2024-07-14T16:33:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:1FE0C041110 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2007
Tetrapropylammonium bromochromate and tetrabutylammonium bromochromate [NR4]CrO3Br, (R= Pr, Bu): two new and efficient reagents for oxidation of alcohols Shahriare Ghammamy, Kheyrollah Mehrani, Hamid Afrand and Maryam Hajighahramani Short Communication Tetrapropylammonium bromochromate (VI), [N(Pr)4]CrO3Br, TPABC and tetrabutyl-ammonium bromochromate (VI), [N(Bu)4]CrO3Br, TBABC were prepared and used to quantitatively oxidizing of a number of organic substrates. These reagents are versatile reagents for the effective and selective oxidation of organic substrates, in particular for alcohols, under mild conditions. Key words: Chromium(VI), reagent, tetrapropylammonium bromochromate, tetrabutylammo-nium bromochromate, oxidation, organic substrates, alcohols. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/1FE0C041110 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000162 en Copyright © 2007 Shahriare Ghammamy, Kheyrollah Mehrani, Hamid Afrand and Maryam Hajighahramani
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:D2A6CC21092 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2007
omputational approach of protein analysis using affinity chromatography: application to proteomics Allam Appa Rao Full Length Research Paper Computerization is necessary to build the database of chromatography coupled mass spectrometric analytical data. On the basis of this proteomic data we can identify the proteins as biomarkers which are expressing dissimilarity between healthy and disease condition. Affinity chromatography is one of the fastest liquid chromato-graphic methods for the separation and purification of biomolecules due to its high molecular specificity. Proteomics and the tools used to identify and understand the biochemistry of proteins and pathways are in a new stage of development and evaluation. This article briefly reviews the computation of chromatography coupled mass spectrometric data and highlighting the role of affinity chromatography. Key words: Affinity chromatography, proteomics, computational aspects. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/D2A6CC21092 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000101 en Copyright © 2007 Allam Appa Rao
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:0257C011123 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2007
Contribution from the employment of volcanic tuffs to the chemistry of soda- lime glasses Rafael Jordaacute;n Hernaacute;ndez, Tania Fariacute;a Pintilde;era, Gerardo Rodriacute;guez- Fuentes, Gerardo C. Diacute;az Trujillo and Mariacute;a E. Zayas Saucedo Full Length Research Paper The present work shows a study to incorporate volcanic tuffs as raw material in the preparation of industrial glass that traditionally uses feldspar. The X- ray diffraction patterns obtained with hot camera depict an unstable mineralogical phase under special conditions of atmospheric pressure in which appears the quartz polymorphic transformation. Thermal analysis curves present a shoulder at 680oC and an endothermic peak around 840oC corresponding to reactions of formation of silicates. It suffers an overlapping effect toward smaller temperatures favouring glass formation. Key words: Glass, volcanic tuff, endothermic peaks. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/0257C011123 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000045 en Copyright © 2007 Rafael Jordaacute;n Hernaacute;ndez, Tania Fariacute;a Pintilde;era, Gerardo Rodriacute;guez- Fuentes, Gerardo C. Diacute;az Trujillo and Mariacute;a E. Zayas Saucedo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:B4890621130 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2007
Chemical oxides analysis from Azara Baryte Hauwa Isa Short Communication Physical and chemical analysis of the two samples A and B of Azara baryte were conducted, such as moisture content, loss on ignition and elemental composition by the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometer(ASS) and flame photometer. The oxides values in 1.000 g sample of each element were obtained. Sample A (lower layer): moisture content = 0.020, loss on ignition = 0.060, Na2O = 0.250, K2O = 0.015, CaO = 0.014, MgO = 0.018, Fe2O3 = 0.029, SiO2 = 9.310, BaO = 89.630, Al2O3 = 6.200 Sample B (upper layer): moisture content = 0.030, loss on ignition = 0.040, Na2O = 0.030, K2O = 0.001, CaO = 0.006, MgO = 0.030, Fe2O3 = 0.028, SiO2 =18.12, BaO = 65.020, Al2O3 = 16.120. The result of the analysis revealed that the Azara baryte could use as source of inorganic chemical oxides and for the production of some laboratory chemicals such as barium sulphate and aluminum oxides Key words: Azara Baryte, chemical oxides, analysis. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/B4890621130 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000036 en Copyright © 2007 Hauwa Isa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:1FF732F1150 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Chromatographic method development: computer simulated statistical design approach Allam Appa Rao Full Length Research Paper The computerization of method development and validation are useful in analysis of pharmaceuticals in pharmaceutical industry. In this article a simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of oxcarbazipine in pharmaceutical formulations. Factorial design was applied for optimization of essential factors for robustness study. A linear model was postulated and a 23 full factorial design was employed to estimate the model coefficients. More specifically, experimental design helps the researcher to verify if changes in factor values produce a statistically significant variation of the observed response. The strategy is most effective if statistical design is used in most or all stages for screening and optimizing process in future method validation for method development and validation. Key words: Column liquid chromatography, oxcarbazepine, experimental design, robustness, validation. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/1FF732F1150 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000037 en Copyright © 2008 Allam Appa Rao
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:3EF4C471154 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Study on QSPR method for theoretical calculation of heat of formation for some organic compounds Ashrafi Ferydoun, Rostami Abbas Ali and Mahdavipour Najmeh Full Length Research Paper Quantitative Structure ndash; Property Relationship (QSPR) models based on molecular descriptors derived from molecular structures have been used for the prediction of heat of formation using a set of 20 organic compounds. The molecular and quantum chemical descriptors used to represent molecular structure include topological indices and constitutional descriptors. Forward stepwise regression was used to construct the QSPR models. Multiple linear regressions are utilized to construct the linear prediction model. The prediction results are in good agreement with the experimental values of these properties. Key words: QSPR models, heat of formation, topological indices, linear regression. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/3EF4C471154 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000145 en Copyright © 2008 Ashrafi Ferydoun, Rostami Abbas Ali and Mahdavipour Najmeh
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:265C1331162 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Development and validation of LC method for the determination of leflunomide in pharmaceutical formulations using an experimental design Srinivas Rao V, Sunanda K. K, Narasimha Rao M., Allam Appa Rao, Maheswari IL and Srinubabu G Full Length Research Paper A rapid and sensitive RP-HPLC method with UV detection (260 nm) for routine analysis of leflunomide in a pharmaceutical formulation was developed. Chromatography was performed with mobile phase containing a mixture of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (60:40, v/v) with flow rate of 0.8 ml minminus;1. Quantitation was accomplished with internal standard method. The procedure was validated for linearity (correlation coefficient = 0.9999), accuracy, robustness and intermediate precision. Experimental design was used for validation of robustness and intermediate precision. Plackett- Burman design was used to screen the essential factors for optimization. To test robustness, three factors were considered; percentage v/v of acetonitrile in mobile phase, flow rate and pH; an increase in the flow rate results in a decrease of the drug found concentration, while the percentage of organic modifier and pH have no important effect on the response. For intermediate precision measure the variables considered were: analyst, equipment and number of days. The RSD value (0.93%, n = 24) indicated a good precision of the analytical method. The proposed method was simple; highly sensitive, precise, accurate and retention time less than 6 minutes indicating that the method is useful for routine quality control. Key words: Leflunomide, HPLC, validation, robustness testing, experimental design. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/265C1331162 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000056 en Copyright © 2008 Srinivas Rao V, Sunanda K. K, Narasimha Rao M., Allam Appa Rao, Maheswari IL and Srinubabu G
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:96816591164 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Enhancing trends of intensity signal of trace level Hf in zirconium oxide using AES sequential addition method Ishrat Rehana and Saeed Ahmed Full Length Research Paper A sensitive, rapid and simple method to detect Hf at trace level in Zr has been described. It is based on the sequential addition of sample after each pre excitation period, in presence of graphite as buffer. The improvement with respect to the other published procedures lies in the use of solid powdered sample, omitting the step of wet chemistry or use of any optical filter. The enhancing trends of intensity curves were also studied for various stages. The coefficient of variation was found to be within the range 6 - 12% for different batches of samples. The detection limit was found to be 30 gg-1. The improved sensitivity, accuracy and rapidity make it suitable for routine evaluation of Hf using emission spectroscopy. Key words: Hafnium, zirconium, intensity, AES. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/96816591164 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000067 en Copyright © 2008 Ishrat Rehana and Saeed Ahmed
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:55831EC1165 2008-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Nanotechnology importance in the pharmaceutical industry Ramesh Reddy Putheti, R N Okigbo, Madhusoodhan Sai advanapu and Sangeeta Chavanpatil Review During the last decades, pharmaceutical technology has taken the advantage of the advent of nanotechnology and, now days, new pharmaceutical dosage forms are under development to deliver many physicochemically different drug molecules. The present study is to investigate the role and their importance of nanotechnology in the pharmaceutical development. Key words: Nanotechnology, drug delivery, nanoparticles, cancer Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/55831EC1165 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000098 en Copyright © 2008 Ramesh Reddy Putheti, R N Okigbo, Madhusoodhan Sai advanapu and Sangeeta Chavanpatil
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:978AB151166 2008-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Application of grafted membranes for sorption of Cd2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+ ions in aqueous solution S. A. Osemeahon, Barminas, J. T, Aliyu, B. A and Nkafamiya, I. I. Full Length Research Paper Sorption of Cd2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+ by blend membrane of sodium alginate (Na-Alg) and poly (acrylamide) grafted konkoli gum (KG-g-PAAM) in aqueous solution was studied. Membrane sorption capacities for Cd2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+were found to be 97.85, 80.65 and 64.46% respectively. The sorption behavior with respect to contact time, initial pH, temperature, ionic strength and initial metal ion concentration were investigated in order to determine the optimum sorption conditions. Results showed that metal ion uptake by the membrane decreased with increase in ionic strength and after a temperature of 40oC while increase in initial metal ion concentration led to increase in metal ion uptake. Maximum sorption was found to occur at pH of 6.0, 3.0 and 5.0 for Cd2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+respectively. The ability of the grafted membrane to remove some heavy metals from aqueous solution is encouraging and may be used in bioremediation of wastewaters. Key words: Konkoli gum, blending, sodium alginate, membrane, sorption, metal ions Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/978AB151166 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000022 en Copyright © 2008 S. A. Osemeahon, Barminas, J. T, Aliyu, B. A and Nkafamiya, I. I.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:50FD5DC1167 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Effect of intraperitoneal administration of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on anemia in experimental Trypanosoma congolense infected rabbits Toma, I, Shinggu, D. Y, Ezekiel, W and Barminas, J. T Full Length Research Paper The effect of Vitamin C supplementation on anemia in experimental Trypanosoma congolense infected rabbits was investigated. Locally bred rabbits were infected with 6 acute; 106 trypanosomes per rabbit and infection was monitored for 5 weeks. Packed cell volume (PCV), Total leucocytes count (TLC) and parasite load were determined weekly. Vitamin C supplementation did not significantly affect parasitaemia in the first two weeks of infection but parasitaemia was significantly decreased (p lt; 0.01) in the last three weeks of infection. Anemia developed in theT. congolense infected rabbits as evidenced by reduced PCV during the course of the experiment. Treatment of infection with Vitamin C had slightly, though not to a significant extent ameliorated the T. congolense induced anemia. Leucocytosis was lower in the infected treated rabbits than in the infected untreated rabbits. It was concluded that Vitamin C did not prevent the anemia or the leucocytosis caused by T. congolense, but it slightly though not to a significant level ameliorated the condition. Key words: Tryponosoma congolense, vitamin C (Ascorbic acid), anemia. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/50FD5DC1167 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000063 en Copyright © 2008 Toma, I, Shinggu, D. Y, Ezekiel, W and Barminas, J. T
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:FBB04F11171 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Miscibility studies of PVC/PMMA and PS/PMMA blends by dilute solution viscometry and FTIR Mohammad Saleem Khan, Raina Aman Qazi and Mian Said Wahid. Full Length Research Paper The effect of polymer-polymer interactions on the miscibility of PVC/PMMA and PS/PMMA blends were studied in a broad composition range using viscosity and FTIR techniques. From the viscometric data, the presence of attractive forces among different polymers was evaluated according to Sun et al. (1990), by the determination of alpha; parameter. Based on sign convention involved in the criterion, PS/PMMA system was found as immiscible while miscibility was observed in PVC/PMMA blend. FTIR analysis also supports the viscometric data. Key words: Viscosity, polymer blends, poly (methyl methacrylate), poly (vinyl chloride), polystyrene, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/FBB04F11171 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000090 en Copyright © 2008 Mohammad Saleem Khan, Raina Aman Qazi and Mian Said Wahid.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:3A54A5E1175 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Adsorption and inhibitive properties of ethanol extracts of Musa sapientum peels as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in H2SO4 Eddy, N. O and Ebenso, E. E Full Length Research Paper The inhibition of the corrosion of mild steel by ethanol extract of Musa sapientumpeels in H2SO4 has been studied using gasometric and thermometric methods. The results of the study reveals that the different concentrations of ethanol extract of M. sapientum peels inhibit mild steel corrosion. Inhibition efficiency of the extract is found to vary with concentration, temperature, period of immersion and pH. Values of activation energy of the inhibited corrosion reaction of mild steel are greater than the value obtained for the blank. Thermodynamic consideration reveals that adsorption of M. sapientum peels extract on mild steel surface is spontaneous and occurred according to Langmuir and Frumkin adsorption isotherms. Physical adsorption mechanism has also been proposed for the adsorption of the inhibitor. Key words: Corrosion inhibition, mild steel, Inhibition, adsorption, Musa sapientum, peels. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/3A54A5E1175 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000008 en Copyright © 2008 Eddy, N. O and Ebenso, E. E
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:4E3530E1178 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Oxovanadium (IV) esters of ciprofloxacin: Their characterization and potentiometric study Saira Shahzadi and Saqib Ali Full Length Research Paper The reaction between ciprofloxacin and VOSO4.3H2O in 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 molar ratio in methanol was investigated at 20C, 0C and -10C. In various pH conditions the different complexes which are formulated as VO(H2O)3L, VO(H2O)L2 and VL3 have been formed by titration of VOSO4.3H2O with ciprofloxacin in the presence of NaOH. These complexes have been characterized by IR spectroscopy. The order of stability is estimated as 1:1 gt;1:3 gt;1:2 which is justified by the proposed mechanism. Key words: Oxovanadium(IV) esters, IR, potentiometric study, stability constant. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/4E3530E1178 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000105 en Copyright © 2008 Saira Shahzadi and Saqib Ali
