2020-02-22T20:47:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:026653432664 2007-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2007
Efficacy of hibitane® on some nosocomial isolates of S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans El Mahmood, A. M. and Doughari, J. H. Full Length Research Paper The effectiveness of the disinfectant hibitane on some microorganisms associated with nosocomial infections were assessed at various use-dilutions of 1: 10, 1: 100, 1: 200 and 1: 2000 constituted using aqueous ethanol and 10% serum solutions. The shapes of the death curves were qualitatively similar for all the organisms exhibiting an initial shoulder (lag), the duration of which depended on hibitanereg; concentration used and this was closely followed by an exponential order of death. Alcoholic solutions were much more potent than aqueous solutions. Activity of the disinfectant was maintained in the presence of potable water and serum though to a lesser extent than deionized water. The order of resistance to the disinfectant was Escherichia coli (MBC 0.00008 - 0.0003) gt; Staphyloccocus aureus (MBC 0.00007 - 0.00026) gt; Candida albicans MBC 0.00006 - 0.00022). Key words: Hibitanereg;, nosocomial infections, exponential death, Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aureus, Candida albicans. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/026653432664 en Copyright © 2007 El Mahmood, A. M. and Doughari, J. H.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:BEC00A932677 2007-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2007
Cross-linked nanoparticles of cytarabine: encapsulation, storage and in-vitro release Nisha Mary Joseph and Pramod Kumar Sharma Full Length Research Paper This work presents results of the preparation and characterization of nanoparticles for entrapping cytarabine, a chemotherapeutic agent. The particle size analysis indicated a uniform particle size. The study of the release of drug from nanoparticles exhibited a prolonged release profile as studied over a period of 16 hours. The drug release was constant from the 10th to the 16th hours, which showed that the formulation was successful for long-term treatment. The drug entrapment efficiency of the nanoparticles having the same ratio of polymer and drug was about 90.2%. The physical stability of the nanoparticles was good as studied over a period of 4 weeks. These results are promising for producing nanoparticles by entrapping cytarabine, which can be useful for cancer therapy. Key words: Cytarabine, nanoparticles, in-vitro release, sodium tripolyphosphate. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/BEC00A932677 en Copyright © 2007 Nisha Mary Joseph and Pramod Kumar Sharma
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:51830C631870 2008-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Effect of Grewia gum on the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablet formulations Emeje Martins, Isimi Christiana and Kunle Olobayo Full Length Research Paper Grewia gum has been evaluated as a binder in paracetamol tablet formulations. Compressional properties of the formulations were analyzed using density measurements and the compression equations of Heckel and Kawakita as assessment parameters. Formulations containing Grewia gum as a binder show a slower onset and lower amount of plastic deformation than those containing PVP. The Db values for formulations containing Grewia gum, increased with increased concentration up to 4% w/w. Formulations containing Grewia gum were also found to exhibit higher degree of packing than those containing PVP. Yield values for formulations containing Grewia gum was found to be at variance with the binder concentration. The values increased between 1 and 2% w/w and decreased between 2 and 4% w/w. A linear relationship was found to exist between N/C and N for formulations containing Grewia gum at all concentrations. Grewia gum was found to improve the fluidity of paracetamol granulation better than PVP. This study suggests that Grewia gum compares favorably with the standard binder PVP used hence could be a useful substitute binder in paracetamol tablet formulations. Key words: Grewia gum, PVP, paracetamol, Heckel equation, Kawakita equation, compaction characteristics. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/51830C631870 en Copyright © 2008 Emeje Martins, Isimi Christiana and Kunle Olobayo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:ECC10F131911 2008-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Senna obtusifolia (L) Doughari, J. H, El-mahmood, A. M. and Tyoyina, I Full Length Research Paper Antimicrobial properties of leaf extracts of Senna obtusifolia (L) were investigated against both clinical and laboratory isolates of both bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. Acetone extracts (12 mm zone diameter of inhibition, MIC 200 mu;g/mL and MBC 300 mu;g/mL) demonstrated the highest activity, followed by dichloromethane (8 mm zone diameter of inhibition, MIC 300 mu;g/mL and MBC 400 mu;g/mL), methane (7 mm zone diameter of inhibition, MIC 400 mu;g/mL and MBC 400 mu;g/mL) and hexane (6 mm zone diameter of inhibition, MIC 800 mu;g/mL and MBC 1000 mu;g/mL). Water extracts demonstrated the least activity against the test bacteria and fungi (4 mm zone diameter of inhibition, MIC 800 mu;g/mL and MBC 800 mu;g/mL). Phytotoconstituents present included Saponins, Tannins, Alkaloids and Flavonoids. S. obtusifolia (L) can be used to source antibiotic substances for possible treatment of bacterial and fungal infections including gonorrhea, pneumonia, urinary tract and some mycotic infections. Key words: Senna obtusifolia (L), antimicrobial property, extract antibiotic. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/ECC10F131911 en Copyright © 2008 Doughari, J. H, El-mahmood, A. M. and Tyoyina, I
