2021-09-27T09:34:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:20C854A10760 2007-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Trichophyton rubrum – the predominant etiological agent in human dermatophytoses in Chennai, India G. Venkatesan, A. J. A. Ranjit Singh, A. G. Murugesan, C. Janaki and S. Gokul Shankar Full Length Research Paper The present study was undertaken to find the predominant etiological agent of dermatophytoses among the patients attending the out patient clinic of Mycology Section, Department of Dermatology, Madras Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. Specimens were collected from suspected patients with dermatophytoses and examined for the presence of fungal elements, cultured, isolated and identified. Among the 90 suspected patients with clinical symptoms of dermatophytoses, 71 (78.9%) were confirmed in culture. Trichophyton genus was accounted for 93% of dermatophytoses, which was shared by Trichophyton rubrum (73.3%) andTrichophyton mentagrophytes (19.7%), followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (4.2%) and Microsporum gypseum (2.8%). It was noted that tinea corporis (64.8%) is the most prevalent infection followed by tinea cruris (26.8%), tinea pedis (5.6%) and onychomycoses (2.8%). T. rubrum was the predominant species responsible for the dermatophytoses, especially tinea corporis in Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. In addition it was also observed that T. rubrum was most predominant species responsible for the chronic dermatophytoses (81.8%). Further work is in progress to understand the protease profile of the isolates with relation to the chronisity of the infection. Key words: Dermatophytoses, Dermatophytes, Tinea, Trichophyton and Skin infections. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/20C854A10760 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000716 en Copyright © 2007 G. Venkatesan, A. J. A. Ranjit Singh, A. G. Murugesan, C. Janaki and S. Gokul Shankar
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:840866010754 2007-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Aspergillus species on cassava chips in storage in rural areas of southern Cameroon: their relationship with storage duration, moisture content and processing methods G. Essono, M. Ayodele, A. Akoa, J. Foko, S. Olembo, and J. Gockowski Full Length Research Paper A survey was carried out to monitor during a two-month period the incidence of Aspergillus in samples of stored cassava chips traditionally produced in southern Cameroon. Seventy-two samples associated with two forms of chips (cassava balls and cassava pellets) were collected in two locations (Yaoundeacute; and Ebolowa) and 13 Aspergillus species were isolated. In both locations, Aspergillus versicolor was seldom isolated, whereas A. flavus and A. clavatuswere most frequently isolated. The level of recovery of isolates obtained was not affected by location and form of chips, but by the duration of storage (P lt; 0.01) and the moisture content (P lt; 0.05). Five core species were identified, which formed more than 70% of the total isolates associated with the samples analyzed. These were A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger and A. ochraceous. Correlation coefficients computed between pairs of these species based on total isolation figures for the two locations showed that some were significantly associated. A. clavatus, A. niger and A. ochraceous were positively related to one another in a significant way. Similarly, significant correlations, positive or negative, were observed between the moisture content and all core Aspergillus species. The larger number of these toxigenic fungi isolated raises concerns on the potential of stored cassava products as a natural substrate liable to mycotoxin formation. Key words: Aspergillus species, Cameroon, Cassava chips and Survey. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/840866010754 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000101 en Copyright © 2007 G. Essono, M. Ayodele, A. Akoa, J. Foko, S. Olembo, and J. Gockowski
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:311673210765 2007-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI) among children and adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria Aiyegoro O. A., Igbinosa O. O., Ogunmwonyi I. N., Odjadjare E. E., Igbinosa O. E. and Okoh A. I. Full Length Research Paper This study was carried out in order to determine the incidence of urinary tract infection in children and adolescents, identify the uro-pathogens responsible for the infection and study the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the uro-pathogens. Clean voided mid-stream urine samples were collected in sterile universal bottles from 301 children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 18 years at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital complex (OAUTHC) Ile-Ife, Nigeria from December 2005 - July 2006. Culture plates with bacteria counts greater than or equal to 1 x 105 cfu-ml-1 were taken as positive, thus indicative of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). The bacteria isolates were identified based on colony morphology characteristics, Gram stain reaction and biochemical tests using API 20E kits. The identified bacteria were then tested in vitro with standard antibiotics disc to determine their antibiotics sensitivity patterns. The result of this study shows that 36 (11.96%) of the 301 patients studies had UTI. Of the 124 females examined, 28 (22.4%) had positive urine culture while 8 (4.56%) of the 177 males had significant bacteriuria. A total of 36 bacterial isolates were obtained.Escherichia coli constituted the predominant organism and was responsible for (52.77%) of the cases of UTI. This was followed by Klebsiella sp. (25%), Proteus mirabilis (13.89%),Streptococcus faecalis (5.56%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.78%). The antibiotics sensitivity test revealed a high level of resistant to cotrimoxazole, amoxicillin and colistin as more than 60% of the isolates were resistance to these. This study highlights the presence of multi-resistance P. aeruginosa and poor compliance of the pathogens in vitro to antibiotics commonly used in treating UTI. It is therefore suggested that appropriate antimicrobials be administered to reduce the risk of multiply resistance organisms developing and avert ineffectiveness of antibiotics. Prompt therapeutic intervention is also essential to prevent cases of asymptomatic UTI from becoming symptomatic with resultant damage. Key words: UTI, uro-pathogens, antibiotic sensitivity. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/311673210765 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000410 en Copyright © 2007 Aiyegoro O. A., Igbinosa O. O., Ogunmwonyi I. N., Odjadjare E. E., Igbinosa O. E. and Okoh A. I.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:46DDE6D10772 2007-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Production and optimization of thermostable alkaline xylanase by Penicillium oxalicum in solid state fermentation R. Muthezhilan, R. Ashok and S. Jayalakshmi Full Length Research Paper The objectives of the present study were Isolation, identification and characterization of xylanase producing fungi, optimization of medium composition and cultural conditions for xylanase enzyme production, production using cheaper sources and extraction and partial purification of extra cellular xylanase enzyme from a potential strain. Xylan has a complex structure consisting of beta;-1, 4-linked xylose residues in the backbone to which short side chains of o-acetyl, alpha;-L-arabinofuranosyl, D-alpha;- glucuronic and phenolic acid residues are attached. A variety of microorganisms are reported to produce endo xylanases, that can degrade beta;-1,4-xylan in a random fashion, yielding a series of linear and branched oligosaccharide fragments. Totally 69 strains were isolated from Pitchavaram mangroves. In secondary screening, based on the diameter of the clear zone formation in oat spelt xylan agar plates, Penicillium oxalicumwas selected and optimized for xylanase enzyme production in solid state fermentation using cheaper sources like wheat bran, rice bran, rice straw, sesame oil cake and wood husk. Maximum enzyme activity was observed in wheat bran. (3.89 U/ml) Optimum pH and temperature for xylanase activity were found to be 8 and 45deg;C at 3% salt concentration. In purification step, 80% ammonium sulphate saturation was found to be suitable giving maximum xylanase activity. The use of wheat bran as a major carbon source is particularly valuable because oat spelt xylan or birch wood xylan are more expensive, Thus the present study proved that the fungal strain P. oxalicum used is highly potential and useful for industrial production. Key words: Xylanases, solid state fermentation, fungi, optimization, purification. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/46DDE6D10772 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000593 en Copyright © 2007 R. Muthezhilan, R. Ashok and S. Jayalakshmi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:9DC87F610778 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Characterization of Clostridium perfringens field isolates, implicated in necrotic entritis outbreaks on private broiler farms in Cairo, by multiplex PCR Effat, M. M; Abdallah, Y. A., Soheir, M. F., and Rady, M. M. Full Length Research Paper During the winter of 2006, outbreaks of severe entritis affected many broiler farms in the AL-Fayoum governorate, south of Cairo, Egypt. To identify the causative agent(s), bacterial isolates (14) from the diseased chickens were characterized phenotypically and biochemically. All isolates exhibited characteristics of Clostridium perfringens. Subsequently, molecular typing of the bacterial isolates was performed by multiplex PCR using four sets of primers specific for the genes encoding the C. perfringens alpha;, beta;, epsilon; and iota; toxins, respectively. A single amplicon, corresponding in size to the alpha (alpha;) toxin-encoding gene (approximately 402 bp), was amplified from all the bacterial isolates. It was therefore concluded that only C. perfringens type A was responsible for the disease outbreaks. Key words: Clostridium perfringens- necrotic entritis ndash; broiler chicken ndash; multiplex PCR. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/9DC87F610778 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000152 en Copyright © 2007 Effat, M. M; Abdallah, Y. A., Soheir, M. F., and Rady, M. M.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:A14310510783 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Retrospective study on the antibiotic resistant pattern of Salmonella typhi from some clinical samples Doughari, J. H., Elmahmood, A. M. and Nggada, H. P. Full Length Research Paper Due to reported cases of antimicrobial resistance by many pathogenic bacteria against many antibiotics worldwide, and the sparse nature of antimicrobial resistance data, a retrospective study was carried out on 744 isolates of Salmonella typhi obtained from 974 samples from four different hospitals in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria between 2001-2004 to determine the resistance pattern of S. typhi to the most commonly used antibiotics cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and ampicillin. High rates of resistance was found in most of the isolates studied. Resistance rates were 92.3, 88.8, 79.6, 53.5 and 20% to amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole and ciprofloxacin, respectively. The high percentage resistance to the antibiotics studied could be attributed to their prevailing usage and abuse in the area under study. The implication of the high percentage resistance recorded for the antibiotics is that only ciprofloxacin will effectively treat S. typhi infections. These results call for nationwide surveillance programme to monitor microbial trends and antimicrobial resistance patterns in Nigeria. Key words: Antibiotics, resistance, surveillance, Nigeria, Salmonella typhi. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/A14310510783 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000633 en Copyright © 2007 Doughari, J. H., Elmahmood, A. M. and Nggada, H. P.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:CB2D21810789 2007-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Studies on the antibacterial activity of root extracts of Carica papaya L. Doughari, J. H., Elmahmood, A. M. and Manzara, S. Full Length Research Paper The bioactive compounds of root extracts of Carica papaya L. were extracted, using water and organic solvents, and were investigated for antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacteria using the cup plate agar diffusion method. The aqueous extracts did not show significant activity, but the organic extracts had significant activity with the methanol extracts demonstrating the highest activity against the test bacteria. The extracts demonstrated higher activities against all the gram-negative bacteria than the gram-positive bacteria tested, with the highest activity (14 mm zone of inhibition) demonstrated againstSalmonella typhi. Increase in temperature enhanced the activity of the extracts, while alkaline pH decreased the activity. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the extracts ranged between 50-200 mg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analyses showed that the extracts contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and phenols. Carica papaya may be used for the treatment of gastroenteritis, uretritis, otitis media, typhoid fever and wound infections. Key words: Carica papaya L., antibacterial activity, phytochemical analysis, antibiotics. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/CB2D21810789 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000671 en Copyright © 2007 Doughari, J. H., Elmahmood, A. M. and Manzara, S.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:27150E510799 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Fate of Salmonella typhimurium on rosemary and barley grown in fields treated with contaminated irrigation water Dhiaf Amel and Bakhrouf Amina Full Length Research Paper Animal wastes in the form of manure frequently contain enteric pathogenic microorganisms and land spreading can lead to pathogen entry into the food chain. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the persistence of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium in soil, and on barley and rosemary plants. We observed that Salmonella typhimurium persisted for anextended period of time (203 to 231 days), and could be detected on infected vegetative parts of the rosemary and barley plants even after desiccation. After approximately two months, the colony morphology displayed a mucoid and rugose phenotype. Smooth colony morphology was acquired following incubation in nutrient broth and upon isolation from the digestive tracts of mice that had been challenged orally with stressed S. typhimurium. S. typhimurium was neither isolated from vegetative parts formed after plant contamination, nor from barley seeds and rosemary flowers. Key words: Salmonella, soil, rosemary, barley, contamination. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/27150E510799 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000322 en Copyright © 2007 Dhiaf Amel and Bakhrouf Amina
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:E80A23910806 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
A survey of Salmonella enterica contamination of camel milk in Kenya Matofari, J. W., Shitandi, A., Shalo, P. L., Nanua, N. J., Younan, M. Full Length Research Paper This study was undertaken to conduct a baseline risk analysis of raw camel milk with special emphasis on Salmonella enterica serovars. Cross-sectional studies were designed to investigate the prevalence of S. enterica serovars in a major camel milk production zone of Kenya. A total of 196 samples were assessed for possible presence of S. enterica. The samples included composite milk from the individual camel udders, bulk milk from collection and market centres, faeces, soil and water samples. Of the 196 samples tested, 43% (84/196) were found to contain Salmonella species. Out of the 84, only 31% (26/84) was positively identified as S. enterica. S. enterica was found in all the sample categories that represented the camel milk production environment. The results suggest that raw camel milk contamination by S. enterica was influenced by post-harvest handling of the product rather than camel infection by the pathogen. It was concluded that a need exists to formulate better regulation strategies for the safe handling of camel milk on rural Kenyan farms. Key words: Camel milk; Salmonella enterica, milk safety, Kenya. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/E80A23910806 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000014 en Copyright © 2007 Matofari, J. W., Shitandi, A., Shalo, P. L., Nanua, N. J., Younan, M.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:0A47FD710816 2007-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Human bocavirus, a real respiratory tract pathogen Zhenqiang Bi, Pierre B. H. Formenty and Cathy E. Roth. Review A new virus was discovered by molecular techniques in respiratory samples collected from young children with respiratory diseases in Sweden in 2005. The virus, named human bocavirus, is genetically related to the bovine parvovirus and the canine minute virus, both of which belong to the bocavirus genus of the parvoviridae family. Recent studies conducted in different countries have shown that HBoV is found in 1.5 - 19% of children with respiratory diseases. HBoV has been observed to be associated with a broad spectrum of both upper and lower respiratory tract diseases, more frequently related to lower respiratory diseases, one third of which is pneumonia. HBoV infection is of worldwide distribution, and a seasonal distribution with a peak in winter and spring is suspected. There is increasing evidence that HBoV is pathogenic for the human respiratory tract, especially in infants and young children, and HBoV has been detected from patients with gastroenteritis. However, given the frequent co-infection with bacterial or viral pathogens, the exact role played by this virus in human diseases still remains disputable. Further investigations, including population-based studies with controlled subjects, are needed to prove its pathogenic potential and epidemiologic patterns. Key words: Respiratory virus, human bocavirus, parvovirus; HBoV, respiratory infection; children. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/0A47FD710816 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000357 en Copyright © 2007 Zhenqiang Bi, Pierre B. H. Formenty and Cathy E. Roth.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:CE33FC310822 2007-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical isolates grown at 37 and 44oC from Irrua, Nigeria Obiazi H. A. K., Nmorsi, O. P. G., Ekundayo A.O. and Ukwandu N.C.D. Full Length Research Paper A survey of the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus strains from clinical and skin isolates grown at 37 and 44oC respectively were carried out in Irrua Nigeria. Of the 240 different specimens, 50(20.8%) S. aureus isolates were reported. The highest carrier rate of S. aureus (48%) occurred in wound swab while the least (8.0%) was reported on the healthy skin of the volunteers. The susceptibility of the clinical isolates (10.4%) was lower than the isolates from the skin (36.7%) of the volunteers. This difference is statistically not significant (t = 2.087, P lt;0.075). The isolates were susceptible to gentamycin (50.0%) erythromycin (40.0%) and streptomycin (30.0%). The S. aureusisolated was resistant to cloxacillin, penicillin, ampicillin and tetracycline. In our studied areaS. aureus could be effectively treated by gentamycin, erythromycin and streptomycin. The implication of resistance of the isolates to penicillin, ampicillin and the common antibiotics such as ampicillin are also highlighted. Key words: Prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility, Staphylococcus aureus, Clinical isolates, skin isolates, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/CE33FC310822 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000570 en Copyright © 2007 Obiazi H. A. K., Nmorsi, O. P. G., Ekundayo A.O. and Ukwandu N.C.D.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:4B6530110824 2007-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Antioxidant status of Nigerian children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria Nmorsi O.P.G., Ukwandu N.C.D. and Egwunyenga A.O. Full Length Research Paper We evaluated the antioxidant status of 148 Nigerian children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The mean malarial parasitaemia was 4701.05 plusmn; 2160.53/ L. The mean antioxidant concentrations of the infected children were determined for vitamin A (12.16 plusmn; 1 - 16 g/dL), vitamin C (0.43 plusmn; 0.03 mg/dL), 5 carotenes (40.96 plusmn; 5.38 g/dL), and vitamin E (0.45 plusmn; 0.03 mg/dL). The control subjects had higher mean concentrations of vitamin A (72.12 plusmn; 3.12 g/dL), and of the 5 carotenes (132.63 plusmn; 22.45 g/dL), and these differences were statistically significant (X2 = 42.86, P gt; 0.05 and X2 = 50.64, P gt; 0.05, respectively). The mean concentrations of vitamin C (1.22 plusmn; 0.31 mg/dL) and vitamin E (1.03 plusmn; 0.48 mg/dL) in the control children were not statistically significant when compared with their infected children (X2 = 0.34, P lt; 0.05) and (X2 = 0.66, P lt; 0.05), respectively. The relationship between malarial parasitaemia and the concentrations of vitamin E and the 5 carotenes were positively correlated (r = 0.83 and r = 0.99, respectively). The levels of plasma vitamin A and vitamin C were negatively correlated with the malarial parasitaemia (r = -0.98, and r = -0.96, respectively). Children within their first 5 years of age had higher malarial parasitaemia (7628.42 plusmn; 3151.42/ L) than those gt; 6 years (1176.58 plusmn; 956/ L). The children between 1 - 5 years old had lower concentrations of vitamin A (8.89 plusmn; 3.74 g/dL) and vitamin C (0.28 plusmn; 0.21 g/dL), while the concentration of the 5 carotenes (44.54 g/dL) and of vitamin E (0.50 plusmn; 0.16 g/dL) was higher in these children. In conclusion, the depressed levels of plasma antioxidants in the P. falciparum-infected children suggested lowered immunity of the children, which may contribute to the morbidity and mortality of malaria in our locality. Key words: Vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, antioxidants, children, Plasmodium falciparum, Nigeria Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/4B6530110824 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000094 en Copyright © 2007 Nmorsi O.P.G., Ukwandu N.C.D. and Egwunyenga A.O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:B67B02210835 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Characterization of selected strains from Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum Kamila Goderska and Zbigniew Czarnecki Full Length Research Paper The presented study aims to characterize Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM 20079 and DSM 20242 and Bifidobacterium bifidum DSM 20082, DSM 20215, DSM 20239 and DSM 20456 strains. Within the framework of the performed investigations, the author evaluated their biochemical properties, resistance to antibiotics, antagonism towards selected pathogens as well as the effect on their survivability of different environmental conditions with special emphasis on the conditions prevailing in the human gastrointestinal tract. The performed experiments revealed significant differences between the examined bacterial species as well as between strains of the same species. All the examined strains were characterized by diverse biochemical properties, resistance to antibiotics and showed antagonistic action againstHelicobacter pylori bacteria. The tested strains of the L. acidophilus bacteria were found to exhibit antagonistic activity against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis bacteria, although the observed activity was smaller in comparison with the antagonistic activity againstH. pylori. These data confirm reports about the antagonistic effect of probiotic bacteria on the growth of pathogenic bacteria. All the examined bacterial strains fulfil the basic criterion expected from probiotic strains, that is, are capable of surviving in the lsquo;in vitrorsquo; conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, at low pH and in the presence of bile salts. Key words: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, probiotic, antibiotic resistance, acidity resistance, bile tolerance, antagonistic activity. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/B67B02210835 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000157 en Copyright © 2007 Kamila Goderska and Zbigniew Czarnecki
