres of human endeavours in different towns and cities in Yorubaland and West Africa. The paper aims at bringing into limelight the account of Ilorin as a great centre of Arabic and Islamic scholarship in Yorubaland. It delineates the various periods of the development of Arabic and Islamic learning in Yorubaland, explains the types of schools of Arabic and Islamic Studies in the area, the methods used in teaching in the schools and focuses on Shaykh Adam Abdullah Al-Iluri who had impacted greatly on Arabic and Islam in Yorubaland. It ends with a conclusion and recommendations. In carrying out this paper, the author has relied on history books, Arabic literary works and recent researches on the major scholars of Arabic and Islam. At the end, the reader would have been convinced as regards the tremendous role Ilorin scholars and in particular Shaykh Adam Abdullah Al-Iluri has played so far in Arabic and Islamic education in Yorubaland. Key words: Yorubaland, Arabic and Islamic Studies, Ilorin, scholars, Quaran. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/9161CBB47375 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2014.0193 en Copyright © 2014 F.O. Jamiu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:0F47D5147377 2014-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Fifty years after: Rethinking security/national security discourse and practice to reinvent its future Adoyi Onoja Review Fifty years after independence, the discourse and practice of security/national security in Nigeria needs re-examination. Security is a contested terrain amongst nation at different stages of development. At the moment, the contest is over the referent-state or people. Have Nigerians ever face national security threat of the scale in countries of the North that threatened the existence of the state in the last fifty years? Have not we faced national security threats of the scale not peculiar with countries of the North that has continuously threatened the existence of the state in the last fifty years? More Nigerians are threatened by government policies than by neighbouring armies. What were the objectives, priorities and methods of national security in discourse and practice? Have we not been discussing and practicing security and national security wrongly thus endangering the very basis of security-the people? What do we mean when we talk about security and national security? Or when we make policies to protect and advance national security? This paper surveys the discourse and practice of national security in Nigeria using papers presented at the Historical Society of Nigeria congress on ldquo;Historicizing National Security, Order and Rule of Lawrdquo;.It examined the understanding of national security arguing that the ambiguity evident in the term sanctioned and legitimised similar disposition in its use by policy makers. It called for the people of Nigeria to be the referent object of security rather than the interest of the elite subsumed for the state. Key words: Security, national security, state, human beings, scholars. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/0F47D5147377 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0183 en Copyright © 2014 Adoyi Onoja
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:5F3F1F947379 2014-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
A shift from peasant to intellectual-led political opposition in Tigray during the imperial regime (up to 1974) Atsbha Gebreigziabher Asmelash Review This paper examines how the educated people of Tigray took over the illiterate ones to fight against the imperial government. Local songs, poems and sayings used against Emperor Haileslasie are discussed. Following the liberation of Ethiopia from the Italian occupation in 1941, Emperor Haileslasie introduced a number of reforms, many of which were rejected by the people of Ethiopia. The imperial government used different measures including force to implement its policies. This created resentment in the people over whom repressive actions were undertaken. What happened in Tigray in 1942/43 is a good example. The Qedamay (First) Woyane Rebellion of 1942/43 broke out due to high taxation, maladministration, corruption, political feud etc. Although the rebellion failed because British Royal Arms intervened, the people did not remain submissive to the regime. A number of Tegaru University students from different Awrajas of Tigray joined Hailslasie I University at different times. The university served as an academic and political school where they agreed on how to save their communities from miserable lives. They formed an organization called Tigrean University Students Association (TUSA) that served them as an umbrella and binding pot. Members and supporters of this association were ready to pay any sacrifices for the betterment of their people. They made the society fight against the feudal regime and did everything to solve the problem of their people. With time, TUSA supporters increased. The association was renamed MAGEBT, then TNO and finally TPLF. Many Tegaru University students paid with their golden lives, time and properties in their struggle against the feudal regime. Finally, they successfully toppled the imperial regime. However, their struggle continued after the end of the imperial regime. Due to the absence of well organized civil government, another oppressive government, the Derg, assumed power. Key words: First Woyane, TUSA, MAGEBT, TNO, university students, political opposition. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/5F3F1F947379 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2014.0196 en Copyright © 2014 Atsbha Gebreigziabher Asmelash
