2021-12-07T05:26:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:963B3E956622 2017-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2017
Clinical evaluation of acellular dermal matrix allograft (Alloderm®) with coronally advanced flap in the treatment of multiple gingival recessions: A clinical study Gayathri Somasheker, Alampalli Viswanathamurthy Ramesh, K Roopa, Chinni Doraiswamy Dwarakanath Aims: The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the efficacy of Allodermreg; with the coronally positioned flap in the treatment of multiple gingival recessions and to assess the esthetic and hypersensitivity evaluation from patient#39;s perspective using visual analog scale (VAS). Subjects and Methods: A total of 10 systemically healthy male and female patients aged 18ndash;50 years with Miller#39;s class I and class II gingival recessions, who had dentin hypersensitivity and esthetic concern were selected for the study. Root coverage (RC) was done using coronally advanced flap with Allodermreg;. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed in the present study. Significance was assessed at 5% level of significance. Student#39;s t-test was conducted to find the pairwise significance of the study parameters. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to find the significance of percentage of linear RC and percentage of volumetric RC (% of VRC) between 3 and 6 months. Results: A total 31 defects were treated with mean volumetric percentage RC (%RC) at 3 months of 35.21%. This remained the same at 6 months (P = 1.000). There was no statistically significant difference in the volumetric and Linear percentage of root coverage. Dentine hypersensitivity and esthetics were evaluated from patient#39;s perspective using VAS ranging from a score of 0ndash;10. Where 0 indicates very low and score of 10 indicates very high score. VAS indicated a decrease in the sensitivity after treatment. VAS mean score before treatment was 6.22 plusmn; 0.83 with a mean score of 3.90, standard deviation (SD) of plusmn; 1.37 after treatment and mean score of 5.10, SD of plusmn; 0.57 for esthetic evaluation. Conclusions: The use of Allodermreg; with coronally positioned flap provided a significant improvement in all the clinical parameters, but did not result in favorable outcome in terms of root coverage of facial gingival recessions of multiple adjacent teeth. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/963B3E956622 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS.9000003 en Copyright © 2017 Gayathri Somasheker, Alampalli Viswanathamurthy Ramesh, K Roopa, Chinni Doraiswamy Dwarakanath
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:240367057715 2018-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2018
Nutritional Status of perinatally HIV‑infected children on antiretroviral therapy from a resource‑poor rural South African community Antonio George Lentoor Objective: In SubSaharan Africa, millions of children are suffering from HIV and coexisting child undernutrition. Despite efforts to curb the spread of HIV through the availability of treatment and various nutritional programmes, it has been argued that undernutrition remains highly prevalent in rural areas. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and psychosocial factors influencing the nutritional status in the sample of ruralbased HIVinfected children on antiretroviral therapy. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric and home environment data were collected from 152 perinatally HIVinfected children on antiretroviral therapy who lived with their primary caregivers in a rural Eastern Cape community. Results: More than half of the sample of children had inadequate nutritional status. The prevalence of stunting particularly was high (36.2%), while 12% were underweight and only 2.7% presented with wasting. Coexisting poor quality homeenvironment (P lt; 0.01) added to this burden. Younger age children who lived with a younger biological caregiver were found to present more with stunting than older age children (2 [n = 152] = 14.79, P = 0.005), but no significant differences were observed for underweight or wasting. Conclusion: It is important in a context such as South Africa, with the double burden of HIV infection and poverty, that all efforts be directed at alleviating undernutrition. Early pediatric HIV management should not only focus on the provision of treatment but should also prioritize the quality of care of HIVpositive children in the home to improve on their nutritional health. Key words: HIV/AIDS, nutritional status, pediatrics, resourcepoor setting, stunting, underweight, wasting. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/240367057715 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS.9000008 en Copyright © 2018 Antonio George Lentoor
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:A818E5A57741 2018-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2018
A 10‑Year Review of Ultrasonographic Findings of Scrotal Diseases in Ibadan, South Western, Nigeria Ademola Joseph Adekanmi, Adenike Temitayo AdenijiSofoluwe, Gbolahan Obajimi, Ekwutosi Okafor Introduction: Despite the importance of a thorough clinical evaluation, ultrasonography has emerged as the mainstay of imaging of the scrotum and its contents. Differentiation of testicular lesions and that of adjacent scrotum and content is usually difficult clinically. Scrotal ultrasound (SUSS) is highly sensitive in the detection of intrascrotal abnormalities and in differentiating testicular from paratesticular lesions. SUSS accurately determines the location and nature of palpable lesions and reveals nonpalpable scrotal masses. The aim of this study is to report the various indications for SUSS in this setting and to describe the sonographic findings in these patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective and descriptive study carried out to evaluate scrotal ultrasound scans performed on 442 patients referred for various clinical indications from the clinics and units of the University College Hospital, to the Radiology department of the same hospital which serves as referral center in Ibadan, and the SouthWestern Nigeria; over a 10 year period from January 2006 to December 2015, a tertiary health Institution. Results: The mean age of the study population was 36.13 years plusmn; standard deviation 15.88 years. Most of the patients (57.1%) were within the age group of 30 and 49 years. The leading clinical indication for ultrasound referral was infertility/infertility related issues in 56.1% of the total patients. Testicular masses were clinically detected and required SUSS for confirmation in 4.5% of the study population. On USS, the average testicular volume in adults with normal study was 16.38 cm3 and 15.99 cm3 on the right and left side, respectively. The most common USS findings were varicocele (29.4%), this was bilateral in more than half of the cases. Hydrocele was the second most common finding in 18.78% and often bilateral. Testicular masses were seen in 11.1% and were cystic in nature in more than half of the study population. Conclusion: Infertility/infertility related diagnosis was the most frequent indications for testicular ultrasound in adults in our environment. We recommend SUSS as a routine investigation in suspected scrotal/testicular pathologies. Keywords: Hydrocele, infertility, scrotum, testes, ultrasound, varicocele. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/A818E5A57741 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS.9000001 en Copyright © 2018 Ademola Joseph Adekanmi, Adenike Temitayo AdenijiSofoluwe, Gbolahan Obajimi, Ekwutosi Okafor
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:43CB6E657739 2018-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2018
Diagnostic Reference Levels for Mammography Examinations in North Eastern Nigeria Dlama Zira Joseph, Christian Chukwuemeka Nzotta, Joseph Dimas Skam, Mohammed Sani Umar, Dambele Y. Musa Background: Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) plays an important role in healthcare delivery and radiation safety of patients. This study was carried out as part of a comprehensive project to establish DRLs for the radiological examinations for the first time in North Eastern Nigeria. Objective of the Study: The aim is to establish DRL for mammography examination in North Eastern Nigeria and to compare it with other established works. Materials and Methods: This study is a prospective crosssectional study conducted in two university teaching hospitals in North Eastern Nigeria. Sixty patients were recruited for the study. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were exposed for craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral examinations to record the entrance skin dose (ESD). TLD readings were obtained at the Center for Energy Research and Training Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Dance formula was used to convert ESD to mean glandular dose (MGD). Studentrsquo;s ttest was used to determine the relationship between the mean ESD obtained in the two centers and Pearsonrsquo;s correlation was used to determine the relationship between the MGD and anthropotechnical parameters. Statistical significance was set at P lt; 0.05. Results: The total MGD for this study was 0.31 plusmn; 0.05 mGy and 0.69 plusmn; 0.11 mGy for CC and mediolateral oblique (MLO), respectively. DRL was 0.63 mGy and 1.04 mGy for CC and MLO, respectively. There was no statistically significant relationship (P gt; 0.05) between the MGD and anthropotechnical parameters. The DRL in this work were higher when compared with international established work. Conclusion: There is need for optimization of our radiology practice in North Eastern Nigeria and most centers in Nigeria. Keywords: Diagnostic reference levels, entrance skin dose, mammography, mean glandular dose, thermoluminescent dosimeter. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/43CB6E657739 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS.9000004 en Copyright © 2018 Dlama Zira Joseph, Christian Chukwuemeka Nzotta, Joseph Dimas Skam, Mohammed Sani Umar, Dambele Y. Musa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:6EF0A7757737 2018-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2018
Work‑Related Respiratory Symptoms and Cardiopulmonary Function Impairment of Factory Workers in a Cement Company in South‑West Nigeria Happiness Anulika Aweto, Bosede Abidemi Tella, Adetutu Islamiyyah Lateef Background: Cement factory workers are exposed to dangerous cement dust while at workplace especially in the developing countries where little or no safety standards are followed. This study investigated the workrelated respiratory symptoms and cardiopulmonary functionsrsquo; impairment in cement factory workers in SouthWest, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Seventy cement exposed workers and 70 agematched unexposed individuals participated in this crosssectional study. A selfadministered questionnaire was used to assess their sociodemographic characteristics, clinical details, and respiratory symptoms. Selected cardiopulmonary parameters of participants were measured. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. Independent ttest was used to compare the selected cardiopulmonary parameters of the two groups. Results: The mean age of cementexposed group was 31.57 plusmn; 8.32 years, and the unexposed group was 31.50 plusmn; 8.57 years. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the cementexposed group were as follows: 71.4% for cough, 45.7% for phlegm, 67.1% for wheeze, 38.6% for breathlessness, and 48.6% for chest tightness while those for the unexposed group were as follows: 50% for cough, 15.7% for phlegm, 5.7% for wheeze, 2.9% for breathlessness, and 7.1% for chest tightness. There were significant differences between the mean values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (P lt; 0.05) of the cementexposed group and those of the unexposed group. Conclusion: Respiratory symptoms were higher among cement factory workers than the agematched unexposed individuals. FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate were reduced while blood pressure was increased in cement factory workers. Keywords: Cardiopulmonary functions, cement factory workers, respiratory symptoms, workrelated. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/6EF0A7757737 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS.9000012 en Copyright © 2018 Happiness Anulika Aweto, Bosede Abidemi Tella, Adetutu Islamiyyah Lateef
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:593312F57735 2018-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2018
Prevalence and Risk Factors for Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Gastroduodenal Diseases in Kano, Nigeria Ahmad Kumo Bello, Ali Bala Umar, Musa Muhammad Borodo Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been well noted as a causative agent of many diseases in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract notably, gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Determining the burden and the risk factors for acquiring this infection may be crucial to containing it and its sequelae in Kano, Nigeria. Methodology: The study was crosssectional in design. Questionnaires were administered in dyspeptic patients to obtain the relevant clinical, and sociodemographic data. Upper GI endoscopy was performed in the patients, and gastric biopsy specimens were taken and sent to the histopathology laboratory for assessment and H. pylori identification. Results: Of the 306 participants, 136 (44.4%) were males, while 170 (55.6%) were females, with male: female ratio of 1:1.3. The ages of the participants ranged from 18 to 84 years with a mean of 41.2 plusmn; 15.3 years. Of the 306 samples, 250 (81.7%) were positive for H. pylori. This gives H. pylori prevalence of 81.7%. Only 4 (1.3%) of the participants belonged to the higher social class, out of which 25% had positive H. pylori, while 230 (75.2%) participants belonged to the lower socioeconomic class with 87.8% H. pylori prevalence. The lower social class had a significant association (P lt; 0.0001) with increased H. pylori infection. A total of 290 subjects (94.8%) shared a room with three or more other siblings in childhood, out of which 233 (80.3%) had H. pylori. Only 80 subjects (26.1%) used pipeborne water in childhood, while 226 (73.9%) sourced their water from either well, pond or stream during childhood. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of H. pylori in Kano, and low socioeconomic status, unclean water source, overcrowding, and cigarette smoking were significant risk factors for H. pylori infection. Keywords: Histology, prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Kano, risk factors, water source. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/593312F57735 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS.9000010 en Copyright © 2018 Ahmad Kumo Bello, Ali Bala Umar, Musa Muhammad Borodo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:2D53BA457732 2018-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2018
Incidence and Pattern of Dog Bite Injuries Treated in the Emergency Room of a Teaching Hospital South East Nigeria Njoku Isaac Omoke, Ndubuisi Onu Chukwueloka Onyemaechi Background: Dog bite injury treated in the emergency room varies from and within sub regions in pattern and potential risk of transmission of rabies. This variation has implications in its morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and pattern of dog bite injuries treated in a teaching hospital emergency room setting of a developing country. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study of the entire patients with dog bite injury treated in the emergency room of Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki from January 2006 to December 2015. Results: Dog bite injury necessitated visit in 74 patients with an incidence of 2 per 1000 emergency room attendances, and a male to female ratio of 1:1.1. The mean age of the patients was 25.5 plusmn; 1.87 years, and peak age group incidence was 5ndash;9 years. Lower extremity was involved in 77.5% of the injuries, and buttock was the predominant site of injury in 0ndash;4 years old. Fiftyone (68.9%) owned dogs and 23 (31.1%) stray dogs were involved in the attack. There was unprovoked attack in 81.1% of cases, and 51 (68.9%) sustained Grade II injury. Twentyeight (37.8%) of the dogs had antirabies vaccination. Fiftyfour (73%) patients had no prehospital care while 64 (86.5%) received postexposure antirabies vaccine. Majority of the patients 73 (98.7%) recovered fully. One (1.4%) patient that presented with clinical rabies selfdischarged against medical advice. Conclusion: The incidence of dog bite injury is within worldwide range though the female gender bias is unprecedented. We recommend preventive strategies based on the observed pattern and improvement in the rate of prehospital care and higher coverage of antirabies vaccination of dogs. Keywords: Dog bite, emergency room, injury, Nigeria, rabies. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/2D53BA457732 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS.9000005 en Copyright © 2018 Njoku Isaac Omoke, Ndubuisi Onu Chukwueloka Onyemaechi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:F1F613D57728 2018-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2018