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:C28C9AC10859 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Potential commercialization of a microbial medium formulated from industrial food waste Zvidzai C. , Muzhinji N., Chidzvondo F., Mundembe R., and Sithole-Niang I. Full Length Research Paper A microbial medium, designated DYSP medium, was produced from food wastes that included defatted soya, clear beer spent yeast, potato solid waste and opaque beer spent grains. Various combinations of the food wastes were used for the media formulations and evaluated for extent of supporting microbial growth of pure cultures. A 3.0 M sodium hydroxide hydrolysis followed by a neutralization process using concentrated hydrochloric acid has been established and standardized for the preparation of the medium. A dry pulverized medium was produced that could be reconstituted in distilled water (dH2O) without settleable solids.The formulated DYSP medium supported the growth of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis,Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The composition of the medium was 35.45% protein, 5.7% nitrogen, 56.6% ash, 8.6% moisture and 0.012 mg/ml of total reducing sugar. The pH of the DYSP broth was 6.6 when reconstituted in distilled water. Traditional classical microbiological studies demonstrated that the test cultures could grow and retain normal phenotypic and morphological properties when cultured on the formulated medium.The DYSP medium containing ampicillin, isopropyl szlig;-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-szlig;-D-galactoside proved to be an equally alternative medium in molecular biology for selection and screening E. coli TG1 cells transformed with pUC18 plasmid. Other preliminary biotechnological results showed that the formulated medium could form a base for studying and optimizing the production of penicillin byP. chrysogenum. Key words: Food wastes, chemical hydrolysis culturing medium, fermentation and molecular biology. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/C28C9AC10859 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000560 en Copyright © 2007 Zvidzai C. , Muzhinji N., Chidzvondo F., Mundembe R., and Sithole-Niang I.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:E8AED6910865 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Studies on immuno-bioactivities of Nyctanthes arbortristis (Oleaceae) M. Kannan, A.J.A. Ranjit Singh, T.T. Ajith Kumar, P. Jegatheswari and S.Subburayalu Full Length Research Paper In this study the immunomodulatory potential of an Indian medicinal plant, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. (Oleaceae), was investigated. The leaf extracts of N. arbor-tristis is used to treat arthritis, lung injury and some painful conditions such as cancer, chronic fever and rheumatism. An ethanolic extract of N. arbor-tristis (NAEE) was screened in rats for humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Oral administration of the NAEE to rats at a dose of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg significantly enhanced the circulating antibody titre when challenged with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and heat-killed Salmonella antigens. The chronic administration of NAEE increased the total counts of white blood cells (WBC) and potentated the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions. The present study confirms the strong immuno-bioactivities in extracts of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. Key words: Immuno-bioactivities, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, anti inflammatory, humoral immunity, delayed-type hypersensitivity. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/E8AED6910865 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000668 en Copyright © 2007 M. Kannan, A.J.A. Ranjit Singh, T.T. Ajith Kumar, P. Jegatheswari and S.Subburayalu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:F18137810873 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
In vitro screening of antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of various Indian plant species against selected pathogens from Enterobacteriaceae Parekh J and Chanda S Full Length Research Paper Thirty four medicinal plants, belonging to twenty eight different families, were screened for potential antibacterial activity against six bacterial strains belonging to Enterobacteriaceae, viz.Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC13048, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae NCIM2719, Proteus mirabilis NCIM 2241, Proteus vulgaris NCTC8313,and Salmonella typhimurium ATCC23564. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts was tested by the agar disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. The ethanol/methanol extracts were more active than aqueous extracts for all the plants studied. The most susceptible bacterium was K. pneumoniae, while the most resistant bacteria were S. typhimurium and E. coli. From the screening experiment, Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz.showed best antibacterial activity. Hence, this plant may be used further to isolate and evaluate the therapeutic antimicrobials. Key words: Medicinal plants, antibacterial activity, aqueous extracts, alcoholic extracts, Enterobacteriaceae Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/F18137810873 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000402 en Copyright © 2007 Parekh J and Chanda S
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:F08ADED10884 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Microbial community analysis of drinking water sources from rural areas of Zimbabwe Zvidzai C., Mukutirwa T., Mundembe R. and Sithole-Niang I. Full Length Research Paper Traditional methods employing selective, differential and non-selective media were used to isolate and identify different species of bacteria from rural drinking water reservoirs of Mount Darwin district of Zimbabwe. The colony counts from non-selective nutrient agar plates gave an indication of the overall level of bacterial activity from each water sample. Open deep wells, shallow wells and rivers were found to be the most heavily contaminated water sources. Borehole water sources had very low total microbial loads and absent in some of the water samples. The prevalent bacteria found were the Gram negative Escherichia coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Enterobacter aerogenes and one cocci species that was not further characterized. The presence of faecal pathogenic species in the river water and open wells poses epidemiological cases of diarrhoeal diseases in the district studied. Key words: Drinking water, microbial analysis, faecal bacteria, bacteriophages, phenotypic. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/F08ADED10884 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000486 en Copyright © 2007 Zvidzai C., Mukutirwa T., Mundembe R. and Sithole-Niang I.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:A1FF0FA10900 2007-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Antigenic variation in pathogenic micro-organisms: similarities and differences Dietmar Steverding Review Antigenic variation is a process by which pathogenic micro-organisms escape the immune response of their mammalian hosts. By convergent evolution, protozoal, fungal and bacterial pathogens have developed similar genetic mechanisms for true antigenic variation. In this review article, the biology, the surface antigens and their encoding genes, and the molecular mechanisms of antigenic variation of the protozoa Trypanosoma brucei, Plasmodium falciparum, Babesia bovis, Giardia lamblia, the fungus Pneumocystis carinii, and the bacteria Borrelia hermsii, Anaplasma marginale, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma bovis and Campylobacter fetus are compared. Key words: Antigenic variation, pathogens, micro-organisms, molecular mechanisms; immune evasion. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/A1FF0FA10900 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000066 en Copyright © 2007 Dietmar Steverding
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:98574ED10907 2007-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Immunoglobulin profile of some Nigerians with Schistosoma haematobium infection O. P. G. Nmorsi, N. C. D. Ukwandu, C. Isaac, A. O. Egwunyenga and N. H. Olague Full Length Research Paper The preliminary investigation revealed the prevalence of 138(46.9%) out of 294 volunteers screened for the ova of Schistosoma haematobium in their urine samples. Of these, 84(28.6%) had light infection (le; 50 ova/10 ml urine), while 54(18.4%) had heavy infection (gt; 50 ova/10 ml urine). This difference was statistically significant at (chi;2 = 6.52, p gt; 0.05). The mean immunoglobulin status were as follow: IgE (2141.6 plusmn; 143.7 ng/dL), IgG (13.6 plusmn; 3.53 mg/dL), IgA (3.72 plusmn; 0.149 mg/dL), IgM (2.82 plusmn; 0.48 mg/dL) and IgD (0.12 plusmn; 0.04 mg/dL). The relationship between the IgM, IgE and the intensities of infection were positively correlated (r = 0.27 and r = 0.65, respectively). IgG, IgA and IgD showed negative correlation with the intensities of infection (r = -0.65, r = -0.39 and r = -0.18, respectively). IgG and IgA can be used as markers of light infection, while IgM and IgE can be used as markers for heavy infection. We deduced that the levels of IgG, IgA and IgM, which were depleted in the infected volunteers, compared to the control subjects, which lacked significant protective effects in these infected volunteers. These low levels of IgA, IgG and IgM and high level of IgE may be involved in maintenance of S. haematobium infection in our study area. Key words: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM, Schistosoma haematobium, Nigerians. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/98574ED10907 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000373 en Copyright © 2007 O. P. G. Nmorsi, N. C. D. Ukwandu, C. Isaac, A. O. Egwunyenga and N. H. Olague
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:DB2CF0110914 2007-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Dielectric measurement of the resistance of Trichosporon cutaneum against toxic chemicals Filadia P. Tileva, Lyubov K. Yotova and Gerard H. Markx Full Length Research Paper Conditioning of cultures involves growing cells in the presence of increasing amounts of a toxic chemical. In order to investigate how conditioning affects a culturersquo;s ability to resist new challenges, the resistance of Trichosporon cutaneum to various toxic chemicals, before and after conditioning to growth on phenol, was investigated by measuring the capacitance of cell suspensions at 0.4 MHz following a toxic challenge. The results show that cells grown on phenol are more resistant to the influence of polar aromatic toxic chemicals such as phenol (logPow = 1.48) and benzylalcohol (log Pow = 1.1), but less resistant against less polar non-aromatic compounds such as n-octanol (log Pow = 2.9). In reverse, cells grown on glucose were found to be more resistant against n-octanol, but less so against phenol and benzylalcohol. The results indicate that cells, adapted to be more resistant to one type of substance, may become more susceptible to other compounds. Key words: conditioning, adaptation, membrane, Trichosporon cutaneum, capacitance. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/DB2CF0110914 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000235 en Copyright © 2007 Filadia P. Tileva, Lyubov K. Yotova and Gerard H. Markx
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:1F7322D10921 2007-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Hepatocellular carcinoma among patients diagnosed with and without hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in a Nigerian tertiary Hospital B. B. Ajayi, H. A. Nggada and A. E. Moses Full Length Research Paper Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been reported as one of the aetiological factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCCA). This study reports the prevalence of HCCA in patients with and without HBV in Northeast Nigeria over a period of five years. A total of 114 patients consecutively diagnosed with HCCA and tested for Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH), between January 1996 and December 2000, were studied. There were 81 males and 33 females, ranging in age between 9 months and above 60 years. Of the 114 patients with HCCA, 86.8% were positive for HBsAg of which males accounted for a higher prevalence of 63.1%, while females accounted for 23.7% (2.7:1). HCCA patients from the fouth decade of life and above were observed with a higher prevalence of HBV infection. Among the HBsAg-negative patients with HCCA, no significant gender difference was observed (p gt; 0.05). However, 13.2% of patients with HCCA were negative for HBsAg. Viral and non-viral aetiologic factors may play a role in developing HCCA in Maiduguri. Key words: Hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatitis B virus. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/1F7322D10921 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000355 en Copyright © 2007 B. B. Ajayi, H. A. Nggada and A. E. Moses
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:C47E4AD10927 2007-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2007
Production of indole-3-acetic acid by Rhizobium isolates from Sesbania species M. Sridevi and K. V. Mallaiah Full Length Research Paper Rhizobium isolates from root (Sesbania procumbens) and stem nodules (S. rostrata and S. procumbens) of Sesbania species were shown to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in culture supplemented with L-tryptophan. Production of IAA was maximal after 72 h of incubation when the bacteria reached stationary phase of growth. The cultural requirements were optimized for maximum IAA production. The effect of carbon (1%) and nitrogen sources (0.1%) revealed that glucose and potassium nitrate were best promoters for IAA production over controls. The effect of different concentrations of EDTA revealed that 0.2 mu;gml-1 EDTA increased IAA production. Among the three isolates, maximum amount of IAA was produced by the Rhizobium isolate from S. procumbens. The IAA from this isolate was extracted, purified and identified by thin layer chromatography. Key words: Rhizobium species, Indole acetic acid, Sesbania species, Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/C47E4AD10927 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000600 en Copyright © 2007 M. Sridevi and K. V. Mallaiah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:A5CDFF310937 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Evaluation and guidelines for use of polymerase chain reaction-computer database homology comparison (PCR-CDHC) for detection and species determination of human pathogenic microsporidia Scot E. Dowd and Jeanette A. Thurston-Enriquez Full Length Research Paper The potential for waterborne disease and zoonotic transmission of at least two species of human pathogenic microsporidia has heightened interest in clinical and environmental detection methods for these organisms. Detection using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by computer database homology comparison (CDHC) (PCR-CDHC) was reported previously by this research group. As a result, PCR-CDHC has been employed by many research groups around the world for species determination of human pathogenic microsporidia. To validate the CDHC speciation approach, a phylogenetic tree was generated using the small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences (SSU-rDNA) of a large number of microsporidia. An index of similarity was created and used as part of an assessment of CDHCs ability to differentiate between closely related species. Polymerase chain reaction followed by dye termination PCR sequencing and subsequent CDHC of the sequences was performed on 8 species of microsporidia including four human pathogenic strains. The four non-human pathogenic microsporidia tested by this approach were those shown by the phylogenetic analyses to be very closely related to the other human pathogenic species as determined by branch length. In all cases the CDHC approach was able to correctly identify the eight species of microsporidia evaluated. To provide an example of PCR-CDHC, a ldquo;universalrdquo; and two previously published pathogen-specific microsporidia PCR protocols followed by PCR-CDHC was conducted to assess their ability to detect naturally occurring microsporidia species in swine wastewater. Only one primer set resulted in a PCR-CDHC analysis where presumptive human pathogenic microsporidia was detected. Subsequent CDHC showed these presumptive positive PCR results were actually false positives. With the appropriate primer set, PCR-CDHC proves to be a reliable method that can be used for specific species determination of human pathogenic microsporidia in samples where non-pathogenic species may be present. Key words: Microsporidia, Sequencing, BLAST, PCR, detection. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/A5CDFF310937 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000295 en Copyright © 2008 Scot E. Dowd and Jeanette A. Thurston-Enriquez
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:E596BE710945 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli from human clinical samples in Osogbo, south western Nigeria Olowe O. A, Okanlawon B. M, Olowe R. A and Olayemi A. B Full Length Research Paper We screened 211 clinical samples of which total of 135 Escherichia coliisolates from different human clinical specimens comprising urine, stool, wound swabs, high vaginal swabs, ear swabs and blood obtained from patients at Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The isolated E. coli were screened for their antibiograms and plasmid profiles. Seven antimicrobial drugs were used during the study. The prevalence of strains resistance to antimicrobials were; Tetracycline (91.6%), Ampicillin (86.7%), Sulphnamide (77.8%) and Gentamicin and Nalidixic acid which were (39.3%) and (4.1%) respectively. A total of seven antibiotic resistance profiles were obtained with over 64% of the isolates showing multi-drug resistance. Plasmids of three size ranges were detected in all of the isolates. Isolates with high multi-drug resistance profiles were found to possess multiple plasmids with large sizes in the range lt; 6 ndash; 25 kb. Very large resistance levels gt; 85% were detected against Tetracycline, Sulphnamide, and Cotrimoxazole while Nalidixic acid showed least resistance of 4.1% among the isolates. Majority of the isolates were positive for betalactamase production when subjected to starch paper method. Key word: Escherichia coli, betalactamse, antibacteria resistance. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/E596BE710945 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000087 en Copyright © 2008 Olowe O. A, Okanlawon B. M, Olowe R. A and Olayemi A. B