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:EDD2BA631979 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Characterization of rat liver mitochondrial permeability transition pore by using mitochondrial swelling assay Manash K. Paul, equiv;, Rajinder Kequiv; and Anup K. Mukhopadhyay Full Length Research Paper The mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is considered to contribute substantially to the regulation of normal mitochondrial metabolism and plays as an important mediator of cell death. MPT is regulated in a tissue specific manner. The importance of this work is highlighted by the fact that knowledge regarding liver MPT may serve as important determinants of the physiological state of the liver. Our results suggest that liver mitochondria exhibit a cyclosporin A sensitive, exogenous calcium mediated full scale MPT opening, indicative of classical MPT. Transmission electron microscopy suggests a homogeneous mitochondrial population. Complex II substrate (succinate) in comparison to complex I substrate (NADH) induces increased MPT opening. Reactive Oxygen Species induces liver mitochondrial MPT opening and is abrogated by ascorbic acid and alpha;-tocopherol. Liver MPT is sensitive to redox modulation. Reducing and oxidizing agents decrease and increase MPT opening respectively. MPT of liver mitochondria show typical pH dependence, acidic and alkaline pH induces MPT closure while, maximal MPT opening and calcium sensitivity was achieved at a pH range of ~7.2-7.4. ATP inhibited, while ADP activated MPT opening. Thus, our study demonstrates that all the major MPT functions in normal liver mitochondria could be determined by simple mitochondrial swelling assay under well-defined conditions, thereby suggesting its application in therapeutic diagnostics. Key words: Mitochondria, mitochondrial permeability transition, swelling assay, oxidants, reductants, calcium, cyclosporin A, pH. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/EDD2BA631979 en Copyright © 2008 Manash K. Paul, equiv;, Rajinder Kequiv; and Anup K. Mukhopadhyay
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:86CD3DD32024 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the Pistacia lentiscus and Pistacia atlantica extracts Nabila Benhammou, Fawzia Atik Bekkara and Tatjana Kadifkova Panovska Full Length Research Paper The antimicrobial activity and antioxidant properties of Pistacia lentiscus L. and Pistacia atlantica Desf (Anacardiaceae) leaves extracts were studied against eight bacteria, five moulds and yeast. A strong antifungal activity and a weak antibacterial activity were observed. They showed also a high reducing power capacity and a weak scavenging activity for superoxide anions (14.16 % for P. lentiscus and 19.3 % for P. atlantica). Key words: Pistacia lentiscus, Pistacia atlantica, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/86CD3DD32024 en Copyright © 2008 Nabila Benhammou, Fawzia Atik Bekkara and Tatjana Kadifkova Panovska
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:9FB88BC32055 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
HPLC analysis of nicotinamide, pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamin in some selected food products in Nigeria Chimezie Anyakora, Ibukun Afolami, Teddy Ehianeta and Francis Onwumere Full Length Research Paper Food fortification is an important tool for improving the health of the population. Motivated by this, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) has in the past few years embarked on a campaign to create this awareness. There has been varying degree of compliance to this, and so it is of utmost importance to know the food products that contribute significantly to the dietary vitamin B intake. This study investigates the amount of four Vitamin B compounds, namely nicotinamide, pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamin, present in different packaged food items available in Lagos metropolis of Nigeria. The food items analyzed include dairy products, fruit juices and cereal products. These foods were chosen because of their widespread consumption in the area. The analysis was done using a high performance liquid chromatographic technique with a UV detector. The separation was carried out on a C18 column, using a mobile phase made up of 70% buffer (a solution of sodium salt of hexane sulphonic acid) and 30% HPLC grade methanol. The identification was based on retention time match against a standard while the quantitation was based on the peak area match against those of a standard. The calibration curves for the standards were linear with a linear regression coefficient close to unity. Key words: Vitamin B, HPLC, food fortification. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/9FB88BC32055 en Copyright © 2008 Chimezie Anyakora, Ibukun Afolami, Teddy Ehianeta and Francis Onwumere