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:71FB6631180 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Physico-chemical analysis and toxicological studies of Madaran sukudai (a local drink in Northern Nigeria) Owalude, S. O. and Tella, A. C. Short Communication Physico-chemical analyses have been carried out on concentrated Madaran sukudai, diluted M. sukudai and pure formalin. Both the infrared and UV-visible spectroscopic studies on the three solutions revealed that the madaran sukudai is essentially a dilute formalin solution. Toxicological studies of the effect of M. sukudai on the white albino rats were also carried out. The results showed that there was significant increase in the enzymes (Alanine aminotransferase, ALT) activities in the heart and liver of these rats with no significant increase in Aspartate aminotransferase, AST) activities when compared to the control. Key words: Madaran sukudai, formalin, UV-visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, white albino rats. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/71FB6631180 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000108 en Copyright © 2008 Owalude, S. O. and Tella, A. C.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:80ADA9C1188 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
The study of reactivity and selectivity of tertiary amines with aryl chlorothionoformates Masomeh Aghazadeh, Arash Afghan and Mehdi M. Baradarani Full Length Research Paper o-Nitrophenyl chlorothionoformate reacts readily with unhindered tertiary aliphatic amines in only 10 min at room temperature, and gives the dialkylamine salts after treatment of initial thiocarbamate with dimethyl sulfate followed by hydrolysis with water. The ease of cleavage of alkyl groups from tertiary amines with 4-chlorophenyl chlorothionoformate is benzyl gt; t-butyl gt; allyl gt; methyl and using 2, 4, 6-tribromophenyl chlorothionoformate it is benzyl gt; allyl gt; t-butyl gt; methyl. Keywords: o-Nitrophenyl chlorothionoformate, benzylic and allylic cleavage of tertiary amines, secondary aliphatic amines from tertiary amines. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/80ADA9C1188 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000171 en Copyright © 2008 Masomeh Aghazadeh, Arash Afghan and Mehdi M. Baradarani
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:D9F35CE1194 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and toxicology study of some metal complexes of mixed antibiotics Ogunniran, K. O., Ajanaku, K. O., James, O. O., Ajani, O. O., Adekoya, J. A. and Nwinyi, O. C. Full Length Research Paper Mixed ligand metal complexes of ampicillin and chloramphenicol prepared by using Ni(II), Co(II) and Fe(III) metal chloride hexahydrate were reported and characterized based on some physical properties and spectroscopic analysis such as AAS, UV, and IR spectroscopy. The complexes were proposed to have the formulae [ML1L2](Cl)n ( where M= Ni(II), Co(II), Fe(III); L1 =ampicillin, L2 = chloramphenicol , and n=2-3). IR spectra suggested that both L1 and L2coordinated to the metal ions in a terdentate manner with nu;(O-H), nu;(C=O) and nu;(N-H) as donor sites in each of the ligands. From analytical and spectroscopic data obtained, the complexes were proposed to be of octahedral. The synthesized complexes, in compares to their ligands, were also screened for their antibacterial activity against isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia by using agar diffusion method. The activity data showed the metal complexes to be more potent antibacterial than the parent drugs against the three bacteria species. However, toxicology tests against some tissues of albino rat (Rattus novergicuss) revealed toxicity of the complexes as compared to the parent drugs because the complexes were found to significantly increase (Plt;0.05) alkaline phosphatase from homogenates of liver and kidney tissues of the tested doses. However, there was no significant difference (Pgt;0.05) in ALP of rat serum. The results generally indicated that more potent compounds with better physical properties and enhanced antimicrobial activities upon complexation have been prepared. Key words: Metal complexes, complexation, antibiotics, antimicrobial properties, alkaline phosphatase. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/D9F35CE1194 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000159 en Copyright © 2008 Ogunniran, K. O., Ajanaku, K. O., James, O. O., Ajani, O. O., Adekoya, J. A. and Nwinyi, O. C.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:771CCD61208 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in Nile Perch and tilapia from gulf of Lake Victoria Orata Francis , , Quinete Natalia, Maes Anke, Werres Friedrich, Wilken Rolf-Dieter, Full Length Research Paper A report of the levels of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in the fish from Lake Victoria is presented. Two fish species namelyLates niloticus (Nile perch) and Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) were obtained from Winam gulf of Lake Victoria, Kenya and analysed for PFOS and PFOA in muscles and liver using LC/MS/MS. Concentrations value of PFOS in Nile perch muscles of up to 10.50 and 35.70 ng/g for liver samples were obtained. Nile tilapia concentration values were of up to 12.40 and 23.70 ng/g for muscles and liver samples respectively. The accuracy and precision of the method were validated, and the effectiveness of the method in determining the contents of these two perfluorinated compounds in fish matrice was also demonstrated. The lowest limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 ng/g and limit of detection was 0.05 ng/g. Typical values for precision obtained were 0.15 ndash; 3.8% for HPLC/MS/MS, with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1000 ng/ml. Key words: PFOS, PFOAshy;, LC/MS/MS, fish, Lake Victoria. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/771CCD61208 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000107 en Copyright © 2008 Orata Francis , , Quinete Natalia, Maes Anke, Werres Friedrich, Wilken Rolf-Dieter,
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:97EEC551212 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Phytochemical screening and determination of flavonoids in Secamone afzelii (Asclepiadaceae) extracts Herveacute; Zabri, Charles Kodjo, Anoubileacute; Benie, Janat Mamyrbekova Bekro and Yves Alain Bekro Full Length Research Paper The goal of this survey is to determine the amount of flavonoids in the leaves and stems of Secamone afzelii (Asclepiadaceae), a plant possessing some antioxidants qualities. The phytochemical screening revealed that the flavonoids are more abundant in the leaves than in the stems. The amount of anthocyane is 336 mg/100 g in the leaves, whereas it is only of 180 mg/100 g in the stems. We also discovered that the stems did not possess aglyconic flavonoids while the amount is 86 mg/100 g in the leaves. This plantrsquo;s flavonoid have several structural shapes. All these flavonoids could act in synergy in order to increase the antioxidant property of S. afzelii. Key words: Secamone afzelii, flavonoids, anthocyanine, aglycones, antioxidant. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/97EEC551212 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000112 en Copyright © 2008 Herveacute; Zabri, Charles Kodjo, Anoubileacute; Benie, Janat Mamyrbekova Bekro and Yves Alain Bekro
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:73557F01227 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Azodyes as corrosion inhibitors for dissolution of C-steel in hydrochloric acid solution M. Abdallah, A. S. Fouda, S. A. Shama and E. A. Afifi Full Length Research Paper The effect of some mono azo dye compounds on the dissolution of carbon steel (type L-52) in 2M hydrochloric acid solution was studied using weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decreasing temperatures. Inhibition was explained by formation of insoluble complex adsorbed on the metal surface. The adsorption follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The formation of stable complex was studied by conductometric titration. The stiochiometric ratio was found to be 1:1; 1:2 for Fe2+/ dye compounds and the mechanism of inhibition was explained in terms of these values. The thermodynamic functions of adsorption process was calculated and discussed. Key words: Carbon steel, corrosion inhibitors, azo dyes, adsorption. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/73557F01227 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000023 en Copyright © 2008 M. Abdallah, A. S. Fouda, S. A. Shama and E. A. Afifi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:D2710551234 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Binding pattern of ferrocyphen upon interaction with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide in the presence of urea Olaseni Segun Esan Christopher Olumuyiwa Aboluwoye, Nurudeen Abiola Oladoja; Jide Ige, Olanrewaju Owoyomi and Grace Olufunmilayo Ogunlusi Full Length Research Paper Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) have been titrated against Ferrocyphen (Dicyano-bis-(1, 10-phenanthroline) iron II complex) in aqueous solution as a function of urea concentration which gave a sigmoidal binding isotherm. A simple method was introduced for resolution and characterization of binding set on the basis of binding capacity concept to give hill coefficient gt; 1.0. Hill coefficient greater than one are the experimental hall mark of cooperativity in which initial binding events render subsequent binding events more favorable. The degree of cooperativity is sensitive to the concentration of urea. The results are interpreted in terms of dielectric constant and decrease in the hydrophobic interaction between the complex (ferrocyphen) and the surfactant monomers. Key word: Binding isotherm, surfactant, cooperativity, hydrophobic ferrocyphen, binding capacity. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/D2710551234 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000026 en Copyright © 2008 Olaseni Segun Esan Christopher Olumuyiwa Aboluwoye, Nurudeen Abiola Oladoja; Jide Ige, Olanrewaju Owoyomi and Grace Olufunmilayo Ogunlusi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:D04C3141244 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Development of a sensitive spectrophotometeric method for determination of copper Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Meghdad Karimi, Elham Moniri and Hamidreza Soudi Full Length Research Paper Simple and rapid spectrophotometeric procedure have been established for quantitation of Cu (II). This method is based on the reaction between alizarin red S and boric acid in the solution of pH 8.5 to produce a red complex which place between organic and aqueous phases. In presence of Cu (II), the complex of alizarin red S and boric acid is dissociated and new complex between alizarin red S and metal ions formed which can be measured at the optimum wavelength. All variables were studied to optimize the reaction conditions. Regression analysis of beerrsquo;s low plot showed good correlation in concentration range 0.6 - 15 g.mL-1. The molar absorptivity and detection limit are calculated. The interference effects of the foreign cation have been examined. Key words: Extraction, copper, trace elements, water samples, Alizarin red S. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/D04C3141244 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000057 en Copyright © 2008 Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Meghdad Karimi, Elham Moniri and Hamidreza Soudi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:43D05C81256 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Impact assessment of effluent discharge on physico-chemical parameters and some heavy metal concentrations in surface water of River Challawa Kano, Nigeria Wakawa, R. J., Uzairu, A., Kagbu, J. A. and Balarabe, M. L. Full Length Research Paper In order to understand bioavailability of heavy metals in water, surface water samples were collected from River Challawa, Nigeria, with the view of determining the effect of industrial effluents on the water quality of the river. The fractional concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn) in water were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The water samples were also analysed for physico-chemical parameters. The results show that all physico-chemical parameters determined: Total Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids, pH, Temperature, Chloride, Sulphate, Phosphate with exception of Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Electrical Conductivity are within the recommended standard limits for these contents in drinking water. Also, results obtained from this study indicates the pollution tendencies of the surface waters of river Challawa, attributable to high levels of Pb, Cr and Cd recorded. Generally, elevated levels of Pb and Zn were recorded at control site, which indicates that other sources, than industrial effluents could be responsible. Also, the results showed that with continuous discharge of waste and waste water, pollution event especially with high Cd and Cr within the study area is likely to have severe but localized effects. It is therefore recommended that more strict methods of waste effluent management should be adopted to reduce further inputs into the area. Key words: Contents, fractionation, river, water, challawa Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/43D05C81256 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000076 en Copyright © 2008 Wakawa, R. J., Uzairu, A., Kagbu, J. A. and Balarabe, M. L.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:65AF04F1274 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Corrosion inhibitive properties and adsorption behaviour of ethanol extract of Piper guinensis as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in H2SO4 Ebenso, E. E. , Eddy, N. O. and Odiongenyi, A. O. Full Length Research Paper The corrosion inhibition of mild steel by ethanol extract of Piper guinensis (EEPG) has been studied using gravimetric, gasometric and thermometric methods. The results of the study reveals that the different concentrations of ethanol extract ofPiper guinensis (EEPG) inhibit mild steel corrosion. Inhibition efficiency of the extract is found to vary with concentration, temperature and period of immersion. Values of activation energy of the inhibited corrosion reaction of mild steel are greater than the value obtained for the blank. Thermodynamic consideration reveals that adsorption ofP. guinensis extract (EEPG) on mild steel surface is spontaneous and occurs according to Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Physical adsorption mechanism has been proposed for the adsorption of the inhibitor from the trend of the inhibition efficiency with temperature and the values of some kinetic and thermodynamic parameters obtained. Key words: Corrosion inhibition, mild steel, Langmuir adsorption isotherm, physical adsorption, Piper guinensis. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/65AF04F1274 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000049 en Copyright © 2008 Ebenso, E. E. , Eddy, N. O. and Odiongenyi, A. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:DE93C021285 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Modeling and theoretical calculation of liquid heat capacity of alcohols and aldehydes using QSPR F. Ashrafi, R. Saadati, A. Behboodi Amlashi Full Length Research Paper The most important domain part of chemometrics is the studies which relate the properties of molecules to their structural characteristics. In this work we use the quantitative structure ndash; property relationship (QSPR) for providing a linear model for predicting the heat capacity of alcohols and aldehydes in liquid phase at 298 K. To perform this research, a set of 32 alcohol and aldehyde as data series was selected then topologic, electronic and geometric descriptors for data series was calculated. Finally, multiple linear regression method was used for selecting more important descriptors and obtaining convenient model. Key words: Quantitative structure ndash; property relationship, heat capacity, descriptor, multiple linear regressions, cross validation test. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/DE93C021285 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000091 en Copyright © 2008 F. Ashrafi, R. Saadati, A. Behboodi Amlashi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:AC6DD4E1294 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Investigation of heavy metals contamination of edible marine seafood Ololade I. A., Lajide L., Amoo I. A. and Oladoja N. A. Full Length Research Paper Levels of trace metals (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) were determined in some marine species (Tilapia zilli, Callinectes sapidus and Littorina litorea) collected during different seasons from Ondo coastal region, Nigeria. Both species-dependent variability, residency of the organism and temporal variations were pronounced. A general trend in concentration with the following in decreasing order occurred: Fe gt; Cu gt;gt;gt; Mn gt; Co gt; Zn. An overall elevated concentration of these metals was observed during the wet season particularly in crab and periwinkle when low pH and salinity pervaded in the aqueous medium. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF in brackets) for Mn (0.21) and Zn (2.33) were observed within crab while those of Co (0.98), Cu (2.19) and Fe (9.95) were observed within periwinkles. Significant correlations (P lt; 0.05) were recorded between tissue concentrations and size/length of biota. A continuous monitoring program is recommended to establish the studied organisms as bioindicators and to identify future changes to conserve the lsquo;healthrsquo; of this fragile ecosystem. Key words: Bioindicator, heavy metals, pollution, toxicity, water. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/AC6DD4E1294 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000082 en Copyright © 2008 Ololade I. A., Lajide L., Amoo I. A. and Oladoja N. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:94777A51303 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2008