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:A8C3F2610961 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli from clinically healthy pigs and their commercial farm environments Chikwendu C. I., Nwabueze R. N. and Anyanwu B. N. Full Length Research Paper The study was conducted to determine the antibiotic resistance profile ofEscherichia coli isolated from clinically healthy pigs and their commercial farm environments. Differential and selective media were used to isolate a total of 142E. coli strains from 202 samples. These were tested against 16 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. The isolates showed high resistance rates to Cefuroxime (89.4%), Nitrofurantoin (89.4%), Tetracycline (74.6%), Ceftazidime (73.9%), Cefotaxime (72.5%) and Cephalexin (53.5%). Rates of resistance to Septrin and Chloramphenicol were moderate (12.7 to 39.4%), while low rates were recorded for Gentamycin (0.09%), Ciprofloxacine (0.08%), Perfloxacine (0.05%), Augumentine (0.06%), Nalidixic acid (0.07%), Streptomycin (0.05%) and Ofloxacine (0.05%). A total of 78 resistance patterns were identified. The high rates of resistance, as well as the large number of resistant patterns recorded in the absence of the use of antibiotics for growth promotion or as prophylactics suggested that antibiotics are not the only selective factors for antibiotic resistance. Key words: Escherichia coli, antibiotics, resistance, clinically healthy, prophylaxis. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/A8C3F2610961 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000057 en Copyright © 2008 Chikwendu C. I., Nwabueze R. N. and Anyanwu B. N.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:A4E51CE10966 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Safety control indices for plaa-som, a Thai fermented fish product Phikunthong Kopermsub, and Sirinda Yunchalard , Full Length Research Paper This study was aimed to determine chemical and microbiological changes duringplaa-som fermentation process. The results have been considered for use as safety control indices to obtain a higher quality and safer plaa-som. The fermentation process can be divided into an initiation stage (samples 1 to 3) and a maturation stage (samples 4 to 9) based on the changes obtained. At the initiation stage, pH remained stable at 6.3 and then rapidly declined during the maturation stage as from 6.3 to 4.5. Total acidity showed a continuous increasing trend from 0.12% (w/w) in sample 1 to 1.17% (w/w) in sample 9. Lactic and citric acids were detected as major acids during the initiation stage in a range of 0.22 - 0.29% (w/w). The main acids detected during the maturation stage, however, were lactic and acetic acids and these reached maximum levels at 2.82 and 0.16% (w/w) in samples 9 and 8, respectively. Substantial discrepancies between total viable counts (TVC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts were obtained during the initiation stage, particularly in sample1 where the TVC was 2.97 log CFU/g and LAB count was lower than 10 CFU/g. This indicated an existence of undesirable indigenous microorganisms other than LAB. At the maturation stage, the two counts concomitantly increased and no discrepancy was found. Maximum counts of TVC and LAB were 6.83 and 6.72 log CFU/g in samples 6 and 9, respectively. Good practices at particular steps and possible critical control points were noted and proposed for a more controllable plaa-som production process which will guide to a higher standard in both safety and quality consistency of the product. Key words: Chemical changes, good manufacturing practices, initiation stage; maturation stage, microbiological changes, organic acids profile, safety control indices, spontaneous fermentation. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/A4E51CE10966 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000636 en Copyright © 2008 Phikunthong Kopermsub, and Sirinda Yunchalard ,
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:342DF0310978 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Isolation and characterization of a chlorpyrifos-degrading bacterium from agricultural soil and its growth response M. Surekha Rani, K.Vijaya Lakshmi P. Suvarnalatha Devi, R. Jaya Madhuri, S. Aruna, K. Jyothi, G. Narasimha and K.Venkateswarlu Full Length Research Paper A soil bacterium capable of utilizing chlorpyrifos as sole carbon source was isolated by selective enrichment on mineral medium containing chlorpyrifos. The bacterial isolate, designated MS09, was identified and characterized as a strain ofProvidencia stuartii based on biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Growth studies showed that P. stuartii strain MS09 utilized chlorpyrifos to grow in Luria-Bertani broth containing different concentrations of chlorpyrifos at 50 -700 mg/L. However, the optimum concentration that supported bacterial growth over 24 h was found to be 50 - 200 mg/L chlorpyrifos. When compared with the control, a significant increase in bacterial growth was noted at a low concentration of chlorpyrifos (50 mg/L), whereas at higher concentrations (300 - 700 mg/L) an increased lag phase was observed, without inhibiting growth of the pesticide-utilizing bacterium. A literature survey revealed that no data is available regarding the role of P. stuartii on pesticide biodegradation. Key words: Pesticide, chlorpyrifos, Providencia sp. (MTCC No 8099), biodegradation. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/342DF0310978 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000447 en Copyright © 2008 M. Surekha Rani, K.Vijaya Lakshmi P. Suvarnalatha Devi, R. Jaya Madhuri, S. Aruna, K. Jyothi, G. Narasimha and K.Venkateswarlu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:E502F2210987 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Dehalogenase from Methylobacterium sp. HJ1 induced by the herbicide 2,2-dichloropropionate (Dalapon) Ng Hong Jing, Aishah Mohd Taha, Rolando V. Pakingking Jr., Roswanira A. B. Wahab and Fahrul Huyop Full Length Research Paper Heavy industrial activities and agricultural processes require consumption of many halogenated compounds, and release them continuously as pollutants into the environment. These xenobiotics show high toxicity and persistence and cause many problems to the society, soils and ground water. Microbial dehalogenases are involved in the biodegradation of many important chlorinated compounds. A bacterial strain identified as Methylobacterium sp. HJ1 is able to degrade the herbicide 2,2-dichloropropionic acid by removal of the halogen and subsequent metabolism of the product for energy. D,L-2-chloropropionate also supported good growth of the organism but 3-chloropropionate, monochloroacetate and dichloroacetate were not utilized. Cell-free extracts of the 2,2-dichloropropionate-grown bacteria converted 2,2-dichloropropionate into pyruvate with the release of two chloride ions for each molecule of pyruvate formed. This indicates the presence of dehalogenase activity in the cell-free extracts. Only 2,2-dichloropropionate and D,L-2-chloropropionate were inducers and substrates for the dehalogenase. Monochloroacetate and dichloroacetate did not serve as an inducer, whereas 3-chloropropionate was a non-substrate inducer. Key words: Dehalogenase, 2,2-dichloropropionic acid, degradation,Methylobacterium sp. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/E502F2210987 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000216 en Copyright © 2008 Ng Hong Jing, Aishah Mohd Taha, Rolando V. Pakingking Jr., Roswanira A. B. Wahab and Fahrul Huyop
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:8DC4D4311009 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Effect of some chemical preservatives on the shelf-life of sobo drink Doughari J. H, Alabi G. and Elmahmood A. M Full Length Research Paper The effect of some commonly used chemical preservatives (benzoic acid, sodium benzoate and sodium sulfite) on the shelf-life of Sobo drink was investigated by isolation of microorganisms before and during its ambient storage for 14 days. Three bacterial species, i.e. Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus were isolated. L. acidophilus was found only in the samples without preservatives, while B. subtilis and B. cereus were found in the samples with preservatives. Four fungal species, i.e. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichoderma sp. were isolated. Trichoderma sp. was isolated only in the samples without preservatives, while A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus were isolated in samples with preservatives. Antimicrobial activities of the chemical preservatives revealed that benzoic acid was the most effective against both bacterial and fungal species, followed by sodium benzoate and sodium sulfite. Of all the samples, only those treated with benzoic acid as preservative remained organoleptically attractive after preservation for 14 days. Key words: Antimicrobial activity, chemical preservatives, Sobo, microorganisms. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/8DC4D4311009 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000262 en Copyright © 2008 Doughari J. H, Alabi G. and Elmahmood A. M
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:7B04D2C11021 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Antibacterial activity of Senna siamae leaf extracts on Salmonella typhi Doughari J. H and Okafor N. B Full Length Research Paper The aqueous and organic leaf extracts of the plant Senna siamae, traditionally used for the treatment of infectious disease, were tested for their activity against clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi using the disc diffusion method. The ethanol extracts showed the highest activity (zone of inhibition 10 plusmn; 0.01 mm), followed by acetone extracts (zone of inhibition 8 plusmn; 0.01 mm), while the aqueous extracts showed the lowest activity (zone of inhibition 3.5 plusmn; 0.01 mm) at 40 mg/ml concentration. Preliminary phytochemical studies revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and glycosides. The activities of the extracts were comparable to those of ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole and ciprofloxacin antibiotics (t-test; p lt; 0.05). The antibacterial activities of the extracts against S. typhi did not change significantly when treated at 4, 30, 60 and 100deg;C for 1 h, but reduced significantly at pH 6 to 10. The MIC and MBC values of the crude extracts (1 - 3 mg/ml) were comparable to those of the tested antibiotics (0.3 - 1 mg/ml) (t-test; p lt; 0.05). Preliminary purification of the ethanol extracts with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-butanol showed that the ethyl acetate fraction possessed the highest activity (zone of inhibition 15 mm), followed by n-butanol fraction (zone of inhibition 2 mm), while the chloroform fraction did not show any activity at 20 mg/ml. Key words: Natural bioactive compounds, Senna siamae, antibacterial activity, antityphoid drug, Salmonella typhi, enteric fever, antibiotics. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/7B04D2C11021 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000051 en Copyright © 2008 Doughari J. H and Okafor N. B
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:557EF4B11043 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Growth and survival of Salmonella zanzibar in juice and salami stored under refrigerated and room temperature Chatti Abdelwaheb, Lamouri Imen and Landoulsi Ahmed Short Communication The vehicles usually involved in salmonellosis outbreaks are meat, eggs, poultry and milk. Recently, Salmonella outbreaks were reported in some vegetables such as tomatoes and unpasteurized juice. After inoculation of Salmonella zanzibar onto food samples, growth and survival of S. zanzibar in orange juice and salami were monitored. Our results showed that S. zanzibar is able to grow and survive in orange juice and also in salami. However, growth in salami was more important than in the case of orange juice. Storage at 4deg;C caused a difference in the survival curve when compared to samples (also juice and salami) incubated at room temperature. The present study demonstrated that orange juice and salami can provide a favorable environment for survival and growth of S. zanzibar in spite of their low pH values. Key words: Salmonella, orange juice, salami, survival, refrigeration. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/557EF4B11043 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000349 en Copyright © 2008 Chatti Abdelwaheb, Lamouri Imen and Landoulsi Ahmed
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:99069C111060 2008-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Effectiveness of trisodium phosphate, lactic acid, and acetic acid in reduction of E .coli and microbial load on chicken surfaces F. M. Bin Jasass Full Length Research Paper Procedures for dipping of chicken carcasses in trisodium phosphate (TSP), lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) were evaluated to determine their effectiveness for reducing E. coli NCTC 10538 and aerobic total counts on the chicken meat surfaces. Chicken portions were dipped in a suspension of E. coli (7 log CFU/ml) for 20 s and kept for 90 min to allow E. coli to get attached to the chicken surface. The chicken portions were then dipped in 8, 10, and 12% concentration of TSP, 1, 2, and 3% concentration of LA, and 0.5, 1, and 1.5% concentration of AA for 20 s each followed by dipping in tap water for 20 s. A sterile template 4 x 4 cm was placed on the chicken surface and then swabbed by swab cotton. The number ofE. coli and aerobic total counts were enumerated. The reduction of E. coli on chicken meat surfaces dipped in 8, 10 and 12% of TSP decreased E. coli by 0.5, 1.2 and 1.6 log CFU/ cm2, respectively. The reduction of E. coli on chicken meat surfaces dipped in 1, 2 and 3% LA was 0.5, 1.8 and 2.1 log CFU/cm2 respectively. The reduction of E. coli on chicken meat surface dipped in 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of AA had decreased the E. coli counts of 0.7, 1.1 and 1.4 log CFU/ cm2, respectively. The results showed that LA was more effective against E. coli and aerobic total counts than TSP and AA. Key words: Trisodium phosphate, Lactic acid, Acetic acid, E. coli, Aerobic count, Quality, Chicken, Poultry. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/99069C111060 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000266 en Copyright © 2008 F. M. Bin Jasass
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:BD034F111078 2008-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Influence of torch infections in first trimester miscarriage in the Malabar region of Kerala Denoj Sebastian, K. F. Zuhara and K. Sekaran Full Length Research Paper To correlate the prevalence of TORCH (Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex) infections with incidence of abortion in pregnant women in the Malabar area of Kerala, in order to establish basic knowledge for future pregnancy care. Patients attending the Institute of Maternity and Child Health, Calicut Medical College, Kerala were subjected for the study. Seventy one miscarriage cases and thirty normal pregnant women were studied through their medical, clinical, and serological data. Results were analyzed using personrsquo;s chi-square test. This study showed that general population of Malabar area has an infection susceptibility of 32.3% to Toxoplasma gondii, 9.6% toRubella, 3.2% to CMV (Cytomegalovirus) and 61.3% to HSV (Herpes simplex virus) infections. This was revealed through the estimation of TORCH specific IgG.IgM specific to TORCH agents was also studied in abortion cases and was observed as T. gondii- 50.7% (plt;0.03), Rubella-11.3% (plt;0.597), CMV-28.2% (plt;0.231) and HSV-59.2% (plt;0.022). When 40.8% of the miscarriage cases were showing IgM specific to one or the other TORCH agents, only 20% of the control cases possessed IgM to TORCH agents. Cross infections with more than one of the TORCH agents was observed and 5.6% of the aborted mothers were infected with all the four pathogens. The significant role of T. gondii and HSV infection on spontaneous abortion, compared to CMV and Rubella, is provided here. The increased susceptibility of the general population of Malabar to these two pathogens, substantiates this observation further. Various abortion categories are also influenced by these pathogens differently. We also observed cross infections with two or more of the pathogens in the TORCH group, with a statistical significance of plt;0.003. Key words: Miscarriage, abortion, TORCH infection. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/BD034F111078 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000418 en Copyright © 2008 Denoj Sebastian, K. F. Zuhara and K. Sekaran
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:8063AF311089 2008-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Phytochemical and antibacterial screening of Anogeissus leiocarpus against some microorganisms associated with infectious wounds A. Mann, Y. Yahaya, A. Banso and G. O. Ajayi Full Length Research Paper Ethanolic extracts of the leaf, stem and root bark and the combination of the three parts of Anogeissus leiocarpus were investigated for in vitro antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli andPseudomonas aeruginosa using agar diffusion techniques. The extracts of the plant parts showed higher antibacterial activity against S. aureus (15.80 0.85) than other tested organisms. The plant parts generally were found to contain important bioactive substances such as glycosides, phenols, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, steroids, ellagic acids and anthraquinones. These agents may be responsible for the antibacterial activity of this plant. Keywords: Anogeissus leiocarpus, clinical isolates, antibacterial activity, bioactive. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/8063AF311089 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000554 en Copyright © 2008 A. Mann, Y. Yahaya, A. Banso and G. O. Ajayi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:21CA7A911094 2008-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Effect of oil-pulling on dental caries causing bacteria T. Durai Anand, C. Pothiraj, R. M. Gopinath and B. Kayalvizhi Full Length Research Paper The effect of oil-pulling on the reduction of total count of bacteria was determined. There was a remarkable reduction in the total count of bacteria. The process of oil-pulling reduced the susceptibility of a host to dental caries. The in-vitro antibacterial activity of sesame oil against dental caries causing bacteria was determined. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus were found to be moderately sensitive to the sesame oil. Key words: Antibacterial activity, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilu. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/21CA7A911094 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000257 en Copyright © 2008 T. Durai Anand, C. Pothiraj, R. M. Gopinath and B. Kayalvizhi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:991BA3311111 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
In vitro antibacterial activity of crude leaf extracts of Mangifera indica Linn Doughari, J. H. and Manzara, S. Full Length Research Paper The active components of leaves of Mangifera indica L. were extracted using cold water and organic solvents (acetone and methanol) and were tested againstStaphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenase, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexnerri using the agar well (cup plate) diffusion method. Both the acetone and methanol extracts inhibited the growth of gram positive bacteria, with acetone extract exerting more activities on all the gram positive bacteria with zone of inhibition between 15 - 16 mm, and a gram negative bacterium S. typhi (14 mm) at 250 mg/ml. Whereas, water extract was not active on any of the bacterial pathogens tested at any of the concentration of the extract used. The activities of the plant extracts on the inhibited pathogens using the zone of inhibition were not as effective as the standard commercial antibacterial disks of gentamicin and erythromycin (t = 2.23, p lt; 0.05). Increased temperature (60 and 100deg;C for 1 h) had a multiplier effect on the activity of the extracts, but alkaline pH decreased the activity. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, glycosides, saponins and phenols. The MIC and MBC of the extracts was in the range of 12.5 - 75 and 25 - 175 mg/ml respectively. There is a basis for the traditional use of the plant as a local health remedy. Key words: Antibacterial activity, MIC, MBC, gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, Mangifera indica, extract. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/991BA3311111 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000384 en Copyright © 2008 Doughari, J. H. and Manzara, S.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:F2A518511119 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Protein rich ingredients from fish waste for sheep feeding Mohammed Rahmi, , Mohamed Faid, Mohamed ElYachioui, El Hassan Berny,Mohamed Fakir and Mohamed Ouhssine Full Length Research Paper Fish wastes, including viscera, heads, tails and skins, were ground and mixed with 10% molasses and inoculated with a starter culture made of Lactobacillus plantarum. The inoculated mixture was incubated at 25deg;C for 10 days, for a biopreservation/biotransformation by fermentation. During the fermentation period, changes in nutritional quality and biochemical properties (pH, dry matter, ash, total and volatile nitrogen and lipids) were monitored as well as microbiological determinations, including standard plate count, coliforms and Clostridium. Results indicated that the ph decreased considerably and remained constant at 3.8 after 8 days. Total nitrogen, decreased non protein nitrogen and total volatile nitrogen increased. The microbiological characteristics showed a drastic decrease of coliforms and Clostridium counts in 8 days. Two trials and a control were carried out and the final fish waste silage product was used in feeding sheep in two trials of 5 sheep each. The fish silage was added to ground barley and wheat bran* in two proportions respectively (40% barley, 25% fish silage and 35% wheat bran) and (40% barley, 50% fish silage and 10 % wheat bran). The control diet was the conventional feed adopted in the region (40% barley, 60% wheat bran*). The weight gain was followed up for 9 weeks. The results indicated that trial feeding studies with young sheep using formulas containing fish silage showed a net increase in weight above controls as well as a good enhancement of meat characteristics and carcass shape. Keys words: Fish wastes, molasses, barley, wheat bran, Lactobacillus plantarum, fish silage, sheep feeding. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/F2A518511119 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000608 en Copyright © 2008 Mohammed Rahmi, , Mohamed Faid, Mohamed ElYachioui, El Hassan Berny,Mohamed Fakir and Mohamed Ouhssine