Lead in Potable Water Sources in Anambra State, South East, Nigeria Ignatius C. Maduka, Anthony I. Anakwuo, Nnamdi P. Ogueche Introduction: Due to lack of treated water supply in major cities and settlements in Anambra state, Nigeria, majority of the population obtain potable water directly from boreholes, streams, sachet, harvested rain, and well water sources. Leadladen potable water may be a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Anambra state, Nigeria. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the presence of lead in potable water sources in Anambra state, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Water samples were systematically collected from 81 water sampling sites in different senatorial zones of the state. Lead was estimated in the water samples using Varian AA240 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The mean levels of lead in the water samples in all the senatorial zones of the state were higher than the maximum contaminant limit (0.01 mg/L) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The mean level of lead in harvested rain, sachet, and stream waters (0.34 plusmn; 0.23, 0.37 plusmn; 0.08, and 0.23 plusmn; 0.06 mg/L, respectively) was higher in Anambra South senatorial zone compared to the WHO maximum contaminant limit. Furthermore, Anambra South has higher (P lt; 0.001) mean lead level compared to the North and Central senatorial zones. Conclusion: This study reveals significantly high lead levels in potable water sources in Anambra state, Nigeria. The water samples should be well treated to remove this harmful toxic heavy metal which is very dangerous to health. Keywords: Anambra state, lead, Nigeria, potable water. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/F1F613D57728 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS.9000006 en Copyright © 2018 Ignatius C. Maduka, Anthony I. Anakwuo, Nnamdi P. Ogueche
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:F9C683357726 2018-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2018
Musculoskeletal Tumors of the Extremities: Challenges and Outcome of Management in a Nigeria Tertiary Hospital O. N. Salawu, O. M. Babalola, G. H. Ibraheem, C. Nwosu, A. K. Suleiman, D. M. Kadir, B. A. Ahmed, J. O. Mejabi, A. A. Fadimu, T. O. Adeyemi, W. O. Olawole Background: Patients with musculoskeletal tumors in developing countries often present late to the hospital and this poses serious challenges to the management, especially for malignant tumors. This study aims to highlight the various types of musculoskeletal extremity tumors seen in a Nigerian tertiary health center during the study period, the challenges encountered in managing them, and the outcome of the management. Materials and Methods: A prospective study in which all consenting patients with musculoskeletal extremity tumors who presented to the center from April 2015 to March 2017 were recruited. Results: Seventytwo patients were managed during the study period. The mean age was 22.1 plusmn; 4.5 years and the age group most affected was the 11ndash;20 years group, n = 22 (30.6%). Maletofemale ratio was 1.6:1. The femur was the most commonly involved bone. Forty tumors were benign while 32 were malignant tumors. Osteochondroma was the most common benign tumor while osteosarcoma was the most common malignant tumor. The challenges encountered during the management were a late presentation, poverty, and traditional bonesetter intervention before the presentation. Patients with benign tumor had excision with good outcome in all. Twenty (62.5%) of the patients with a malignant tumor had the ablative procedure, two of these 20 patients died within 6 months of treatment, while 12 (37.5%) of the patients with malignant tumor refused the treatment. Conclusion: Management of musculoskeletal extremity tumors is highly challenging in this part of the country, especially the malignant types, due to the challenges mentioned. There is a need for more awareness about the disease, the Government should subsidize the cost of management of this disease, and more specialty training of personnel is necessary for appropriate management of the diseases. Keywords: Extremity, musculoskeletal, tumor. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/F9C683357726 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS.9000007 en Copyright © 2018 O. N. Salawu, O. M. Babalola, G. H. Ibraheem, C. Nwosu, A. K. Suleiman, D. M. Kadir, B. A. Ahmed, J. O. Mejabi, A. A. Fadimu, T. O. Adeyemi, W. O. Olawole
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:6FFCD4957724 2018-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2018
Prevalence and Antibiogram Pattern of Salmonella enterica Serotypes in Garhwal Region: First Report from Foothills of Himalayas Vikrant Negi, Monika Pathania, Rajat Prakash, Deepak Juyal, Munesh Kumar Sharma, Shekhar Pal Introduction: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serotype Typhi and Paratyphi, is endemic in India with an incidence of 102ndash;2219/100,000 populations. The definitive diagnosis of enteric fever in patients with compatible clinical picture is isolation of Salmonellae from blood, bone marrow, stool or urine, and demonstration of fourfold rise in antibody titer to both O and H antigen of the organism between acute and convalescentphase sera. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of various serotypes of S. enterica and their antibiogram in foot hills of Himalayas. Materials and Methods: During February 2012ndash;January 2013, all clinically suspected patients were screened for enteric fever by Widal tube agglutination test. For the isolation of etiology, venous blood, stool and urine specimen were obtained from patients with antibody titer of ge;80 and 160 for antiO agglutinin and antiH agglutinin of Salmonella typhi, respectively, and ge;20 for anti-H agglutinin of S. paratyphi A and S. paratyphi B. Characterization and antibiogram determination of the isolates was done by conventional microbiological methods including Kirbyndash;Bauerrsquo;s disc diffusion technique. Result: Among 1173 suspected cases, 373 showed a high titer of antibodies against O (ge;80), H (ge;160), AH (ge;20), and BH (ge;20) antigens. A total of 81 isolates were obtained from 76 patients (29 from blood and 49 from stool and three from urine), of which 54 were identified as Salmonella typhi, 20 as Paratyphi A and seven as Paratyphi B. Extendedspectrum betalactamase production was observed in four isolates of S. typhi. Ciprofloxacin followed by cotrimoxazole was resistant to 46.5 and 36.5% of the isolates, respectively. Conclusion: This report indicates a significant percentage of drug resistance in S. enterica serotypes in Garhwal region. Periodic monitoring of the antibiogram pattern along with the implementation of strict antibiotic policies and patient education is needed. Keywords: Blood culture, extendedspectrum betalactamase, Salmonella typhi, typhoid fever, Widal test. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/6FFCD4957724 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS.9000009 en Copyright © 2018 Vikrant Negi, Monika Pathania, Rajat Prakash, Deepak Juyal, Munesh Kumar Sharma, Shekhar Pal
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:A898FB557716 2018-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2018
The effect of bacterial colonization of the embryo transfer catheter on outcome of in vitro fertilization–embryo transfer treatment Roy N. Maduka, James A. Osaikhuwuomwan, Michael E. Aziken Background: In vitro fertilizationndash;embryo transfer (IVF minus; ET) has become a core treatment method for managing infertility. Bacterial contamination of the ET catheter may affect outcome, but there is still no consensus of evidence. Objectives: This study aims to assess the effect of bacterial colonization of the ET catheter tip on the clinical pregnancy rate in an IVFndash;ET treatment. Methods: An analytical crosssectional study among women undergoing IVFndash;ET treatment was undertaken. The patients selected had both cervical swab and the tip of the ET catheter cultured. The patients were grouped into positive (bacterial isolated) and negative (no bacterial isolated) based on the culture result. The clinical pregnancy rate (primary outcome) between the two groups was compared. Results: A total of 80 patients were selected. In 34 patients (42.25%), the cervical culture was positive, while 46 patients (57.50%) had negative cervical culture. Catheter tip culture was positive in 27 patients (33.75%) and negative in 53 patients (66.25%). The predominant microorganisms isolated were Escherichia coli (23.75%), Staphylococcus spp. (18.75%), and Streptococcus spp. (15.00%). The clinical pregnancy rate was 26.25%. The significant factors affecting clinical pregnancy were the age of the patient (P = 0.044), duration of infertility (P = 0.01), and culture result (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Bacterial colonization of the ET catheter tip is associated with a reduction in the clinical pregnancy rate. Utility of routine cervical swab; microscopy, culture, and sensitivity at recruitment of patients for IVFndash;ET treatment is highlighted. Key words: Bacterial colonization, clinical pregnancy, embryo transfer, infertility, in vitro fertilization. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/A898FB557716 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS.9000011 en Copyright © 2018 Roy N. Maduka, James A. Osaikhuwuomwan, Michael E. Aziken
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:0C59DB257730 2018-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2018
Anesthesia for Emergency Cesarean Section: A Comparison of Spinal versus General Anesthesia on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes Vitus Okwuchukwu Obi, Odidika Ugochukwu J. Umeora, Background: Despite the relative safety of cesarean section (CS), increasing CS rate is a cause for concern to obstetricians and anesthetists because of the attendant increased health risk one of which is the risk of anesthesia. The choice of anesthesia for cesarean section depends on the indication for the surgery, the urgency of intervention required, the maternal and/or fetal status, and the patientrsquo;s desires. Despite the paradigm shift toward spinal anesthesia, general anesthesia is still commonly administered in our facility for some specific indications. Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients who had emergency CS under spinal anesthesia compared with those who had general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study comparing the obstetric outcome of patients who had emergency CS under spinal anesthesia compared with those who had the surgery under general anesthesia. Data analysis was done using statistical Epi Info version 7.2.1. Results: The most common indication for surgery in the spinal group was cephalopelvic disproportion while that for the general anesthesia group was antepartum hemorrhage/placenta previa. Patients who had spinal anesthesia had less intraoperative blood loss compared with those who had general anesthesia (814 plusmn; 124 vs. 842 plusmn; 324; P = 0.0007). There was a significant difference in the intraoperative blood loss gt;1000 ml among women who had spinal anesthesia relative to women who had general anesthesia (odds ratio [OR]: 0.6832, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3390ndash;0.9779; P = 0.0005). Spinal anesthesia was associated with a reduced risk of having a 1stmin Apgar score lt;7 (OR: 0.6096, 95% CI: 0.4066ndash;0.9140; P = 0.016). There was no significant difference in the 5thmin Apgar score in both groups. There was also no significant difference in the number of neonates admitted into the Intensive Care Units. The maternal and perinatal mortality was not different in both groups. Conclusion: Spinal anesthesia was associated with reduced risk of blood loss and reduced risk of low Apgar score in the 1st min. There was no difference in the 5thmin Apgar score and maternal and neonatal mortality. Keywords: Emergency cesarean section, general anesthesia, spinal anesthesia. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/0C59DB257730 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS.9000002 en Copyright © 2018 Vitus Okwuchukwu Obi, Odidika Ugochukwu J. Umeora,
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:28A656859983 2019-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2019
Utilization of Postnatal Care Services after home delivery in Ethiopia: A Multilevel Logistic Regression Analysis Yebelay Berelie, Endalew Tesfa and Tizazu Bayko Full Length Research Paper Despite postnatal care services significant role in improving maternal and new-born health, services are underutilized in most developing countries including Ethiopia. Utilization of postnatal care services in many countries is very low. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of postnatal care service utilization and also, identify determinant factors of utilization of postnatal care services and assess the variation in the use of this service among different regions of Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional study using 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data collected from January 18 to June 27, 2016. A total of 7,174 women (age 15-49) were included in the study. The outcome variable was the utilization of postnatal care services. A multilevel logistic regression model was fitted to select factors affecting utilization of postnatal care services in Ethiopia. A 50:50 mixture chi-square distributions were used to test random effects. Among 4385 women that deliver at home only 208 (4.7%) women received postnatal care within 42 days after their most recent delivery. Women who had at least four ANC visits during their last pregnancy (AOR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.05-2.09) were more likely to use postnatal care services than those who had no antenatal care visits. Women residing in urban were 2.67 times (95% CI: 1.41, 5.05) more likely to utilize postnatal care services within 42 days after delivery compared to their counterparts in the rural area. Low postnatal care utilization of mothers in Ethiopia was noticed. Programs to improve postnatal care services in Ethiopia must be designed with giving attention to women having low antenatal care visits, residing in rural area, having low wealth index and low educational level and also give attention to all geographical regions to allow pregnant women to fully benefit from postnatal care services. Key words: Postnatal care, multilevel regression analysis, Ethiopia. Academic Journals 2019 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/28A656859983 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2018.0008 en Copyright © 2019 Yebelay Berelie, Endalew Tesfa and Tizazu Bayko
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:6ED18A060609 2019-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2019