Inhibition of the corrosion of mild steel in HCl by sparfloxacin N. O. Eddy, S. A. Odoemelam and A. J. Mbaba Full Length Research Paper Inhibitive and adsorption properties of sparfloxacin for the corrosion of mild steel in HCl have been studied using gravimetric, gasometric and thermometric methods of monitoring corrosion. Sparfloxacin is found to inhibit the corrosion of mild steel in HCl. At 303 K, inhibition efficiency obtained for sparfloxacin from gravimetric, gasometric and thermometric methods were found to range from 79.68 to 97.47%, 86.67 to 96.67% and 76.34 to 82.30% respectively. Inhibition efficiency of sparfloxacin increased with increase in concentration of sparfloxacin but decreased with increase in temperature. Activation energies for the inhibited reactions were higher than the value obtained for the blank. Sparfloxacin is found to be an adsorption inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel. The adsorption of sparfloxacin on the surface of mild steel was found to be spontaneous, exothermic and its adsorption characteristics were best described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The use of sparfloxacin as an inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in HCl is advocated in this study. Key word: Corrosion of mild steel, HCl, inhibition, sparfloxacin. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/94777A51303 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000080 en Copyright © 2008 N. O. Eddy, S. A. Odoemelam and A. J. Mbaba
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:448CFDE1992 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
One-pot synthesis of some (1H)-quinoxalin-2-ones Wageeh Salih El-Hamouly, Eman Moustafa Hassan Abbas and Hanaa Awadallah Tawfik Full Length Research Paper o-phenylenediamine and 4-benzoyl-1,2-diaminobenzene react with ethyl bromoacetate in basic medium under mild reaction conditions to give directly 1H-quinoxalin-2-one (2) and 7-benzoyl-1H-quinoxalin-2-one (4), respectively. Alkylation at the nitrogen atoms of 7-benzoyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-quinoxalin-2-one (3) and compound 4 has been also carried out. Key words: o-phenylenediamines, 3,4-dihydro-1H-quinoxalin-2-ones, 1H-quinoxalin-2-ones, ethyl bromoacetate. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/448CFDE1992 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000102 en Copyright © 2009 Wageeh Salih El-Hamouly, Eman Moustafa Hassan Abbas and Hanaa Awadallah Tawfik
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:34BDD551379 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Isolation, characterization and antibacterial activity screening of ethoxyamine tetrahydroxyanthocyanidines from Detarium senegalense gmelin stem bark Donatus Ebere Okwu and Rosemary Uchegbu Full Length Research Paper Detarium senegalense F. Gmelin (Leguminasae) is well-known Nigerian food and medicinal plant, commonly used in phytomedicine to cure diseases and heal injuries. The ethanol stem barks extract of D. senegalense affords an anthocyanidin alkaloid (2-methoxyamine 3,4,5,7 ndash; tetrahydroxy anthocynadines). The structure was elucidated using NMR spectroscopy in combination with IR and MS spectral data. Antibacterial studies showed that the isolated compound successfully inhibitedStaphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumonia. This result authenticates the use of the plant in phytomedicine for the treatment of infections, disease prevention and as a preservative of local palm wine in South Eastern Nigeria. Keywords: Detarium senegalense, anthocyanidin, alkaloid, antibacterial, preservative, phytomedicine. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/34BDD551379 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000083 en Copyright © 2009 Donatus Ebere Okwu and Rosemary Uchegbu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:618E9D61479 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Adsorption of the proteins of white wine onto activated carbon, alumina and titanium dioxide Omoniyi Kehinde Israel Full Length Research Paper The study investigated the adsorption capacities of bovine serum albumin (BSA), ovalbumin (OVA) and mucin (MUC) onto titanium dioxide, alumina and activated carbon, for the purpose of investigating the optimum conditions of pH and cations concentration of white wine required for the haze removal process. The results showed that the amounts of adsorbed OVA and BSA onto the three adsorbents were 1.32 plusmn; 0.73 and 1.20 plusmn; 0.46 times higher than the amount of MUC adsorbed onto the three adsorbents respectively. The amount of the proteins adsorbed from white wine model solution onto the various adsorbents increased by 6.25 plusmn; 0.04 times as protein concentration is increased from 1.0 to 5.0 mg/mL. The percentage of adsorbed proteins increased between 12 to 16% following suspension of 50 mg adsorbent treated with calcium or magnesium ions in the proteins solutions. Amount of the proteins adsorbed to untreated TiO2 at pH 3.0 and 7.0 were not different, however, at pH 7.0 pre-treatment of TiO2 with calcium ion increased the adsorption significantly (p lt; 0.05). The optimization of the amounts of inherent proteins of wine solutionadsorbed is an indicator of the efficient design of the sorption treatment plant for the haze removal process. Key words: White wine, haze, protein, adsorbent, adsorption capacity, optimization, indicator. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/618E9D61479 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000010 en Copyright © 2009 Omoniyi Kehinde Israel
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:22F6C4F1489 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Simultaneous kinetic determination of paracetamol and caffeine by H-point standard addition method H. Tavallali and M. Sheikhaei Full Length Research Paper A very simple and selective spectrophotometric method for simultaneous kinetic determination of paracetamol and caffeine using H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) was described. The method was based on difference in the rate of oxidation of these compounds with Cu(II)-neocuproine system and formation of Cu(I)ndash;neocuproine complex which monitored at 453 nm by spectrophotometer at pH 5.0 in the presence of surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Experimental conditions such as pH, reagent concentrations, ionic strength and temperature were optimized. Paracetamol and caffeine can be determined in the range of 1.5 - 7.0 and 0.1-3.0 mu;g ml-1 respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of paracetamol and caffeine in pharmaceutical samples and satisfactory results were obtained. Key words: Paracetamol, caffeine, neocuproine, determination, HPSAM. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/22F6C4F1489 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000128 en Copyright © 2009 H. Tavallali and M. Sheikhaei
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:1396EB61511 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Anthocyanins from leaf stalks of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Robert Byamukama, Jane Namukobe and Bernard Kiremire Full Length Research Paper The anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-(6rsquo;rsquo;-O-a-rhamnopyranosyl-b-glucopyranoside) (1) and delphinidin 3-O-(6rsquo;rsquo;-O-a-rhamnopyranosyl-b-glucopyranoside) (2) isolated from the leaf stalks of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by a combination of chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated mainly by the use of homo- and heteronuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The relative amounts of 1 and 2 in the extracts were approximately 92 and 4%, respectively. The absolute amount was 124 mg/100 g. Key words: Cassava, Manihot esculenta, anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-(6rsquo;rsquo;-O-a-rhamnopyranosyl-b-glucopyranoside, delphinidin 3-O-(6rsquo;rsquo;-O-a-rhamnopyranosyl-b-glucopyranoside). Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/1396EB61511 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000015 en Copyright © 2009 Robert Byamukama, Jane Namukobe and Bernard Kiremire
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:2EC473D1519 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies of the aqueous extract of the pods pulp of Cassia sieberiana DC. (Cassia Kotchiyana Oliv.) I. Toma, Y. Karumi and M. A. Geidam Full Length Research Paper The study was conducted to screen for the phytochemical constituents of Cassia sieberiana. The acute toxicity value and the effect of the aqueous extract of the pods of C. sieberiana on serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also measured in rats after five weeks of daily oral administration of grade doses (200 - 1600 mg/kgbody weight) of the extract. Phytochemical analysis of the C. sieberianapods pulp (fruit) revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, phlobatannins, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides and reducing sugars. The concentration of tannins and saponins were found to be much higher than the other phytochemical components. The result of the oral acute toxicity study showed that LD50 of the extract is 1950 mg/kg, indicating that the extract is of low toxicity. In this study, the extract used had caused a significant elevation (Plt;0.05) (27.60 plusmn; 1.25b) of serum levels of ALT in the group that received the highest dose (1600mg/kg body weight) of the extract and a significant increase (Plt;0.05) (43.00 plusmn; 1.14b, 49.40 plusmn; 2.71c, 52.60 plusmn; 3.90d, 60.00 plusmn; 3.55e) increase in the serum level of AST in all the treated group when compared to the control rats (22.80 plusmn; 0.66a). The result also show a statistically significant (Plt;0.05) (208.80 plusmn;11.95b, 220.20 plusmn; 8.47c, 234.80 plusmn; 4.33d) increase in the serum level of ALP in those groups that received 400,800 and 1600mg/kg body weight of the extract when compared to the control rats (146.80 plusmn; 7.20a). From these result, even though the pods (fruit) of C. sieberiana has been reported to have medicinal value and despite the fact that the calculated LD50 of this fruit indicated a low toxicity, this study has shown that using the extract at a high dose such as 400 ndash; 1600 mg/kg body weight for a long period can cause liver damage. We therefore conclude that the plant should be taken at a very low dosage le; 200 mg/kg body weight and should not be taken over a long period of time. Key words: Phytochemical, toxicity, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, Cassia sieberiana. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/2EC473D1519 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000113 en Copyright © 2009 I. Toma, Y. Karumi and M. A. Geidam
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:336BE631560 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
A comparative assessment of soil pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two Niger Delta communities, Nigeria Godson R. E. E. Ana, Mynepalli K. C. Sridhar and Godwin O. Emerole Full Length Research Paper This study determined, in comparison with guideline limits, the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in the soils at Eleme (highly industrialized) and Ahoada East (less industrialized) communities in the Niger Delta Area. Sixteen grab soil samples with 8 samples each from different locations in each community were collected at depth 0 - 15 cm using an auger. About 500 g of soil from each location were processed and analyzed for pH, moisture content, organic matter, phenol, and PAHs using standard methods. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics viz mean plusmn; standard deviation as well as inferential statistics such as Man Whitney U test and simple regression at 5% level of significance. At Eleme, the highest concentration of phenol (1.04 plusmn; 0.85%) was observed in samples at Ekporo. The highest levels of Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (1.54 x 105 ng/kg) were recorded at Onne. Soil samples close to the Petroleum Refinery at Alesa recorded the highest total PAH concentration (2.30 x 106 ng/kg) even though this was slightly lower than the EPA guideline value of 2.5 x 106 ng/kg. At Ahoada East, the highest phenol level (1.48 plusmn;0.99 mg/kg) was observed at Ula Ehuda. The highest BaP concentrations were observed at Ahoada town (1.57 x 105 ng/kg). Also the highest total PAH levels (3.67 x 105 ng/kg) were recorded at Odiabidi and this was lower than the levels at Eleme and EPA guideline limits (P lt; 0.05). The mean level of total PAHs at Eleme which recorded the highest number (9) of individual components was 7 fold higher than that recorded at Ahoada East with only 3 components. Also at Eleme four locations compared to none at Ahoada East were classified as high risk sites. The study showed that the communities at Eleme when compared to Ahoada East may be more vulnerable to hazards associated with increased exposure to Soil PAH. Key words: Industry, Niger Delta Communities, Nigeria, PAHs, soil pollution. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/336BE631560 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000002 en Copyright © 2009 Godson R. E. E. Ana, Mynepalli K. C. Sridhar and Godwin O. Emerole
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:3F4F1561578 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Methylene blue (MB) adsorption from glycerol solution onto the twin habit of α-goethite S. M. J. Zubairu, G. F. S. Harrison, A. Uzairu and J. F. Iyun Full Length Research Paper Adsorption of methylene blue onto the surface of synthetic twin habit of alpha;-goethite habit has been investigated in glycerol solution at 25, 30 and 35deg;C. For the twin habit adsorbent, it appears the results are consistent with an adsorbed phase confined to monolayer model with edgewise orientation of methylene blue (MB) molecules on the surface. Composite isotherms were calculated from the apparent adsorption isotherms by well established method. The data was adequately described by the three - isotherm equations (Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models) and the data follow a dubinin isotherm. The combined adsorption isotherm and spectroscopic results have shown that the surface of this habit could be heterogeneous, if the presences of two acidic sites are presumed to be the adsorption sites which have been identified as of the Lewis and Brnsted acid type. Thermodynamic quantities for the adsorption of MB on the twin habit, Ha, Ga and Sa are calculated, and an attempt is made to correlate the trend observed with thermodynamic laws as well as nature of interactions at the interface. Key words: Adsorption isotherms, methylene blue, twin alpha; - goethite. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/3F4F1561578 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000089 en Copyright © 2009 S. M. J. Zubairu, G. F. S. Harrison, A. Uzairu and J. F. Iyun
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:7C5FE6D1617 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Solid phase extraction of Cd(II) using mesoporous organosilicas and determination by FAAS Ali Moghimi, Reza Ghiasi, Alireza Abedin and Shahriar Ghammamy Full Length Research Paper A simple and reproducible method for the rapid extraction and determination of trace amounts of Cd(II) ions using mesoporous organo-silicas mesoporous silica and atomic absorption spectrometry is presented. Common coexisting ions did not interfere with the separation and determination. The preconcentration factor was 100 (1 ml elution volume) for a 100 ml sample volume. The limit of detection of the proposed method is 0.7 ng Lminus;1. The maximum sorption capacity of sorbent under optimum conditions has been found to be 5 mg of Cd per gram of sorbent. The relative standard deviation under optimum conditions was 3.0% (n = 10). Accuracy and application of the method was estimated by using test samples of natural and synthetic water spiked with different amounts of Cd(II) ion. Key words: Preconcentration, Cd(II), mesoporous organo-silica, solid phase extraction, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/7C5FE6D1617 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000130 en Copyright © 2009 Ali Moghimi, Reza Ghiasi, Alireza Abedin and Shahriar Ghammamy