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:916EAD711125 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Quantitative Survey and anti-microbial effect of Piliostigma thonnigii and Khaya ivorensis leaves on traditional dry-yam Babajide, J. M and Atanda, O. O Full Length Research Paper A survey was conducted to determine the quantity of local preservatives (lsquo;Abafersquo;Piliostigma thonnigii and lsquo;Agehursquo; Khaya ivorensis leaves) used for parboiling yam and the anti-microbial effect of the leaves on dry-yam lsquo;Gbodorsquo;. Although, the study revealed that 23 g of abafe, 13 g of agehu and a combination of 12.8 g of abafe and 12.3 g of agehu will be required for 1 kg of yam, there were wide ranges between the quantities of yam as well as the quantities of local preservatives used by the processors. Futhermore, there were reduction in the microbial loads of samples parboiled with the leaves (singly or combined) respectively, immediately after processing and after 3 months of storage compared with the control. Thus, P. thonnigii leaves had bactericidal while K. ivorensis leaves had fungicidal effect on the microorganisms encountered during processing and storage of Gbodo. Key words: Quantitative survey, anti-microbial, Piliostigma thonningii, Khaya ivorensis, dry-yam Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/916EAD711125 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000618 en Copyright © 2008 Babajide, J. M and Atanda, O. O
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:D16DD6911132 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Fungal xylanase production under solid state and submerged fermentation conditions Suprabha G. Nair, Sindhu. R, Shankar Shashidhar Full Length Research Paper Seventy fungal strains were isolated from soils collected from different parts of southern Kerala, India. The strains were screened for xylanase production using Czapekrsquo;s agar medium. On the basis of clearing zones formed, 34 fungal strains were selected and identified. Solid state and submerged fermentation were done to identify strains that could produce maximum amount of xylanase, as well as to identify those strains that could produce cellulase-free xylanase under these conditions. All strains produced cellulase along with xylanase in solid state fermentation, while 70% of the strains produced cellulase-free xylanase during submerged fermentation. Key words: Xylanase, Czapekrsquo;s agar, solid state fermentation, submerged fermentation Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/D16DD6911132 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000334 en Copyright © 2008 Suprabha G. Nair, Sindhu. R, Shankar Shashidhar
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:33F38F611141 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Screening and optimization of metal ions to enhance ethanol production using statistical experimental designs Mary Anupama Palukurty, Naveen Kumar Telgana, Hema Sundar Reddy Bora, Shiva Naresh Mulampaka Full Length Research Paper Ethanol production using jaggery was enhanced in submerged fermentation when the effect of metal inducers was studied using the Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken designs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NCIM 3288) was used as the fermenting organism. The Plackett-Burman design was used to initially screen seven of which the four elements were found to have significant effect on ethanol production. In the next stage, Box-Behnken design was used obtain concentrations of metal ionrsquo;s that may be supplemented to get maximum ethanol in during production process. It was observed that ethanol yield has increased to 94.8 from 75.4g/l when supplemented with the critical concentrations of salts provided by the model. These were as follows (g/l): FeSO4. 7H2O 0.0036, MgSO4.7H2O 0.0033, MnCl2. 4H2O 0.0017 and ZnSO4.7H2O 0.0026, in the presence of 220 g/l of jaggery supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 2.612 g/l and KH2PO4 3.407 g/l, while the predicted concentration of ethanol as per the model is 95.35 g/l. Key words: Jaggery, ethanol, Plackett-Burman design, Box-Behnken design, metal inducers. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/33F38F611141 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000638 en Copyright © 2008 Mary Anupama Palukurty, Naveen Kumar Telgana, Hema Sundar Reddy Bora, Shiva Naresh Mulampaka
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:C7EF5F411170 2008-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Statistical optimization of medium components for chromate reduction by halophilic Streptomyces sp. MS-2 Mona E. M. Mabrouk Full Length Research Paper Extensive use of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in various industrial applications has caused substantial environmental contamination. A marine bacterium,Streptomyces sp. MS-2 showed a high Cr(VI) reduction performance.Streptomyces sp. MS-2 completely reduced 75 mg/l Cr(VI) within 72 h of growth. The effectiveness of the bacterium for reducing Cr(VI) under different conditions was evaluated. Optimum pH and temperature were 7.0 and 37oC, respectively. Statistical screening of medium components for Cr reduction by Streptomyces sp. MS-2 was carried out by Plackettndash;Burman design. Peptone, yeast extract, inoculum size, and volume of the medium were shown as significant components influencing Cr(VI) reduction. By applying a verification experiment, Streptomycessp. MS-2 completely reduced 75 mg of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) within 12 h. This optimization strategy led to a 6-fold increase in the reduction rate. This holds great promise for detoxication of Cr(VI) under a wide range of environmental conditions. Key words: Streptomyces MS-2, hexavalent chromium, Plackettndash;Burman design. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/C7EF5F411170 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000663 en Copyright © 2008 Mona E. M. Mabrouk
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:8F0C33011181 2008-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Ethanol production from the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes by yeast isolated from various hydrospheres G. O Ogawa Masami, IshidaYukinari Usui and Naoto Urano Full Length Research Paper Water hyacinth is a promising plant for the production of bioethanol. The water hyacinth was saccharified with diluted sulfuric acid and fermented to ethanol by yeast obtained from different hydrospheres. We found that the best conditions for water hyacinth hydrolysis were 1% (v/v) sulfuric acid at 121oC for 1 h. In the next step, we searched for yeast that could produce ethanol from the water hyacinth hydrolysate. For this, 624 strains were isolated from 28 bodies of water. Strain 484 produced 22.4 ml of ethanol/kg of dried water hyacinth, which suggests that it may be an efficient producer of bioethanol. Through sequence analysis, we identified strain 484 as Candida intermedia. Key words: Biomass, ethanol, fermentation, hydrospheres, water hyacinth, yeast. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/8F0C33011181 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000294 en Copyright © 2008 G. O Ogawa Masami, IshidaYukinari Usui and Naoto Urano
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:BBFA07F11192 2008-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Immune response and protection of free range chickens vaccinated orally with feeding of Newcastle disease vaccine-coated cassava granules Echeonwu G. O. N, Iroegbu C. U, Echeonwu B. C, Ngene A, Nwosuh C. I, Joannis T. M and Ndako J Full Length Research Paper Cassava granules coated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain V4-UPM was used to vaccinate free-range chickens in their natural habitat. Immune response, vaccine virus excretion and the efficacy of the food vaccine were assessed by standard methods. Results show that out of 218 chickens given initial food vaccine in the four locations, 138 (63.3%) produced detectable HI antibody while 202 (92.7%) had titres lt; 3.0. However, only 16 (7.3%) attained log2 ge; 3.0 with GMT of 3.2. This was made up of Nchara-Akanu 7(12.7%), Vandekya 0(0.0%), Fadan Karshi 1(1.7%), and Turu 8(15.1%) with GMTs of 3.3, 2.9, 3.0, and 3.6 in that order. Following the administration of a booster dose of vaccine on 194 birds in the same flocks, 170(87.6%) sero-converted with 118(60.8%) attaining log2 ge; 3.0 and GMT of 9.7. Chickens attaining HI titres up to log2 ge; 3.0 from the locations were as follows, Nchara-Akanu 26(51.0%), Vandekya 22(51.2%), Fadan Karshi 28(53.8%), and Turu 33(68.8%) with GMTs of 12.8, 7.5, 7.0, and 12.6 respectively. Vaccinated birds excreted infective vaccine virus. Out of 55 buyback chickens challenged, 15(27.3%) died while 40(72.7%) survived. Twenty two (22) out of 24 (91.7%) unvaccinated birds challenged died and only 2(8.3%) survived. It is therefore concluded that cassava granules could be good carrier for food-borne ND vaccine delivery to village chickens in Nigeria. Key words: Cassava, V4-UPM virus, village chickens, Newcastle disease. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/BBFA07F11192 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000372 en Copyright © 2008 Echeonwu G. O. N, Iroegbu C. U, Echeonwu B. C, Ngene A, Nwosuh C. I, Joannis T. M and Ndako J
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:BCAFE2B11202 2008-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
In vitro anti-bacterial activity of a novel isoquinoline derivative and its post antibacterial effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Piyush Bihari Lal, Naresh Kumar, Tasleem Arif, T. K. Mandal, K. Akhilesh Verma, G. L.Sharma and Rajesh Dabur Full Length Research Paper The isoquinolines are of great importance to humanity because of their medicinal value and different structure. There have been many researches on the isoquinolines, but relatively few pure compounds have been investigated for their antibacterial activity. The in vitro activity of a novel synthetic antimicrobial compound1-(4-choloro-phenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4, tetrahydroisoquinoline was evaluated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa(ATCC27853) using standard methods approved by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the compound which inhibited more than 90% growth (MIC90) of P. aeruginosa was found to be ranged from 24.0 to 6.0 mg ml-1 in different media. The ET50 (concentration which lyses 50% erythrocytes) of the compound was observed to be 450 mg ml-1. It was found that the compound down-regulated the expression of PQS, elastase and pyocyanin, the important virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. Proteomics studies revealed that the compound inhibited/down regulated the expression of PhnA and oprL proteins of P. aeruginosa which are crucial for PQS synthesis and membrane integrity. This type of compounds may provide avenue for the discovery of clinically useful antibacterial drugs. Key words: Isoquinoline, P. aeruginosa, virulent factors, antimicrobial activity, proteomics. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/BCAFE2B11202 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000383 en Copyright © 2008 Piyush Bihari Lal, Naresh Kumar, Tasleem Arif, T. K. Mandal, K. Akhilesh Verma, G. L.Sharma and Rajesh Dabur
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:F38DAA111210 2008-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Microbiological quality of water, associated management practices and risks at source, transport and storage points in a rural community of Lungwena, Malawi Taulo, S., , Wetlesen, A., Abrahamsen, R., Mkakosya, R. and Kululanga, G. Full Length Research Paper This study investigated and compared the microbiological quality of source, transported and stored water in Lungwena households. It also examined water management practices at all the investigated points. One hundred and eighty (180) water samples were collected from 6 villages and tested for Escherichia coli, Salmonella, E .coli 0157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni using standard methods. Water contamination practices were observed in two hundred and eighty seven households. E. coli, Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7 and C. jejuni were isolated in 54, 24, 6.7 and 2.2% of the samples, respectively. Sampling points revealed a significant difference (p = 0.001) in E. coli concentration. Salmonella concentration between sampling points was not significant (p gt; 0.05). E. coli concentration was significantly (p = 0.042) higher than that of Salmonella spp. The microbiological quality of water was found to be poor as a result of both poor water management practices and environmental sanitation. There were no significant differences (p gt; 0.05) in water management practices among the villages. Key words: Pathogens, stored water, transport water, water contamination. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/F38DAA111210 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000498 en Copyright © 2008 Taulo, S., , Wetlesen, A., Abrahamsen, R., Mkakosya, R. and Kululanga, G.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:2D5999A11256 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Carbon nutrition in relation to growth of three Monascus species isolated from decaying date fruits I. B. Omamor, E. I Eziashi and A. A. Adekunle Short Communication The utilization of ten different carbon sources for growth by three Monascusspecies isolated from date palm fruits has been studied. Monascus purpureusutilized fructose very well when compared to Monascus ruber and an unknownMonascus species. The Monascus sp. appeared to utilize maltose better, while sucrose and lactose were utilized well by M. purpureus. M. ruber utilized galactose well, but starch, mannitol and glycerol were poorly utilized. M. purpureusutilized raffinose and starch very well. The Monascus sp. utilized starch well, but not when compared with M. purpureus. Out of the ten carbon sources studied, mannitol and glycerol were poorly utilized by the three Monascus spp. Starch, maltose and fructose were the best carbon sources utilized by the threeMonascus species. M. purpureus exhibited better utilization of the ten studied carbon sources. Key words: Monascus species, carbon nutrition, date fruits, utilization. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/2D5999A11256 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000141 en Copyright © 2008 I. B. Omamor, E. I Eziashi and A. A. Adekunle
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:77B8EFA11247 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) H. J. Lam from Gabon L. C. Obame, , P. Edou, I. H. N. Bassoleacute;, J. Koudou, H. Agnaniet, F. Eba and A. S. Traore Full Length Research Paper The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the resin of Dacryodes edulis(G. Don) H. J. Lam was simultaneously analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty four components were identied in the essential oil and the main components were sabinene (21.8%), terpinene-4-ol (19.8%), a-pinene (17.5%) and p-cymene (11.3%), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was examined using an in vitro radical scavenging activity test and beta;-carotene-linoleic acid assays. In the 2.2-Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test system, the IC50 value of D. edulis oil was 68.5 plusmn; 2.29 g/ml. In the beta;-carotene-linoleic acid test system, oxidation of linoleic acid was effectively inhibited by D. edulis (70.0%). The oil was less effective than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Furthermore, the essential oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion and microdilution methods. Theessential oil showed better activity against bacterial species than against yeast. Key words: Dacryodes edulis, Burseraceae, essential oil, antimicrobial activity; antioxidant activity; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/77B8EFA11247 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000164 en Copyright © 2008 L. C. Obame, , P. Edou, I. H. N. Bassoleacute;, J. Koudou, H. Agnaniet, F. Eba and A. S. Traore
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:D5AE4B211237 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Comparison of five serological diagnostic assays for the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to dengue virus Shamala Devi Sekaran, Ew Cheng Lan and Geetha Subramaniam Full Length Research Paper Difficulties in the management of dengue infections include the lack of rapid diagnostic methods and symptoms of dengue are often confused with those of other diseases. Five commercial kits were evaluated for the detection of dengue-specific IgM and IgG antibodies using sera obtained from patients with primary and secondary dengue infections, as well as other febrile illnesses. All kits were compared to the in-house IgM ELISA and HI assays. The rapid test kits took either 30 to 45 min (PanBio Dengue Duo Cassette, Accusens Dengue Virus Rapid Strip Test, and Unitest Dengue IgM and IgG Combo Rapid Test) or between 2 to 4 h (PanBio Dengue Duo Capture ELISA, and Antivirus IgM Detecion Kit 96 [Pentax Corporation]). Most kits were able to detect IgM in more than 90% of the secondary convalescent sera, while IgG detection was generally high (80 to 100%). All five kits showed high specificity when tested against sera from other febrile patients, and have been shown to be extremely useful in the diagnosis of dengue infections. Key words: Dengue virus, IgM and IgG, diagnosis, ELISA, PCR. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/D5AE4B211237 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000192 en Copyright © 2008 Shamala Devi Sekaran, Ew Cheng Lan and Geetha Subramaniam
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:8468E1C11226 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Antibacterial activity of Asperugo procumbens L. against some human pathogenic bacteria M. Ahanjan, , D. C. Mohana and K. A. Raveesha Full Length Research Paper Petroleum ether, chloroform (CHCl3), ethanol (EtOH), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (H2O) extracts of leaves of Asperugo procumbens L. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against five human pathogenic bacterial strains with the agar-well diffusion method. The methanol extract was highly active against all the test bacteria, followed by the ethanol and aqueous extracts. The chloroform and petroleum ether extracts did not show any antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanol extract ranged between 1.56 and 12.5 mg/ml. The results of this study provide support for the use of A. procumbensL. in Iran for traditional medicines. Key words: Asperugo procumbens, antibacterial activity, methanol extract, traditional medicine. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/8468E1C11226 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000046 en Copyright © 2008 M. Ahanjan, , D. C. Mohana and K. A. Raveesha
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:D71C57911334 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Purification and properties of a non-stereospecific dehalogenase enzyme E (DehE) from Methylobacterium sp. HJ1 Ng Hong Jing, Fatin Hanani Sulaiman, Roswanira Ab. Wahab, Rolando V. Pakinging Jr, Noor Aini Abdul Rashid and Fahrul Huyop Full Length Research Paper The bacterial isolate HJ1, which was identified as a Methylobacterium sp., grew on 2, 2-dichloropropionic acid as the sole carbon source and produced a 2-haloalkanoic acid hydrolytic dehalogenase. This non-stereospecific dehalogenase E (DehE) catalysed the hydrolytic dechlorination of 2, 2-dichloropropionic acid and D, L-2-chloropropionic acid to produce pyruvate and lactate, respectively. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The molecular weight was 36 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 72 kDa by gel filtration, suggesting that the enzyme is a protein dimer. The purified enzyme was only inhibited by HgSO4 and was non-stereospecific to haloalkanoic acids. The Km value for the hydrolysis of 2, 2-dichloropropionic acid was 0.25 mM. The enzyme removes chloride present on the alpha;-position, but not on the beta;-position, of a number 2ndash;carbon alkanoic acids. Key words: Haloalkanoic acid, dichloropropionate, 2, 2-dichloropropionic acid. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/D71C57911334 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000614 en Copyright © 2008 Ng Hong Jing, Fatin Hanani Sulaiman, Roswanira Ab. Wahab, Rolando V. Pakinging Jr, Noor Aini Abdul Rashid and Fahrul Huyop