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:476C7C347734 2014-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Therapeutic flora in Holy Quran Ali Muhammad Review Civilizations have a tendency to revolve around meaningful concepts of a theoretical nature which more than anything else gives them their distinctive character. Such concepts are to be found at the very beginning of a rising civilization or they may signalize, when they first make their appearance, an entirely new departure towards the eventual transformation of the environment generous to them. This signifies a fundamental change in the structure of the civilization in which it happens. They changed their structure, modified their social laws for the well being of coming human race. On scientific grounds modification and edification of old concepts according to Qurrsquo;anic teachings helped them to emerge as a true modern and civilized society. Among good number of scientific concepts, one is that related to the plants mentioned in the Holy Quran. The history of Islamic medicine started from 2nd century as applied science which provides ample information about the medicinal plants mentioned in the Quran. These medicinal plants continue to be extensively used as major source of drugs for the treatment of many ailments in medieval period. The present research work is a qualitative analysis one which helps to draw attention to the valuable contribution of divine message in the development of medicinal legacy. A comprehensive reform touches all intellectual fields and help in integration of knowledge which requires a combination of operations: the understanding of the text, the understanding of the context/reality, alongside the proper projection of the text on its relevant context. Key words: Civilizations, Prophet Muhammad, Islamic medicine, Holy Quran. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/476C7C347734 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2014.0188 en Copyright © 2014 Ali Muhammad
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:F69579447738 2014-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
An assessment of impact of neglect of history on political stability in African countries: The case of Cote d’Ivoire Bassey, Joseph Robert Full Length Research Paper African countries had been engulfed in political crises soon after they regained independence from their respective European colonial masters. Almost all the conflicts witnessed in post-independence Africa were blamed on the former colonial Powers. This article argued that rather than blaming the West for political instability, African political leaders should be blamed for neglecting the discipline of history that should have guided them to enact laws and formulate policies that would play down on negative ethnic differences. African countries went adrift because of neglect of history or refusal to learn from the lesson of history. The paper used Cote drsquo;Ivoire as a case study. In order to go into the distant past, a descriptive historical analysis method was adopted to interrogate relevant sources of information about Cote drsquo;Ivoire. The paper argued against the claim that France instigated the political crises in that country. Rather, the article submitted that the political crises originated from the claims by political leaders that some persons were ldquo;aboriginesrdquo;/ ldquo;true Ivoiriansrdquo;, and others ldquo;settlersrdquo; or ldquo;non- citizensrdquo; of Ivory Coast. The article revealed that almost all the ethnic groups in Ivory Coast migrated from various parts of West Africa into the country. Using the case of Alassane Ouattara to illustrate the problem of national identity, the article submitted that people whose forebears had lived in the present- day Ivory Coast, since about 600 hundred years ago should not be denied the universally recognised political and nationality rights. The article finally called on African leaders to borrow a leaf from other countries of the world such as the United States of America, Canada, Australia, and Malaysia that had been managing their citizenship issue without fighting civil wars. Key words: History, migration, settlement, citizenship, aborigines. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/F69579447738 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC11.022 en Copyright © 2014 Bassey, Joseph Robert
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:4B34E5647744 2014-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Education nexus politics in Agame Awraja during the imperial regime Atsbha Gebreigziabher Asmelash Full Length Research Paper During the imperial regime of Emperor Haileslasie, there were only three secondary schools in Tigray Province. These were Atse Yohannis of Enderta, Nigiste Saba of Adwa and Agazi of Agame Awrajas. These secondary schools were centers of dissent. Linguistic oppression, maladministration and lack of adequate social institutions created very strong dissatisfaction among the people of Tigray Province. As what was happening in other parts of the province, there was very strong student anti-government political movement in Agazi Secondary School. Since the late 1960s, strike, demonstration, fighting against the police and breaking government vehicles became common political activities in the school. Both university and high school students of Agame Awraja arranged meetings, distributed several pamphlets and composed many revolutionary songs which agitated mass-based armed struggle against the imperial regime. Their strong determination to pay any form of sacrifice for the betterment of their society marked the end of the imperial regime in September 1974. This article is based on primary and secondary sources. The former includes numerous archival materials, information obtained from interviews of knowledgeable individuals, while the latter consists of books, articles and theses. These sources are critically examined and cross-checked for their reliability. Key words: Students, boycott, demonstration, opposition, Agazi, Adigrat, Agame. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/4B34E5647744 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2014.0195 en Copyright © 2014 Atsbha Gebreigziabher Asmelash