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:936D2921664 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Characterization of clays in Odukpani, south eastern Nigeria V. N. Osabor, P. C. Okafor, K. A. Ibe and A. A. Ayi Full Length Research Paper A combination of analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infra red spectral (IR) analysis, energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to characterize clays from Odukpani, Cross River State, Nigeria. The samples were also subjected to physico-chemical tests. The results obtained show that the silicon content was the highest and that of manganese the lowest. The silica (SiO2) content was found to be 47.52% followed by alumina (Al2O3) 34.01%, iron oxide (Fe2O3) 2.38% and trace amounts of other elements such as Ca, Mg, Na and Mn (0.038, 0.188, 1.78 and 0.00%, respectively). The X-ray diffraction studies showed that the clay deposits consist predominantly of kaolinite and quartz with trace amounts of illites and biotite minerals. The infra red spectral analysis between 400 and 3700 cm-1 revealed interesting wave numbers and absorption bands. EDAX analysis of the clay samples reveals that Al and Si, were in the ratio of 1:2 whereas other elements like K, Ti and Fe were below detection limits. The thermal analysis revealed thermograms that provided valuable information on the purity of the starting materials and the mode of the reactions of the various clay samples. Key words: Odukpani clays, atomic absorption spectroscopy, infra-red spectral and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray, differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/936D2921664 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000031 en Copyright © 2009 V. N. Osabor, P. C. Okafor, K. A. Ibe and A. A. Ayi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:2C91ED41671 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination of synthetic industrial essential oils utilized in Northern Nigeria Hati S. S., Dimari G. A., Egwu G. O. and Ogugbuaja, V. O. Full Length Research Paper This paper provides supplementary information to earlier elucidations on the level of dioxin contaminations of synthetic industrial essential oils (SIEOs), commonly referred to as Turare (Hausa Language) utilized in Northern Nigeria. In this work, fifteen typical samples of this product was analysed for the EPA-16 targeted Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) using GC-MS methodology. The result revealed that all 15 SIEO samples indicated the presence of the EPA-16-targeted PAHs. The QC sample run for all samples gave a value within plusmn; 19% and percentage recoveries were in the range of 76- 105%. The uncertainty of measurement is within the acceptance criteria based on a confidence level of 95%. Phenanthrene was observed to show the highest concentration at 2.87 mg/kg, while the least PAHs compounds was chrysene at 0.02 mg/kg. The results also showed that the low molecular weight (e.g. phenanthrene, anthracene and acenaphthene) PAHs constitutes the largest group of compounds with high concentrations in the SIEO samples, while the pertinent high molecular weight PAHs, benzo(b)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene and dibenzo(a,h)pyrene were present at relatively moderate to low concentrations. However, on the basis of form of application, the result reveals that the socio-cultural form of application had the highest composition of high molecular weight (MW) PAHs and was statistically significant (plt;0.05). Therefore the direct forms of applications of SIEOs in Northern Nigeria portend higher likelihood of exposure enrichments of PAHs with potential hazards to human health and the environment. Key words: Fragrance material, direct application, toxicant, persistent, human health, environment. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/2C91ED41671 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000115 en Copyright © 2009 Hati S. S., Dimari G. A., Egwu G. O. and Ogugbuaja, V. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:937B5BD1680 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Spectrophotometric and conductometric studies of the thermodynamics complexation of Zn2+, Cu2 +, Co2 +, Ni+2 and Cd2+ ions with a new schiff base ligand in acetonitrile solution Mahmood Payehghadr, Ali Akbar Babaei, Lotfali Saghatforoush and Fraydoun Ashrafi Full Length Research Paper The complex-formation reactions between Cu2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ ions with 2-[(E)-(2-(2-(pyridine-2-yl)-ethylthio)ethylimino)methyl]-4-bromophenol(PYTABr) has been studied by spectrophotometric and conductometric methods in acetonitrile at various temperatures. Formation constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 (metal ion to ligand) complexes were evaluated from computer fitting of the absorbance-mole ratio data, and molar conductance-mole ratio data at different temperatures, and found that complexes to vary in the order of Ni2+gt;Co2+gt;Cu2+gt;Zn2+gt;Cd2+. The enthalpy and entropy changes of the complexation reaction were determined from the temperature dependence of the formation constants. Key words: Conductometric, spectrophotometric, formation constants, schiff bases, complexation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/937B5BD1680 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000134 en Copyright © 2009 Mahmood Payehghadr, Ali Akbar Babaei, Lotfali Saghatforoush and Fraydoun Ashrafi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:2C028F21690 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Studies on the effects of the honey of two floral types (Ziziphus spp. and Acelia spp.) on organism associated with burn wound infections E. T. Williams, J. Jeffrey, J. T. Barminas, I. Toma and P. Alexander Full Length Research Paper The honey of 2 Nigerian honey of 2 floral types (Ziziphus spp. and Acacia spp.) was studied. Standard physicological composition of honey quality, that is, ash, pH, acidity, color, refractive index, conductivity, moisture, mineral content, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) contents and diastae number (DN) of the spp were determined. Compositional variation due to the floral types shows that Ziziphus honey has the highest ash and pH but lower acidity compared to Acacia honey statistically. Both Honey (show) indicates good quality with low level HMF and DN. Acacia honey was tested on burn wound healing potency as well as the sensitivity of wound infecting bacteria species within 6 weeks healing has take place, bacteria culture revealed that common wound pathogens such as Staphylococcus aurens, speuchomonas, methecilin resistant staphylococcus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterocecci (VRE) and Acinctobacter taunari were rendered sterile in the honey treated wound. A wide antibaterual potency with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 3.7 - 7.3% was obtained which is necessary to stop the growth of these strains. Key words: Ziziphus spp. and Acelia spp., antibacterial potency, burn, wound, healing, culture of bacteria. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/2C028F21690 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000143 en Copyright © 2009 E. T. Williams, J. Jeffrey, J. T. Barminas, I. Toma and P. Alexander
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:D15DAC41735 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
The proximate and mineral composition of three leafy vegetables commonly consumed in Lagos, Nigeria Chionyedua T. Onwordi , Anuoluwa M. Ogungbade and Adedoja D. Wusu Full Length Research Paper Analysis of proximate composition and mineral nutrients of three commonly consumed vegetables Amaranthus cruentus, Celusia argenta and Corchorus olitorius leaves was carried out using standard methods of food analysis. The mean leaves moisture content is 23.57, 15.58 and 30.90% respectively for A. cruentus, C. argenta and C. olitorius. The vegetables have high ash content ranging from 21.30 to 32.36% which is within the range reported in some Nigerian leafy vegetables. The mean protein, carbohydrate and crude fibre content are: 12.66, 29.41, 7.83%; 9.35, 32.84, 11.70%; 11.24, 31.34, 6.6% respectively for A. cruentus, C. argenta and C. olitorius. All the studied vegetables have low fat content - A. cruentus (0.45%), C. argenta (0.21%), C. olitorius (0.32%). The leaves have energy values of 177.55 cal/100 g for C. olitorius followed by A. cruentus with energy value of 176.67 cal/100 g and C. argenta having the least energy value of (174.93 cal/100g) of food .The vegetables are all good sources of calcium , iron and zinc. Key words: Leafy vegetables, Amaranthus cruentus, Celusia argenta, Corchorusolitorius, nutritive minerals. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/D15DAC41735 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000170 en Copyright © 2009 Chionyedua T. Onwordi , Anuoluwa M. Ogungbade and Adedoja D. Wusu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:65783111738 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Selective synthesis applying amino acids with basic side chains as peptide precursors Jeanne L. Kuhler, Robey T. Brooks, Whitney K. Helms, Monica Hodge, Krystal D. Holly, Brandi L. Inman, Oluwaseun A. Koriko, Rimpal R. Patel and Tiffany R. Shorter Full Length Research Paper Synthesis of protected amino acid derivatives has long been established as one of the most useful methods for peptide coupling, with applications in studies involving receptor-binding affinities and in protein stereochemical studies to elucidate enzymatic mechanisms. Amino acid esters incorporating glycine, proline, phenylalanine and related methyl esters have often been synthesized due to their usefulness, and the lysine derivative named Na - Benzyloxycarbonyl - Ne - tert-butyloxycarbonyl - L - lysin - (N - hydroxy-succinimidester) has also been used extensively as a coupling agent for the formation of peptide bonds and to facilitate the synthesis of endorphins and enzyme inhibitors. However, efficient syntheses have been rare, and therefore a novel, multi-step sequence involving the selective addition and subsequent removal of several common protecting groups has recently been completed. This novel method was facilitated via the use of a sterically hindered base and a Dean-Stark trap to decrease the time required for complete cyclization. Reaction progress was monitored using thin layer chromatography, and all products have been analytically characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Enantioselectivity has been maintained for both of the amino acids arginine and lysine. Key words: Protecting groups, amino acids, peptides, lactams. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/65783111738 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000124 en Copyright © 2009 Jeanne L. Kuhler, Robey T. Brooks, Whitney K. Helms, Monica Hodge, Krystal D. Holly, Brandi L. Inman, Oluwaseun A. Koriko, Rimpal R. Patel and Tiffany R. Shorter
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:BF319A01746 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Seasonal variation of some physico-chemical properties of borehole water in Abraka, Nigeria P. O. Agbaire and I. P. Oyibo Full Length Research Paper The influence of seasonal changes on the properties of the borehole water in Abraka Ethiope east LGA Delta state, Nigeria was investigated. Composites samples from 7 representative quarters in Abraka township were collected and assessed for both dry and wet seasons. The vales of the various parameters were as follows: pH 6.3 to 7.1 for dry season and 6.2 to 8.00 for wet season; conductivity 62 to 84 s/cm for dry season and 57 - 67 s/cm for wet season; total suspended solids (TSS) 7.21 to 12.11 mg/L for dry season and 11.33 to 14.30 mg/L for wet season; total dissolved solids (TDS) 0.0 to 2.11 mg/L for dry season and 0.39 to 7.11 mg/L for wet season; biological oxygen demand (BOD) dry season 1.44 to 2.68 mg/L for dry season and 0.26 to 1.53 mg/L for wet season. The values for the trace metals and other parameters were within the WHO permissible limit for drinking water. The water is therefore portable. Key words: Physico-chemical properties, borehole water and seasonal variation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/BF319A01746 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000123 en Copyright © 2009 P. O. Agbaire and I. P. Oyibo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:46D8AE81824 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Physiochemical properties and micronutrients status of farmland soils in Abraka, Nigeria E. E. Akporhonor and P. O. Agbaire Full Length Research Paper Micronutrients are as important as macronutrients in crop production. It is therefore imperative to have an idea of their availability in farmlands. To this end 20 soil samples were collected from 10 locations in Abraka (10 topsoil and 10 subsoil) to ascertain the level of total micronutrients. The total cationic micronutrients were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Fe has a range between 2214 - 4820 mgkg-1, Cu ranged between 4.00 - 18.00 mgkg-1, Zn ranged between 12.00 - 44.00 mgkg-1, B ranged between 58.00 - 158.00 mgkg-1, and Mn ranged between 4.00 - 16.00 mgkg-1. Soil properties are as follows: silt between 0.00 - 6.25 gkg-1, clay 0.00 - 15.63 gkg-1, sand 83.33 - 98.86 gkg-1, pH 4.00 - 6.90, CEC (c molkg-1) between 0.69 - 6.94. Percentage organic matter ranged between 0.71 - 2.46% with a mean of 1.218%. There is relatively low correlation between soil properties with total micronutrient. Key words: Micronutrients, physico-chemical properties, relationship. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/46D8AE81824 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000109 en Copyright © 2009 E. E. Akporhonor and P. O. Agbaire
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:ECA727B1823 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Molecular complex piperidine-CO2 Huiming Jiang, Shufen Zhang and Yingmei Xu Full Length Research Paper Piperidine absorbs CO2 in air to form the molecular complex: piperidinium-1-piperidinecarboxylate which was characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction. The crystal structure was determined to be triclinic, space group P - 1 with a = 6.403(3) Aring;, b = 9.437(5) Aring;, c = 9.928(5) Aring;,  = 104.90(4)deg;,  = 102.35(4)deg;, g = 94.63(4)deg;, Z = 2. The complex is stabilized via hydrogen bonds and electrostatic attraction. The mechanism of formation and stabilization is investigated. Key words: Piperidine; molecular complex, single crystal, hydrogen bond, electrostatic attraction. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/ECA727B1823 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000094 en Copyright © 2009 Huiming Jiang, Shufen Zhang and Yingmei Xu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:A5497D21821 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
The preparation of methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate on silica gel column O. M. Ameen and G. A. Olatunji Full Length Research Paper An investigation of the acid catalyzed esterification of benzoic acid and salicylic acid with methanol on silica gel solid support system was carried out. The method involved distilling continuously or refluxing the alcohol over the packed column. The conventional method of esterification was also carried out to assess the advantages of the packed column method on improved yield and easier work-up procedure. This modified method minimized the lengthy and cumbersome work ndash; up associated with the conventional method. Although the yields obtainable from the packed column methods compared favourably with yields from conventional method, the new method will require further modification to bring about optimal yields of the desired esters. Key words: Esters, esterification reaction, salicylate, packed column, modification. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/A5497D21821 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000169 en Copyright © 2009 O. M. Ameen and G. A. Olatunji
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:29CB7001839 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Antidiarrhoeal effects of the root extracts of Guiera senegalensis in male mice Williams, E. T., Barminas, J. T., Akinniyi, J. and William, A. Full Length Research Paper The antimicrobial activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of Guiera senegalensis were studied against some enteropathogens by agar-well diffusion method. Both extracts inhibited the growth of Streptococcus Pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella sppand Pseudomonas euroginosa. The methanol extract was more effective on S. Pneumonia, E. coli, S. aureus, E. cloacae, Salmonella spp, while the aqueous extract was more active on Salmonella spp and P. euroginosa. The methanol extract showed quicker curative action in experimentally induced diarrhoea in adult male mice when administered once or twice at a dose of 556 mg/kg daily. From this work, G. senegalensis root appears to be an effective measure for treating diarrhoea. Where food poisoning or metal poisoning are the causative agents. The phytochemical screening results of the aqueous extract, showed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, coumarine and anthraquinones.However anthraquinones were not detected in the methanol extract and cardiac glycosides where not detected in the aqueous extract. Ethno medicinal use of this plant in the treatment of diarrhoea is justified by this work and is encouraged. Keywords: Diarrhoea, root extracts, stool formation, antimicrobial activity, packed cell volume (PCV). Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/29CB7001839 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000016 en Copyright © 2009 Williams, E. T., Barminas, J. T., Akinniyi, J. and William, A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:74C02121837 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Modelling of the adsorption of zn2+ from aqueous solution by modified and unmodified tiger nut shell Nnabuk O. Eddy and Stevens A. Odoemelam Full Length Research Paper Adsorption of Zn (II) ions from aqueous solutions was studied in a batch system using Tiger nut shells. The optimum condition for the adsorption of Zn (II) ions from aqueous solution by these shells was investigated by considering the extent of adsorption with respect to contact time, initial metal ion concentration, particle size of the adsorbent and modification of the adsorbent with H2SO4. The extent of metal ions removed decreased with increasing contact time but increased with increase in the initial metal ion concentration. The adsorption equilibrium data were best described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Although intraparticle diffusion was not the rate determining step for the adsorption of Zn (II) ions from aqueous solution by tiger nut shell, the adsorption kinetic was consistent with Weber-Morris and Lagergren pseudo second order models. Key words: Adsorption, Zn (II), tiger nut shell, kinetics. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/74C02121837 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000092 en Copyright © 2009 Nnabuk O. Eddy and Stevens A. Odoemelam
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:92969911834 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Kinetics and mechanism of elimination of ethyl acetate in the gas phase: A theoretical study I. A. Adejoro and T. O. Bamkole Full Length Research Paper Using the PM3 semi-empirical quantum mechanical molecular orbital method, a procedure was devised to study the gas phase pyrolytic reaction of ethyl acetate in order to gain a deeper insight into both its kinetics and mechanism. By considering the involvement of formal charges and geometrical changes in the activation, a mechanism was proposed in which a pre-equilibrium of acidic proton transfer is followed by the rate limiting bond polarization of C-O bond in a cyclic transition state. The reactions involve a non-synchronous break in the b-carbon-hydrogen and the a-ether oxygen bonds through a six-centred transition state. The results obtained showed that the rate constant and the computed Arrhenius parameters compare well with the experimental values in the literature. Key words: Kinetics, unimolecular elimination, semi-empirical calculation, MOPAC, transition state structure. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/92969911834 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000085 en Copyright © 2009 I. A. Adejoro and T. O. Bamkole