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:DCB60EB11326 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts as inoculum enrichment for the production of gowé, a sour beverage from Benin Vieira-Dalodeacute; G, Madodeacute; Y. E , Hounhouigan J., Jespersen L. and Jakobsen M. Full Length Research Paper Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella confusa, Kluyveromyces marxianus andPichia anomala, previously isolated during natural fermentation of traditional goweacute;, were tested as inoculum enrichment for controlled fermentation of goweacute;. The final product was subjected to chemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Growth of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were verified by determination of colony forming units (CFU) and molecular biology techniques. A significant decrease in pH from 6.1 to 3.3, with a concomitant increase in titratable acidity (11 to 60 g/kg as lactic acid, dry weight), was observed after 24 h of fermentation when LAB was used either alone or in combination with yeasts. The LAB count increased significantly from 6.1 to 9.4 log CFU/ml, while the yeast count remained constant throughout fermentation. Repetitive-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) assays performed on isolates during the fermentation confirmed the dominance of the added LAB strains. Sensory evaluation revealed that the product fermented for 7 h with L. fermentum alone or in combination with K. marxianus was as acceptable as the traditional product normally obtained after a minimum of 24 h of fermentation. Consequently, goweacute; can be obtained by controlled fermentation, using L. fermentum as inoculum enrichment, in a small scale industry. Key words: Sorghum, Goweacute;, fermentation, starter cultures, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, inoculum enrichment. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/DCB60EB11326 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000723 en Copyright © 2008 Vieira-Dalodeacute; G, Madodeacute; Y. E , Hounhouigan J., Jespersen L. and Jakobsen M.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:233BC1A11313 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Solubilization of inorganic phosphates and plant growth promotion by strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from acidic soils of Cameroon FANKEM Henri, NGO NKOT Laurette, DEUBEL Annette, QUINN John, MERBACH Wolfgang, ETOA Franccedil;ois-Xavier and NWAGA Dieudonneacute; Full Length Research Paper A trial of a screening and selection strategy for phosphate-solubilizing bacteria based on phosphate solubilization ability, and the subsequent effect of these strains on plant growth promotion under in situ conditions was conducted. Of all the bacteria tested, three Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (CB501, CD511 and CE509) were selected. On agar plates, two strains (CB501 and CE509) showed an ability to solubilize the three phosphate types (Ca3 (PO4)2, AlPO4middot;H2O or FePO4middot;2H2O), while strain CD511 showed a halo zone only on an agar plate supplemented with iron phosphate (Fe-P). However, in liquid media, all the strains were able to mobilize significant amounts of phosphorus (P) depending on the phosphate type. Calcium phosphate (Ca-P) solubilization resulted from the combined effects of pH decrease and carboxylic acids synthesis. At pH 4, it was solubilized by most of the organic acids. However, the synthesis of carboxylic acids was the main mechanism involved in the process of aluminium phosphate (Al-P) and Fe-P solubilization. Both were mobilized at pH 4 by citrate, malate, tartrate, and on a much lower level by gluconate and trans-aconitate.Subsequently, a greenhouse trial was conducted using Zea mays, the results of which obtained using 5 parameters including grain yield and P uptake, revealed that strain CB501 was the best plant growth promotor with a global effect of +37%, followed by strain CE509 (+21.2%) and then by strain CD511 (+16.7%). However, the selection of phosphate-solubilizing Pseudomonas strains as possible inoculation tools for phosphate-deficient soils should focus on the integral interpretation of laboratory assays, greenhouse experiments and field trials. Key words: Carboxylic acids, Phosphate solubilization, plant growth,Pseudomonas fluorescens. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/233BC1A11313 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000660 en Copyright © 2008 FANKEM Henri, NGO NKOT Laurette, DEUBEL Annette, QUINN John, MERBACH Wolfgang, ETOA Franccedil;ois-Xavier and NWAGA Dieudonneacute;
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:58C38B311304 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
An improved method for the extraction of nematodes using iodixanol (OptiPrep Ô) Dewang Deng, Allan Zipf, Y. Tilahun, G.C.Sharma, J. Jenkins and K. Lawrence Full Length Research Paper A new nematode extraction technique was established, which is based on an iso-osmotic density-gradient medium (OptiPrepTM). This technique resulted in significantly higher numbers of clean eggs and vermiform nematodes that retain higher viability (48.6%) than samples processed with the sucrose method (28.7%). Nematodes survived exposure to OptiPrepTM for 22 hours without significant mortality whereas all nematodes died in the sucrose medium. OptiPrepTM provided a suitable, non-toxic alternative to the traditional density gradient material for the isolation of nematodes. This technique is convenient and relatively simple, with the added benefit of yielding cleaner samples compared to traditional isolation techniques. Key words: Nematode extraction, density gradient, nematology. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/58C38B311304 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000029 en Copyright © 2008 Dewang Deng, Allan Zipf, Y. Tilahun, G.C.Sharma, J. Jenkins and K. Lawrence
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:65E9D0911274 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Chemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Syzigium aromaticum (clove) G. A. Ayoola, F. M. Lawore, T. Adelowotan, I. E. Aibinu, E. Adenipekun, H. A. B. Coker and T. O. Odugbemi Full Length Research Paper Steam distillation of the dry flower buds of Syzigium aromaticum (clove) yielded 7% (w/w) of the pure light yellow oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the oil revealed that the components were eugenol, caryophyllene, eugenol acetate and alpha-humelene, with eugenol being the main component. The antimicrobial sensitivity of the volatile oil against some Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella paratyphi, Citrobacter spp. and Enterobacter cloacae), a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923), and a fungus (Candida albicans) showed a broad spectrum of activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for each organism as 2.4, 1.6, 0.27, 0.016, 0.23, 1.63, 0.73 and 0.067 mg/ml for S. aureus ATTC 25923, E. cloacae, S. paratyphi, K. pneumoniae, E. coli ATTC 35218, E. coli, Citrobacter spp. and C. albicans, respectively. Antioxidant screening of clove oil with 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) was positive, indicating the presence of free radical scavenging molecules which can be attributed to the presence of eugenol, a phenolic compound. Key words: Syzigium aromaticum, clove oil, antimicrobial, antifungal, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Gas chromatography, mass spectrometry. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/65E9D0911274 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000161 en Copyright © 2008 G. A. Ayoola, F. M. Lawore, T. Adelowotan, I. E. Aibinu, E. Adenipekun, H. A. B. Coker and T. O. Odugbemi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:AEC7A7911269 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Improvement of the quality and shelf life of concentrated yoghurt (labneh) by the addition of some essential oils Mutlag Al.Otaibi and Hassan El.Demerdash Full Length Research Paper Three essential oils, namely thyme, marjoram and sage, were added to concentrated yoghurt (labneh) at concentrations of 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 parts per million (ppm). Subsequently, the chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties of freshly prepared labneh and of the labneh stored at 5C plusmn; 1 for up to 21 days were determined. Addition of essential oils affected the pH, soluble nitrogen-to-total nitrogen, total volatile fatty acid and acetaldehyde values of the prepared labneh. On the other hand, total solids and fat-to-dry matter values were only slightly affected. Total viable counts, as well as counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus in the treated labneh increased and reached a maximum after 7 days of storage where after it decreased until the end of the storage period. Yeasts and moulds, coliform bacteria and spore-forming bacteria were not detected in the treated labneh. Of the different treated labneh, labneh containing 0.2 ppm thyme, marjoram or sage oils were organoleptically the most acceptable, and it had a good body and texture that was similar to that of the untreated control. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that 0.2 ppm of thyme, marjoram or sage can be used in order to increase the shelf life of labneh for up to 21days. Key words: Labneh, essential oils, shelf life, chemical properties, microbiological properties. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/AEC7A7911269 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000379 en Copyright © 2008 Mutlag Al.Otaibi and Hassan El.Demerdash
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:10D754511414 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Detection and identification of groundwater bacteria in Sebha City, Libya Salem, A. Mahfouz F. M. Shaieb and A. E. K Elzen Full Length Research Paper Drinking water systems supplied by untreated groundwater were examined to determine whether coliform or heterotrophic plate count bacteria are capable of growing. Filterable bacteria were present in 42% of the 46 groundwater sources examined by using nonselective media (R2A and full strength m-HPC agars). Pseudomonads were the most frequently identified group of filterable bacteria detected. Flavobacterium, Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter and Achromobacter isolates were also identified. Total coliforms were recovered only from six samples taken from wells near the wastewater lagoon, following filtration through 0.45- m-pore-size membrane filters by using selective M-Endo LES agar or mT7 agar. In addition, none of the isolates identified from nonselective media were coliforms. Similarly, neither total coliforms nor specifically Escherichia coli were detected in these filtrates when Colilert P/A medium was used. Key words: ground water, contamination, Flavobacterium, Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, Escherichia coli. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/10D754511414 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000221 en Copyright © 2008 Salem, A. Mahfouz F. M. Shaieb and A. E. K Elzen
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:CEF14AF11400 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in untreated produce water using pure fungal cultures C. C. Okoro Full Length Research Paper Biodegradation studies of hydrocarbons in untreated produce water from an oil production facility in Nigeria were undertaken over a period of time using pure fungal cultures (Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus niger). The rate of reduction in some petroleum hydrocarbon fractions, such as n-alkanes, aromatics, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen (NSO)-containing compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were monitored by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometery, using mechanically treated produce water as a reference. Gas chromatographic analysis showed that untreated produce water with an oil and grease content of 1407 mg/l contained various petroleum hydrocarbon fractions, including n-alkanes (608 mg/l), aromatics (13.88 mg/l), NSO compounds (12.68 mg/l) and PAHs (0.833 mg/l). Upon mechanical treatment, the oil and grease content of the produce water was reduced to 44 mg/l, while n-alkanes, aromatics, NSO compounds and PAHs were reduced to 38.4, 2.65, 1.78 and 0.0655 mg/l, respectively. A pure culture of Penicillium sp. reduced the oil and grease content to 72.3 mg/l, comprising of n-alkanes (65.50 mg/l), aromatics (0.98 mg/l), NSO compounds (1.64 mg/l) and PAHs (0.0021 mg/l) after 120 days of exposure. However, A. niger reduced the oil and grease content to 59.1 mg/l, comprising of n-alkanes (56.50 mg/l), aromatics (0.65 mg/l), NSO compounds (0.96 mg/l) and PAHs (0.008 mg/l) after 120 days of exposure. The results indicate that produce water is readily biodegradable and that fungal cultures have the capability to degrade the recalcitrant PAH component of the petroleum hydrocarbon mixture in produce water. Biodegradation rates were, however, slightly more enhanced by using A. niger than Penicillium sp. Key words: Biodegradation, fungal cultures, petroleum hydrocarbons, produce water. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/CEF14AF11400 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000130 en Copyright © 2008 C. C. Okoro
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:0140FD811389 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
In vitro detection and characterization of bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Senegalese local food products Michel Bakar DIOP, Robin DUBOIS-DAUPHIN, Carine DORTU, Jacqueline DESTAIN, Emmanuel TINE and Philippe THONART Full Length Research Paper The prevalence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Senegalese local food products was determined to be 109 CFU/g in millet flour and milk products, and 103CFU/g in seafood products. These food products are generally preserved by spontaneous fermentation (without addition of starters). Of 220 lactic acid bacteria strains randomly selected from such products, 12 isolates capable of producing bacteriocin-like substances (bac+) were detected. Based on the use of API 50 CH test kits and 16S rDNA sequencing, 11 isolates were characterized as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains and one as anEnterococcus faecium strain. Nisin- and enterocin B-encoding genes were respectively identified in the bac+ lactococcal strains and the E. faecium strain. Since the bac+ Lc. lactis strains were isolated from different products, it suggests a high potential of growth by these strains in variable ecological environments. Expression of the nisin gene was indicated for one of the lactococcal strains, designated Lc. lactis subsp. lactis CWBI-B1410, which showed the highest in vitro antibacterial activity. An antibacterial preparation prepared from the CWBI-B1410 strain showed many similarities with nisin with regards to its inhibitory effects, heat resistance, protease sensitivity profile, as well as retention time of the antibacterial substances on a C18 column. These results suggest that a nisin-like substance is produced by the CWBI-B1410 strain. This strain has been selected for application as an additional barrier to supplementation with sodium chloride as a means to improve the bacterial quality of fish commodities in Senegal. Key words: Lactococcus lactis, antimicrobial, bacteriocins, Nisin-like substance. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/0140FD811389 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000396 en Copyright © 2008 Michel Bakar DIOP, Robin DUBOIS-DAUPHIN, Carine DORTU, Jacqueline DESTAIN, Emmanuel TINE and Philippe THONART
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:E7D012111374 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J.Sm: A potential resource for antibacterial activity M. Kandhasamy, K. D. Arunachalam and A. J. Thatheyus Full Length Research Paper Six different organic solvents such as ethanol, methanol, petroleum ether, hexane, benzene and chloroform were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the rhizome of Drynaria quercifolia to screen the antibacterial activity against infectious disease causing bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, Salmonella paratyphi B, Serratia marscence, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis by agar diffusion method. The ethanolic extract of D. quercifolia was more active against 80% of the organisms tested. It was followed by methanolic extract (70%), benzene (50%) and chloroform extract (40%) in inhibiting the growth of the organisms tested. Petroleum ether and hexane extract of D. quercifolia did not show any antibacterial activity against any of the pathogenic bacteria tested. Among the bacteria tested, gram-negative bacteria were more susceptible to the crude extracts compared to gram-positive bacteria. Among gram-positive bacteria, S. aureus was susceptible to ethanolic, methanolic and chloroform extracts whereas B. subtilis was susceptible to methanolic extract of D. quercifolia alone. In the present study ethanolic and methanolic extracts of rhizome of D. quercifolia showed high efficiency of antibacterial activity and gram-negative bacteria were more susceptible to all the extracts tested. Key words: Drynaria quercifolia, rhizome, crude extract, antibacterial activity. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/E7D012111374 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000244 en Copyright © 2008 M. Kandhasamy, K. D. Arunachalam and A. J. Thatheyus
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:65B1D1911367 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Clostridium perfringens type A beta2 toxin in elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) and pygmy hog (Sus salvanius) with haemorrhagic enteritis in Assam, India Arunava Das, Yahya Mazumder, Biman K. Dutta, Bibek R. Shome, Komal M. Bujarbaruah and Gauri D. Sharma Full Length Research Paper This paper reported the investigation of haemorrhagic enteritis in female elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) and pygmy hog (Sus salvanius) at the Assam State Zoo, Guwahati, Assam, India. An eight year old female elephant and two and half year old female pygmy hog developed haemorrhagic enteritis of unknown cause maintained at the zoo died within four days. Bacteriological investigation revealed that the causative agent Clostridium perfringens was associated with the disease. Erythromycin, clindamycin and metronidazole were effective, however, ampicillin or penicillin G was more effective and probably the drug of choice for C. perfringens associated haemorrhagic enteritis. Isolates derived from elephant harboured four plasmids (4.1, 14.4, 38.8 and 48.2 kb), while that from pygmy hog carried two plasmids (42.8 and 51.9 kb). PCR analysis of C. perfringens isolates revealed presence of alpha toxin gene (cpa) and beta2 toxin gene (cpb2). None of the isolates were positive for beta, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin genes. The sequence analysis of partial cpa gene showed 98.6 to 100% homology among the isolates studied. The study confirmed the involvement of beta2 toxin producing C. perfringens type A associated with the haemorrhagic enteritis. Key words: Clostridium perfringens, haemorrhagic enteritis. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/65B1D1911367 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000172 en Copyright © 2008 Arunava Das, Yahya Mazumder, Biman K. Dutta, Bibek R. Shome, Komal M. Bujarbaruah and Gauri D. Sharma
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:424F5D111358 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Microbiology of polyethylene-packaged sliced watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sold by street vendors in Nigeria E. Nwachukwu, C. F. Ezeama and B. N. Ezeanya Full Length Research Paper Ten packaged, freshly sliced watermelon were collected from different street vendors to determine their microbiological quality. Eight different microbial isolates were obtained from the sliced watermelon samples, namely Escherichia coli,Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillusspp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus stolonifer and Mucor spp. The effects of high density polyethylene (HDP) and low density polyethylene (LDP) packaging bags on the microbiological quality of freshly sliced watermelon, stored at ambient temperature were also determined. After 10 days of storage, the total viable counts increased from 0.6 x 103 cfu/g to 5.3 x 103cfu/g and to 5.5 x 103 cfu/g in the HDP- and LDP-packaged watermelon samples, respectively. The total fungal counts increased from 0.5 x 103cfu/g to 6.7 x 103cfu/g and to 7.2 x 103cfu/g in the HDP- and LDP-packaged watermelon samples, respectively. Proper sanitation practice and use of good quality packaging materials are recommended in order to avoid risks associated with the consumption of sliced food produce. Key words: Watermelon, microbiological quality, packaging materials. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/424F5D111358 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000500 en Copyright © 2008 E. Nwachukwu, C. F. Ezeama and B. N. Ezeanya
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:15879FE11467 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Comparative analysis of the antimicrobial activity of cinnamon oil and cinnamon extract on some food-borne microbes Charu Gupta, Amar P. Garg, Ramesh C. Uniyal and Archana Kumari Full Length Research Paper The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activities of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) extract (50% ethanol) and its oil, and to compare their effectiveness against ten bacteria (seven Gram-positive and three Gram-negative) and seven fungi by agar well diffusion assays. Cinnamon oil exhibited a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity, as compared to its extract, by inhibiting both bacteria and fungi. The oil was found to be very effective with a lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.25% (v/v) against Bacillus sp.,Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli and Klebsiella sp. Amongst the fungi, Rhizomucorsp. was found to be highly sensitive to the oil. Therefore, this study shows that cinnamon oil is a more potent antimicrobial agent than cinnamon extract and that it has the potential to be used as food biopreservative. Key words: Antimicrobial, cinnamon, biopreservative, food borne pathogens, agar well diffusion, essential oil. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/15879FE11467 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000180 en Copyright © 2008 Charu Gupta, Amar P. Garg, Ramesh C. Uniyal and Archana Kumari