Efficacy of intravenous tranexamic acid at reducing blood loss during elective caesarean section in Abakaliki: A double blind randomized placebo controlled trial Obi V. O., Umeora O. U. J., Dimejesi I. B. O., Asiegbu O., Mgbafulu C. C., Ifemelumma C. C. and Obi C. N. Full Length Research Paper Increasing caesarean section rate is a source of concern to obstetricians due to the attendant increased health risk, its commonest complication is bleeding, which occasionally may be life threatening. Tranexamic acid has recently been investigated as a potentially useful adjunct for the prevention of maternal morbidity. The research aim to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid at reducing blood loss during elective caesarean section. The method used was a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial among women who had elective caesarean section at the Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA) and Mile 4 Hospital Abakaliki. Data analysis was done using statistical Package for Social Science (IBM SPSS) software (version 20, Chicago II, USA). The results from the finding show that mean estimated blood loss was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid group (566.78plusmn;267.42 ml versus 819.09plusmn;348.36 ml, plt;0.001). Blood loss gt;1000 ml was also significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group 5(8.8%) versus 16(27.6%); alternatively, 0.25; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.74; p=0.012. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the need for additional uterotonics. However, the number of patients that had blood transfusion between had no difference and the maternal side effect profile was similar. Intravenous tranexamic acid significantly reduced blood loss at elective caesarean sections. It also reduced the risk of blood loss greater than 1000 ml and the need for additional uterotonics without increasing maternal risks. Key words: Tranexamic acid, blood loss, elective caesarean section. Academic Journals 2019 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/6ED18A060609 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2018.0020 en Copyright © 2019 Obi V. O., Umeora O. U. J., Dimejesi I. B. O., Asiegbu O., Mgbafulu C. C., Ifemelumma C. C. and Obi C. N.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:AD1395961193 2019-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2019
Foeto-maternal outcome of abruptio placentae at a Nigerian tertiary hospital N. Adewole, A. D. Isah and I. F. Osinachi Full Length Research Paper Abruptio placentae remain a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and a significant cause of perinatal loss especially in the resource poor countries like Nigeria. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors, maternal and perinatal outcomes of patients managed for abruptio placentae at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, (UATH), during a five-year period. A retrospective 5-year review of all cases of abruptio placentae managed at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital between 2012 and 2016 was carried out. The patientsrsquo; case notes were retrieved from the records department of the hospital and studied for socio-demographic characteristics, parity, gestational age, clinical presentation, risk factors for abruptio placentae, foetal and maternal outcomes. Total number of deliveries during the study period was 10767. Fifty-five (0.51%) women had abruptio placentae. Age significantly affected the incidence of abruptio placenta in this study (p=0.001). Parity was not significantly associated with abruptio placenta (p=0.73). Abruptio placentae occurred more frequently amongst unbooked women (70.9%). Maternal complications were postpartum haemorrhage (16.4%), haemorrhage shock (10.9%), postpartum anaemia (acute) (21.8%), and puerperal sepsis (3.6%). There was one maternal death, giving a case fatality rate of 1.8%. Adverse foetal outcome was noted in severe cases of abruptio placentae. There were seven perinatal deaths giving a perinatal mortality rate of 127 per 1000 births. Abruptio placentae is associated with adverse maternal and foetal outcome. Lack of antenatal care, increasing maternal age and multiparity are independently associated with abruptio placentae and this has significant impact on the fetomaternal outcome from the complications. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of placental abruption will significantly improve foetal and maternal outcome. Key words: Abruptio placentae, risk factors, maternal, perinatal outcomes. Academic Journals 2019 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/AD1395961193 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2019.0028 en Copyright © 2019 N. Adewole, A. D. Isah and I. F. Osinachi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:1F8363861326 2019-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2019
Quality of hospital admission documentation: A study in an emergency paediatric unit of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria K.O, Isezuo, A. Adamu, F. B. Jiya, T. Yusuf, U. M. Sani, N. M. Jiya, B. O. Onankpa, P. K. Ibitoye, M. O. Ugege and B. I. Garba Full Length Research Paper Medical documentation, in addition to being a legal and research tool, is vital in providing quality patient care. In Nigeria, hand written documentation without proforma, is the norm. We assessed the quality of doctorsrsquo; documentation of children admitted into Emergency Paediatrics Unit (EPU), Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH). A 3-month cross-sectional study of admission records by different cadre of doctors for children admitted into the EPU between March and May 2016. A checklist was used to assess the quality of documentation. Data was analysed with SPSS version 22. Of the 191 patientsrsquo; clerking studied, 63 (33%) indicated the doctorsrsquo; cadre. The patientsrsquo; name written on the first page in 168 (88%), but only 31 (16.2%) indicated name on subsequent pages. Date and time of consultation were written in 183 (95.8%) and 61 (31.9%) respectively. Writing was legible in (174) 91.1%, with counter-signing of cancellations in 19 (9.9%). Examination findings documented included blood pressure in 18 (9.4%), pulse rate in 179 (93.7%), respiratory rate in 179 (93.7%) and temperature in 184 (96.3%). This study demonstrates the need for improvement in quality of paediatrics emergency documentation. Continuing medical education (CME) on this is essential. Key words: Quality, admission, documentation, emergency, paediatrics, Sokoto. Academic Journals 2019 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/1F8363861326 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2018.0021 en Copyright © 2019 K.O, Isezuo, A. Adamu, F. B. Jiya, T. Yusuf, U. M. Sani, N. M. Jiya, B. O. Onankpa, P. K. Ibitoye, M. O. Ugege and B. I. Garba
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:3354A8D61378 2019-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2019
An exploration on blood donation intention among population in Hawassa city, Southern Ethiopia; theory of planned behaviour approach: A qualitative study Dereje Geleta and Berhan Meshesha Full Length Research Paper Millions of lives are saved each year through blood transfusions. Blood donation is therefore considered as a humanitarian act and a positive behavioural phenomenon. To explore intention to donate blood among Hawassa city population, southern Ethiopia, 2017, a qualitative study using the theory of planned behaviour was employed. Data collection was done using a semi-structured interview guide with open-ended questions. Focus group discussion (FGD) and in-depth interviews were employed for data collection. Data analysis begun with translation as it was the first step in data analysis for the qualitative study. Transcripts were coded using the Atlas.Ti.7 software. For coding the data, the basic constructs of the theory of planned behavior was used. Almost all participants do not know the minimum and maximum age to donate blood. Television and friends are mentioned as the main source of information about blood donation. Majority of the participants had mentioned that it is very difficult for them to know for whom the donated blood is given. Almost all participants in this study see blood donation as a humanitarian act. For married participants, wives and husbands were stated as subjective norms. The influence of subjective norm is not so much considered. Majority of the participants stated that they had fear that they will suffer from some health problem if they donate blood. Being anemic and weak is reported by the majority. Key words: Blood donation, voluntary donation, qualitative research, Hawassa, theory of planned behaviour. Academic Journals 2019 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/3354A8D61378 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2018.0006 en Copyright © 2019 Dereje Geleta and Berhan Meshesha
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:CD0ED7E62454 2019-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2019
Perineo-genital injury secondary to sexual assault in a 3-month old female Nwokoro C. C., Ayoade B. A., Salami B. A., Emmanuel E. A. , Fatungase O. M., Amosu L. O. and Ogundele I. O. Full Length Research Paper Traumatic injuries to the perineum and external genitalia in children may be accidental, self-inflicted or the result of assault. Sexual assaults account for majority of the injuries in developed countries while accidental injuries occur more in underdeveloped and developing countries. The injuries may be isolated or associated with trauma to other areas of the body. Perineal injuries constitute 0.2% of the injuries in girls under the age of 15 years while paediatric genital injuries have been reported to represent 0.4 to 8% of childhood trauma. Although, paediatric genital and perineal injuries represent a small proportion of overall injuries seen in childhood; their continued increase in incidence and the resulting morbidity and occasional mortality present them as a public health condition that needs adequate awareness and dissemination of information that could help in preventing and managing these conditions when they occur. The index case resulted from sexual assault in a three-month old baby girl with attendant severe perineal and genital injuries. Perineal and genital injuries in children result from trauma secondary to accidents, self-inflicted injuries and sexual abuse. The importance of this condition is the steady rise in incidence and the resultant morbidity and mortality that may accompany these injuries. However, prompt attention, meticulous repair of all identified injuries usually guarantee satisfactory outcome. Key words: Perineal, genital, female, 3-month, child, secondary, sexual, injury. Academic Journals 2019 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/CD0ED7E62454 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2019.0027 en Copyright © 2019 Nwokoro C. C., Ayoade B. A., Salami B. A., Emmanuel E. A. , Fatungase O. M., Amosu L. O. and Ogundele I. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:3B57EF162830 2020-02-29T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infection among patients with end stage renal disease at haemodialysis initiation Ogochukwu Chinedum Okoye Full Length Research Paper Hepatitis sero-positivity at initiation of haemodialysis may suggest a causal role or arise due to repeated blood transfusions and reduced immunity associated with advanced chronic kidney disease. This study was to determine the sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infection at initiation of haemodialysis, and describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients. This is a cross-sectional study of all end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who had haemodialysis from January 2012 to January 2016 in the study centre. Patients with HIV infection were excluded. Data on the demographic characteristics, health status, aetiology of renal disease, clinical and biochemical parameters were collected. Fifteen (4.9%) out of 341 patients were hepatitis sero-positive; 2.6% were hepatitis B seropositive, while 2.3% were hepatitis C positive. Majority (86.6%) of the patients were males. Hepatitis infection was significantly commoner among patients with sickle cell disease (2 out of 6, p=0.005). Median duration on haemodialysis was 1 month (IQR 0.6, 1.0), while mortality was 20%. Hepatitis B and C infection is commoner among male ESRD patients, the young/middle-aged, and patients with sickle cell disease. Majority of patients are unaware of their hepatitis status and are treatment naive. Haemodialysis treatment drop-out rate and mortality are high. Key words: Hepatitis, end stage renal disease, haemodialysis, sickle cell disease. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/3B57EF162830 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2019.0070 en Copyright © 2020 Ogochukwu Chinedum Okoye
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:9DFBD9862958 2020-02-29T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in non-elderly adults (18-64 years) working indoors at 40° north latitude Koichiro Okuyama, Tadato Kido, Naohisa Miyakoshi, Kimitaka Tajimi and Yoichi Shimada Full Length Research Paper There are very few reports focusing on a role of vitamin D in falls and the related factors in the non-elderly (18-64 years). A cross-sectional survey was addressed to investigate associations between falls, the related factors, and 25[OH]D3 status in 256 non-elderly adults that regularly work indoors at latitude 40deg; north region. The mean value of the serum 25[OH]D3 was 15.6 plusmn; 7.0 ng/ml. We divided the serum 25[OH]D3 levels into 3 groups. The deficient, inadequate, and adequate group was at a level of lt;12.0, 12.0 to lt; 20, and 20 ng/ml. Percentage of each group was 35, 38, and 27%. Therefore, 73% of the 256 non-elderly adults working indoors did not have adequate serum 25[OH] D3. Falls prevalence of the past 12 months was 8.9, 5.1 and 11.8%, respectively. The mean age of the 3 groups was 37.2 plusmn; 12.5, 39.7 plusmn; 13.2, and 42.0 plusmn; 13.4 years, and it was significantly older in the adequate group (plt;0.01). No associations were found in the prevalence of falls, spinal alignment, bone, muscle status, laboratory data among the 3 groups. Therefore, assessment of Vitamin D status in the non-elderly adults may be less valuable as far as falls and the related factors were concerned. Key words: 25[OH]D3, falls prevalence, non-elderly indoor workers, 40deg; north latitude. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/9DFBD9862958 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2019.0053 en Copyright © 2020 Koichiro Okuyama, Tadato Kido, Naohisa Miyakoshi, Kimitaka Tajimi and Yoichi Shimada
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:477179D63650 2020-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Discontinuation of intrauterine device: Are the reasons changing? Oluwasomidoyin Olukemi Bello and Adebayo Damilola Agboola Full Length Research Paper Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are among the most widely used contraceptive methods and users discontinue use despite its effectiveness due to different reasons. This study is aimed at determining the reasons for IUD discontinuation. A retrospective survey was conducted at Family Planning Clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, IUD - duration of use and reason(s) for removal was obtained using a proforma. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A total of 1,961 women had IUD removal within the study period. Mean age and duration of use was 37.8 plusmn;8.6 and 6.2plusmn;4.6 years, respectively. Their parity ranged from one to six and majority 528(26.9%) were 30-34 years of age. More than one-third 710(36.2%) had secondary level of education and were mainly grandmultipara. Commonest reasons for IUD discontinuation were side-effects 543 (27.6%) and clientrsquo;s preference 536(27.3%). About a fifth of them had early IUD discontinuation while majority 651(33.2%) used the device for four to ten years. Thus, IUDs are safe and well tolerated with side effects and clientrsquo;s preference as commonest reasons for its discontinuation. Providers should provide information on the side effects and its management at insertion knowing that the womanrsquo;s choice is paramount. Key words: Intrauterine devices (IUDs), discontinuation, duration, reasons. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/477179D63650 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2019.0073 en Copyright © 2020 Oluwasomidoyin Olukemi Bello and Adebayo Damilola Agboola