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:70977C31830 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Effect of heating on the chemical stability of two brands of metronidazole suspension Enoche Florence Oga and Nelson Agaba Ochekpe Full Length Research Paper Metronidazole suspension is available in most developed countries as a prescription only medicine and in the form of an extemporaneous preparation of 90 days shelf-life. In Nigeria, it is available on the shelf with shelf lives of 2 - 4 years. It is available from at least 20 local manufacturers. This work has determined the shelf life of two brands of metronidazole suspension using accelerated stability testing method. A relatively simple analytical method has been utilized for stability studies of metronidazole suspension because of known research constraints in the laboratories of most developing countries. The analytical procedure employed for quantization of metronidazole in the suspension involved; liquid-liquid extraction followed by the use of ultraviolet/visible Spectrophotometry. This method has been successfully used for the determination of the shelf-life of two branded metronidazole suspensions. The technique offers the advantage of simplicity, rapidity and sensitivity without the need for very expensive equipment. The shelf lives calculated for Brand 1 at the temperatures of 25 and 30deg;C were 4.96 and 3.86 years, respectively; while that for Brand 2 was 7.7 and 5.87 years, respectively. The labeled shelf life for Brand 1 was 2 years while that for Brand 2 was 3 years. Key words: Metronidazole suspension, accelerated stability testing, shelf-life, spectrophotometric assay method. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/70977C31830 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000062 en Copyright © 2009 Enoche Florence Oga and Nelson Agaba Ochekpe
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:3E5BA091861 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Comprehensive scientific demystification of Kigelia africana: A review Olatunji A. Gabriel and Atolani Olubunmi Review Medicinal plant plays a vital role in the management of various diseases. Kigelia africana popularly known as the Sausage tree, Kigelia pinnata is a multipurpose medicinal plant with many attributes and considerable potentials. The plant has traditional uses which include anticancer, antiulcer, anti-aging, antioxidant, and anti malarial. It is also widely applied in the treatment of genital infections, gynaecological disorders, renal ailments, fainting, epilepsy, sickle-cell anaemia, psoriasis, eczema, central nervous system depression, respiratory ailment, skin complaint, body weakness, leprosy, impetigo, worm infestation, scalp, athletersquo;s foot, tumours etc., especially in developing nations where orthodox medicine are meager, expensive or inaccessible. The various chemical constituents such as the naphthaquinones, iridoids, fatty acids, norviburtinal, sterols, lignans, terpenoid, and flavonoids are the essential building block responsible for its wide range of activities. This work represents the recent profile of applications of K. africana as examined by various modern scientific researches. This work was prompted as a result of lack of recent and sufficient scientific information on the use of K. africanaas a viable medicinal plant. Key words: Bignoniaceae, Kigelia africana, nahthaquinones, anticancer, anti-inflammatory. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/3E5BA091861 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000044 en Copyright © 2009 Olatunji A. Gabriel and Atolani Olubunmi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:AD9253C1852 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Organometallic gold (III) bis-pentafluorophenyl-arylazo imidazole: Synthesis and multinuclear NMR investigation P. Byabartta Full Length Research Paper Reaction of [Au(C6F5)2(OSO2CF3)2] with RaaiRacute; in dichloromethane medium followed ligand addition leads to [Au(C6F5)2(RaaiR/)](OTf) [RaaiR/ = p-R-C6H4-N=N-C3H2-NN-1-R/, (1 - 3), abbreviated as N,N/-chelator, where N(imidazole) and N(azo) represent N and N/, respectively; R = H (a), Me (b), Cl (c) and R/ = Me (1), CH2CH3 (2), CH2Ph (3), OSO2CF3 is the triflate anion, C6F5 is the pentafluorophenyl ring]. Ir spectra of the complexes show --C=N-- and --N=N-- stretching near at 1590 and 1370 cm-1 and near at 1510, 955, 800 cm-1 due to the presence of pentafluoropheny ring. The 1H NMR spectral measurements suggest methylene, ndash;CH2ndash;, in RaaiEt gives a complex AB type multiplet while in RaaiCH2Ph it shows AB type quartets. In the 1H-1H COSY spectrum of the present complexes and contour peaks in the 1H-13C HMQC spectrum, assign the solution structure and stereoretentive transformation in each step. Key words: Gold (III), arylazoimidazole, H, C, COSY, HMQC, electrochemistry, ESI mass. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/AD9253C1852 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000103 en Copyright © 2009 P. Byabartta
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:374A4F71848 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Vitamin B12 models: Synthesis and characterization of cyano bridged dicobaloximes and antimicrobial activity Bakheit Mustafa Mohamed Salih and S. Satyanarayana Full Length Research Paper Reactions of the cyanide complexes of the type Co(CN)(DH)2L moiety (where L= thiourea, acetamide, formamide, semicarbazide, pyrazole and aniline; DH = dimethylglyoxime) with the corresponding benzyl(aqua)cobaloxime PhCH2Co(DH)2OH2 gives a series of homometallic cyano-bridged compounds of the type PhCH2Co(DH)2CNCo(DH)2L. All these complexes have been synthesized and characterized by means of IR, LC/MS, 1H,13C NMR and (C, H, N) analysis as well as their antimicrobial activities. The formation of cyanide bridge is evident from the IR spectra by the appearance of nu;(CN) shifts with respect to the mononuclear parent complex. Key words: Cyano-bridged, bimetallic complexes, antimicrobial activity. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/374A4F71848 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000176 en Copyright © 2009 Bakheit Mustafa Mohamed Salih and S. Satyanarayana
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:0DD1CCF1845 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Determination of anions by ion chromatochraphy in water samples of Baghdad city Hassan M. L. Alsudani, Redha I. Al-Bayati and Mahmood M. Barbooti Full Length Research Paper Determinations of common anions by IC methods in Baghdad were carried out in this investigation. The optimum values of the instrumental parameters were reached best in relative standard deviation (RSD), correlation coefficient (r2) and method detection limits (MDLs) and other parameters to proving the precision and accuracy of this method. Both peak height (PH) and peak area (PA) were used for the evaluation of the IC signals. All standards and samples have been prepared by ultra pure water. Generally the peaks for anions were clearly, good resolution and there are no any interaction between its. We recorded the total time for anion analyses was about 14 min. Key words: Ion chromatography, common anions, water samples. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/0DD1CCF1845 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000054 en Copyright © 2009 Hassan M. L. Alsudani, Redha I. Al-Bayati and Mahmood M. Barbooti
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:755FD6C1902 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Nano-Titanium dioxide (TiO2) mediated simple and efficient modification to Biginelli reaction H. R. Prakash Naik, H. S. Bhojya Naik and T. Aravinda Full Length Research Paper We report an efficient titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopowder catalyzed and microwave induced, much improved modification to original Biginelli reaction reported in 1893 involving fast reaction kinetics. Key words: Titanium dioxide, biginelli reaction, microwave, fast kinetics. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/755FD6C1902 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000097 en Copyright © 2009 H. R. Prakash Naik, H. S. Bhojya Naik and T. Aravinda
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:217C5591896 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Antioxidant and anticancer activities of doum fruit extract (Hyphaene thebaica) Faten, Mohamed Abou ndash;Elalla Full Length Research Paper The antioxidant capacity of doum fruit extract and the total phenolic content were analyzed. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH and iron chelating assays. Quercetin, ascorbic, BHT and tannic were used as positive controls. Also the effect of doum extract on viability of acute myeloid leukemia was studied. The results showed that the total phenolic content were 0.5 g/ 3 g dried extract sample as quercetin. In iron chelating assay the result showed that 800 g/ml doum extract gave the best antioxidant activity (21% inhibition). In DPPH assay the 1000 g/ml extract exhibited 50% antioxidant activity (IC50) but 1500 g/ml extract exhibited 80% antioxidant activity. In the viability test, the results showed that half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of doum extract was found to be 3 g/ml. The result indicated that the doum extract could be an important dietary source of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant and anticancer activities. Key words: Hyphaene thebaica, total phenols, antioxidant and anticancer activities, AML. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/217C5591896 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000019 en Copyright © 2009 Faten, Mohamed Abou ndash;Elalla
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:502694E1879 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Evaluating the efficiency of a textile wastewater treatment plant located in Oshodi, Lagos O. O. Ogunlaja and Ogunlaja Aemere Full Length Research Paper The major part of textile processes is based on chemical reactions carried out in aqueous heterogeneous systems which eventually generates effluents of extremely variable composition and constitute an environmental risk of major concern. This study, focused on investigating the characteristic of effluent from textile industry which generates about 1577 m3 wastes per day and the effectiveness of the wastewater treatment technique practiced. Wastewater samples were collected at four different outlets within the company premises twice within two months (November and December). The ranges of the physico-chemical parameters studied were as follows: pH 7.12 - 12.99, temperature 28.33 - 64.00deg;C, total solids (TS) 2000 ndash; 31800 mgL-1, total suspended solids (TSS) 300 ndash; 780 mgL-1, dissolved oxygen (DO) N.D - 1.50 mgL-1, chemical oxygen demand (COD) N.D ndash; 350 mgL-1, oil and grease 160 ndash; 2370 mgL-1, Chlorides 21 - 1064 mgL-1, Sulphide 1060 ndash; 1400 mgL-1, Chromium (Cr) 0.09 - 0.67 mgL-1, Cadmium (Cd) 0.04 - 0.31 mgL-1 and lead (Pd) N.D - 0.35 mgL-1. The percentage removal was also determined for each investigated parameters with values ranging as follows: TS; 15.1 - 86.5%, TSS; 46.4 - 51.3%, oil and grease; 35.0 - 92.9%, chloride; 27.6 - 65.5%, sulphide; 18.5 - 24.3%, heavy metals (Cr, Cd and Pd); 2.9 - 86.6%, temperature; 27.9 - 55.7%, pH; 20.3 - 45.2% Key words: Textile processes, wastewater, effluents, treatment plant, removal efficiency, physico-chemical. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/502694E1879 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000068 en Copyright © 2009 O. O. Ogunlaja and Ogunlaja Aemere
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:46FB8B51871 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Lixiviation of manganiferrous aluminosilicate mineral in hydrochloric acid F. A. Adekola, A. A. Baba, R. B. Bale, N. Abdus-Salam, O. A. A. Eletta and F. T. Olajide Full Length Research Paper A study of the lixiviation of Manganiferrous Aluminosilicate Mineral in hydrochloric acid has been undertaken. Experiments on quantitative lixiviation of the mineral showed that its dissolution rate depends on hydrogen ion concentration, reaction temperature and particle size. The activation energy calculated from the experimental data was 34.19 kJ/mole and this suggests a diffusion controlled mechanism. A reaction order of 0.2 with respect to the acid concentration was also found. With 8.42 M HCl at 80deg;C, about 69.27% of the 10 g/L of the manganiferrous mineral was dissolved within 120 min using lt; 0.09 mm particle diameter. Key words: Manganiferrous, lixiviation, dissolution, kinetics, hydrochloric acid. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/46FB8B51871 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000088 en Copyright © 2009 F. A. Adekola, A. A. Baba, R. B. Bale, N. Abdus-Salam, O. A. A. Eletta and F. T. Olajide
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:03B87661941 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Behavior of esters in blend and its possible application Hamid Shakoori Langeroodi and Abolfazl Semnani Full Length Research Paper By esterification of corresponding acids and alcohols, polyol ester of pentaeritritolndash;tetrandash;oleate (PETO) and diester of dioctyladipate (DOA), were synthesized. Each synthesis was confirmed through the comparison of some important physical and chemical properties of obtained adducts, with those of reported values. Following this step, three blends of PETO and DOA were prepared and their important physical properties were evaluated. Due to desirable physical properties, of a PETO: DOA mixture, with 32:68 weight ratio, it was assigned as the suitable one and named as Synester F4. This new group (V) esteric base oil was employed for production of two motor oils with standard 15W40CH4. The application of produced oils in two diesel engines was successful. Key words: Synthetic base oils, polyol ester, diester, PETO, DOA, viscosity index, fash point, pour point, 15W40CH4. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/03B87661941 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000025 en Copyright © 2009 Hamid Shakoori Langeroodi and Abolfazl Semnani
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:0E5B4BA1938 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Characterization and determination of chlorogenic acids (CGA) in coffee beans by UV-Vis spectroscopy Abebe Belay and A. V. Gholap Full Length Research Paper In this research characterization and method for determination of CGA in green and roasted coffee beans have been reported by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The optical transition properties and solvent effects of CGA were measured in different polar-solvents. After characterization of the electron transition of the standard solutions, a method was developed for UV-Vis spectrophotometer determination of CGA in coffee beans. The method was resolved (deconvoluted), the overlapped spectra of CGA and caffeine using dichloromethane and a direct determination of CGA from the residue of the extraction, at peak height. The validations of the methods are limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, recovery study and precision calculated as coefficients of variation. The obtained results were in excellent agreement with those obtained with HPLC method, verified by the student t-test at 95% confidence level. Key words: Coffee, CGA, UV-Vis spectroscopy, extraction, optical transition properties, solvent effects. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/0E5B4BA1938 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000029 en Copyright © 2009 Abebe Belay and A. V. Gholap
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:E9904441929 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Phytochemical constituents of some selected medicinal plants Victor O. Njoku and Chidi Obi Full Length Research Paper Tannins, saponins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, carbohydrates and glycosides distribution in four medicinal plants belonging to different families were investigated and compared. The medicinal plants investigated are Carica papaya, Ocimum gratissimum, Adenia cissampeloides and Cymbopogan citratus. All the plants were found to contain tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and carbohydrates while anthraquinones were absent in all. Alkaloids were absent in both O. gratissimum and C. citratus. Glycosides were absent in only C. papaya, saponins were absent in only O. gratissimum while phlobatannins were absent in only C. citratus. The extraction of oils was carried out by solvent extraction and steam distillation methods and the percentage yield of extracts by each method determined. Solvent extraction method gave percentage yield of 7.40, 6.30, 6.75 and 5.63% for C. papaya, O. gratissimum, A. cissampeloides and C. citratus respectively. For steam distillation, C. papaya, O. gratissimum, A. cissampeloides and C. citratus gave percentage yield of 5.60, 5.80, 5.44 and 3.82% respectively. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in Nigeria. Key words: Ethnomedicine; medicinal plants; natural products; phytochemicals. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/E9904441929 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000111 en Copyright © 2009 Victor O. Njoku and Chidi Obi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:EB148D61926 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Design, synthesis and bioassay of novel metal complexes of 3-amino-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one Ahmed A. H. Al-Amiery, Yasmien K. Al-Majedy, Sallal A. Abdulhadi and Ali H. Sadoon Full Length Research Paper New ligand 3-amino-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (L) has been synthesized in good yield by the reaction of anthranilic acid with acetic anhydride then replaced the oxygen with nitrogen of hydrazine. When the ligand react with Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) a new complexes are formed. The chemical structure of all prepared compounds were characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis, 1H-NNR and UV/visible spectra, moreover determination of molar ratio M:L, molar conductance in D.M.F solution, magnetic moments (mu;eff.) and determination of metal content M% by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The free ligand and their metal complexes have been tested in vitro against a number of microorganisms (gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa andProteus vulgaris)) in order to assess their antimicrobial properties. All our complexes showed considerable activity against all bacteria. Key words: Metal complexes, methylquinazolin, anthranilic acid, Bacillus cereus. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/EB148D61926 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000053 en Copyright © 2009 Ahmed A. H. Al-Amiery, Yasmien K. Al-Majedy, Sallal A. Abdulhadi and Ali H. Sadoon
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:821157E1918 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