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:770194211459 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Modulation of the polyene antibiotic amphotericin B selective toxicity by pH change of the stock solutions Belkherroubi-Sari L, Boucherit Z, Cheacute;ron M, Boucherit K, Benyoucef M and Belbraouet S Full Length Research Paper Stock solutions of the polyene antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB) were prepared at pHs from 4.0 to 5.4 in acetic acid/acetate buffer, at 7.4 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and from 10.0 to 10.8 in carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. Their antifungal activity was tested on Candida albicans cells and their toxicity on human erythrocytes. Antifungal activity was observed for all preparations. Surprisingly, the toxicity (K+ release and hemolysis) drastically decreased for the two preparations at pH 5.4 and 10.8. This effect was attributed, in the first case, to a screening of the positively charged aggregated antibiotic by the negatively charged acetate ions of the buffer, and, in the second case, to a neat modification of the mode of AmB self-association. Key words: AmB, pH, toxicity, erythrocytes, C. albicans. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/770194211459 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000504 en Copyright © 2008 Belkherroubi-Sari L, Boucherit Z, Cheacute;ron M, Boucherit K, Benyoucef M and Belbraouet S
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:83ED34D11447 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nosocomial infections in Gaza Strip N. S. Abu Hujier and F. A. Sharif Full Length Research Paper Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is considered to be one of the most important causative agents of nosocomial infections. The present study therefore aimed broadly at obtaining a snapshot of MRSA prevalence in Gaza Strip, as well as to examine the antibiotic resistance profile of such isolates. A total of 150 clinical isolates of S. aureus were identified from patients. Disk diffusion tests and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, based on detection of the mecAgene, were performed on each the isolates in order to identify MRSA strains. The PCR assay was considered as the ldquo;gold standardrdquo; and the disk diffusion tests were interpreted by comparison to this standard. The prevalence of methicillin resistance among S. aureus isolates was 22% (33 isolates). There were great variations between the antibiograms of methicillin-resistant and -sensitive S. aureus isolates. These variations were most evident for the b-lactam antibiotics, although antibiotics other than b-lactams also showed variations among the two types of S. aureus. The results showed that the conventional disk diffusion test using methicillin disks is highly reliable for detection of MRSA in hospital laboratories and that it can reach the specificity of the PCR assay. Key words: Polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic resistance, nosocomial infections, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/83ED34D11447 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000226 en Copyright © 2008 N. S. Abu Hujier and F. A. Sharif
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:1AC4EC911436 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Effect of temperature and pH on the antimicrobial activity of inhibitory substances produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from Ergo, an Ethiopian traditional fermented milk Esayas Assefa, Fekadu Beyene and Amutha Santhanam Full Length Research Paper Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) predominates the microflora of milk and milk products. They produce antimicrobial metabolites that inhibit growth of food-borne pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, thereby enhancing the shelf-life of the food. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity and the effect of temperature and pH on the culture supernatant of LAB, 112 strains of LAB, belonging to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Entorococcus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc and Pediococcusspecies, were isolated from Ergo. The culture supernatants of all isolates were examined for antimicrobial activity on indicator strains, that is, Salmonella typhi,Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923) and Escherchia coli(ATCC-25922), using the disc diffusion assay. Twelve strains of LAB that produced antimicrobial substances were subsequently selected and their culture supernatants were evaluated for stability at different temperatures and pH values. The antimicrobial activity of the culture supernatants of the LAB was completely inactivated when treated at 121oC for 15 min, whereas at 30, 60 and 80oC, there was no significant (Pgt;0.05) difference in the diameter of the inhibition zones compared to the control. The culture supernatants was stable over a wide pH range (pH 2 - 10) and no significant (Pgt;0.05) difference was observed between the treated and untreated (control) supernatants. However, the diameter of the inhibition zones was significantly (Plt;0.05) decreased at pH 12. Thus, Ergo may be a promising source of antimicrobial substance-producing LAB that may in future be applied to food. Key words: Lactic acid bacteria, antimicrobial substances, fermentation, ergo Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/1AC4EC911436 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000264 en Copyright © 2008 Esayas Assefa, Fekadu Beyene and Amutha Santhanam
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:72C1D1411515 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Prevalence and transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at the intensive care unit of Domat Al-Jandal Hospital, Al-Jouf, Saudi Arabia Omer Mohamed Khalil and Meshref Awad Al-Ruaily Full Length Research Paper Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) often colonize the anterior nares. Nasal carriage thus remains the main source of bacterial dissemination. The prevalence and rate of acquisition of methicillin-resistantS. aureus in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Domat Al-Jandal Hospital were studied over one year in order to estimate the possible risk for those, who are initially free of the organism, of acquiring MRSA infection while maintained in the ICU. Of the 160 patients, 15 (9.4%) were colonized with MRSA in their anterior nares on admission to the ICU. Six of 140 (4.3%) patients were positive for MRSA in their blood cultures, while nine of 60 (15%) had MRSA in their wound cultures (Table 1). Eleven patients (7.1%) were initially negative, but acquired MRSA while they were at the ICU. Antibiotic sensitivity testing identified 30 (18.8%) S. aureus strains to be resistant to oxacillin, while all the strains were susceptible to vancomycin. In conclusion, screening of ICU patients for S. aureus colonization and infection, accompanied by antibiotic sensitivity testing of cultured isolates, is important to understand its epidemiology, and to develop preventive measures and treatment strategies. Key words: Methicillin-resistant, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Intensive care unit (ICU), carriage. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/72C1D1411515 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000576 en Copyright © 2008 Omer Mohamed Khalil and Meshref Awad Al-Ruaily
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:1CEFE3911510 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Comparative assessment of the effect of crude extracts of Carica papaya and Terminalia cattapa, and a bacteriocin on vacuum-packed West African soft cheese (‘wara’) Victoria O. Adetunji Full Length Research Paper This study evaluated the survival of Enterobacteriaceae, molds and yeasts in vacuum-packaged soft cheese treated independently with crude extracts of Carica papaya (Vcpc) and Terminalia cattapa (Vtcc), a bacteriocin (Vnc), and a combination of the three treatments (V+3). The cheese was then stored at 15 and 28deg;C, respectively, for three weeks. Enterobacteriacea were not detected in the Vcpc- and Vtcc-treated cheese at 15deg;C after three weeks of storage, while the yeasts and moulds were not detected in any of the treatments throughout the storage period. Inhibition of enterobacteriaceae was not apparent in Vnc- and V+3-treated cheese, but significant differences were observed regarding the microbial counts at the two storage temperatures and periods (P lt; 0.05). It can therefore be concluded that vacuum packaging and addition of crude extracts of C. papayaand T. cattapa to the soft cheese (lsquo;wararsquo;) can suppress growth of enterobacteriacea, molds and yeasts, thus leading to extension of the shelf-life of the soft cheese (lsquo;wararsquo;). Key words: Enterobacteriaceae, molds, yeast, vacuum package, soft cheese,Carica papaya, Terminalia cattapa. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/1CEFE3911510 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000182 en Copyright © 2008 Victoria O. Adetunji
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:D72829111504 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Growth of Pleurotus tuberregium (Fr) Singer on some heavy metal-supplemented substrates A. O. Oghenekaro, J. A Okhuoya and E. O Akpaja Full Length Research Paper The effects of three heavy metals, that is, lead, zinc and copper, on the growth ofPleurotus tuberregium, was investigated. Lead carbonate, zinc carbonate and copper sulphate were added to the mushroom substrate at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/250 g of substrate. Two sets were prepared using spawn and sclerotia as inocula. On a mycelial density rating, ranging from 0 - 5, the spawn-inoculated treatment was higher than that of the sclerotia. The average mycelial density was highest in copper-contaminated substrate that was inoculated with spawn, with a mean value of 5.0, while the lowest was in copper-contaminated substrate that was inoculated with sclerotia, with a mean value of 2.0. Fruit bodies were formed only in the copper-contaminated substrate at concentrations of 1.0 and 2.0 g/ 250 g of substrate. Shrinkage of the mushroom fruit body occurred seven days after formation of primordia. Biological efficiency of the harvested sporophores was 0.01 and 0.02%, respectively. There was a general inhibition of fruit body development by the heavy metals, except in the two treatments with copper. Key words: Heavy metals, Pleurotus tuberregium, mycelial density, biological efficiency, bioaccumulation. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/D72829111504 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000352 en Copyright © 2008 A. O. Oghenekaro, J. A Okhuoya and E. O Akpaja
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:E5AC1B811499 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Analgesic activity of three thyme species, Thymus satureioides, Thymus maroccanus and Thymus leptobotrys K. Elhabazi, A. Ouacherif, A. Laroubi, R. Aboufatima, A. Abbad, A. Benharref , A. Zyad, A. Chait and A. Dalal. Full Length Research Paper In our previous work, we have demonstrated that Thymus broussonetii exerts a significant analgesic activity, which was more potent than the reference analgesic drug (acetyl salicylic acid; ASA). In this study, we examined the antinociceptive effect of three Moroccan Thyme species, i.e. Thymus satureioides, Thymus maroccanus and Thymus leptobotrys. The effect of aqueous, butanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of each species were tested on the nociceptive response in mice using a formalin test as a model of nociception. The results obtained showed that the treatment with aqueous and butanolic extracts (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, i.p.) of the three species induced a marked inhibition of the nociceptive response in both neurogenic and inflammatory phases of formalin test. The ethyl acetate extracts had a weak effect on the neurogenic phase, but it had a significant effect on the inflammatory phase. These results suggest that the aqueous and butanolic extracts act both peripherally and centrally to inhibit the nociceptive response, while the ethyl acetate extracts act rather peripherally. According to ID50 values and the maximal inhibition of the nociceptive behaviour, we could conclude that T. satureioides was more potent and efficacious in inhibiting the formalin nociceptive response. Phytochemical screening carried out on these species showed the presence of quinons, saponins, tannins, terpenes and flavonoids. Our results provide evidence that T. satureioides, T. maroccanus and T. leptobotrys possess active principles that exhibit marked analgesic effect, thus confirming and justifying the popular uses of these plants to relieve some pains. Key words: Analgesic effect, formalin test, Mice, Thymus satureioides, Thymus maroccanus, Thymus leptobotrys. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/E5AC1B811499 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000034 en Copyright © 2008 K. Elhabazi, A. Ouacherif, A. Laroubi, R. Aboufatima, A. Abbad, A. Benharref , A. Zyad, A. Chait and A. Dalal.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:F9160D411489 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Antimicrobial activity of some herbal oils against common food-borne pathogens Charu Gupta, Amar P. Garg , Ramesh C. Uniyal and Archana Kumari Full Length Research Paper In this study we screened ten herbal oils, which were purchased from the local market of Meerut region to study their role as inhibitors of food-borne pathogens. Of the ten essential oils, only cinnamon and clove oil exhibited a broad range of antimicrobial activity, followed by peppermint and Eucalyptus oil. Cinnamon oil exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.25% (v/v), followed by clove oil with an MIC of 2.5% (v/v). These oils therefore possess potential to be used as food bio-preservatives. Key words: Herbal oils, agar well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), two-fold dilution. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/F9160D411489 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000072 en Copyright © 2008 Charu Gupta, Amar P. Garg , Ramesh C. Uniyal and Archana Kumari
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:618AA8B11482 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Observations on lumpy skin disease in local Egyptian cows with emphasis on its impact on ovarian function W. M. Ahmed and Kawther S. Zaher Full Length Research Paper The present study monitored reproductive and health aspects of local cows in Egypt following natural infection with Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). The study was carried out on 640 mature Egyptian native cows reared at Lower Egypt. Cows were clinically examined and genital organs were scanned by ultrasonography and ovarian function was recorded. Blood samples were collected for virus isolation and propagation on calf Kidney cells, electron microscopy (EM) and for PCR assay. Moreover, progesterone level (ELISA), protein electrophoretic pattern (Polyaccrylamide Gel Electrophoresis), immunoglobulin concentrations (Radial Immune Diffusion) and some trace element values (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) were determined in the serum. Results indicated that LSDV had typical cytopathic effect and plaque. EM showed that size of LSDV size ranges from 300 ndash; 350 nm with crescent or ovoid shape. PCR assay indicated the presence of a band at 192 bp which belonged to viral attachment protein encoding gene. Epidemiological studies revealed that 25.47% of the examined cows were positive for LSDV with obvious year, age and seasonal variations. LSDV infected cows showed fever, become completely of food with skin nodules. Serum progesterone level was low (P lt; 0.01) during both follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle and 92.64% of infected cows had inactive ovaries. Infected cows showed obvious (P lt; 0.01) low albumin and high g globulin values as well as low concentrations of copper and iron (P lt; 0.01) in their serum as compared to non infected cow-mates. It was concluded that PCR is a useful method for rapid diagnosis of LSDV. Cows infected with LSDV mostly suffering from cessation of ovarian activity mainly due to poor body condition. Key words: LSDV, Cow, Ovary, PCR, infection, immunoglobulin. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/618AA8B11482 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000531 en Copyright © 2008 W. M. Ahmed and Kawther S. Zaher
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:443D4B411559 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
In vitro solubilization of insoluble fluorides by selected fungi Sulaiman Ali Alharbi Full Length Research Paper The ability of three species of Penicillium, isolated from soil, and Fusarium solanito solubilize insoluble fluorides was studied. All three Penicillium species and F.solani were capable of solubilizing calcium fluoride and fluorite. A single species ofPenicillium and F. solani also solubilized a range of insoluble fluoride compounds. The ability of F. solani to solubilize calcium fluoride varied with the type of carbon source used and increased with an increasing amount of added fluoride up to 2% (w/v). No growth occurred above this amount. The addition of 1.5% (w/v) calcium fluoride also inhibited the formation of the black spores that are typically produced by Aspergillus niger, although sporulation returned when the fungus was transferred to medium lacking calcium fluoride. Key words: Fluoride solubilization, fungi, Penicillium, Fusarium solani, environmental mycology. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/443D4B411559 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000403 en Copyright © 2008 Sulaiman Ali Alharbi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:828907311553 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Genotyping of bovine viral diarrhea virus using multiplex PCR, with and without RNA extraction Kawther S. A. Zaher Short Communication Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a very important viral disease, which constitutes a major problem worldwide due to the carrier state and due to its misdiagnosis with other viruses. The goal of the current study was to detect and serotype BVDV through multiplex PCR with and without RNA extraction, due to the fact that extraction of RNA may be laborious. Blood samples were taken from 100 randomly-selected animals, containing diseased animals suffering from diarrhea and respiratory manifestation. One part of the sample was subjected to RNA extraction and the other part was not, before performing reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. The assay succeeded to type BVDV with and without extraction RNA, as well as in detecting carrier animals. BVDV-2 was detected in a slightly higher number of animals than BVDV-1 (27 and 25, respectively), while 47 buffalo were identified as carrier animals. Key word: Buffaloes, BVD, Multiplex PCR, serotyping, RNA. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/828907311553 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000345 en Copyright © 2008 Kawther S. A. Zaher
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:221F98A11548 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relatedness of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Mbandaka strains, isolated from a swine finishing farm in Greece G. Filioussis, E. Petridou, A. Johansson, G. Christodoulopoulos and S. K. Kritas Short Communication The current study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Mbandaka (Salmonella Mbandaka) isolated from finishing swines in Greece. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to examine the genetic relatedness of the isolates. The study was carried out for 1 year as part of a project focusing on antimicrobial resistance of salmonellae recovered from asymptomatic pigs. A total of 400 finishing pigs stabled in 20 swine farms in central Greece were included in the study. Fecal samples taken directly from the rectum, one sample from each pig, were cultured for Salmonella spp. Five of the 400 tested finishing pigs, originating from the same herd, were asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella Mbandaka. All five isolates were resistant to tetracycline, four were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and three to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. In contrast, all five isolates were susceptible to cefuroxime and ceftriaxone, as well as to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin. All five isolates had indistinguishable PFGE patterns. The present study confirms the existence of a nontyphoid Salmonellaserotype, Salmonella Mbandaka in asymptomatic carrier pigs in Greece. Further, the Salmonella Mbandaka isolates were found to be resistant to several antimicrobials. Key words: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Mbandaka, antimicrobial susceptibility, swine, Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), zoonotic. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/221F98A11548 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000088 en Copyright © 2008 G. Filioussis, E. Petridou, A. Johansson, G. Christodoulopoulos and S. K. Kritas
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:726F0EE11545 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Microbial solubilization of Ogun rock phosphate in the laboratory and in soil L. B. Taiwo and M. Ogundiya Full Length Research Paper Biological solubilization of rock phosphate is more environmentally friendly than acidulation. There is a need therefore to develop a microbial process that will make phosphorus available for plant use with minimum pollution to the environment. Solubilization of phosphorus (P) from Ogun rock phosphate (ORP) in a defined growth medium and in soil was carried out to evaluate the potential of a mixed culture of soybean and cowpea rhizobia (IRj 284 and IRc 252, respectively), as well as a mixed culture of Bacillus subtilis MS10 and Aspergillus niger Tiegh for use in such a process. In broth medium, the amount of P released increased as the rhizobial inoculum size increased. An increase in microbial population correlated positively (r2 = 0.72) with P release in the broth at day 1. In the soil, however, the P release peaked at 10 days after inoculation. In broth medium, a mixed culture of B. subtilis and A. niger increased P release earlier in the solubilization period compared to that obtained with cowpea and soybean rhizobia. There was also a positive correlation (r2 = 0.58) between an increase in the microbial population and P release a day after inoculation. In contrast, the microbial population was poorly correlated with P release a day after inoculation in soil. However, a stronger correlation was observed at day 5 and 10 with r2 values of 0.309 and 0.420, respectively, compared to the initial r2 value of 0.009 at day 1. Nevertheless, efficient ORP solubilization occurred in the soil between the 5th and 15th day after microbial inoculation. It is expected that legumes may benefit from this process, because this period marks the beginning of nodule initiation, nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. Key words: Ogun rock phosphate, solubilization, Bradyrhizobium, Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilis, soil. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/726F0EE11545 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000492 en Copyright © 2008 L. B. Taiwo and M. Ogundiya