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:D41762F63982 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Renal Doppler values in healthy Nigerian children: Anthropometric variations Atalabi O. M., Adekanmi A. J., Olatunji R. B. and Akinmoladun J. A. Full Length Research Paper The rising morbidity and mortality from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among children in sub-Saharan Africa and Nigeria is now a primary health concern. Due to this, an accurate, simple, affordable, non-invasive method for early diagnosis of renal diseases in children is needed to prevent progression to ESRD. In this prospective, cross-sectional study among children with no evidence of clinical and pathologic abnormalities, we investigated the intrarenal Doppler indices and their relationship with participantsrsquo; demographics. One hundred and thirty-one children with no clinical or laboratory pathologic abnormalities from age 3 to 10 years, and a total of 262 kidneys were evaluated. Significant statistical differences exist in the pulsatility index (PI), resistivity index (RI), and acceleration time (AT) among the different age groups of the studied children population. Children aged 2 to 3 years had statistically significant higher PI (mean = 0.99, 95% CI of mean = 0.95; 1.04) than in children aged 7 to 8 years and 9 to 10 years (mean = 0.88, 95% CI of mean = 0.83; 0.94). The RI showed similar trend, while AT was also significant but in the opposite direction. Age, weight, and height showed significant correlations with PI, RI, AT, and Systolic/Diastolic ratio(S/D). Age and weight also had correlations with renal lengths. This study thus revealed that normative data for each age group were reasonably similar to those from other parts of the world. Intra-renal PI, RI, and S/D declines with age but stabilize at 6 to 8 years. The parameters showed dependency on age, weight, and height in normal healthy children. Key words: Healthy children, Doppler, renal disease, reference values. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/D41762F63982 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0093 en Copyright © 2020 Atalabi O. M., Adekanmi A. J., Olatunji R. B. and Akinmoladun J. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:B9AC0C964001 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Pattern of gynaecological malignancies in a Nigerian tertiary hospital I. F. Osinachi, N. Adewole, A. D. Isah, H. I. Abdullahi and E. T. Agida Full Length Research Paper The sociodemographic and histological patterns of gynaecological malignancies is important in their management. Facilities are now available for prevention, detection, treatment and palliative care for the wide spectrum of female genital tract malignancies. The study aim to determine the socio demographic and histological patterns of Gynaecological malignancies identified at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH). This was a retrospective study carried out in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), Abuja, Nigeria between 1st January, 2012 and 31st December, 2016. The case notes of patients admitted for Gynaecological malignancy were retrieved from the medical records and studied for relative frequency, age distribution, parity and histological types of the Gynaecological malignancies. Out of 3786 women admitted during the study period, 113 had Gynaecological malignancies, giving an incidence of 3.0%. Majority of the women had cervical cancer (65.5%) followed by ovarian cancer (22.1%). Endometrial cancer, Choriocarcinoma, and vulva cancer accounted for 7.1, 4.4 and 0.9%, respectively. Squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 93.2% of cervical cancers. Epithelial tumours accounted for 84% of ovarian tumours, while adenocarcinoma accounted for 61.5% of cancers of the corpus uteri. The mean age for the various female genital cancers were: cervical cancer (52.6 plusmn; 0.88 years), ovarian cancer (40.9plusmn; 1.68 years), vulva cancer (34.5 plusmn; 0 years), choriocarcinoma (30.5 plusmn; 1.44 years), and endometrial cancer (54.5 plusmn; 1.77 years). Cervical cancer remains the most common female genital tract malignancy seen. The challenges with cervical cancer screening need to be addressed to reduce its incidence. Key words: Gynaecological cancers, pattern, frequency, histology. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/B9AC0C964001 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2019.0029 en Copyright © 2020 I. F. Osinachi, N. Adewole, A. D. Isah, H. I. Abdullahi and E. T. Agida
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:26104B164043 2020-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Glycaemic control and correlation between estimated average glucose and glycated haemoglobin in diabetic patients seen in a tertiary hospital in Benin City, Nigeria Adewolu Olanike F. and Ohenhen Oluwatoyin A. Full Length Research Paper Diabetes mellitus is on the increase worldwide and in Nigeria, with prevalence ranging from 0.65% in rural Mangu to as high as 11.0% in urban Lagos. Its prevention, early diagnosis and adequate treatment to prevent morbidity and mortality are essential. Glycated haemoglobin estimation is a marker of glycaemic control and it reflects average plasma glucose over previous eight to twelve weeks. Reporting estimated average glucose along with glycated haemoglobin values may be useful in the assessment of long term glycaemic control of diabetic patients. This work aims to assess glycaemic control in diabetic patients and determine the association between estimated average glucose and glycated haemoglobin values. This work is a retrospective study. Data of 100 diabetic patients (Type 1 and 2) seen in the endocrine outpatient clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital between March 2017 and October 2017 were analyzed. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) assay was done using high performance liquid chromatography (Bio - Rad). Estimated average glucose was derived using Nathanrsquo;s regression formula. Good glycaemic control was established at glycated haemoglobin lt; 7% according to the American Diabetes Association recommendation. Mean age of the subjects was 61.5 plusmn; 14.8 years. Mean fasting plasma glucose, estimated average glucose, glycated haemoglobin in the subjects were 188.6 plusmn; 100.3, 165.4 plusmn; 24.8 mg/dl, 7.4 plusmn; 2.4% respectively. Estimated average glucose showed a strong positive correlation with glycated haemoglobin, which was statistically significant; r = 1.000, p = 0.000. 46% of the subjects had glycated haemoglobin values lt; 7%, while 54% had values ge; 7%. Estimated average glucose correlated strongly and significantly with glycated haemoglobin, therefore reporting estimated average glucose along with glycated haemoglobin values may be useful and beneficial in the assessment of long term glycaemic control of diabetic patients. Glycaemic control is yet to be optimal in the study population. Key words: Estimated average blood glucose (eAG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), diabetes mellitus. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/26104B164043 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2018.0011 en Copyright © 2020 Adewolu Olanike F. and Ohenhen Oluwatoyin A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:284C3E464103 2020-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Assessment of the causes of mortality among HIV patients admitted in Morogoro Regional Referral Hospital, Tanzania Ebenezer Abimbola Morolahun, Frank Moshi Ndayeza, Happyfania Primi Kilenga, Flora Marwa Magige, Hidaya Rashid Matata, Mathew Shileka Samwel and Senga Kali Pemba Full Length Research Paper Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects immune system, thereby impairing the normal functions of immune system. Causes of mortality among HIV patients have become more diverse and deaths from AIDS-related diseases have continued to change over the years. This study aimed to assess causes of death among HIV patients admitted in Morogoro Regional Referral Hospital, Tanzania. A retrospective hospital-based study involving 164 HIV patients admitted in the medical wards of Morogoro Regional Referral Hospital from January to September, 2018. Information concerning the causes of death were accessed through the medical records and copies of death certificates. The results showed that out of the 164 HIV patients admitted in Morogoro Regional Referral Hospital from January to September, 2018, 98(59.76%) died due to Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, 31(18.90%) died due to Cryptococcal meningitis, 26(15.85%) died due to tuberculosis, 04(2.44%) died due to toxoplasmosis, and 05(3.05%) died due to opportunistic diarrhea. This study has found that the leading cause of mortality among the HIV patients admitted in Morogoro Regional Referral Hospital from January to September, 2018 was P. carinii pneumonia followed by C. meningitis. Key words: HIV patients, retrospective, immune system, mortality. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/284C3E464103 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2019.0080 en Copyright © 2020 Ebenezer Abimbola Morolahun, Frank Moshi Ndayeza, Happyfania Primi Kilenga, Flora Marwa Magige, Hidaya Rashid Matata, Mathew Shileka Samwel and Senga Kali Pemba
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:24A22DD64105 2020-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Computed tomography angiographic evaluation of vascular pathology in a Nigerian tertiary hospital Adekanmi Ademola Joseph and Osobu Babatunde Ebenezer Full Length Research Paper Computed Tomography Angiography has progressively replaced the invasive conventional angiography, and has now become the preferred modality for the diagnosis and characterization of most cardiovascular abnormalities. Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) alone is mostly sufficient to adequately evaluate vascular lesions in various disease conditions. This study reports the institutional evaluation of various vascular lesions on a 64 64 slice Computed Tomography (CT) scanner over an eight-year duration. It evaluates the major clinical indications for angiography studies and spectrum of findings on CTA, any agreement between major clinical diagnosis and CTA findings over an eight-year period at a major referral tertiary hospital in South-West Nigeria was also determined in this hospital based retrospective study of patients with suspected vascular lesions throughout the body evaluated with CTA from January 2011 to December 2018. All CTA scans were performed using a 64-slice Multidetector Toshiba Aquilion Computed Tomography scanner. The demographics, clinical diagnosis, type of CT angiography, and result of the CT angiography procedure data were extracted and documented. The data was analysed using IBM SPSS version 23.0. A total of 305 patients were studied. Among the extra-cranial CTA studies, pulmonary thrombo-embolism (38/184) was the commonest reason for CTA. There was fair significant agreement between clinical diagnosis of PTE and CTA diagnosis of PTE, but weak agreement between Aneurysms/AVMs and corresponding findings on CTA. The commonest CTA examination was cranial angiographies followed by pulmonary CTAs. The Hospital incidence of aneurysms was 2.6 times that of AVMs in this study. Key words: Computed tomography, angiography, vascular lesion, aneurysms, arterio-venous malformation. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/24A22DD64105 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2019.0077 en Copyright © 2020 Adekanmi Ademola Joseph and Osobu Babatunde Ebenezer
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:10C0EFE64304 2020-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Factors associated with child’s comorbid diarrhea and pneumonia in rural Democratic Republic of the Congo Manuel F. Manunrsquo;Ebo, and Choudelle Nkulu-wa-Ngoie Full Length Research Paper Diarrhea and pneumonia are leading killers of the worldrsquo;s youngest children. The toll is highly concentrated in the most disadvantaged children from 15 high-burden countries. The present research reports the factors associated with the comorbidity of the two killer diseases in the context of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), one of the 15 countries suffering the most from the blights. This analysis of data from a cross-sectional household survey found an association between childrsquo;s comorbid diarrhea and pneumonia and the indicators of childrsquo;s age, unimproved sanitation facilities, unsafe or indiscriminate disposal of childrenrsquo;s feces, malnutrition and parentsrsquo; education. It was concluded that improved childrsquo;s environment and safe hygiene practice protect against a co-occurrence of the two conditions in rural DRC. Key words: Diarrhea, pneumonia, comorbidity, sub-Sahara, rural, fecal disposal, sanitation, Congo-Kinshasa. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/10C0EFE64304 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0096 en Copyright © 2020 Manuel F. Manunrsquo;Ebo, and Choudelle Nkulu-wa-Ngoie
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:A260F8664307 2020-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Determinants of pre-cervical cancer among women visiting Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia: A case control study Abiy Semunigus Dejene and Dejene Hailu Full Length Research Paper Cervical cancer is the most common and lethal form of cancer occurring among women of sub- Saharan Africa and Ethiopia. Despite its wider occurrence, cervical cancer is preventable and curable if it is diagnosed and treated in its pre-cancerous stage. Recognizing the risk factors associated with pre- cervical cancer lesion is important to design appropriate strategies for prevention of cervical cancer. However, studies on risk factors associated with pre-cervical cancer lesion in women are limited in Ethiopia as well as in the study location. A hospital based unmatched case control study was conducted at Hawassa university, Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the strength of association between the outcome and explanatory variables. Association was declared when p-value is lt; 0.05. Predictive variables whose P-value is lt;0.25 in crude analysis were included in the final multivariate analysis. A backward stepwise approach was conducted and statistically significant association was declared based on adjusted odd ratio (AOR), 95% confidence interval (CI) and P-value lt;0.05. Findings from multivariate analysis showed contraceptive use [AOR: 5.16, CI (2.97-8.96)], pattern of irregular menstrual bleeding [AOR: 6.03, CI (3.40-10.69)], history of STI [AOR: 4.02, CI (2.28-7.10)] and HIV/AIDS reactive status [AOR: 7.41, CI (4.38-12.56)] were found to be independent predictors of pre- cervical cancer lesion. Being using contraceptive, having STI history, having irregular menstrual bleeding pattern and having HIV/AIDS reactive status increase the risk of developing pre-cervical cancer. These high risk groups should be encouraged to have regular screening for pre-cervical cancer. Key words: Pre-cervical cancer, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), risk factors, cervical cancer. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/A260F8664307 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0091 en Copyright © 2020 Abiy Semunigus Dejene and Dejene Hailu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:06ADAE264795 2020-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Review of the antioxidant properties of wild edible plants in Ethiopia Nigussie Amsalu, and Zemede Asfaw Review This work aims to study the potential and importance of wild edible plants (WEPs) as antioxidants in treating different diseases caused by free radicals. A total of 67 species belonging to 50 genera under 36 families and naturally growing in Ethiopia were recorded after assessing all available documents. About 16.2% of the total (413) WEPs were recorded in the country. The plant families with more number of species known to have antioxidants are Amaranthaceae and Moraceae 7 species each. Fruits are the dominant edible parts followed by leaves. Compounds such as tannins, oxalates and phenolic acids are the major contributors to the antioxidant activity of vegetables, fruits and medicinal plants. Plants also have many phytochemicals which are a potential source of natural antioxidants such as phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids, flavonols, alkaloids, iridoids and saponins, High consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lowered occurrence of cancer, heart disease, inflammation, arthritis, neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes. Antioxidant components including vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoid, and plant polyphenols appeared to play a key role in reducing the development of such diseases. This review gives a general overview of the antioxidant properties of different parts of WEPs in a single volume and ease selection of the best species for further research. The chemical composition, antioxidant contents and energy values of wild plants consumed by Ethiopians indicated that they provide key nutrients such as carbohydrates minerals and vitamins. The plants will be lost along with their valuable nutrients and indigenous knowledge without proper management and conservation in the right places and habitats. Keywords: antioxidant, Ethiopia, health benefit, phytochemicals, wild edible plants. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/06ADAE264795 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2019.0082 en Copyright © 2020 Nigussie Amsalu, and Zemede Asfaw