The inhibition of corrosion of zinc in 2.0 M hydrochloric acid solution with acetone extract of red onion skin A. O. James and O. Akaranta Full Length Research Paper The inhibition of the corrosion of zinc by acetone extract of red onion skin in hydrochloric acid solutions has been studied using weight loss method. The results of the study reveal that different concentrations of the extract inhibit zinc corrosion. Inhibition efficiency of the extract is found to vary with concentration and temperature. The active component in red onion skin is quercetin. Acetone extract of red onion skin could serve as an effective and non-toxic inhibitor of the corrosion of zinc in hydrochloric acid solution. Key words: Corrosion inhibition, zinc, weight loss, red onion skin, hydrochloric acid. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/821157E1918 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000165 en Copyright © 2009 A. O. James and O. Akaranta
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:01475A91914 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Some chemical constituents of the leaves of Cassia nigricans Vahl R. G. Ayo, J. O. Amupitan, I. G. Ndukwe and O. T. Audu Full Length Research Paper The methanol extract of the leaves of Cassia nigricans Vahl. (family; Leguminosae) was investigated. Chromatographic techniques were used to purify the crude extract. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of the extract revealed the presence of five compounds, identified as 4-hydroxyanthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid; heptadecanoic acid,14-methyl-,methyl ester; bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; beta;-cholest-3-ene and beta;-sitosterol acetate. Key words: Cassia nigricans, methanol extract, anthracene derivatives, steroids, ester, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/01475A91914 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000132 en Copyright © 2009 R. G. Ayo, J. O. Amupitan, I. G. Ndukwe and O. T. Audu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:625E0DF1966 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Synthesis of some 2,5- diamino-3,6- dibromo -1,4-benzoquinones A. E. M. Saeed and N. M. A. Omer Full Length Research Paper A group of 19 compounds of the type 2,5-diamino-3,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinones were prepared and spectroscopically elucidated through IR ,UV-VIS, NMR and MS. Coupling of the intermediate 2,3,5,6-tetra bromo-benzoquinone with the required aryl amines furnished the required compounds. The prepared compounds were found to possess antimicrobial activities when tested against four standard bacterial organisms and two standard fungal organisms. Key words: p-quinones, synthesis, antimicrobial. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/625E0DF1966 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000157 en Copyright © 2009 A. E. M. Saeed and N. M. A. Omer
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:AE6AD3D1958 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Corrosion inhibition of aluminum in 2.0 M hydrochloric acid solution by the acetone extract of red onion skin A. O. James and O. Akaranta Full Length Research Paper The inhibition efficiency of acetone extract of red onion skin on aluminium in hydrochloric acid solutions has been evaluated by weight loss techniques. Values of inhibition efficiency obtained are dependent upon the concentration of inhibitor and temperature. Generally, inhibition was found to increase with inhibitor concentration, half-life, activation energy but decrease with temperature and first-order rate constant at the temperatures studied. Physical adsorption mechanism has been proposed for the inhibition and Langmuir adsorption isotherm was obeyed. The compound responsible for the inhibitory action of red onion skin is Quercetin. Red onion skin is an inhibitor of aluminium corrosion in 2 M hydrochloric acid solution. Key words: Corrosion inhibition, aluminium, weight loss, red onion skin, hydrochloric acid. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/AE6AD3D1958 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000048 en Copyright © 2009 A. O. James and O. Akaranta
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:FABD61E1954 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2009
Design and synthesis of nano heterogeneous supported catalysts for olefin polymerization S. Tajammul Hussain, Rafia Naheed, Amin Badshah and Tariq Mehmood Full Length Research Paper The polymerization of olefins was studied using heterogeneous cobalt nickel (oxide) bimetallic catalyst. The prepared catalyst was subjected to calcination at different temperatures. This treatment results in the formation of different phases with multiple oxidation states. The characterization of the catalyst was carried out by XRD, SEM, EDX, TGA, FTIR and TPR/TPD. The catalytic activity was studied for the polymerization of butadiene gas in toluene, n-hexane and ethanol in a Parr reactor system. The products obtained, were characterized by FTIR, GC/MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, Laser Light Scattering (LLS) and GPC. The best activity was achieved on the catalyst sample calcined at 1173 K in ethanol solvent. The product contains aliphatic and aromatic carbonyl compounds and polybutadiene terminated by OH group. The GPC and LLS studies indicates that polydispersity of the products are in the narrow range and high molecular weight product. The study reflects that the catalytic reaction conditions, the calcinations temperatures which control the oxidation state, phase of the catalyst and stability of the catalyst are mainly responsible for the change in products selectivity. Key words: Heterogeneous catalysts, bimetallic, olefin polymerization, calcination, solvents, aliphatic, aromatic products. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/FABD61E1954 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000051 en Copyright © 2009 S. Tajammul Hussain, Rafia Naheed, Amin Badshah and Tariq Mehmood
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:74C38581983 2010-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Utilization of amino resin for emulsion paint formulation: Effect of urea formaldehyde viscosity on urea formaldehyde and soybean oil copolymer composite S. A. Osemeahon, I. I. Nkafamiya, C. Milam and U. U. Modibbo Full Length Research Paper In our continuous desire to develop a paint binder from amino resin, the effect of urea formaldehyde (UF) viscosity on a copolymer composite derived from the copolymerization reaction between urea formaldehyde (UF) and soybean oil (SBO) to give urea formaldehyde/ soybean oil copolymer composite (UF/SBO) was investigated. Some physical properties of (UF/SBO) obtained at different viscosities (5.11 - 260.04 mPa.s) were evaluated. The melting point, density and formaldehyde emission were found to increase with increase in UF viscosity while the dry time, moisture uptake refractive index and elongation at break were found to decrease with increase in UF viscosity. UF viscosity below 150.00 mPa.s was found to produce UF/SBO copolymer composite that is soluble in water. The processing of UF/SBO copolymer resin for emulsion paint formulation should be carried out below this viscosity level. The copolymer composite was found to be ductile throughout the viscosity range studied (5.11 - 260.04). This takes care of the inherent brittleness associated with the traditional UF and will give paint formulators freedom of choice as regards processing viscosity of UF/SBO. The results obtained from this experiment will offer formulator different options and to control formulation processes towards developing UF/SBO copolymer composite as a paint binder for emulsion paint formulation. Key words: Copolymerization, viscosity, amino resin, paint binder. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/74C38581983 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000175 en Copyright © 2010 S. A. Osemeahon, I. I. Nkafamiya, C. Milam and U. U. Modibbo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:3B18D322031 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Determination of heavy metal pollutants in street dust of Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria D. Y. Shinggu, V. O. Ogugbuaja, I. Toma and J. T. Barminas Full Length Research Paper Contamination of the environment by heavy metals is a phenomenon of global importance today. When present in high concentrations in the environment, heavy metals may enter the food chain from soils and result in health hazards. This study is aimed at determining the elemental concentrations of heavy metal pollutants that may be present in street dust samples in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Dust samples were collected in mechanical workshops (MWK), motor parks (MPK), market areas (MKA), roundabouts/highways (RHW) and residential areas (RDA). The dust samples were digested using aqua regia digestion method and atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for the elemental analysis. The variation in concentration of most of the heavy metals determined from different sites decreases in an order represented as MWKgt;MPKgt;MKAgt;RHWgt;RDA. The heavy metals showed a variation that indicated that Fegt;gt;Zngt;Pbgt;Asgt;Cugt;Nigt;Crgt;Cd. Iron had the highest concentration in all the sampling areas with range of 6460.00 plusmn; 198 - 40500.00 plusmn; 500 g/g. The lowest value was observed for Cd with respective range of 0.43 plusmn; 0.05 - 1.54 plusmn; 0.0 6 g/g. Cobalt and selenium were not detected in all the samples. Statistical analyses by ANOVA showed a significant difference (P lt; 0.05) between the elements determined. This suggested that, the heavy metal pollutants in the street dust samples of Yola did not originate from common anthropogenic sources. Probably automobile emission, welding of metal and exhaust from generators may have contributed as one of the major sources of these elements. Key words: Metal pollution, dust, sampling sites, automobile emission, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, toxic substances, concentration. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/3B18D322031 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000055 en Copyright © 2010 D. Y. Shinggu, V. O. Ogugbuaja, I. Toma and J. T. Barminas
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:B9B67622017 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Inhibition effects of some plant extracts on the acid corrosion of aluminium alloy L. A. Nnanna, B. N. Onwuagba, I. M. Mejeha and K. B. Okeoma Full Length Research Paper Corrosion inhibition of aluminium alloy (AA3003) in 0.5 M HCl by extracts of selected plants was investigated using gravimetric technique at 30 and 60deg;C. The studied plant materials include extracts of Euphorbia hirta and Dialum guineense. The results indicate that all the extracts inhibited the corrosion process in the medium by virtue of adsorption and inhibition efficiency improved with concentration. Inhibition mechanisms were deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency as well as from activation parameters that govern the process. Adsorption of both plant extracts on the aluminium alloy was found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the obtained thermodynamic parameters. Key words: Corrosion inhibition, aluminium alloy, acid solution, adsorption Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/B9B67622017 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000079 en Copyright © 2010 L. A. Nnanna, B. N. Onwuagba, I. M. Mejeha and K. B. Okeoma
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:C3866132050 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Chemical composition and cytotoxicity of the essential oils of Crinum ornatum (Ait.) Bury G. K. Oloyede, I. A. Oladosu and A. F. Shodia Full Length Research Paper The bulbs of Crinum ornatum were collected, dried and grounded. The powdered samples were subjected to distillation using a hydro-distiller (all-glass clevenger apparatus) to extract the essential oil present in the plant samples. GC and GC/MS analysis were carried out on the essential oil and was found to contain 18 compounds; hydrocarbons being the dominating group of compounds. They are 2,4-dimethylhexane (1.51%), methyl benzene(5.49%), cis-1,3- dimethyl cyclohexane (2.08%), cis-decahydronaphthalene (5.49%), trans-decahydronaphthalene (2.08%), undecanoic acid, ethylester (1.51%), caryophyllene (1.51%), dodecanoic acid (1.51%), 14-methylpentanedecanoic acid methylester (20.89%), 2,6,10,15-Tetramethylheptanedecane (3.14%), n-hexanedecanoic acid (13.06%), eicosane (2.61%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (13.06%), heneicosane (13.14%), eicosanoic acid, ethylester (5.22%), nonacosane(2.35%), tetratriancontane (2.61%) and tetratetracontane (10.45%) representing 97.71% of the total essential oil. The cytotoxicity result of LC50( g/ml) value of 1.701 obtained through the brine shrimp toxicity assay indicated that the oil is toxic. Keywords: Crinum ornatum, essential oils, cytotoxicity, hydrodistillation, gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/C3866132050 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000034 en Copyright © 2010 G. K. Oloyede, I. A. Oladosu and A. F. Shodia
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:8B65DCB2046 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
A study of the biological activities of Avena sativa extracts Ahmed A. Hussain Al-Amiery, Ali A. Al-Temimi, Raghda I. Wagaa and Hussain Abood Full Length Research Paper In Iraq like most third world countries, attempts to extract, identify and study the activity of the active components of plants and use it as drugs. The use of herbal medicine predates the introduction of antibiotics and predates social, economic and religious barriers. The extract of the herb Avena sativa L. (Gramineae), from Iraq, was done by using of 70% ethanol as a solvent, the study the antimicrobial activity of the extract (in vitro) on gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), and gram negative bacteria (E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aerugiuosa,and Klebsiella), A. niger, and Candida, moreover. The extract showed considerable activity against all bacteria and fungi and it produces significant decrease in blood glucose level, after 1, 2, 4 and 8 h of treatment as compared to untreated diabetic rats. Key words: Antibacterial, arena sativa, extraction, fungal. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/8B65DCB2046 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000004 en Copyright © 2010 Ahmed A. Hussain Al-Amiery, Ali A. Al-Temimi, Raghda I. Wagaa and Hussain Abood
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:6022F5A2040 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Analysis of heavy metals concentration in road sides soil in Yauri, Nigeria M. I. Yahaya, G. C. Ezeh, Y. F Musa and S. Y. Mohammad Full Length Research Paper Assessment of seasonal variation in physiochemical properties and concentration of the heavy metals in road side soil in Yauri, was undertaking during the two major seasons of Nigeria. This was done to determine the environmental pollution status of the soil at the road side. Soil samples collected during the 2007/2008 rainy and dry seasons were treated and digested using microwave acid digestion methods. The heavy metal concentrations were determined with Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer. The mean levels range of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were 1.15 - 3.14, 0.14 - 7.0,1.64 - 22.36, 4.86 - 29.30, 2001 - 8091, 351.6 - 843.3, 35.9 - 306.7, and 79.6 - 202.4 g/g for dry season and ND ndash; 13.04 g/g, ND - 7.02, ND - 13.79, 0.99 - 23.72, 748 - 6000, 201.13 - 507.10, 24.00 - 316.14 and 33.84 - 131.06 g/g for wet season respectively. When metals concentrations in the soil of dry and wet seasons were correlated (p lt; 0.05) it was revealed that there were strong correlations between all the metals with the exception of Ni. Generally, higher mean heavy metal concentrations were recorded in the soil during the dry season than in wet season. The analytical results indicated that in both wet and dry seasons most of the heavy metals were above the natural heavy metals concentrations of surface soil which course for concern as these metals can accumulate to pollute the environment. Key words: Pollution, heavy metals, Yauri, concentration. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/6022F5A2040 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000013 en Copyright © 2010 M. I. Yahaya, G. C. Ezeh, Y. F Musa and S. Y. Mohammad
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:05A32852078 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Dynamical behavior of coumarin compounds in alcohol solvents U. S. Raikar, V. B. Tangod, C. G. Renuka and B. M. Mastiholi Full Length Research Paper Dynamical behavior of 3-(2-Benzimidazolyl)-7-(DiethylAmino) coumarin [coumarin7 (C7)] and 3-(2-N-Methylbenzimidazolyl)-7-N, N-diethylamino coumarin [coumarin30 (C30)] laser dyes have been examined in methanol as a function of temperature. It is observed that, the rotational motion of probe molecule in methanol solvent increases as the temperature increase. We also investigated that, C30 rotates faster than C7 in the same solvent. It is all due to the friction between solute and solvent, diffusion and hydrogen bonding establish between alcoholic group and coumarin molecule. We have also determined the excited state and ground state dipole moments in alcoholic series solvents by using Bakhshiev, Chamma-viallet equations and Quantum mechanical treatment. From the results, it is found that, excited state dipole moment is greater than the ground state dipole moment, which indicates that excited state is more polar than the ground state. Key words: Coumarin7 (C7), coumarin30 (C30), reorientation time, fluorescence time, stokes shift, dipole moment, rotational diffusion, dielectric friction. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/05A32852078 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000058 en Copyright © 2010 U. S. Raikar, V. B. Tangod, C. G. Renuka and B. M. Mastiholi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:193C3E82070 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Biotransformation of n – phenyl cyclohexenylimide and 3, 5 – dinitrobenzoic acid O. A. Owolodun and G. A. Olatunji Full Length Research Paper N - phenyl cyclohexenylimide and 3,5 - dinitrobenzoic acid were subjected to biotransformation on maize fermenting system. These compounds were left for two weeks in the fermenting system and later extracted with a mixture of n - hexane, diethyl ether and ethanol. The TLC of the biotransformed products were carried out. The structures proposed for the isolated biotransformed products were based on FT - IR and NMR spectral data. One of the biotransformed products arose from the reduction of N - phenyl cyclohexenyl imide while decarboxylation of 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid resulted in 1,3- dinitrobenzene. Key words: Biotransformation, N ndash; phenyl cyclohexenyl imide, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, fermenting system. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/193C3E82070 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000027 en Copyright © 2010 O. A. Owolodun and G. A. Olatunji