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:F990DF011544 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana isolates for virulence against Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their characterization by RAPD-PCR Gurvinder Kaur and V. Padmaja Full Length Research Paper Beauveria bassiana is a known natural enemy of a number of insect pests of crop plants. Molecular markers provide a means for constructing the molecular phylogeny, diversity and link to virulent phenotypes in order to screen different isolates of any given entomopathogens. Twenty-seven isolates of B. bassianaisolated from different insect hosts and from different geographical origins were characterized by PCR-based RAPD markers. DNA markers provide more detailed genomic information and are highly rewarding in view of stability and reliability of the parameter. Bioassays were conducted by using second instar larvae ofSpodoptera litura in order to categorize the isolates based on virulence. The different isolates were arbitrarily rated as more virulent, moderately virulent and less virulent based on the speed of kill. Genetic relatedness between the different isolates based on RAPD analysis and pathogenicity was studied. Clustering pattern to a certain extent reflected the genetic resemblance between the isolates based on geographical distribution as the isolates, which were not isolated from India, did not show any pairing with other isolates. On the other hand, no correlation was found between the pathogenicity of the isolates and the relatedness of the original insect host. Key words: Beauveria bassiana, isolates, Spodoptera litura, DNA fingerprinting, RAPD-PCR. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/F990DF011544 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000301 en Copyright © 2008 Gurvinder Kaur and V. Padmaja
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:A1D87F511542 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Quantitative effect of ‘abafe’ (Piliostigma thionnigii) and ‘agehu’ (Khaya ivorensis) leaves on the microbial load of dry-yam ‘gbodo’ Babajide, J. M., Atanda, O. O, Ibrahim, T. A., Majolagbe, H. O. and Akinbayode, S. A. Full Length Research Paper The quantitative effect of lsquo;abafersquo; (Piliostigma thionnigii) and lsquo;agehursquo; (Khaya ivorensis) leaves (fresh or dried; singly or combined) on the microbial load of dry-yam lsquo;gbodorsquo; was studied. The treated samples had lower microbial loads (gt;10 to 104 cfu/g) (total plate count, fungal count and staphylococcal count) compared to that of an untreated sample (106 cfu/g). Also, as the level of inclusion of leaves (especially fresh leaves) increased, the preservative effect of the leaves on dry-yam increased. Samples F-AB50-Y, F-AG40-Y and F-AG50-Y had the lowest staphylococcal count (gt;10 cfu/g). Sample CF50-Y had the lowest total plate count (5.1 x 102 cfu/g), fungal count (0.9 x 102 cfu/g) and staphylococcal count (gt;10 cfu/g) when compared with all the other treated samples. The most prominent microorganisms isolated from each dry-yam sample were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus flavus. All the leave extracts suppressed growth of the isolated organisms. The combined form of the leave extracts (0.143 g/ml each) exhibited the strongest effect on the microorganisms. Key words: Quantitative effect, abafe, agehu, microbial load, gbodo. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/A1D87F511542 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000617 en Copyright © 2008 Babajide, J. M., Atanda, O. O, Ibrahim, T. A., Majolagbe, H. O. and Akinbayode, S. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:20CD4E211540 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Incidence of aerobic bacteria and Candida albicans in post-operative wound infections Jonathan Osariemen Isibor, Ashietu Oseni, Adevbo Eyaufe, RachaelOsagie and Ahmadu Turay Full Length Research Paper The aim of the study was to isolate aerobic bacteria and Candida albicans from post-operative wounds, establish the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolated bacterial agents and proffer ways and means for the prevention of post-operative wound infections. A total of 350 swab specimens from post-operative wounds of consenting patients in Central Hospital, Benin City, were screened for the presence of aerobic pathogens and C. albicans using standard bacteriological methods. The samples were collected using sterile Evepon swab sticks and inoculated onto Blood Agar, MacConkey Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates. The 348 specimens (96.4%) yielded pathogens in the following order:Staphylococcus aureus (35.0%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.0%), Escherichia coli (13.0%), C. albicans (9.3%), Klebsiella aerogenes (7.4%), Proteus spp. (7.4%) and Streptococcus spp. (1.9%). The highest infection was seen in the age group 51 years and above, followed by 41 - 50, 21 - 30 and 11 - 20, while 0 - 10 years gave the lowest incidence. A gradual decline in resistance to infection among patients in the age group 51 and above could be responsible for the high prevalence rate (100%) observed in this study. The anti-microbial susceptibility test indicated that there were differences in the sensitivity and resistance patterns of the isolates. Key words: Aerobes, Candida albicans, post-operative wounds, infections. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/20CD4E211540 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000407 en Copyright © 2008 Jonathan Osariemen Isibor, Ashietu Oseni, Adevbo Eyaufe, RachaelOsagie and Ahmadu Turay
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:3F200FB11539 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Identification and initial characterization of a copper resistant South African mine isolate A. O. Ojo, E. van Heerden and L. A. Piater Full Length Research Paper South African mine isolates were screened for resistance to copper, and an isolate showing the highest resistance was identified as Proteus mirabilis, a Gram-negative bacterium, by 16S rDNA gene analysis and Biolog test. A higher minimal inhibitory copper concentration at 150 mg/ml was obtained using Vauml;tauml;auml;nen-Nine-Salts-Solution as a less complex medium. Studies pertaining to the copper resistance mechanism of P. mirabilis showed the organism to possess a pcoA-like gene which encodes PcoA, a putative multicopper oxidase known to protect organisms from copperndash;mediated toxicity at high concentrations. Key words: Proteus mirabilis, copper resistance gene, multicopper oxidase. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/3F200FB11539 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000361 en Copyright © 2008 A. O. Ojo, E. van Heerden and L. A. Piater
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:F9B49F711609 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Effect of oils on the production of exopolysaccharides and mycelial biomass in submerged culture of Schizophyllum commune Krishna Bolla, Syed Zeenat Shaheen, Kandukuri Vasu and M. A. Singara Charya Full Length Research Paper The effect of oils (olive, castor and peppermint) addition at different concentrations on the cell growth and production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) in a submerged culture of Schizophyllum commune was determined. The highest cell growth (8.2 g.dr.w/l) was observed on the 14th day of incubation in medium containing 1% of the olive oil. EPS production was slightly enhanced by olive oil and castor oil, but significantly inhibited by peppermint oil. Mycelial growth was increased with the oils used at different concentrations, except 1% at 7 and 14 days of incubation. Amongst the three oil sources examined, the highest EPS production was observed in medium with 0.5% castor oil after 7 days of incubation. Key words: Schizophyllum commune, exopolysaccharides, submerged culture, oil. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/F9B49F711609 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000258 en Copyright © 2008 Krishna Bolla, Syed Zeenat Shaheen, Kandukuri Vasu and M. A. Singara Charya
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:A85745611599 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Morphological and phylogenetic analysis of colonies of Microcystis morphospecies isolated from the Lebna Dam, Tunisia Soumaya El Herry, Hichem Nasri, and Noureddine Bouaiuml;cha Full Length Research Paper The toxic potential, morphological characteristics and sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of the amplified 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were investigated in threeMicrocystis morphospecies (MCYS-LB01, -LB02 and -LB03) isolated from Lebna dam in Tunisia, and compared to the reference strain Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 and different known Microcystis species described in the literature. Based on their morphology, morphospecies MCYS-LB01 and -LB02 were assigned toMicrocystis aeruginosa and morphospecies MCYS -LB03 to Microcystis wesenbergii. The phylogenic tree based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that these three morphospecies are indistinguishable from each other, from the reference strain PCC 7806 and from many other known Microcystis species and, therefore, this tree did not necessarily correlate to the distinctions between morphospecies. Furthermore, when using PCR amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region of these three morphospecies of Microcystis, a similar pattern type was obtained, even though they had been assigned to two distinct morphospecies on the basis of their morphological characteristics. This implies that some of the morphological distinctions between the Microcystis morphospecies isolated from the same reservoir must be viewed as intraspecific or phenotypic variations. Key words: Cyanobacteria, Microcystis, 16S rRNA, ITS, RFLP, Microcystins. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/A85745611599 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000515 en Copyright © 2008 Soumaya El Herry, Hichem Nasri, and Noureddine Bouaiuml;cha
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:227CD8811587 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Microbial loads and incidence of food-borne indicator bacteria in most popular indigenous fermented food condiments from middle-belt and southwestern Nigeria Adenike A. O. Ogunshe and Kehinde O. Olasugba Full Length Research Paper The food indicator bacteriological quality of 1 501 samples of most-consumed Nigerian fermented food condiments (iru n = 1 125, ogiri n = 148, okpehe n = 113 and ugba n = 115), randomly obtained from various markets in eleven major cities of Nigeria, was determined. A total of 472 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 3 556 Gram-negative indicator bacterial strains, Escherichia coli (863 [24.3%]),Klebsiella pneumoniae (671 [18.8%]), Proteus mirabilis (591 [16.6%]) andPseudomonas aeruginosa (374 [10.5%]) were isolated. The other isolated bacterial species were Klebsiella aerogenes (299 [8.4%]); Citrobacter aerogenes (264 [7.4%]); Enterobacter aerogenes (227 [6.4%]); Shigella dysenteriae (168 [4.7%]),Shigella flexneri (60 [1.7%]) and Shigella sonnei (39 [1.1%]). The most frequently recovered bacterial species from iru were E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis andP. aeruginosa, while E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis were the most recovered from ogiri. Similarly, E. coli and K. pneumoniae were the most recovered species from okpehe and ugba samples, indicating lack of process efficiency of the cottage-produced fermented food products. Key words: Coliforms, condiments, fermentation, food-borne pathogens, food poisoning, food safety, HACCP, indicator organisms, indigenous, microbial quality. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/227CD8811587 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000488 en Copyright © 2008 Adenike A. O. Ogunshe and Kehinde O. Olasugba
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:EC1186C11577 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Microbial populations and Bacillus thuringiensis diversity in saline rice field soils of coastal Orissa, India Jyotirmayee Das, Bandana Das and Tushar Kanti Dangar Full Length Research Paper Different microbial populations and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) diversity in saline soils of three rice fields and two fallow lands of coastal Orissa, India, were assessed. Populations (x105 colony forming units (cfu) g-1 dr. soil) of aerobic heterotrophic (4.5 - 47.6), spore-forming (1.00 - 21.2) and Gram-negative (0.8 - 27.8) bacteria were relatively more abundant in the soils than those of nitrifying (0.10 - 1.02), denitrifying (0.15 - 1.31), phosphate-solubilizing (1.4 - 8), sulfur-oxidizing (3.2 ndash; 8.0) and asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing (2.6 ndash; 4.0) bacteria. Populations of fungi (0 - 2) and actinomycetes (0 - 0.02) were low. Bt populations varied between 0.5 - 6.4 x 105 cfu g-1 dr. soil in the different fields. The Bt isolates (n = 406) could be divided into 9 groups (TB 155-161, 163, 164), based on their cultural, morphological and crystal (viz. bipyramidal, spherical and pleomorphic) characteristics. Phenotypically the isolates were similar to B. thuringiensis subsp.galleriae (TB155), kurstaki/kenyae/aizawai (TB156, 159, 164), darmstadiensis(TB158, 163), thompsoni/coreanensis (TB157) and entomocidus (TB161). However, one isolate (TB160) did not match with any subspecies. Key words: Microbial populations, Bacillus thuringiensis, saline soil, rice. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/EC1186C11577 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000490 en Copyright © 2008 Jyotirmayee Das, Bandana Das and Tushar Kanti Dangar
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:F5E3F8B11569 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2008
Evaluation of Securidaca longipenduculata leaf and root extracts for antimicrobial activities Junaid S. A., Abubakar A., Ofodile A. C., Olabode A. O., Echeonwu G. O. N., Okwori A. E. J. and Adetunji J. A. Full Length Research Paper The aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of the roots and leaves of Securidaca longipenduculata were studied for their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Shigella sp. and Salmonella typhi, using the agar gel diffusion method. The phytochemicals present, as well as the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts were also determined using standard methods. Results obtained indicated that the aqueous root extract was the most potent and had MIC and MBC of 50 and 200 mg/ml, respectively, against Shigella spp and S.typhi. Leaf extracts and methanolic root extracts showed no activity. Differences in the phytochemical composition in the various extracts could be responsible for the different antimicrobial activities. The high antimicrobial activity observed particularly from the aqueous root extract verified the ethno-medical claim of the plant in the treatment of diarrhoea, and could be a source for antimicrobials in the face of increasing drug resistance. Key words: Evaluation, antimicrobial activity, Securidaca longipenduculata. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/F5E3F8B11569 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000309 en Copyright © 2008 Junaid S. A., Abubakar A., Ofodile A. C., Olabode A. O., Echeonwu G. O. N., Okwori A. E. J. and Adetunji J. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:6A1C34412142 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphal length on simulation of P influx with the mechanistic model Amitava Rakshit and Pratapbhanu S. Bhadoria Full Length Research Paper The objective of the present investigation was to quantify the total hyphal length of maize and groundnut and its influence on simulation of P influx. The field experiments were carried out with three P levels i.e., P - 0 (no P), P - 50 (50 mg P kg-1 soil) and P - 400 (400 mg P kg-1 soil). Test crops were maize and groundnut. Four harvests were made to cover whole growing season and at each harvest hyphal length was measured. Application of P fertilizer reduced hyphal length by 30macr; 50% in maize and 25 macr; 50% in groundnut. At P-0, hyphal length of maize crop was higher (5.4 mg-1) than groundnut (3.8 mg-1). To assess the influence of hyphal length on calculated P influx, mechanistic model was used. The model was employed first to calculate the P influx with root hairs of both the crops and then substituting root hairs by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) hyphae. When root hairs were substituted by AM hyphae the calculated influx increased by a factor of 1.5 to 2 for plots receiving no P. Concentration profile around the root cylinder at P - 0 showed that hyphae was able to decrease the soil solution concentration more than the root hairs. Key words: Maize, groundnut, arbuscular mycorrhiza, hyphae, P influx. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/6A1C34412142 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000414 en Copyright © 2009 Amitava Rakshit and Pratapbhanu S. Bhadoria
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:D5BC2B812155 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Antibacterial activity of Curculigo orchioides rhizome extract on pathogenic bacteria K. S. Nagesh and C. Shanthamma Full Length Research Paper Curculigo orchioides rhizome extracts were evaluated for antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus andStaphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) bacteria. Because the steam distilled preparation was found to be the most active amongst the different extracts, its antibacterial activity against the aforementioned strains was compared to the standard antibiotics gentamycin, ampicillin, doxycycline and erythromycin. Only the clinical isolate of S. aureus showed more sensitivity towards water extracts than the standard strain. Also, the steam distilled fraction was more effective against Gram-positive strains than Gram-negative strains. Therefore, the steam distilled extract from C. orchioides has a potential application as an antiseptic for the prevention and treatment of antibacterial infections, and the present findings support its traditional local uses. Key words: Curuligo orchioides, Steam distilled extract, gram-positive and gram-negative strains. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/D5BC2B812155 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000048 en Copyright © 2009 K. S. Nagesh and C. Shanthamma
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:FCF4F9312180 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Studies on exopolysaccharide and indole acetic acid production by Rhizobium strains from Indigofera B. Saritha Kumari, M. Raghu Ram and K. V. Mallaiah Full Length Research Paper Rhizobium strains were isolated from root nodules of five species of Indigoferaviz., Indigofera trita, Indigofera linnaei, Indigofera astragalina, Indigofera parviflora and Indigofera viscosa on Yeast Extract Mannitol Agar (YEMA) medium. The strains were examined for production of acid, exopolysaccharide (EPS) and indole acetic acid (IAA) by utilizing 10 different carbon sources. The Rhizobium strains isolated from I. trita, I. parviflora and I. viscosa showed maximum growth on glucose, while those from I. linnaei and I. astragalina showed maximum growth on fructose and maltose, respectively. All the five strains produced acid, EPS and IAA in Yeast extract mannitol broth. Among the strains studied, maximum EPS production was observed with the strain isolated from I. parviflora and maximum IAA production was observed with the strain isolated from I. viscosa. Key words: Rhizobium, Indigofera species, exopolysaccharide, indole acetic acid, acid production. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/FCF4F9312180 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000667 en Copyright © 2009 B. Saritha Kumari, M. Raghu Ram and K. V. Mallaiah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:122B7B712201 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Sachet water phenomenon in Nigeria: Assessment of the potential health impacts Dada, A.C Full Length Research Paper Many years of neglect by government and inadequate investment in public infrastructure has left the public drinking water supply in Nigeria in an unreliable state. The society has therefore taken to several adaptive measures of alleviating this stress. One of these is dependence on sachet water, popularly referred to as lsquo;pure waterrsquo;. Although easy to serve and the price is affordable, complaints abound on its purity and other health concerns. A gradual nationwide ban was proposed by the national regulator for this packaged water but the market still witnesses tremendous growth, especially among the poor. To determine the bacteriological quality of drinking water sold in sachets in Lagos, Nigeria, one hundred samples of high- and low-demand sachet waters obtained from vendors at hot-spot locations were assessed using the multiple tube fermentation method. Based on the zero tolerance standards stipulated by the regulator, a 22% non-compliance level was recorded. Recommendations that may contribute to a policy that would allow for an integrated and holistic approach in managing the sachet water industry are discussed. The need for support of such local initiatives, especially in the drive towards achieving the much publicised Millennium Development Goals for universal water access, is also highlighted. Key words: Sachet water, water quality, hygiene, millennium development goals. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/122B7B712201 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000635 en Copyright © 2009 Dada, A.C