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:91A62D164731 2020-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Severity of coronary atherosclerosis in hypertensive: A postmortem study AZEKE, Akhator Terence and IMASOGIE, Dele Eradebamwen Full Length Research Paper The development of coronary atherosclerosis and ischaemic heart disease had been attributed to risk factors that include but not limited to hypertension. These factors were determined without reference to data from autopsy studies. It is likely that there is no significant difference on the grades of coronary atherosclerosis in hypertensiversquo;s when compared with the non-hypertensiversquo;s. The aim of this study, therefore, is to test this hypothesis by assessing the impact of hypertension on the grades of atherosclerosis. A prospective postmortem study carried out from 1st of June, 2012 to 31st of May 2013. Consecutive sampling technique was employed to recruit the study population. At post-mortem, the coronary artery of each subject was graded on the basis of the percentage of cross-sectional area stenosis. The data obtained was analyzed with the SPSS version 20. There were 142 cases in this study with a male preponderance. Their mean age was 49.86 years. The grades of coronary atherosclerosis increases with age. The grades of coronary atherosclerosis in hypertensiversquo;s were more severe when compared with the non-hypertensiversquo;s (p=0.0001). The odds of a hypertensive developing grade III coronary atherosclerosis relative to a grade I lesion was 17.655 higher. The grades of coronary atherosclerosis is related to the presence of hypertension, thus we reject the null hypothesis. Key words: Hypertensiversquo;s, non-hypertensiversquo;s, risk factors, grades of coronary atherosclerosis. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/91A62D164731 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0098 en Copyright © 2020 AZEKE, Akhator Terence and IMASOGIE, Dele Eradebamwen
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:2FF265A64719 2020-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Levels of some reproductive hormones, cadmium and lead among fuel pump attendants in Benin City, Nigeria Mathias A. Emokpae and Fidelis O. Oyakhire Full Length Research Paper Infertility is a common public health challenge in Nigeria. The causes of infertility in both males and females are multifactorial, and the contributions of endocrine abnormalities had been reported from both the Northern and Southern regions of Nigeria. The effect of occupational exposure on endocrine levels among petrol pump attendants has not been sufficiently documented in our setting. This study evaluated the levels of reproductive hormones, blood cadmium, and lead among fuel pump attendants in Benin City. A total of 60 petrol attendants and 30 healthy non-occupationally exposed subjects were recruited for the study. A blood specimen was collected and evaluated for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone, estrogen, and testosterone as well as blood cadmium and lead using ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) respectively. Serum levels of FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were significantly lower among fuel attendants than non-occupationally exposed control subjects. The mean levels of blood cadmium and lead were significantly higher among fuel attendants than controls. Reproductive hormone levels significantly correlated with the duration of exposure to petrol fumes, FSH (r=-0.50, p=0.001), LH (r=-0.52, p=0.001), estradiol (r=0.32, p=0.009), progesterone (r=-0.35, p=0.005) and testosterone (r=-0.48, p=0.001). Blood cadmium and lead correlated negatively with reproductive hormones except between lead with estradiol (r=0.14, p=0.276) which was positively correlated. The levels of measured reproductive hormones were significantly lower, while cadmium and lead were significantly higher in fuel attendants than non- occupationally exposed control subjects. Exposure to petroleum fumes may be a risk factor and may be associated with reproductive hormone abnormalities. Personal protective devices should be worn by petrol attendants in order to avoid the adverse consequences of the observed abnormalities. Key words: Sex hormones, fuel pump attendants, occupational exposure. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/2FF265A64719 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0106 en Copyright © 2020 Mathias A. Emokpae and Fidelis O. Oyakhire
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:4E2FE0E64950 2020-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Prevalence and identification of fungi associated with Tinea capitis in school children of Morogoro municipality, Tanzania Magreth E. Macha, Mariam R. Makange and Gerald Misinzo Full Length Research Paper Tinea capitis is one of the major common skin diseases affecting school-age children in developing countries, whose prevalence and associated fungi have not been fully investigated in these countries. This study investigated the prevalence and fungi associated with Tinea capitis infection amongst children attending selected schools in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted involving 72 school children recruited from 10 primary schools in selected class strata in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. A multistage sampling technique was used. Skin scrapings were obtained from head lesions of school children followed with fungi isolation. Fungi were identified based on their morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequencing of the 5.8s rRNA gene and flanking internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2. Socio-demographic characteristics of sampled school children were collected using a questionnaire. The fungi associated with tinea capitis in school children were Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Cytobasidium minutum, Aspergillus spp, Ectophoma multirostrata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Penicillium flavigenum and Fusarium solani. Out of the 10 primary schools surveyed, Chamwino had an overall higher prevalence with 11 (15.3%) cases of tinea capitis. Overall, 31 (43.1%) of the school children washed their hair at least once a day. It was found that 30 (41.7%) and 39 (54.2%) school children shared combs and had a member in their family with tinea capitis, respectively. Furthermore, only 18 (25%) of the affected school children sought treatment. Tinea capitis is associated with multiple dermatophytes amongst school children in Morogoro Municipality. It is recommended that body hygiene education be emphasized in schools and congestion of classrooms be avoided in order to minimize transmission of the disease through contact. Key words: Tinea capitis, Fungi Identification, dermatomycosis, dermatophytes, school children, Morogoro, Tanzania. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/4E2FE0E64950 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0108 en Copyright © 2020 Magreth E. Macha, Mariam R. Makange and Gerald Misinzo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:1637B9164952 2020-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Assessment of the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS in the city of Lubumbashi, The Democratic Republic of the Congo Manuel F. Manunrsquo;Ebo, Salvatrice Madika Masonga, Didier Mbombo Ndombe, Lay Tshiala, Choudelle Nkulu-wa-Ngoie, Willy Ibibi Ilanga and Pierre Mbang Mazono Full Length Research Paper Worldwide coverage of anti-retroviral treatment has extended life expectancy of people living with HIV and AIDS. The expanded survival time brings into play the patientsrsquo; quality of life, on which little data is available in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was administered to 249 patients, mostly females (65%), attending a dedicated centre for the treatment and comprehensive support to people living with HIV/AIDS in the city of Lubumbashi and its surroundings. Internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire were determined using Cronbachrsquo;s alpha on the contributing 24 items. Descriptive statistics were used: mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and count and percentage for categorical variables. Logistic regression and generalized linear regression models were performed to assess potential association between socio-demographic variables and quality of life. The distribution of the socio-demographic characteristics studied in the current study and their association with the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS are comparable with those reported from elsewhere. Consistently, education attainment, employment status, and presence of another HIV positive person in the household manifested as factors associated to the total score, and to all the scores in the six quality of life domains. While further research is warranted in relation to the finding of negative association of the presence of another person living with HIV/AIDS in the household, in order to improve their clientsrsquo; quality of life, we recommend to service providers the inclusion of psychosocial support that takes into account the individualsrsquo; home circumstances. Key words: Quality of life, HIV/AIDS, persons living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA), WHOQOL-HIV-Bref, sub-Sahara, Congo-Kinshasa. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/1637B9164952 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0117 en Copyright © 2020 Manuel F. Manunrsquo;Ebo, Salvatrice Madika Masonga, Didier Mbombo Ndombe, Lay Tshiala, Choudelle Nkulu-wa-Ngoie, Willy Ibibi Ilanga and Pierre Mbang Mazono
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:14F931B65252 2020-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Status and perception of intestinal parasitosis among students of a health professional institution in N’Djamena, Chad Hamit M. A., , Fombotioh N., , Nack J., Noumga H. ; Issa R. A., , Kemba S., , Brahim B. O., Zenaba M. K. and. Bilong Bilong C. F. Full Length Research Paper Intestinal parasitic diseases remain an epidemiology a real problem in Chad, but little research has been done in this area. The purpose of the study is to determine the status of intestinal parasites infection among students in a health professional training institution and to assess their level of perception of this health problem. This prospective and descriptive study took place between June and July 2018. A total of 107 stool samples were collected from students in a health professional training institution in the city of Nrsquo;Djamena. Direct examination and formalin-ether concentration methods were used to search for parasites. The results showed that the overall prevalence of intestinal parasites among the students was 64.5%. The parasite species identified were Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia solium and Strongyloides stercoralis with respective percentages: 46.73, 13.08, 13.08, 1.87, and 0.93%. The rates of infestation according to the ethological factors were: - cooking water: 46.51 and 75.80% respectively for the national water company (SNE) and drilled water; feeding mode: 60 and 64.70% for respectively individual and collective; washing hands with soap before meals: 78.57 and 62.37% for respectively no and yes. To fight the diseases caused by parasitosis should involve a strategy on sanitation and health education.The species of parasites identified indicate that the fight against diseases caused by the above parasitosis should involve a strategy on sanitation and health education. Key words: Parasite, students, Nrsquo;Djamena, health professional institution, Chad. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/14F931B65252 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0114 en Copyright © 2020 Hamit M. A., , Fombotioh N., , Nack J., Noumga H. ; Issa R. A., , Kemba S., , Brahim B. O., Zenaba M. K. and. Bilong Bilong C. F.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:87D24A565267 2020-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Evaluating mothers’ knowledge and attitude as a contributing factor to the low childhood immunization uptake in Ebonyi State, Nigeria Uzoma Vivian Asiegbu, Dorathy Chinwe Obu, Alfred F.I. Una, Chinonyelum Thecla Ezeonu, and Obiora Kingsley Asiegbu Full Length Research Paper Childhood immunization remains one of the most important and cost-effective public health interventions that reduces both morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases in children yet it is still underutilized. The study assessed the level of knowledge and attitude of mothers towards childhood immunization. This is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study involving 141 mothers that brought their babies for vaccination at Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Abakaliki, Nigeria. The data collected were analyzed using SPPS version 23. Only 40 (28.8%) had good knowledge of childhood immunization. Positive attitude towards immunization was seen in 139 (98.6%) mothers. 101 (71.6%) had missed vaccination appointments for their child with the far immunization center (50.0%) being the main reason given by the respondents. Age, parity of respondents, number of living children, educational status, and place of residence were significantly associated with knowledge of childhood immunization among the study participants (plt;0.05). Majority of the mothers had poor knowledge of childhood immunization. Maternal educational status was a positive and the only significant (plt;0.05) predictor of good knowledge of childhood immunization. It is recommended that information on immunization be taken to the door step of every mother, while intensifying optimized routine immunization sessions to daily vaccination at fixed post as well as integration of routine immunization with other health services. Key words: Attitude, childhood, immunization, knowledge, maternal. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/87D24A565267 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0107 en Copyright © 2020 Uzoma Vivian Asiegbu, Dorathy Chinwe Obu, Alfred F.I. Una, Chinonyelum Thecla Ezeonu, and Obiora Kingsley Asiegbu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:A693AF865420 2020-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
The evaluation of Cleopatra I score for predicting preterm birth in subjects with threatened preterm labour Varsha Maran, Nandita Maitra, Tosha Sheth, Palak Vaishnav and Niyati Takhatsinh Parmar Full Length Research Paper This work aims to evaluate the Cleopatra I model for the prediction of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) in subjects having threatened preterm labour. This is a hospital-based prospective observational study done over a period of one year. A total of one hundred and eleven (111) subjects enrolled in the study. Their demographic factors and previous obstetric history were recorded. A cervical length with a cut-off of 25 mm measured by a transvaginal ultrasound was used to evaluate the primary endpoint of the study. Grossly, the preterm delivery rate was 70% in subjects with short cervical length. Funnelling of cervix was associated with 61.1% of those subjects who delivered preterm. Cervical length with a cut-off of le;2.5 cm showed a sensitivity of 82.1% and a specificity of 37.5% in predicting preterm delivery. In our study, cervical length and funnelling were found to be significantly associated with the outcome of preterm delivery as per the Bivariate analysis. However, on applying logistic regression analysis, funnelling was found to be the only significant association in the prediction of preterm delivery. Thus, the findings of our study could not endorse the observations of the CLEOPATRA I model. Key words: Risk assessment, premature birth, cervical length measurement. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/A693AF865420 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2019.0079 en Copyright © 2020 Varsha Maran, Nandita Maitra, Tosha Sheth, Palak Vaishnav and Niyati Takhatsinh Parmar