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:78C2F612063 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Redox and spectral behaviour of copper (II)-chloro and bromo complexes in some nonaqueous solvents E. J. Ukpong, N. W. Akpanudo and J. Prasad Full Length Research Paper The redox behaviour of 3 times; 10-3 M each of CuCl2.2H2O and CuBr2.H20 have been investigated at Platinum (Pt) electrode and 1 times; 10-3 M CuCl2.2H20 at glassy carbon (GCE) electrode in dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), acetonitrile (AN) and ethanol/0.1 M tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) using cyclic voltammetry. For CuCl2 System, Epc1 and E0 are more positive, Ep is smaller and Ipa1/Ipc1 is gt; at GCE than at Pt electrode, exception being ethanol where opposite trend is observed. In ethanol, two reduction steps c1/a1 due to Cu2+/ Cu+ couple while a2/c2 due to Br-/Br2 couple are observed in CuBr2system. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) features of copper (II) chloro species in DMF and DMSO show splitting of the gII in frozen solution. For frozen CuBr2 system, the spectral features in DMF, DMSO and ethanol are characterized by four small peaks in the gII and one g^ signal as found for CuCl2in ethanol. However, splitting of the gII peak occurs in AN which was not observed in similar solvent for CuCl2. Key words: Redox, spectral, voltammograph, EPR, nonaqueous, cupric halide. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/78C2F612063 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000119 en Copyright © 2010 E. J. Ukpong, N. W. Akpanudo and J. Prasad
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:412862D2106 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
A study on the anticancer activities of ethanolic curcumin extract Jasim Hilo Naama, Ali A. Al-Temimi and Ahmed A. Hussain Al-Amiery Full Length Research Paper In Iraq like most third world countries, attempts to extract, identify and study the anticancer activity of the active components of plants and use it as drugs. Curcumin[(1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,6-diene-3,5dione] is the major yellow pigment extracted from turmeric, a commonly used spice, derived from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. In India and Southeast Asia, turmeric has long been used as a treatment for inflammation, skin wounds and tumors. Curcumin has broad spectrum cancer chemo preventive activity in preclinical animal models. The extract of the herb curcumin, from Iraqi curcumin, was done by using of 95% ethanol as a solvent, then isolation of curcumin from the ethanolic extract by column chromatography, curcumin was characterized by Uv-visible, FT-IR and proton NMR spectroscopy. The study of anticancer activity of the curcumin and ethanolic extract were done in vivo on mice and in vitro on cell line. The extract showed a considerable anticancer activity against the cell line of human hepato cellular liver carcinoma. Key words: Anticancer, curcumin, ethanol, extraction. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/412862D2106 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000005 en Copyright © 2010 Jasim Hilo Naama, Ali A. Al-Temimi and Ahmed A. Hussain Al-Amiery
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:CC7D1502094 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Kinetics study of fibrinogen adsorbed on titanium powder S. K. Omotugba, J. A. Lori, E. J. Ekanem and A. J. Kagbu Full Length Research Paper A kinetics study of fibrinogen adsorbed on titanium has been investigated by means of spectrophotometer of the type developed for micro-enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay determination. Implants invoke inflammatory responses from the body and an attempt to alleviate the problem caused by the adsorption of protein on artificial implants mostly used in the medical, informed this study. The experimental isotherm data were analysed using the Langmuir equation and the amount of fibrinogen adsorbed increase in contact time and reached close to saturation after 120 min for the initial protein concentration 0.1, 0.2 0.4 and 0.6 mg/ml used in this study. The adsorption process was found to be of first order with respect to the bulk concentration, and in the transient region, the adsorption process is independent of the concentration of protein in the bulk and the actual rate constants for each fibrinogen concentration investigated are, 0.01706, 0.01856, 0.01840 and 0.01841 cm/s. Key words: Titanium, fibrinogen, implants, kinetics rate, adsorption. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/CC7D1502094 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000087 en Copyright © 2010 S. K. Omotugba, J. A. Lori, E. J. Ekanem and A. J. Kagbu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:155FF5B2088 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Synthesis of nano-nickel by a wet chemical reduction method in the presence of surfactant (SDS) and a polymer (PVP) K. M. A. Haque, M. S. Hussain, S. S. Alam and S. M. S. Islam Full Length Research Paper Nano-sized nickel particles have been synthesized by a bottom-up approach, using hydrazine as the reducing agent in the presence of an anionic surfactant - sodium-dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The effect of adding a cationic polymer -polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with an anionic surfactant has been studied at two different temperatures; the rate of reduction increased as the reaction temperature was increased from 60 to 100deg;C. These nano-aggregated nickel particles were characterized by using SEM with EDX facilities, TEM and XRD. TEM characterization showed the presence of spherical Ni particles as fine as 10 nm in diameter. However, the SEM images showed a very spiky morphology; very small spherical shaped objects were clearly observed within these spiky structures. XRD studies show that the nickel crystals have fcc structure. The combination of SDS/PVP reaction produced nano-sized nickel particles which were much finer than the reactions where SDS was used on its own. PVP has shown some dispersion power and was found to be capable of preventing nickel particles from gradual agglomeration. Key words: Bottom-up, SDS, PVP, 10 nm. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/155FF5B2088 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000154 en Copyright © 2010 K. M. A. Haque, M. S. Hussain, S. S. Alam and S. M. S. Islam
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:0510CE32134 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Palladium (II)-triphenylphosphine-arylazoimidazole complexes: Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization P. Byabartta Full Length Research Paper Reaction of [Pd(PPh3)2Cl2/Br2] with AgOTf in dichloromethane followed by addition of ligand leads to [Pd(PPh3)2(OSO2CF3)2] and then [Pd(PPh3)2(RaaiR)](OSO2CF3)2 [RaaiR/ = p-R-C6H4-N=N-C3H2-NN-1-R/, (1-3), abbreviated as N,N/-chelator, where N(imidazole) and N(azo) represent N and N/, respectively; R = H (a), Me (b), Cl (c) and R/ = Me (1), CH2CH3 (2), CH2Ph (3), OSO2CF3 is the triflate anion]. 31P {1H} NMR confirm that due to the two phosphorus atoms interaction in the azoimine environment resulting sharp peaks. The 1H NMR spectral measurements suggest chelating proton with lot of phenyl protons in the aromatic region. In the 1H-1H COSY spectrum of the present complexes and contour peaks in the 1H-13C HMQC spectrum, assign the solution structure in each complexes. Key words: Palladium (II), arylazoimidazole, 1H 13C(1H), 31P(1H), 1H -1H COSY,1H- 13C HMQC NMR, ESI mass, IR spectra, electrochemistry. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/0510CE32134 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000106 en Copyright © 2010 P. Byabartta
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:452018F2130 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Applicability of an ionic liquid in the removal of chromium from tannery effluents: A green chemical approach A. Rajendran Full Length Research Paper The task specific ionic liquid tricaprylmethyl ammonium thiosalicylate proved to be an excellent extraction agent for chromium from aqueous solution. Chromium was removed from tannery effluents to a greater extent than the conventional methods; using the water insoluble, thiol containing task specific ionic liquid. Key words: Task- specific ionic liquid (TSIL), heavy metals, chromium, sequesterization, tricaprylmethyl ammonium thiosalicylate, tannery wastes. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/452018F2130 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000021 en Copyright © 2010 A. Rajendran
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:BA846BF2121 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Surface modification with copper by electroless deposition technique: An overview K. G. Mishra and R. K. Paramguru Full Length Research Paper Surface behaviour is very important for which substrate surface preparation is emphasized in electroless deposition process. It directly or indirectly affects surface behaviour as well as the kinetics of electroless deposition process. So far as mechanism is concerned, it proceeds in an electrochemical pathway. The electrochemical approach provides clarity of the mechanism by studying independently the partial anodic and cathodic reactions in electroless deposition of copper. The reducing and complexing agents play a vital role for the kinetics and mechanism of the process. The traditional reducing agent, formaldehyde, can be substituted by Glyoxylic acid since the latter (1.1 V) shows close electrode potential as that of formaldehyde (1.7 V) and is eco-friendly. In case of triethanolamine as a new complexing agent enhanced the deposition rate and gives a thicker bright deposit of copper. Key words: Electroless, copper, glyoxylic acid, kinetics, mechanism. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/BA846BF2121 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000147 en Copyright © 2010 K. G. Mishra and R. K. Paramguru
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:A91832B2116 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Design, synthesis and bioassay of novel coumarins Redha I. Al-Bayati, Ahmed A. Hussain Al-Amiery and Yasmien K. Al-Majedy Full Length Research Paper In Iraq like most third world countries, attempts to discover new antibiotic drugs derived from coumarins moreover develop the branch of applied in organic chemistry. Novel coumarin derivatives were synthesized in a good yield through converting lacton to lactam and study the biological activity of the synthesized compounds. Coumarins were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H-NMR and UV/visible spectra. The novel coumarins have been tested in vitroagainst (gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and against other gram negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris; in order to assess their antimicrobial properties. Moreover, charge, bond length, bond angle, twist angle, heat of formation and steric energy were calculated by using of the ChemOffice program. The study indicates that these coumarins have high activity against tested bacteria. Based on the reported results, it may be concluded that the coumarin act as synthons for synthesis of new coumarin derivatives through the replacement of oxygen atom by nitrogen atom. Key words: Biological activity, coumarins, oxoquinolin, thiourea. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/A91832B2116 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000052 en Copyright © 2010 Redha I. Al-Bayati, Ahmed A. Hussain Al-Amiery and Yasmien K. Al-Majedy
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:4206EA92160 2010-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
SEM Characterization of the mass transfer of Cr(VI) during the adsorption on used black tea leaves M. A. Hossain, M. Kumita and S. Mori Full Length Research Paper This study presents the mass transfer mechanism of Cr(VI) during the adsorption on used black tea leaves (UBTLs) as a low cost biosorbent. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted in acidic media with different particle sizes of UBTLs and Cr(VI) concentrations, and the results were verified with different transport models to elucidate the mass transfer mechanism. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis (EDX) of adsorbed UBTLs were also carried out to search the mechanism. From the view point of transport modeling and SEM analysis, the effect of particle size and the concentration of Cr(VI) on the adsorption of Cr(VI) on the UBTLs suggest that the initial rapid step of adsorption is reaction-controlled dominated by the attraction of negative Cr(VI) species with the protonated UBTLs surface in acidic media, and the following slow step is intraparticle-diffusion-controlled which consisted of the high deposition of adsorbed species at the cavities on the surface. The overall mass transfer gradually shifts from the reaction controlled to the diffusion controlled with increasing of the initial concentration Cr(VI) in solution. Key words: Hexavalent chromium, used black tea leaves, adsorption, SEM and EDX, mass transfer mechanism. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/4206EA92160 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000125 en Copyright © 2010 M. A. Hossain, M. Kumita and S. Mori
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:12D37B02152 2010-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analysis of the hexane extract of Calliandra portoricensis and its antimicrobial activity A. T. Orishadipe, J. I. Okogun and E. Mishelia Full Length Research Paper Calliandra portoriscensis is widely used in traditional medicine preparation in South western part of Nigeria for the management of sickle cell crisis and other health challenges. Analysis of the hexane extract of C. portoricensis by GC-MS revealed 14 ndash; methyl methylpentadecanoate as the major component. Other fatty acids/fatty acid methyl esters detected were hexadecanoic acid, methylhexadecanooate, 9 ndash; oxo ndash; methyl nonanoate and some other minor components. The extract was also investigated for preliminary antimicrobial activity using the following pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aureus, Salmonella gallinallum, Klebsiela pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis andPseudomonas aeruginosa. The extract was found to be active against S. aureus, E. coli and S. gallinallum, on the other hand it was not active against K. pneumonia, B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa. The results of the GC-MS analysis and the biological assay are discussed. Key words: Calliandra portoricensis, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, antimicrobial, fatty acid methyl esters. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/12D37B02152 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000073 en Copyright © 2010 A. T. Orishadipe, J. I. Okogun and E. Mishelia
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:9C4A5C62145 2010-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Kinetics of thermal substitution reactions of some Chromium (III) -alkyl amine complexes in mixed solvent media A. Rajendran and K. Anbalagan Full Length Research Paper Molecular dynamics of the aquation reactions of the complexes [Cr(en)2Cl2]Cl, [Cr(tn)2Cl2]Cl, [Cr(tetren)Cl]Cl2, [Cr(pn)2Cl2]Cl, [Cr(trien)Cl2]Cl and [Cr(dien)Cl3] have been extensively studied in mixed solvent media. Kinetics and thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated and the results are interpreted carefully in the light of statistical and regression models. Key words: Cr (III) complexes, molecular dynamics, aquation reaction, kinetic parameters, thermodynamic parameter, statistical model, regression model. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/9C4A5C62145 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000086 en Copyright © 2010 A. Rajendran and K. Anbalagan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:23E5F552204 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Synthesis of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by batch emulsion polymerization Parul Arora, Rohit Jain, Kunal Mathur, Ashish Sharma and Alok Gupta Full Length Research Paper Poly (methyl methacrylate) was synthesized by batch emulsion polymerization with Methyl Methacrylate as the monomer potassium peroxo-disulfate as the initiator, sodium stearate as the emulsifier and distilled water as a medium. The kinetics of free radical polymerization was studied. The kinetics has been modeled, assuming homogeneous nucleation and the resulting equation were solved using Runge-kutta method. Degree of conversion and rate of polymerization were studied. Key words: Polymethyl methacrylate, emulsion polymerization, free radical polymerization, homogeneous nucleation, emulsifier. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/23E5F552204 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000156 en Copyright © 2010 Parul Arora, Rohit Jain, Kunal Mathur, Ashish Sharma and Alok Gupta