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:C30741D12215 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Molecular investigation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from environmental samples and fish specimens during a massive fish kill in Kuwait Bay Qasem A. Jafar, Al-Zinki Sameer , Al-Mouqati Salwa, Al-Amad Samee, Al-Marzouk Ahmed and Al-Sharifi Faisal Full Length Research Paper This study was undertaken to identify and characterize bacterial isolates obtained simultaneously from dead fish samples during a massive fish kill in Kuwait Bay and sewage water samples running into Kuwait Bay, using conventional and molecular techniques. Of the 71 bacterial isolates studied, 66 isolates were recovered from seven different fish species and five isolates were isolated from sewage samples. The species-specific identity of the isolates was established by phenotypic characteristics and by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, usingStreptococcus agalactiae-specific primers. The genotyping of 12 isolates from fish samples and all five isolates from sewage samples was performed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Culture methods identified 44 of 66 (67%) and 4 of 5 (80%) isolates obtained from fish and sewage samples, respectively, as S. agalactiae. The PCR amplification of 16S rRNA not only confirmed the results of conventional methods, but also resulted in additional identification of 14 of 66 (21%) isolates obtained from fish samples and the remaining isolate recovered from sewage sample as S. agalactiae. A total of nine RAPD patterns were observed among the 17 isolates studied and the RAPD patterns could be grouped into three clusters. Interestingly, four of the isolates recovered from sewage samples produced nearly identical RAPD banding patterns (85 - 100% similarity) with some of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from Mullet kidney and brain specimens, indicating the possibility of sewage being the source of infection. Key words: S. agalactiae, fish infections, molecular characterization, RAPD. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/C30741D12215 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000510 en Copyright © 2009 Qasem A. Jafar, Al-Zinki Sameer , Al-Mouqati Salwa, Al-Amad Samee, Al-Marzouk Ahmed and Al-Sharifi Faisal
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:D91766712220 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Evidence for probiotic potential of a capsular-producing Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 3534 strain Rowaida K. Khali Full Length Research Paper The purpose of this research was to evaluate the probiotic potential of a capsulated Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 3534 strain. The strain proved to tolerate 0.4% oxgall and was sufficiently resistant to pH as low as 2.5 for 3 h of exposure. The strain demonstrated high adherence to human intestinal mucus, and showed a unique resistance to different antibiotics. Crude extracts of S. thermophilus CHCC 3534 contained a diffusible antimicrobial compound ldquo;bacteriocinrdquo; with a broad spectrum that inhibited the growth of closely related lactic acid bacteria and a number of food spoilage bacteria, including Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. The bacteriocin was heat stable, resistant to pH, inactivated by proteolytic enzymes and resistant to alpha;-amylase and lipase. SDS-PAGE analysis of the partially purified bacteriocin revealed one peptide with a molecular weight ranging from 14.4 to 18.4 kDa. The strain may have an industrial significance and represents an interesting candidate for use in food biopreservation, probiotic formulations and in the control of spoilage caused by food-borne pathogens. Key words: Streptococcus thermophilus, probiotic, acid tolerance, adhesion, bacteriocin, bile. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/D91766712220 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000312 en Copyright © 2009 Rowaida K. Khali
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:FA6E69A12237 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Heavy metal tolerance of filamentous fungi isolated from polluted sites in Tangier, Morocco L. Ezzouhri, E. Castro, M. Moya, F. Espinola and K. Lairini Full Length Research Paper Thirty-six micro-organisms, represented by fungi and yeasts strains, were isolated from heavy metal-contaminated sites in Tangier, Morocco. Filamentous fungi isolated belonged to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria andGeotrichum. They were screened for their resistance to heavy metals. The results revealed that the majority of the isolates were resistant to Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn, whereas to Cd, only the fungus Penicillium sp. was able to grow. The level of resistance depended on the isolate tested, as well as the site of its isolation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Pb2+, Cr6+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ were also determined. Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates were the most tolerant to the heavy metals and exhibited strong growth, often exceeding the control (isolates grown in agar medium without heavy metals). Their MIC ranged from 20 - 25 mM for Pb, followed by 15 - 20 mM both for Cu and Zn and 10 - 15 mM for Cr. These fungi have shown a high level of resistance to all metals tested, which makes them attractive potential candidates for further investigations regarding their ability to remove metals from contaminated wastewaters. Key words: Metal tolerance, resistance, heavy metal, soil and water fungi, biosorption. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/FA6E69A12237 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000354 en Copyright © 2009 L. Ezzouhri, E. Castro, M. Moya, F. Espinola and K. Lairini
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:C2E1F9B12238 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Evaluation of different methods for the rapid diagnosis of methicillin-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Sadaka S. M., El-Ghazzawy E. F., Harfoush R. A. and Meheissen M. A. Full Length Research Paper Since its first identification in the early 1960s, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognized as a major human pathogen. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of MRSA in Alexandria Main University Hospital and to settle on a simple, rapid, accurate and cost-effective phenotypic test for the detection of MRSA from clinical specimens. One hundred S. aureus isolates, including 71 MRSA isolates, as confirmed by PCR for the presence or absence of the mecA gene as the gold standard, were isolated from patients from different departments at Alexandria Main University Hospital over a six month-period. They were tested for methicillin resistance by comparing five phenotypic tests (Mannitol salt agar-cefoxitin [MSA-FOX] , oxacillin disc diffusion, cefoxitin disc diffusion, oxacillin MIC by broth microdilution and latex agglutination for PBP2a) to the gold standard genotypic test (detection of mecA gene by PCR). It was found that both oxacillin disc diffusion and latex agglutination showed 100% sensitivity, negative and positive predictive values of 100 and 97.3%, respectively. Both were found to be highly sensitive phenotypic tests for the detection of MRSA. However, the oxacillin disc diffusion test is much more cost-effective. The MSA-FOX, whose sensitivity was 95.8%, was found to be a highly sensitive, cost-effective screening medium for the detection of MRSA. Key words: Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, methicillin resistance, oxacillin resistance. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/C2E1F9B12238 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000303 en Copyright © 2009 Sadaka S. M., El-Ghazzawy E. F., Harfoush R. A. and Meheissen M. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:CF7608412239 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Prevalence and significance of fungi in sachet and borehole drinking water in Calabar, Nigeria E. C. Okpako, A. N. Osuagwu, A. E. Duke and V. O. Ntui, Full Length Research Paper Borehole and sachet (ldquo;pure waterrdquo;) water are the major sources of drinking water in Calabar. Such waters are required to comply with minimum standards in order to protect public health and accepted as safe drinking water. In this paper, a study was conducted to investigate the presence and effects of fungi in sachet and borehole drinking water in Calabar using 4 sachet water samples and 10 borehole samples. Sachet water aged 2 h and 2 weeks since manufactured and each borehole sample (collected in the dry and wet seasons) was subjected to membrane filtration technique and plating method to determine the fungal content of the water. Only one sample, Usua water (sachet water) tested negative for the presence of fungi at CFU (colony forming unit) /100 ml. Laura water (sachet water), Abua water, Edgerly water and Mayne-Avenue water (borehole water) were the most infected. Percentage of fungi in borehole water was higher in the rainy than in the dry season. Aspergillus (29.4%), Rhizopus (21.6%), Fusarium (15.7%) and Penicillium (13.7%) were the most frequently isolated. These fungi have the potential to cause allergic reactions or diseases in humans. Key words: Borehole water, fungi, membrane filtration, plating method, sachet water. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/CF7608412239 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000575 en Copyright © 2009 E. C. Okpako, A. N. Osuagwu, A. E. Duke and V. O. Ntui,
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:FFE409E12240 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Prevalence of superficial mycoses in primary school children in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria S. C. Enemuor and A. S. Amedu Full Length Research Paper A total of 2184 primary school children were screened for superficial mycoses in Anyigba, a university town in Kogi State, Nigeria. Of the 2184 pupils sampled randomly from four schools, 144 (6.6%) had lesions suggestive of superficial mycoses. In a total of 155 samples collected, 108 (69.67%) yielded significant growth by culture. The distribution of superficial mycoses is dependent on age and sex. Eight species of fungi belonging to two genera were isolated, including:Microsporum gypseum (13.5%). M canis (12.4%), M. ferrugineum (3.4%),Trichophyton rubrum (30.3%), T. tonsurans (12.4%), T. soudanense (5.6%), T.verrucosum (11.2%) and T. schoenleinii (11.2%). Poor infrastructure (residential house and classrooms), contact with soil during outdoor activities (especially in children), intimate association with pet animals and poor personal hygiene may contribute to the spread of these infections among children. Key words: Superficial mycoses, dermatophytosis, Microsporum, Trichophyton,Nigeria. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/FFE409E12240 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000587 en Copyright © 2009 S. C. Enemuor and A. S. Amedu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:5BC5AEF12241 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Assessment of airborne pathogens in healthcare settings K. Qudiesat, K. Abu-Elteen, A. Elkarmi, M. Hamad and M. Abussaud Full Length Research Paper An investigation of the air quality and quantity of airborne microbes in selected hospitals of Zarqa city, Jordan, was carried out to assess the level of airborne pathogens and to establish standards for further reference. Using a microbial air sampler, air samples were taken from a governmental and a private hospital in Zarqa city. Three factors were investigated to determine how these factors affect the microbial counts, namely the kind of hospital, the type of room and the time of sampling. Nine bacterial species were identified. In a governmental hospital,Staphylococcus aureus (16.2%) was found to be the most common organism, followed by Micrococcus luteus (13.3%) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus(13%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (17.2%), followed by S. aureus(16.8%) and M. luteus (10.7%) were found to be the most common in a private hospital. Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Alternaria spp. were isolated in both hospitals. The indoor air of the governmental hospital was more contaminated than that of the private hospital in all units. Maximum bacterial rates were detected in the patient rooms, while minimum bacterial rates were detected in the operating rooms and neonatal wards. The time of visit showed higher microbial rates in governmental hospital, while the private hospital was not affected by this factor. Microbial rates in the patient room, main entrance and intensive care unit (ICU) were found to be influenced by the time of sampling, while the operating room and neonatal ward were not. Several explanations might be involved in these variations, that is, the age of hospital building, the number of beds, the number of visitors, disinfection procedures and ventilation systems. We concluded that the indoor air quality of hospitals in Zarqa city, especially the governmental hospital, needs more care and surveillance and should be given priority in Jordan. Key words: Air sampling, airborne bacteria and fungi, indoor air, hospital, Jordan. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/5BC5AEF12241 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000102 en Copyright © 2009 K. Qudiesat, K. Abu-Elteen, A. Elkarmi, M. Hamad and M. Abussaud
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:A391A2412242 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Enhancement of benzene biodegradation by variation of culture medium constituents Ahmad Sabzali, Mitra Gholami and M. A. Sadati Full Length Research Paper Three different compounds (humic acid, yeast extract and hydrogen peroxide) and two related culture media (mineral salt solution and prokaryotic medium) were evaluated for enhancing biodegradation of benzene under aerobic conditions. The results showed that yeast extract was more effective than humic acid in benzene biodegradation. The presence of both yeast extract and humic acid resulted in increased benzene removal efficiency, depending on the yeast extract concentration. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, benzene removal efficiency was increased by more than 55%. The benzene removal efficiency in Prokaryotic medium was higher than in the mineral salt medium. Key words: Benzene, yeast agar, humic acid, prokaryotic medium, hydrogen peroxide. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/A391A2412242 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000284 en Copyright © 2009 Ahmad Sabzali, Mitra Gholami and M. A. Sadati
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:0792C6612243 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Toxicological renal effects of Bridelia ferruginea-treated wastewater in rats Kolawole O. M., Olayode J. A., Oyewo O. O.,Adegboye A. A and Kolawole C. F. Full Length Research Paper The effect of wastewater fed to rats following treatment with a 2.5% (w/v) methanolic crude extract of Bridelia ferruginea for different times (0 to 96 h) was investigated. Kidneys of rats fed with the treated wastewater was subjected to histological examination and compared to negative (rats given wastewater treated with methanol alone), positive (rats given untreated wastewater alone) and standard (rats given sterile distilled water alone) control groups. Histopathological findings revealed extensive damage in the tissues of rats assigned to the negative, positive and B. ferruginea extract-treated groups. However, no damage was observed in the tissues of the standard control group. The potential efficacy and the toxicological renal effects of B. ferruginea extract-treated wastewater is discussed. Key words: Bridelia ferruginea, wastewater, bacterial count, kidney. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/0792C6612243 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000712 en Copyright © 2009 Kolawole O. M., Olayode J. A., Oyewo O. O.,Adegboye A. A and Kolawole C. F.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:F90355412244 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Characterisation of enterococci and Escherichia coli isolated from commercial and communal pigs from Mafikeng in the North-West Province, South Africa Moneoang, Modisane Simon and Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study was to isolate enterococci and Escherichia coli from faeces collected from commercial and communal pigs, and to characterise these isolates using antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Enterococcus selective agar and eosin methylene blue lactose agar were used for enterococci and E. coli isolation, respectively. Gram staining, API 20 Strep and API 20E were used for identification of enterococci and E. coli, respectively. Three-hundred-and-four enterococci and 208 E. coli were identified. The most prevalent enterococci species wereEnterococcus faecium (58%) and Enterococcus gallinarum (23%). A large proportion of enterococci (62.5% to 100%) and E. coli (88.5 to 100%) were resistant to erythromycin, oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. No vancomycin-resistant enterococci were found and PCR analysis for vanA, vanB and vanC-1were all negative. Less than 7% of enterococci were resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin, whereas 45% of E. coli isolates were resistant to the same antibiotics. Antibiotic susceptibility tests and clustering patterns showed some similarities among these isolates. From the results, a common origin of the isolates or histories of antibiotic use among these farms was proposed. It could also be concluded that vancomycin-resistant enterococci were not present in pigs on these two farms. Key words: Vancomycin resistant enterococci, vancomycin susceptible enterococci, tetracycline, resistance genes, multiple antibiotic resistance. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/F90355412244 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000146 en Copyright © 2009 Moneoang, Modisane Simon and Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:1CA4BE812246 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Evaluation of antimicrobial potential of different extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. and Wendl. Raj K. Salar and Suchitra Full Length Research Paper Antimicrobial activity of the aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts (roots, stems, leaves and fruits) of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. and Wendl. against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus was evaluated. Plant extracts of S. xanthocarpum were prepared in distilled water and in organic solvents, viz. ethanol, benzene, acetone and methanol. Agar well diffusion technique was used to assess the antimicrobial activity of various extracts against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis), Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and the fungus Aspergillus niger. The diameter of zone of inhibition was taken as an indicator of antimicrobial effect. Except aqueous extracts of different parts of S. xanthocarpum, extracts prepared in organic solvents showed antimicrobial activity against the test organisms. A strong inhibition of P. aeruginosa was caused by the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of S. xanthocarpum. Thus, S. xanthocarpum could be considered as a potential source of natural antimicrobials. Key words: Solanum xanthocarpum, antimicrobial activity, organic solvents. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/1CA4BE812246 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000298 en Copyright © 2009 Raj K. Salar and Suchitra
oai:academicjournals.org:AJMR:279B2DE12249 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJMR AJMR:2009
Protein fractions and amino acid profile of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal Muhammad, Nasiru Olanrewaju and Oloyede, Oyelola Bukoye Full Length Research Paper The effect of solid state fermentation, using Aspergillus niger, on the protein fractions and amino acid profile of Terminalia catappa seed meal was investigated. A 5 ml A. niger spore suspension, containing 2.21 x 104 spores per ml, was used to inoculate 25 g of milled T. catappa seed meal. The inoculated samples were then incubated at room temperature (25 ndash; 30oC) for 1, 2 or 3 weeks. Levels of albumin, globulin, gliadin and glutelin, as well as the essential and non-essential amino acids profile were determined in both the raw and the fermented samples. The results showed that glutelin and gliadin are the predominant protein fractions (74.07%) in T. catappa seed meal, while albumin and globulin are less prominent (25.93%). Fermentation with A. niger, however, significantly increased the albumin and globulin content of the T. catappa seed meal to 38.83%, while it significantly reduced the gliadin fraction. The glutelin fraction was, however, not significantly (pgt;0.05) affected by the treatment. There were significant reductions (plt;0.05) in some of the essential amino acids (like leucine, isoleucine and methionine), while the non-essential amino acids like glutamic acid was significantly increased (plt;0.05). It is considered that fermentation using A. niger could improve the nutritive protein fractions of T. catappa seed meal. However, there may be need for essential amino acid supplementation when such fermented seed meal is used in formulating feed for poultry and livestock animals. Key words: Aspergillus niger, fermentation, Terminalia catappa seed, protein fractions, amino acids. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/279B2DE12249 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR.9000607 en Copyright © 2009 Muhammad, Nasiru Olanrewaju and Oloyede, Oyelola Bukoye
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