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:E4E160065500 2020-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Uptake and reason for discontinuation of long-acting reversible contraception in a tertiary hospital: A 5 years retrospective review Bilkisu Isa, Sanusi Mohammed Ibrahim, Mairo Mandara and Babagana Bako Full Length Research Paper Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods, including intrauterine contraceptives and subdermal implants, are some of the most effective contraceptive methods available. They are known to be convenience, cost effective and suitable for many women. The study aims to determine the trends and uptake of long acting reversible contraception in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, assess the characteristics of the acceptors and identify the reason for discontinuation of the methods. A 5 years retrospective study was conducted at the family planning clinic of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2019. Case notes for all acceptors of LARC were retrieved. Data extracted include socio demographic characteristics of acceptors, previous contraceptive use and reason for discontinuation after one year of use; statistical significance was tested using chi-square. The results showed that 4064 new clients accepted the available family planning methods in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, during the study period. Out of this, 43.1% accepted sub dermal implant, and only 9.0% uses intra uterine contraceptive device (IUCD). Findings further revealed that there is a significant relationship (Plt;0.05) between uptake of LARCs and related socio demographic characteristics in this study. This means that adolescent are less likely to use LARC so also those of low parity. Reason for discontinuation include desire for more children, irregular menses, and contraceptive faire; husband refusal, weigh gain, infection and missing string of IUCD. The rising uptake of subdermal implant in this study is encouraging, however there is a low uptake of IUCD and adolescent are less likely to use LARC. Some clients discontinue the methods within one year of use. Therefore appropriate counseling, follow up care and management of side effects and clients inconveniences, involving men in reproductive health are important in reducing the rate of discontinuation and improved the uptake of LARC. Key words: Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), reason for discontinuation, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/E4E160065500 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0111 en Copyright © 2020 Bilkisu Isa, Sanusi Mohammed Ibrahim, Mairo Mandara and Babagana Bako
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:40EF23F65502 2020-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Evaluating the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on visual acuity and intraocular pressure among HIV/AIDS patients in Kano State, Nigeria Ebisike Philips Ifeanyichukwu, Sadiq Hassan, Timothy Christopher Okechukwu, Ibrahim Usman Yuguda, Ismail Salma Mukhtar, Rabi Yahaya Sani, and Habib Saudat Garba, Full Length Research Paper Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) has been effective in reducing rapidly progressive retinopathies, there are other ocular manifestations of HIV and ocular side effects of HAART which are yet to be determined and evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate the effect of HAART on Visual Acuity (VA) and Intraocular Pressure (IOP) among HIV/AIDS patients in Kano State, Nigeria. This was a prospective hospital based cross-sectional study; consented patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited and grouped into two groups A and B. Group A was those scheduled to commence HAART referred to as HAART naiuml;ve, while group B was subdivided into four groups, comprising B1, B2, B3, B4, termed as HAART experience. There were 400 participants aged 25 to 55 years with mean age of 37.86 plusmn; 7.5 years. Their mean CD4+ T cell count was 476.94 plusmn; 272.3 cells/mm3. The mean IOP was 14.14 plusmn; 2.65 mmHg and analysis of variance showed that there was no correlation of HAART on IOP. About 370 (92.5%) had the best corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA) on OU of 6/6, while 30 (7.5%) had BCDVA of less than 6/6 or worse and there was a correlation between HAART and VA (p lt; 0.01), but statistically insignificant on CD4+ T-cells counts, HAART regimen and its durations. There was a correlation between VA and HAART among HIV/AIDS patients, but it showed no association with CD4+ T cell counts, HAART regimen and HAART duration. There was no correlation of HAART on IOP of the patients. Key words: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), CD4+ T cell counts. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/40EF23F65502 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0122 en Copyright © 2020 Ebisike Philips Ifeanyichukwu, Sadiq Hassan, Timothy Christopher Okechukwu, Ibrahim Usman Yuguda, Ismail Salma Mukhtar, Rabi Yahaya Sani, and Habib Saudat Garba,
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:907FD8365504 2020-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2020
Quality of health care service assessment using Donabedian model in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2018 Yewbmirt Sharew, Getachew Mullu, Nurilign Abebe and Tsegaye Mehare Full Length Research Paper Donabedian model health care quality assessment measures the difference between expected and actual performance to identify gaps in the health care system, which would serve as a starting point for quality improvement activities. So, the aim of this study was to assess the level of quality of health care with respect to structural settings, actual process of care, and outcomes of care. Institutional based both quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional study design was conducted. 735 patients selected using a multi-stage sampling method from randomly selected public health institutions of East Gojjam zone. Data were collected using semi structured interview questions and observational checklist adapted from national guidelines as a quality indicator of the Donabedian health service quality framework. Data were entered into SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was fitted to selects associated factors. The studied health institution fulfilled 137 (73.3%) of major equipment requirement against the national standard, diagnosis with treatment based on guideline rated (56.7%), nursing care rated (40%), and average satisfaction level of patients with given care is 39.7%. Residence, standard healthcare facilities, health workers#39; communication, and accessibility of health facility have significant association with patient satisfaction. This study found that quality of care in health facility is rated as poor against national standards. Promoting quality healthcare communication at all levels of health facilities is important. Minister of health and regional health bureau must ensure the accessibility of per standard healthcare facilities to improve outcomes of health care. Key words: Donabedian, East Gojjam, Ethiopia, quality of care. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/907FD8365504 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2019.0066 en Copyright © 2020 Yewbmirt Sharew, Getachew Mullu, Nurilign Abebe and Tsegaye Mehare
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:97B36B265790 2021-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Pre-hospital management of childhood convulsions in Ilesa, South-west, Nigeria Olubosede Omolayo Adebukola, Oseni Saheed Babajide, Aladekomo Theophilus Adesola, Bello Olaseinde Emmanuel , Akinlosotu Morenike and Okunnuga Ndidi Aishat Full Length Research Paper Convulsion evokes a lot of fear in mothers and caregivers whenever it occurs. They even think that their child is dying. Many interventions are often carried out because of anxiety and limited knowledge. The aim of this study is to examine the interventions instituted by caregivers for children with convulsions before presentation in the hospital for treatment. We prospectively studied all the 276 children that presented to the emergency room with convulsion over a period of seven months and the care administered at home before presenting in the hospital was noted. One hundred and nine (39.5%) of the children had water poured on them during convulsion. Substances administered orally were; salt 32 (11.6%), onions 14 (5.1%), palm oil 3 (1.1%) and herbal concoctions 13 (4.7%), of which two contained cow urine. Metal spoons were used as mouth gag in 41 (14.9%) of subjects while 29 (10.5%) children had intramuscular (IM) injections given by health workers at home (eight) in various health centres (15) and hospitals (6). Other interventions were scarifications and drinking of their mothersrsquo; urine. While 40 (14.5%) children had more than one treatment given to them before their arrival, 99 (35.9%) had no treatment given before their arrival. Caregivers continue to carry out various interventions at home for convulsions in children. Majority of the interventions are not beneficial while some are harmful. There is, therefore, need to continue to educate caregivers on the appropriate prehospital interventions of convulsions in children before presenting in the hospital. Key words: Convulsion, pre-hospital interventions. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/97B36B265790 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0132 en Copyright © 2021 Olubosede Omolayo Adebukola, Oseni Saheed Babajide, Aladekomo Theophilus Adesola, Bello Olaseinde Emmanuel , Akinlosotu Morenike and Okunnuga Ndidi Aishat
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:969698C65829 2021-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Predictors of HIV disclosure amongst people living with HIV/AIDS at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria Oku A. O., Mkpanam N. E., Ekpenyong N. O., Isika A. I. and Akpakpan A.U. Full Length Research Paper HIV serostatus disclosure is a challenging but yet an important step necessary for all people living with HIV/AIDS. However, divulging such sensitive information by people Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) may be linked with severe consequences which poses as a hindrance to seeking treatment and adherence. This study therefore aims to determine the prevalence and identify determinants of HIV status disclosure among PLHIV accessing treatment in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar, Cross River state, Nigeria. A cross- sectional descriptive study was conducted among patients attending the special treatment clinic of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH). A total of 411 PLHIV accessing treatment in UCTH during the period of study were interviewed. A semi-structured, pretested, interviewer administered questionnaire was employed to obtain Information from participants. Data were summarized using proportions, and chi-square test was used to determine associations between categorical variables. Independent risk factors of disclosure were identified using binary logistic regression while the significance level was set at plt;0.05. The overall mean age of PLHIV accessing treatment in UCTH was 35.7plusmn; 9.32 years. Females made up more than two-thirds (68.6%) of the study population. The self-reported disclosure rate in this study was 92.2%. The main reasons reported by PLHIV for non-disclosure include, fear of abandonment and violence. Logistic regression analysis revealed perceived social support [OR 12.3; CI: 4.22-12.5] and having a positive spouse [OR 2.57; 95% CI: 1.90-5.03] as major predictors for disclosing onersquo;s HIV status. Although the disclosure rate in this study was relatively good, disclosure-enhancing interventions should aim to reduce stigma/discrimination towards PLHIV and improve social support. Key words: Disclosure, HIV, AIDS, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria, tertiary health care. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/969698C65829 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0113 en Copyright © 2021 Oku A. O., Mkpanam N. E., Ekpenyong N. O., Isika A. I. and Akpakpan A.U.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:9319BB965993 2021-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Preconception care: What women know, think and do Ayodeji A. Adeyemo and Oluwasomidoyin O. Bello Full Length Research Paper Preconception care are interventions that help in identifying maternal and fetal risk factors that could be prevented and managed in order to reduce materno-fetal morbidities and mortality. The study determined the predictors of knowledge, attitude, and practice of preconception care among women at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study conducted among 414 antenatal attendees using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0 with level of significant set at plt;0.05. Above half of the respondents (59.9%) have a good knowledge and positive attitude 223(53.9%) towards preconception care while only 78(18.8%) practiced it. Predictors of good knowledge of preconception care were educational status (OR= 2.350, 95% CI= 1.18-4.70), occupation (OR=5.31, 95% CI=0.42-19.91) and (OR=2.63, 95% CI=0.36-5.10), age at first pregnancy (OR=0.15, 95% CI= 0.04-0.55) and history of contraception use (OR=2.15, 95% CI= 1.32-3.51). Marital status (OR=2.93, 95% CI= 1.04-8.29), occupation (OR=4.01, 95% CI= 1.09-14.79) and history of contraception use (OR=3.00, 95% CI= 1.90-4.72) determined their positive attitude. Factors predicting practice of preconception care were age (OR=0.52, 95% CI= 0.29-0.92), occupation (OR=6.22, 95% CI= 1.70-22.73) and age at first delivery (OR=0.12, 95% CI= 0.02-0.60). Occupation, level of education, age at first delivery, and history of contraception use predicted knowledge, attitude and practice of preconception care. Counseling and educating women on the importance of practicing preconception care will increase their uptake of the service and subsequently lead to reduction in the high maternal and infant morbidity and mortality in our environment. Key words: Preconception care, knowledge, attitude, uptake. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/9319BB965993 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2019.0040 en Copyright © 2021 Ayodeji A. Adeyemo and Oluwasomidoyin O. Bello
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:B11FD9366113 2021-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Orthodox and unorthodox practices by traditional birth attendants’ in Nsukka area of Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria George Onyemaechi Ugwu, Ed Nwobodo, Godwin Uchenna Ezema, Cosmos Onah and Odidika Ugochukwu Umeora Full Length Research Paper Unskilled Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) is prevalent in rural Nigeria due to communal culture and traditions, their compassionate attitude, and non-availability of appropriate health facilities within the communities. Yet, there is no clear framework defining their roles, locations and practices. This study aimed to identify the pattern and practices of TBA in Nsukka area of Enugu State, and evaluate their roles in rural maternity services in Enugu state of Nigeria. This was a mixed method cross sectional study involving a questionnaire-based survey and Focus group discussions (FGD). Seventy-eight TBAs, were recruited for this study. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data and a semi-structured discussion guide was used for the FGD ndash; one FGD for each development center. SPSS version 25 was used for statistical analysis. Records of FGD sessions were transcribed, condensed into themes, and analyzed. A total of 78 TBAs were interviewed, 26 from each of the three development areas. Majority (66.0%) completed primary education while 9.0% did not have any formal education. Almost two-third (65.4%) uses exclusively traditional methods in their practice, whereas 34.5% combined orthodox method. Three focused group discussions showed almost all the TBAs in the study could neither identify different complications and when to refer nor signs separating different stages of labour. Poorly educated TBA in the Nsukka area of Enugu State combines orthodox medicine with herbs and traditional healing methods. Their appreciation and management of danger pregnancy signs and referral system are lacking. Key words: Traditional birth attendants, healthcare, Nsukka, informal health, Labor. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/B11FD9366113 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0120 en Copyright © 2021 George Onyemaechi Ugwu, Ed Nwobodo, Godwin Uchenna Ezema, Cosmos Onah and Odidika Ugochukwu Umeora