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:3103CDF2184 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Antioxidants: Its medicinal and pharmacological applications A. A. Hamid, O. O. Aiyelaagbe, L. A. Usman, O. M. Ameen and A. Lawal Review Antioxidants are essential and important for plants and animalsrsquo; sustenance. They are substances that protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. The sources and origin of antioxidants which include fruits and vegetables, meats, poultry and fish were treated in this study. The types of antioxidants such as Ascorbic acid, glutathione, melatonin, tocopherols and tocotrienols were reported. The classification and characteristics of antioxidant; its measurements and level in food and free radicals were also documented. The Chemistry of antioxidants which include chain reactions, molecular structures, food antioxidants and reaction mechanisms, bio-chemical activity and effects of antioxidants were also reviewed. Further, the medicinal applications, pharmacological effects, therapeutic properties and future choice of antioxidants were reported in this review. Key words: Antioxidants, ascorbic acid, tocopherols, therapeutic properties, medicinal applications, food antioxidants. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/3103CDF2184 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000020 en Copyright © 2010 A. A. Hamid, O. O. Aiyelaagbe, L. A. Usman, O. M. Ameen and A. Lawal
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:CA4FB282219 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
The inhibitive effect of Solanum melongena L. leaf extract on the corrosion of aluminium in tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid Ihebrodike Maurice Mejeha, Anthony Azubuike Uroh, Kelechukwu Bierechi Okeoma and Gregory Amajuoyi Alozie Full Length Research Paper The effect of Solanum melongena L. leaf extract on the corrosion of aluminium in 0.5 M H2SO4 was investigated by using the gravimetric technique. It was shown that the presence of S. melongena L. leaf extract inhibited the corrosion of aluminium in the test solutions and that the inhibition efficiency depended on the concentration of the plant extract as well as on the time of exposure of the aluminium samples in 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions containing the extract. The experimental data complied to a modified form of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the value and sign of the Gibbrsquo;s free energy of adsorption obtained suggested that inhibitor molecules have been spontaneously adsorbed onto the aluminium surface through a physical adsorption mechanism. Key words: Corrosion rate, corrosion inhibition, aluminium, Solanum melongen L., adsorption mechanism, free energy of adsorption. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/CA4FB282219 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000166 en Copyright © 2010 Ihebrodike Maurice Mejeha, Anthony Azubuike Uroh, Kelechukwu Bierechi Okeoma and Gregory Amajuoyi Alozie
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:0C6D4252229 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Remediation of arsenic from water/waste water using engineered carbon (EC) Anuj Kumar Shrivastava Full Length Research Paper In the arena of eco-toxicological world, Arsenic pollution is a matter of alarming concern. Intake of arsenic contaminated water having concentration above the permissible limit causes Arsenic poisoning in living beings. In the present study, a batch mode lab. experiment was done using adsorption technology. Here, engineered carbon (EC) was used for remediation of arsenic from water/waste water. A significant amount of Arsenic is removed by adsorption on to EC. The parameters like pH, contact time, temperatures etc. are studied to find out the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent ndash; engineered carbon (EC). Key words: Arsenic, engineered carbon, remediation, water/waste water. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/0C6D4252229 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000120 en Copyright © 2010 Anuj Kumar Shrivastava
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:175AB7F2239 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
1H and 31P–NMR monitored cross-metathesis reaction of octavinylsilsesquioxane hybrid nanocomposite with ruthenium carbene: Possibility for multifunctional octasilsesquioxane derivatives Enock O. Dare Full Length Research Paper Cross metathesis reaction of octavinylsilsesquioxane 1 with Grubbrsquo;s carbene 2 in CDCl3 has been monitored by 1H ndash; and 31P ndash; NMR spectroscopy. Reaction in the presence of excess 1 afforded a ruthenium alkylidene resonance attributable to a monofunctional derivative of 1, while in the presence of excess 2, a tetrafunctional derivative resulted as determined by 1H - ,31P ndash; NMR and mass spectrometry. Key words: Cross metathesis, octavinylsilsesquioxane, ruthenium carbene, nanocomposite. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/175AB7F2239 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000001 en Copyright © 2010 Enock O. Dare
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:5E127732288 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Natural rubber/organoclay nanocomposites: Effect of filler dosage on the physicomechanical properties of vulcanizates L. E. Yahaya, K. O. Adebowale, A. R. R. Menon, S. Rugmini, B. I. Olu-Owolabi and J. Chameswary Full Length Research Paper Natural rubber/organoclay nanocomposites of varying filler loading [2 to 10 per hundred rubber (phr)] using derivative of tea (Camellia sinensis) seed oil were prepared by melt intercalation. Effects of filler dosage on the physicomechanical properties of the natural rubber (NR) vulcanizates were examined. Results of the mechanical properties indicates that tensile strength and tear properties of the modified organoclay/NR nanocomposites increases with increasing filler loading compared with the unmodified filled NR vulcanizates. Furthermore, rheological measurement showed that modified filled NR vulcanizate exhibited higher storage modulus (GI) than the unmodified filled NR. The values of the weight-swelling ratio (Qt) of the modified filled nanocomposites decreased remarkably and are lower than the unmodified filled NR vulcanizate. The higher value of the chemical crosslink density of 0.629 at 6 phr for the organoclay/NR composite indicate better reinforcement of the filler-rubber matrix over the unmodified. The scanning electron microscopy revealed that incorporation of modified organoclay up to 6 phr has transformed the failure mechanism of the resulting NR vulcanizate compared to the unmodified. There is an indication that the optimum level of incorporation of sodium salt of tea seed oil is 6 phr. Key words: Vulcanizate, physicomechanical, nanocomposite, Camellia sinensis, natural rubber, organoclay. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/5E127732288 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000099 en Copyright © 2010 L. E. Yahaya, K. O. Adebowale, A. R. R. Menon, S. Rugmini, B. I. Olu-Owolabi and J. Chameswary
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:88BC1C72295 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Comparative phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of some solvent extracts of Samanea saman (fabaceae or mimosaceae) pods Obasi Nnamdi L., Egbuonu Anthony C. C., Ukoha Pius O. and Ejikeme Paul M. Full Length Research Paper Antimicrobial activity of distilled water (DE), methanol (ME), ethanol (EE) and ethyl acetate (EAE) extracts of Samanea saman pods was investigated by well-diffusion method against five pathogenic organisms: Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Staphylococsus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Candida albicans (C. albicans). Only ME showed measurable inhibitory activity against both B. subtilis and S. aureus and at concentrations of 20 and 10 mg/ml whereas EAE inhibited only S. aureus at a concentration of 20 mg/ml. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the different solvent extracts of the S. saman pods indicated varied presence of the phytochemicals. However, acidic compounds, proteins and fats/oils were absent, but all the tested solvent extracts except DE showed moderate presence of reducing sugars. Furthermore, while ME and EAE indicated high presence of carbohydrates, DE and EE showed only moderate presence of carbohydrates. On comparison, ME has more of the secondary metabolites followed by EE and EAE and then, DE. The study apparently highlights the biochemical basis for possible use of the S. saman pods (especially the methanol extract) in ethno-medication. Key words: Samanea saman, fabeaceae, phytochemical, antimicrobial, ethno-medication, narrow spectrum. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/88BC1C72295 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000039 en Copyright © 2010 Obasi Nnamdi L., Egbuonu Anthony C. C., Ukoha Pius O. and Ejikeme Paul M.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:7C4512F2279 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Solvent effects and photophysical studies of ADS560EI laser dye U. S. Raikar, V. B. Tangod, B. M. Mastiholi and S. Sreenivasa Full Length Research Paper The ground state (mu;g) and the excited state (mu;e) dipole moments of a laser dye ADS560EI is estimated in various solvents by Lippert, Backshieve, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet, McRae and Suppan equations using the variation of stokes shift with the solvent dielectric constant and refractive index. The excited state dipole moments were also calculated by using the variation of stokes shift with microscopic solvent polarity parameter (). It was observed that the dipole moment values of excited state (mu;e) were higher than corresponding ground state values (mu;g), indicating a substantial redistribution of the pi;-electron densities in a more polar excited state than the ground state. The rotational reorientation of this probe molecule has also been examined in various solvents. It is observed that the increase in viscosity of the solvent is responsible for the increase in the rotational relaxation time of the probe molecule. Key words: Stokes shift, excited state, ground state, dipole moment, reorientation time. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/7C4512F2279 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000131 en Copyright © 2010 U. S. Raikar, V. B. Tangod, B. M. Mastiholi and S. Sreenivasa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:DA75DB12265 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Synthesis and characterization of a novel ionic liquid (TBA-AMPS) and its applications in Mannich condensation reactions under solvent free conditions A. Rajendran and M. Priyadarshini Full Length Research Paper This paper deals with the synthesis and characterization of a novel ionic liquid using green chemicals such as tetra-butyl ammonium chloride (TBA) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulphonate (AMPS) via an anion metathesis reaction and characterization by 1H-NMR technique. Also, this ionic liquid was used to catalyze Mannich reactions under solvent free conditions to afford the corresponding beta;- amino carbonyl compound (Mannich base) in excellent yields in shorter span of time than those of the conventional methods. This work has proven to be a very efficient and selective protocol for Mannich condensation reactions as it involves a simple work-up procedure, absence of by-products, recyclability of the catalyst and using greener chemicals that are environmentally and ecologically benign. Key words: Ionic liquid, TBA-AMPS, Mannich base, condensation reaction, metathesis reaction, solvent free condition. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/DA75DB12265 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000150 en Copyright © 2010 A. Rajendran and M. Priyadarshini
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:100FE572256 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
The ground state structure and properties of erythritol in gas phase and in different solvents: A DFT / SC-IPCM approach D. De, S. Dalai and B. R. De Full Length Research Paper Quantum mechanical study of the ground state structure and properties of erythritol was carried out in gas phase and in different solvents at the hybrid B3LYP DFT level with complete geometry optimization and varying basis sets [6-311G (d,p) and 6-311++G (d,p)] in order to provide detailed information of the model molecule in solvents of low, medium and high dielectric constant. It was found that the molecule is stabilized by solvation in all cases, the order of stability being water gt; DMSO gt; carbontetrachloride. The dipole moment was increased. The charge density on O-atoms were increased almost as per above order indicating that there are two types of O-H groups in the molecule in agreement with the reported experimental findings. Carbon skeleton were planar in water and DMSO by 6-311++G (d,p) basis set gave non planar structure in CCl4. The geometries in water and DMSO were in excellent agreement with the experiment. The calculated IR frequencies are well when compared with the experimental results. The HOMO-LUMO gap remained almost same on solvation. Key words: B3LYP DFT, GAUSSIAN, erythritol, charge distribution, gas phase. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/100FE572256 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000164 en Copyright © 2010 D. De, S. Dalai and B. R. De
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:19F27472375 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Phytochemical studies and pharmacological investigations on the flowers of Acacia arabica A. Rajendran, M. Priyadarshini and D. Sukumar Short Communication Fresh flowers of Acacia arabica willd were extracted with 80% alcohol and the concentrated extract was fractionated in the usual way. The ethyl acetate fraction was found to contain isoquercetin. The structure was characterized by UV, NMR, Paper Chromatographic and Chemical studies. The yellow pigment was found to contain promising results with respect to acute and chronic anti-inflammatory studies. It also showed considerable percentage protection of bacteriostatic effect on Bacillus subtilis, a gram positive organism. Key words: Acacia arabica, phytochemical study, pharmacological investigation, anti-inflammatory study, bacteriostatic effect, Bacillus subtilis. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/19F27472375 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000114 en Copyright © 2010 A. Rajendran, M. Priyadarshini and D. Sukumar
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:1283D732326 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Studies on some diazo coupled products of chromium(III) chelates of acetylacetone and benzoylacetone Abul Kalam Md. Lutfor Rahman, M. B. Hossain, M. A. Halim, D.A. Chowdhury and M. A. Salam Full Length Research Paper A number of diazo coupled products of chromium(III) chelates of acetylacetone and benzoylacetone were prepared by using some aryl diazonium ions. The aryl diazonium ions of 4-chloro, 4-bromo, 2,5-dimethoxy, 4-nitro and 1-naphthyl were synthesized by diazotization of respective aniline groups. The prepared diazo coupled products were characterized on the basis of their analytical data, magnetic moment, 1H NMR spectra, molar conductance, infrared and electronic spectral studies. Considering all these data, the structures of the synthesized diazo coupled products of chromium (III) were proposed to be octahedral. Key words: beta;-diketone, electrophilic substitution, diazocoupled products, chelates. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/1283D732326 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000141 en Copyright © 2010 Abul Kalam Md. Lutfor Rahman, M. B. Hossain, M. A. Halim, D.A. Chowdhury and M. A. Salam
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:584B3502352 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Synthesis of novel 2-quinolone derivatives Redha I. H. Al-Bayati and Mahdi F. Radi Full Length Research Paper In this work, N-amino quinoline-2-one (2) has been synthesized by the reflux of coumarin (1) with hydrazine hydrate (99%) in ethanol for 12 h. The azomethines (3-6) were prepared from the corresponding aryl aldehydes and ketones. Tetrazine derivative (7) was prepared from the reaction of compound (2) with CS2 and hydrazine hydrate in the presence of potassium hydroxide. However, the reaction of compound (2) with thiol compounds afforded the derivatives (8-14).Finally, condensation of compound (11) with 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde brought about the derivative (15). The structures of the synthesized compounds were deduced by using some spectroscopic methods, FT-IR, UV-Visible and NMR. Key words: 2-quinolone, Schiff bases, hydrazine hydrate. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/584B3502352 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000155 en Copyright © 2010 Redha I. H. Al-Bayati and Mahdi F. Radi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPAC:FF527DA2367 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPAC AJPAC:2010
Characterization of colour from some dye-yielding plants in Uganda P. A. G. Wanyama, B. T. Kiremire, P. Ogwok and J. S. Murumu Full Length Research Paper Dyes from nine selected dye-yielding plants namely Albizia coriaria (bark), Vitellaria paradoxa (bark), Curcuma longa Linn (roots), Indigofera arrecta (leaves), Syzygium cordatum (bark), Morinda lucida (bark), Morinda lucida (roots), Rubia cordifolia (roots),Mangifera indica (bark) and Justicia betonica (leaves), collected from Jinja, Kampala, Luwero, Mbarara, Mbale, Mukono, Pallisa, Arua and Wakiso districts of Uganda were evaluated for colour absorption and fastness on cotton fabrics. Colours were evaluated based on the CIELab colour order system. The highest and lowest values of chroma (C) were 68.34 in respect of C. longa Linn and 10.66 for J. betonica respectively. Spectral reflectance curves for the dyed fabrics were indicative of yellowish-green to red colour shades between 550 and 700 nm. J. betonica, however, reflected about 65% of violet-blue light between 410 to 495 nm. The colour co-ordinates in colour space diagram were found to lie in the yellow-red quadrant for R. cordifolia, M. lucida, S. cordatum, C. longa L, M. indica, V. paradoxa and A. coriaria; in the yellow-green quadrant for I. arrecta and M. lucida(roots) and in the red-blue quadrant for J. betonica. A. coriaria, V. paradoxa, M. lucida andS. cordatum had fairly good fastness ratings of 3 to 4. Lightness values varied from 58.57 for A. coriaria to 77.63 for I. arrecta. Results of this study demonstrate that dyes obtained from selected dye-yielding plants in Uganda can be good sources of natural dyes for the textile industry. Key words: Plants, colour characterization, fastness, colour, lightness, chroma, Uganda. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPAC/article-abstract/FF527DA2367 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPAC.9000032 en Copyright © 2010 P. A. G. Wanyama, B. T. Kiremire, P. Ogwok and J. S. Murumu
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