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:0716D7147748 2014-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
The Role of women in Tebhaga movement in Jalpaiguri District and to preserve their identity Shyamal Chandra Sarkar Full Length Research Paper The roots of the Indian womenrsquo;s movement go back to the 19th century male social reformers who took up issues concerning women and started womenrsquo;s organizations. Women started forming their own organization from the end of the nineteenth century first at the local and then at the national level. In 1946, the two main issues they took up were political rights and reform of personal laws. Womenrsquo;s participation in tebhaga movement broadened the base of the womenrsquo;s movement. Tebhaga movement was one of the great post war peasant agitations in Bengal. It was the most extensive of all the post war agrarian agitation. Women of Bengal played a rather significant role in this movement. After the end of the Second World War, there were a number of educated women who were participating in the various peasant rebellions that were springing up all over the country. The legacy of female nationalists, taking part in the Quit India Movement and accepting prison sentence for the nation, had ignited the flame of protest in the hearts of women. Thus there was seen the active participation of women on par with men in these movements and rebellions of which the Tebhaga movement was one. This movement erupted in 1946 in Bengal on the eve of the withdrawal of the British. Although the tide of Tebhaga receded as fast as it rose, the uprising stands out as one of the most important political events in twentieth century Bengal. Among the unique features of the movement is the large-scale participation of women on par with men. The landless and poor peasant women formed fighting troops called lsquo;Nari Bahinirsquo; and took a front rank role in defending the gains of the movement and in countering the repression of the state. Women of Jalpaiguri District also played an active role in this movement. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the role of women in the Tebhaga movement under the leadership of Communists and seeks to throw light on fundamental questions such as why, despite women#39;s demonstrated capacity to organize, struggle and lead progressive movements. Key words: Tebhaga, exploitation, Nari Bahini, Jotedar, Zamindar, Krishak Sabha, sharecroppers, communist party, justice. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/0716D7147748 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0153 en Copyright © 2014 Shyamal Chandra Sarkar
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:346563D48577 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Can the centre hold for Arnstein’s ladder of participation in Zimbabwe? Jephias Mapuva Review One of the most contentious issues in Zimbabwersquo;s post-colonial history has been the law and practice of democracy. Electoral processes as a tenets of democracy has continued to produce contested and disputed electoral results. Politically-motivated violence has also reared its ugly head on Zimbabwersquo;s political landscape. The dictates of Arnsteinrsquo;s Ladder of Participation which presents a normative framework for effective citizen participation has been violated both in letter and in spirit. Consequently, good governance and democracy have been elusive elements of the countryrsquo;s political practice. At the same time, citizen participation and freedoms such as those of assembly, association and the right to participate in the governance of the country has equally been compromised. Through existing legislation and effecting amendments to existing legislation there has been brazenly violation of civil liberties, erode political space and limiting political activity. Key words: Participation, democracy, socialism, civil liberties. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/346563D48577 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0157 en Copyright © 2014 Jephias Mapuva
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:FD2671348581 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Land reform and deforestation in the Gish Abbay Area: A historical perspective Birtukan Atinkut Asmare Full Length Research Paper The Gish Abbay area is among one of the environmentally most affected areas where environmental deterioration has prevailed. A lot of factors have contributed to this negative development. The major ones are rapid population growth, poverty and inappropriate forest and land related laws and legislations. Among others, however, this paper attempted to highlight how government land policy over many years was responsible for deforestation in the area. It has been argued that the land reforms that were introduced during the two consecutive Ethiopian regimes, the imperial and the Derg, had an impact on the forest coverage of the area. Among these reforms, the frequent allocation of land to the patriots