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:4F65EC066307 2021-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Primary and secondary resistance to first-line anti-tuberculosis medications at the Institute Pasteur Bangui, Central African Republic Alain Farra, Boris Jolly, Gilles Ngaya, Herve Gando, Aristide Desire Komamgoya-Nzonzon, and Alexandre Manirakiza Full Length Research Paper The emergence and spread of anti-tuberculosis-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis presently represents a real challenge to the WHO#39;s End TB by 2035 strategy. Through this study, we wanted to determine the current prevalence of primary and secondary resistance to first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs at the Pasteur Institute in Bangui. Cultures and sensitivity tests were carried out for 6 months (July - December 2018) in 225 consenting tuberculosis patients. The prevalence was 4.1% in new cases and 25.2% in retreatment cases. Previous exposure to treatment has been the risk factor for the development of drug resistance. The resistance profile showed that 73.2% of patients were multidrug resistant (MDR) and 34.2% of retreatment patients presented resistance to all first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs; moreover, of the three new cases with resistance to anti-TB medicines, two showed multiple resistance, associating rifampicin and isoniazid. Surveillance of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs at the national level is necessary because it will allow better control of tuberculosis in the Central African Republic. Key words: News cases, retreatement, MDR-TB, Risk factor, Bangui. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/4F65EC066307 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0131 en Copyright © 2021 Alain Farra, Boris Jolly, Gilles Ngaya, Herve Gando, Aristide Desire Komamgoya-Nzonzon, and Alexandre Manirakiza
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:C744A0D66422 2021-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Birth injuries in newborn: A prospective study of deliveries in South-East Nigeria Ekwochi Uchenna, Osuorah DI Chidiebere and Asinobi Isaac Nwabueze Full Length Research Paper Birth injury is an important cause of short and long-term deformity and disability in children. It is becoming an increasing source of litigation in developing countries. Exploring the magnitude of the problem in a resource-limited setting, and, identifying associated factors, will help reduce its occurrence. This surveillance for birth injuries is a 4-year prospective study conducted in the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTH) between 2013 and 2017. Newborns with birth injuries and controls delivered around the same time with similar clinic-anthropometric parameters were enrolled for this study. One thousand nine hundred and twenty newborns were seen during the study period. Forty-six birth injuries were recorded giving in-hospital incidence rate of 24.0 (CI 17.3-30.9) per 1000 live birth. Majority (64.1%) of the injuries seen were related to the scalp. The commonest birth injuries encountered included Caput Succedaneum (41.2), Cephalohematoma (22.9), Erbrsquo;s Palsy (17.4), and shoulder dislocation (6.5). One case fatality (2.5%) due to skull fracture secondary to forceps delivery was noted. Birth weight (P=0.034), perinatal asphyxia (P=0.001) and prolonged labour (P=0.001) were significantly associated with birth injuries in the newborns surveyed. Birth injury remains a common and serious medical issue in our setting. Being proactive during antenatal care and labour could go a long way in minimizing the incidence of birth injuries and its consequences on children especially in the presence of risk factors such as high birth weight, perinatal asphyxia and prolonged labour. Key words: Birth injuries, newborns, delivery, Enugu. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/C744A0D66422 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2021.0149 en Copyright © 2021 Ekwochi Uchenna, Osuorah DI Chidiebere and Asinobi Isaac Nwabueze
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:D04BD8866426 2021-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Salivary gland tumours in the intraoral region: A retrospective study of cases treated in a teaching hospital in North-West Nigeria Omisakin Olatunde Oluleke, Ayuba Iko Godwin, Fomete Benjamin, Ogunsina Modupe and Sannom Yates Full Length Research Paper Tumours of the minor salivary glands occurring in the oral cavity are uncommon. The oral cavity has many tiny salivary glands which occur in the lip, palate, floor of the mouth, cheeks, tongue and pharynx. Tumour could develop from any of these minor salivary glands. We conducted a retrospective study of twenty-four cases of these tumours treated in our Centre over a period of eleven years. The objective of this study is to investigate the nature, clinical features, pathology, and treatment of these tumours in North-West, Nigeria. This was a retrospective study of all patients with minor salivary gland tumours that were treated at Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria. The study covered a period of eleven years from January, 2009 to December, 2019. Information was extracted from case files of patients. Data collected includes: age of patient at presentation, sex, location of tumour, clinical features, treatment giving, complications and histological diagnosis. The age of the patients ranged from 16 to 70 years, with the mean SD = 43.0 plusmn; 6.6 years and male-to-female ratio was 1:thinsp;2. Benign tumours were the most common compared to malignancies. Palate was the commonest site of occurrence; followed by upper lip. The treatment was surgical excision. Palatal fistula was the commonest complication of the surgery. Tumour of minor salivary glands need urgent attention as it greatly interferes with oral functions and could destroy maxillary bone resulting in untoward debilitating effect. Key words: Salivary glands, tumour, intraoral, palate, benign, malignant. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/D04BD8866426 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2021.0146 en Copyright © 2021 Omisakin Olatunde Oluleke, Ayuba Iko Godwin, Fomete Benjamin, Ogunsina Modupe and Sannom Yates
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:0BED3A066703 2021-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Prevalence of diaper rash and associated factors among babies aged 0 to 24 months in Adama Administrative City, Central Ethiopia: A cross sectional study Siraj Jewaro, Yemane G. Mariam and Belay Ali Full Length Research Paper The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of diaper rash and identify associated factors with diaper rash among children between 0 and 24 months of age in Adama Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted with mothers using structured questionaries during face to face interview to assess risk factors associated with diaper rash. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 and Chi-square test was used to establish the association between diaper rash and socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics at p-value lt;0.05. Multivariate logistic regressions are used to test the significancy of risk factors. About 62.5% (235/376) of children in the study had experienced diaper rash. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that diarrhea (AOR=0.424; 95%CI=0.203-0.902; P=0.032), food types consumed by baby (AOR=0.21; 95%CI=0.050-0.882; P=0.033), use of barrier cream (AOR=0.012; 95%CI: 0.005-0.029; P=0.000) and frequency of diaper change (AOR=3.174; 95% CI=0.068-9.438; P=0.038) were among factors associated with diaper rash. In this study changing diaper frequently, using cream and breast feeding with baby formula milk were identified as a factor that reduce the prevalence of diaper rash whereas diarrhea was identified as a risk factor that aggravate diaper rash. Thus, educating mothers on the importance of breast feeding, use of cream and diaper change is useful. Key words: Diaper rash, prevalence, babies. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/0BED3A066703 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0125 en Copyright © 2021 Siraj Jewaro, Yemane G. Mariam and Belay Ali
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:79EDC2966831 2021-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Singleton stillbirths in a tertiary public hospital offering free maternity services in southwest Nigeria: A one-year review Oladiran Ayodeji and Oyeneyin Lawal Full Length Research Paper Stillbirths are major components of perinatal mortalities in Nigeria. The study objectives are to determine the feto-maternal factors associated with antepartum intrauterine fetal deaths (IUFDs) leading to stillbirths as well as compare selected clinical characteristics with normal live births. This prospective observational study was conducted in a free service public hospital in south-western Nigeria. Parturients with antepartum IUFDs had midwives conduct anthropometric measurements and physical examinations on the stillborn babies. Clinical details of two subsequent live births were recorded for comparison. Data was analysed using SPSS v. 23. During the study, there were 3,342 births out of which 243 were stillbirths (72.7 per 1000 births). Antepartum IUFDs resulting in stillbirths were 74 out of which 35 (47%) had identifiable causative factors, mainly placental abruption and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDPs) while the rest were unexplained. Analyses also revealed that lack of antenatal care and intrauterine growth restriction were associated with stillbirths. Placental abruption and HDPs were the commonest known causes of antepartum IUFDs. Therefore, the promotion of universal access to qualitative antenatal care is advocated. In addition, use of customised fetal growth charts should be institutionalised for early identification of growth restriction. Key words: Antepartum, fetal death, stillbirth, free maternity services, south-western Nigeria. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/79EDC2966831 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0143 en Copyright © 2021 Oladiran Ayodeji and Oyeneyin Lawal
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:85C454C66965 2021-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Pain index and health-related quality of life in a Nigerian patient’s cohort with sickle cell anaemia Festus Olusola Olowoselu, Oluseun Peter Ogunnubi, Olufunke Itunu Olowoselu, Osahon Enabulele, Olufemi Abiola Oyedeji, Oluwamuyiwa Anthony Ayanshina, and Vincent Oluseye Osunkalu Full Length Research Paper The severity of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) often causes painful episodes of vaso-occlussive crises and affects quality of life. Poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) associated with sickle cell disease has been established. The study aim was to determine the relationship between pain index and HRQoL in Nigerian patients with SCA. The study was a cross-sectional survey of SCA individuals. Data collection was done using socio-demographics and clinical characteristics questionnaire, Wong-Baker FACES pain rating scale, and WHOQoL-Bref. Descriptive, cross-tab and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the data in SPSSreg; version 20 IBM, USA. A total of 226 SCA individuals (males = 111 (49.1%) and females = 115 (50.9%)) with mean age 28.9plusmn;8.5 years participated in this study. Greater than 80% of the SCA individuals with pain had poor HRQoL score. Overall, with the range of statistically significant Chi-square value 49.715-94.474 (Cramerrsquo;s V = 0.469-0.647), strong association was observed between pain index and all HRQoL domains. Logistic regression analysis also revealed pain rating (pain relative to no pain) significantly predicted increased odds of affecting physical health (OR = 5.030; 95% CI = 1.094-23.118; P value = 0.038) as well as social and relationship status (OR = 9.443; 95% CI = 3.228-27.618; P value lt; 0.001) among SCA individuals. In conclusion, individuals with SCA largely have poor HRQoL. However, pain affects domains of HRQoL, particularly the physical health and social and relationship status domains of health. Key words: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA), pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQoL-Bref). Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/85C454C66965 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2021.0150 en Copyright © 2021 Festus Olusola Olowoselu, Oluseun Peter Ogunnubi, Olufunke Itunu Olowoselu, Osahon Enabulele, Olufemi Abiola Oyedeji, Oluwamuyiwa Anthony Ayanshina, and Vincent Oluseye Osunkalu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:E72A18367105 2021-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Utility of temperature measurement using non-contact infrared thermometer in detecting elevated temperature as an infection control measure in the era of Covid-19 Babatunde Adewale, Toyosi Raheem, Kazeem Osuolale, Emelda Chukwu, Gideon Liboro, Ebenezer Odewale, Leona Okoli and Oliver Ezechi Full Length Research Paper The pandemic nature of the corona virus diseases that emerged at the end of year 2019 (COVID-19) is a major global health concern worldwide. Since high body temperature is a core symptom of the disease, the use of non-contact infrared thermometer for the detection of people with elevated temperature has become one of the measures for infection control as this will identify people that are likely to be incubating the virus at the points of entry into countries. This study assessed the correlation between elevated body temperatures and being positive to COVID-19 test using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A cross-sectional study of consented individuals whose temperatures were assessed using non-contact infrared thermometer. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory using the RT-PCR. Among the 2160 participants tested 46.9% were males while the rest were females. Of these, 69 (3.2%) were positive to COVID-19 test. Among the total number of participants, 53 (2.3%) had elevated body temperature and 5 of the people with elevated body temperature were positive to test. All participants positive to test fulfilled the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) eligibility criteria. There was no significant relationship between elevated body temperature and SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study gives credence to the fact that asymptomatic transmission plays a role in the overall incidence of COVID-19. Therefore, anybody entering a public place even with normal body temperature must be made to comply with non-pharmaceutical interventions as an infection control measure. Key words: COVID-19, temperature, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), infrared thermometer, nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/E72A18367105 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2021.0160 en Copyright © 2021 Babatunde Adewale, Toyosi Raheem, Kazeem Osuolale, Emelda Chukwu, Gideon Liboro, Ebenezer Odewale, Leona Okoli and Oliver Ezechi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:B0C8A8E67175 2021-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Disseminated tuberculosis with pulmonary and renal infections: A confirmed case in a severely immunocompromised HIV patient Alain Farra, Gaspard Tekpa, Gilles Ngaya, Herveacute; Gando and Alexandre Manirakiza Case Report Tuberculosis continues to be a major public health issue. The advent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections led to a dramatic increase in extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis, with a non-negligible number of cases with multifocal lesions. This study reports a disseminated tuberculosis case with pulmonary and renal localization in a severely immunocompromised HIV patient diagnosed by microscopic examination and the GeneXpert MTB/RIF on sputum and urine in the absence of a urine test, in particular, the urine lipoarabinomannan assay (TB-LAM). Key words: Tuberculosis, disseminated, immunosuppression, HIV, Bangui. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/B0C8A8E67175 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0130 en Copyright © 2021 Alain Farra, Gaspard Tekpa, Gilles Ngaya, Herveacute; Gando and Alexandre Manirakiza
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:67B502F67175 2021-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Back and upper body musculoskeletal pain and associated factors among medicine and nursing practicing students at university of Gondar, Ethiopia Getasew Yirdaw, Yonas Lamore, Abate Lette and Sintayehu Daba Full Length Research Paper Musculoskeletal pain are common problems for nursing and medicine students especially in developing countries. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of back and upper body musculoskeletal pain among nursing and medicine students at the University of Gondar. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted. Stratified simple random sampling technique and structured self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. All questionnaires were entered into EPItrade; version-7 then exported to SPSStrade; version-20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were employed to ensure further significance with subsequent use of odds ratio to show the strength of the association with 95% (CIs). Magnitude of musculoskeletal pain in different body parts was 54% back pain and 36.7% neck pain. Sex difference (AOR: 0.607, 95% CI [0.062, 0.935]), alcohol consumption (AOR: 1.821, 95% CI [1.002, 4.130]), and sufficient rest break (AOR: 0.494, 95% CI [0.044, 4.202]) has significant association to back pain. Also, department (AOR: 3.399, 95% CI [1.340, 3.418]), year of study (AOR: 1.912, 95% CI [1.001, 5.349]) and sleep hours per day (AOR: 1.670, 95% CI [1.507, 4.801]) have significantly associated with neck pain. The overall magnitude of back pain and neck pain in medicine and nursing students were high. Therefore, interventions on organizational factors as well as personal factors should be done to reduce the burden of lower back and upper body musculoskeletal disorders. Key words: Back pain, neck pain, musculoskeletal pain, upper body, university students. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/67B502F67175 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2019.0045 en Copyright © 2021 Getasew Yirdaw, Yonas Lamore, Abate Lette and Sintayehu Daba
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:963BBF467434 2021-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Factors affecting the vaccination status of under five children in Nasarawa State, Nigeria Sarajudeen Bello, Ikrama Hassan, Taofik Ogunkunle, Olayinka Ibrahim, Abdulmumeen Lawal and Yahaya Issah Full Length Research Paper Immunization is the most cost effective of public health intervention geared towards reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. There has been a global increase in the rate of immunization coverage with its attendant decline in vaccine preventable deaths. The immunization coverage in developing countries like Nigeria has however been challenging due to some reasons. Therefore, this study determined the immunization status and the factors affecting the vaccination status of under five children in Nasarawa State. Cross sectional descriptive studies of under five children in Nasarawa State using a multi staged sampling technique. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used for the recruited participants across the three senatorial zones of the state. Data collection was done using both the immunization cards and oral interview of care-givers. Data analysis was withanalyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Univariates, bivariates and multivariates analyses were done with significant value set at p lt; 0.05. A total of 55,036 of the target population of 74,775 (4% of the total population of Nasarawa State) received (Baccille, Calmette and Guerin BCG) vaccine in the state in the year 2018, giving a 73.6% immunization coverage for Nasarawa State in the year 2018. Immunization drop - out rate for pentavalent vaccine was 31.6%. The location of Primary Healthcare Centre, antenatal care attendance, distance to healthcare centre and numbers of children in a household are strong determinants of the immunization status across Nasarawa State. There is high immunization coverage in the present study. Incomplete immunization is influenced by Ignorance, motherrsquo;s travelling, fathersrsquo; refusal, childrsquo;s small stature and or illness as well as distance to the health facilities. Key words: Coverage, determinants, immunization, status, under five. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/963BBF467434 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2021.0159 en Copyright © 2021 Sarajudeen Bello, Ikrama Hassan, Taofik Ogunkunle, Olayinka Ibrahim, Abdulmumeen Lawal and Yahaya Issah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:13D2AF767436 2021-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Relationship between renal ultrasonographic, CD4 cell count and proteinuria findings in HIV infected adult patients in Jos, Nigeria P. M. Gwom, D. Atsukwei, E. D. Eze, E. O. Igoh, E. A. Gabkwet, M. D. Adams, K. M. Rabiu and I. Ezekiel Full Length Research Paper This study intends to describe renal sonographic outcomes in matured patients with HIV/AIDS in Plateau State capital Jos and relate the outcome with proteinuria and the subjectsrsquo; CD4 cell count. The 504 subjects were evaluated for renal ultrasound scan, CD4 cell counts and dipstick proteinuria (using Combi 10 Urinalysis strips) were obtained, and their findings recorded. Twenty-four (4.8%) of the patients had abnormal renal sonographic findings while 480 (95.2%) had normal findings. Sixteen (3.2%) out of the 24 patients with abnormal renal ultrasound had enlarged kidneys, 24 (4.8%) patients had increased renal echogenicity while 19 (3.8%) had loss of corticomedullary differentiation. One (0.2%) patient was observed to have a globular kidney. Significant proteinuria was observed in all the 24 (4.8%) patients with abnormal renal sonographic findings to suggest HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) while the remaining 480 (95.2%) patients had no significant proteinuria. Hence, the prevalence of HIVAN in this study was 4.8%. Kidney size, renal echogenicity and corticomedullary differentiation correlated significantly with proteinuria count with P-values of lt;0.05 and r-values of 0.531, 0.610 and 0.487, respectively. Similarly, renal echogenicity correlated significantly with CD4 cellular number (p lt; 0.05, r = -0.540). No substantial correlation was observed between renal size and CD4 tissue quantity (p gt; 0.05, r = 0.084) and between corticomedullary differentiation and CD4 cell amount (p gt;0.05, r = 0.049). Sonographically based determination of renal size and echogenicity/echopattern combined with proteinuria are good determinants of renal parenchymal disease and may have diagnostic usefulness as a non-invasive procedure in the identification of HIVAN in HIV-positive subjects with renal disease. Key words: HIV, AIDS, HIV-associated nephropathy, kidneys, ultrasonography, proteinuria. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/13D2AF767436 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0127 en Copyright © 2021 P. M. Gwom, D. Atsukwei, E. D. Eze, E. O. Igoh, E. A. Gabkwet, M. D. Adams, K. M. Rabiu and I. Ezekiel
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:14A53FB67828 2021-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Evaluation of patients with palliative care needs presenting at the Emergency Department, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria Eunice B. Olusoji, Adewale I. Badru and Olaitan A. Soyannwo Full Length Research Paper Palliative care as a component of universal health care is still evolving in Nigeria and a high proportion of patients with life-limiting illnesses have no access to such essential service. Many of these patients with palliative care needs who present to the emergency department (ED) of hospitals may not receive palliative care. The aim of the study is to evaluate the demographic characteristics of patients with palliative care needs who presented at the ED of the University College Hospital, Ibadan and to check the proportion of these patients that were referred subsequently for palliative care services. This is a retrospective study done by extracting the data of patients with palliative care needs from the 2017 patient attendance records of the ED. This data was compared to the 2017 attendance record of the Department of Hospice and Palliative, University College Hospital. The number of patients identified with palliative care needs in the ED was 740 and the male/female ratio was 1.1. The mean age was 51.3plusmn;17.2 years and 41.1% were within the age group of 50-69 years. 70.1% of the patients with palliative care needs had non-cancer illnesses. 557 patients were admitted to the wards, 71 patients were discharged home, 18 got discharged against medical advice, and 94 patients died and no patient was referred directly for palliative care from ED. Presentation of patients with palliative care needs to the ED is inevitable. A palliative care referral system should be available for the best management of these patients. Key words: Palliative care, emergency department, referral. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/14A53FB67828 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2021.0162 en Copyright © 2021 Eunice B. Olusoji, Adewale I. Badru and Olaitan A. Soyannwo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:B5375C767830 2021-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Prevalence and associated factors of female genital mutilation among reproductive age women’s of Damot Gale Woreda, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study, 2018 Bargude Balta Anjulo and Amanuel Fanta Lambebo Full Length Research Paper Female genital mutilation (FGM) is estimated to have been practiced on at least 200 million girls and women in 30 countries around the world. Clitoridoctomy is the most common type of FGM in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the magnitude of Female Genital Mutilation and associated factors among womenrsquo;s in Damot Gale Woreda of Wolayita zone. A quantitative community-based cross-sectional study was used. Face-to-face interviews with prepared questionnaires were used to collect data. SPSS version 20 software was used to analyze the data. The prevalence of FGM was determined using descriptive statistics. The researchers utilized a bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model to find independent determinants of FGM. 296 women were circumcised out of a total of 333, indicating that FGM is prevalent in the research area (88.9%). Mother education (AOR: 0.454, 95% CI: 0.209-0.984), age (AOR-1.86, 95% CI: 0.42-0.98)), knowledge that FGM causes health problems (AOR: 0.356, 95% CI: 0.145-0.877), and support for tradition (AOR: 14.595, 95% CI: 3.391-6.807) were all independently linked to FGM. Prevalence of FGM was associated with age, education, knowledge of health problems and tradition. Key words: Associated factors, female genital mutilation (FGM), prevalence, Wolayita zone. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/B5375C767830 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2020.0171 en Copyright © 2021 Bargude Balta Anjulo and Amanuel Fanta Lambebo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:D2907F567898 2021-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Pattern of refractive errors in persons with albinism in two states of North-Western Nigeria Sadiq Hassan, Saudat G. Habib, Philips I. Ebisike, Rabi Y. Sani, Eiman Bashir, Saudat M. Umar and Lawan Abdu Full Length Research Paper Albinism is a heterogenous group of disorders of melanin synthesis or distribution that is genetically inherited. Refractive errors are common in participants with albinism and high values have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of refractive errors in people living with albinism in North-Western Nigeria. This was a prospective hospital-based study, carried out over 12 months from April 2017-March 2018 (12 months) whereby persons with albinism from Kano and Jigawa states were recruited. Ethical approval was obtained from the ethical review board of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. A structured proforma was used to record findings of history, examination and subjective and objective refraction were measured for each patient. Data was analysed using the statistical software SPSS version 20.0. A total of 61 participants with 122 eyes were examined. There were 32 males and 29 females (M: F= 1:1.1). Their ages ranged from 19 months to 60 years with a mean age of 16.77 plusmn; 12.82 years. The pattern of refractive errors was hypermetropic astigmatism (38.90%), myopic astigmatism (30.60%), hypermetropia (8.30%) and mixed astigmatism (4%). Refractive errors are common in participants with albinism. In this study hypermetropic astigmatism is the most common refractive error. Key words: Albinism, pattern, refractive error. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/D2907F567898 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2021.0156 en Copyright © 2021 Sadiq Hassan, Saudat G. Habib, Philips I. Ebisike, Rabi Y. Sani, Eiman Bashir, Saudat M. Umar and Lawan Abdu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:ED741C867988 2021-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Correlation of body mass index (BMI) with hematological indices and procoagulants among people with obesity in Sapele, Southern Nigeria Kingsley Chukwuka Amaihunwa, Emmanuel Asuquo Etim, Everista Odaburhine Osime and Zacchaeus Awortu Jeremiah Full Length Research Paper Obesity occurs when Body Mass Index (BMI) of an individual is above 30.0 with several effects on hematological indices and procoagulants hence, this study aims to evaluate correlation of BMI with hematological indices and procoagulants among people with obesity. This was a cross sectional and descriptive study carried out at Central Hospital, Sapele, General Hospital, Oghara and Biomed Diagnostic Centre, Sapele in Southern Nigeria. 415 subjects with age between 18 and 65years were enrolled for this study including 312 obese experimental subjects (comprising of 111males and 201females) and 103 non-obese normal control subjects (comprising 40males and 63females). 5.0mls of venous blood was collected from all subjects into EDTA container for Full Blood Count determination using Sysmex XN330 automated hematology analyzer and plasma procoagulant level was determined using ELISA method. Data analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2010 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS) version 21.0 software. The collated results were expressed as mean and standard deviation. BMI had a significant correlation with NLR at Plt;0.05 while PLR, MPV, PDW and Platocrit had no significant correlation with BMI. Correlation matrix of the relationship between BMI and procoagulant parameters reveals that, BMI had significant correlation with TF, sVCAM, and vWFAg at Plt;0.05. While, FG, tPA and PAI had no significant correlation with BMI at Plt;0.05. BMI had significant correlation with NLR, TF, sVCAM, and vWFAg while PLR, MPV, PDW, Platocrit, FG, tPA and PAI had no significant correlation with BMI among people with obesity. Key words: Body mass index (BMI), hematology indices, procoagulants, Sapele, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/ED741C867988 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2021.0178 en Copyright © 2021 Kingsley Chukwuka Amaihunwa, Emmanuel Asuquo Etim, Everista Odaburhine Osime and Zacchaeus Awortu Jeremiah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMHS:05D1A6C68058 2021-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMHS AJMHS:2021
Management of ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the right common carotid artery in a resource-limited setting (Case report) Nwafor I. A., Onwura C. C., Obi C. C., Akanni B. A., Gold I. and Eze J. C. Review Carotid artery injuries with pseudo-aneurysm are uncommon but associated with central neurologic dysfunction. We present a 26-year-old man with a giant bleeding pseudo-aneurysm of right common carotid artery managed by emergency sternotomy, neck exploration and repair of the aneurysm. On the right side of the neck was a 10 times; 8 cm mass occupying almost the entire posterior triangle. It was pulsatile, tender with sinus discharging serosanguinous fluid. Positive thrill and bruit were demonstrable over the mass. Conventional Computerized Angiography (CTA) and Distal Subtraction Angiography (DSA) showed a 1 cm defect in the lateral wall of the distal right common carotid artery (RCCA), complete circle of Willis and massive blood clot at the site of the defect. In middle-and low-income settings where the technical know-how and resources for stenting including cerebral oximeter are not available, expertise in open surgical approach becomes the only way to save life. Key words: Diagnosis, equipment, surgery, treatment, pseudoaneurysm, carotid artery, rupture. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMHS/article-abstract/05D1A6C68058 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMHS2021.0180 en Copyright © 2021 Nwafor I. A., Onwura C. C., Obi C. C., Akanni B. A., Gold I. and Eze J. C.