and other individuals that rendered services to the government, particularly in the post-liberation period, can be cited as one example of the reform. The frequent allocation of land, as a reward, was made at the expense of forests. The introduction of the first forest legislation in the mid 1960s by the state had been considered as a turning point in the use of forests communally. The regime had often claimed all forests as state property, a policy that challenged the previous tree tenure system. Thus, in order to show their hostility against the government, the peasants cleared forests and converted to cultivated land. The seizure of power by a new government, that succeeded the imperial regime in 1974, brought about a new land reform that nationalized all natural resources including land. The regime made frequent and periodic re-distribution of land within some years interval in order to satisfy the growing demand of the local population. Accordingly, the distribution and redistribution of land, the introduction of cooperative farming, the villagisation programme and the formulation of forest laws and legislations were undertaken throughout the reign of the military government. These all government reforms had its own contribution for the massive deforestation of the period. Thus, this research attempted to shed light on both continuity and change in the process of land reform and its implications to deforestation, throughout the two successive regimes; the imperial and the military. In order to achieve the research objectives, in depth interview and focus group discussion were utilized in addition to the results of the research undertaken by other scholars. The study referred data analysis from other disciplines such as the Geographic Information System (GIS) to see changes in the forest coverage of the area during the two consecutive regimes. Key words: Deforestation, causes, land reform, Gish Abbay, forest legislation. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/FD2671348581 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0179 en Copyright © 2014 Birtukan Atinkut Asmare
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:78FCDFA48579 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
The ripple effects of electoral experience in a frontier community in Nigeria: A study of a micro revolution in Ilorin, 1955-1959 Omoiya Yusuf Saad Review The adoption of Arthur Richards Constitution in 1946 and its implementation from the 1st January, 1947 translated to different things in different parts of the present day parts of Nigerian. Being an imperial order that extended the electoral principle in Nigeria, beyond Lagos and Calabar that have been having elected representatives in the European dominated councils in their respective areas since 1922, it was bound to stimulate major changes in both the administrative structures and social relations in the new areas to be covered. In Ilorin Community for instance, the operation became a platform to vent the congested minds of the oppressed peoples through the combined traditional and colonial administrative policies in the area. Ilorin, like the other parts of the then Northern Nigeria, the electoral process began as an extension of powers of the Traditional Authorities that served the indirect rule policy of the colonial administration. By 1955 however, the combination of the traditional and colonial policies had become a heavy burden that the multicultural population in Ilorin were no longer ready to bear. The situation influenced the unity of the oppressed people to form the association, which in local parlance, referred to as ldquo;Ilorin Talaka Parapordquo;. The ripple effects of the electoral process translated into a micro revolution. Key words: Electoral principle, ripple effects, micro revolution, colonial administration. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/78FCDFA48579 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2013.0184 en Copyright © 2014 Omoiya Yusuf Saad
oai:academicjournals.org:AJHC:D32B4D348580 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJHC AJHC:2014
Socio-economic and family planning aspects of rural people in Bangladesh: A case study of Comilla District Md. Shahidul Islam Full Length Research Paper The main focus of this study is to investigate the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of some villages in a particular area of Bangladesh. Since Bangladesh is a rural based country, it is essential to study a village in particular to conclude on the socio-economic characteristics and family planning of Bangladesh as a whole. For this study, some villages have selected from Comilla District. Initially, the study was planned to cover all the rural families of villages. Our population is the total number of respondents of the villages in Comilla District and 500 respondents were taken as the sample. After collecting data, Information were arranged in different tables and analyzed. For the analysis, various tests were performed such as Chi square test, t-test, correlation test and logistic regression. This study shows the income and expenditure pattern of the respondents, literacy among the villagers, the nature of the households, family planning behavior of the study population, occupation of the householders and some others economic and demographic characteristics. Key words: Socio-economic, family planning, rural area, Bangladesh. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJHC/article-abstract/D32B4D348580 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJHC2014.0213 en Copyright © 2014 Md. Shahidul Islam
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