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:7E191C532108 2008-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Preliminary studies of blood pressure lowering effect of Nauclea latifolia in rats Z. A. M. Nworgu+, D. N. Onwukaeme, A. J. Afolayan, F. C Ameachina and B. A. Ayinde Full Length Research Paper Roots of Nauclea latifolia are used in Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension. Ethanolic extract of the root of N. latifolia was administered to anaesthetised rats through the jugular vein while the blood pressure was measured through the carotid artery. The extract reduced systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure in normotensive and in one kidney one clip hypertensive rats in a dose dependant manner. 10 mg/kg of the extract reduced the mean arterial pressure from 115.7 plusmn; 0.4 to 99.6 plusmn; 3.8 mm Hg, while it reduced the systolic and diastolic from 125.6 plusmn; 0.5 to 102.4 plusmn; 4.0 and from 110.5 plusmn; 0.3 to 95.0 plusmn; 3.2 mm Hg respectively. The changes caused in hypertensive rats were much greater. The same dose of the extract reduced the mean arterial pressure from 157.4 plusmn; 4.7 to 72.0 plusmn; 3.6 mm Hg, while it reduced the systolic and diastolic blood pressures from 180.0 plusmn; 5.7 to 90.1 plusmn; 2.6 and from 146.2 plusmn; 3.3 to 63.0 plusmn; 4.9 mm Hg respectively. The extract (10 mg/kg) also reduced the heart rate of normotensive rats from 365 plusmn;12.8 to 280 plusmn; 6.0 beats/min, while it reduced the heart rate of hypertensive rats from 550 plusmn; 22.5 to 120 plusmn; 8.0 beats/min. The reduction in blood pressure and heart rate was not affected by prior treatment with atropine or promethazine. Key words: Blood pressure, Nauclea latifolia root, phytochemical. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/7E191C532108 en Copyright © 2008 Z. A. M. Nworgu+, D. N. Onwukaeme, A. J. Afolayan, F. C Ameachina and B. A. Ayinde
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:68E84F232185 2008-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
The anticonvulsant and sedative properties of stems of Cissus quadrangularis in mice E. Ngo Bum, G. T Ngoupaye, E. Talla, T. Dimo, G. C. N Nkantchoua, M. M Pelanken, G. S Taiwe Full Length Research Paper Cissus quadrangularis Linn grows in Savannah areas in Africa (Cameroon, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, etc). In traditional medicine, the plant is used to treat anorexia, asthma, sickle cells, colds, pains, malaria, asthma and as an analgesic. In vivo animal models of epilepsy (maximal electroshock, n-methyl -d-aspartate, pentylenetetrazol, isonicotinic hydrazid acid and strychnine -induced convulsions or turning behavior) and insomnia (diazepam -induced sleep) were used. The aqueous extract of the stems of C. quadrangularis strongly increased the total sleep time induced by diazepam (50 mg/kg i.p.). It also protected mice against maximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazol, strychnine and n-methyl-d-aspartate-induced seizures or turning behavior and delayed the onset time of seizures induced by isonicotinic hydrazid acid. The results lead to the conclusion that the extract of C. quadrangularis possesses anticonvulsant and sedative properties in mice and could explain its use in traditional medicine in Africa, in the treatment of insomnia and epilepsy. Key words: Traditional medicine, plant, extract, seizures, Cissus quadrangularis Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/68E84F232185 en Copyright © 2008 E. Ngo Bum, G. T Ngoupaye, E. Talla, T. Dimo, G. C. N Nkantchoua, M. M Pelanken, G. S Taiwe
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:872017832214 2008-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Effects of Cucumis metuliferus E Mey. Ex Naud (Cucurbitaceae) fruit extract on some male reproductive parameters in adult rats Noel N. Wannang, Nanloh S. Jimam, Steven S. Gyang, Bukata B. Bukar and Saleh Gotom Full Length Research Paper The effect of the extract of Cucumis metuliferus fruit on some male reproductive parameters was investigated in albino rats. The LD50 of the extract was above 5000 mg/kg body weight when administered orally. Histological studies showed that there was no remarkable change in the testes histology compare to the control. The effects on sperm cells showed a statistically significant (Plt;0.05) increase in total sperm count with an insignificant (Pgt;0.05) increase in viability count in rats treated with 500 mg/kg dose point. On the other hand, 1000 mg/kg dose point produced significant (Plt;0.05) decrease in total sperm count and viability count compare to control. This result suggests that C. metuliferus fruit extracts could be beneficial in increasing sperm/semen integrity. Key words: Cucumis metuliferus, sperm count, sperm viability count, testes, male adult rats. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/872017832214 en Copyright © 2008 Noel N. Wannang, Nanloh S. Jimam, Steven S. Gyang, Bukata B. Bukar and Saleh Gotom
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:789F79C32252 2008-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Performance of starch obtained from Dioscorea dumetorium as disintegrant in sodium salicylate tablets Ibezim, Emmanuel C., Ofoefule, Sabinus I, Omeje, Edwin O and Odo, U. E. Full Length Research Paper Starch obtained from Dioscorea dumetorium was employed as a disintegrant in Sodium Salicylate based tablets at concentrations of 5 ndash;15 %w/w. Properties of the starch evaluated include: bulk and tapped densities, water uptake by capillarity, Hausnerrsquo;s quotient and percent compressibility. Compound tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution rate. Batches of tablets containing equivalent concentrations of AC-di-sol or maize starch were employed as standards. Results obtained indicate that Dioscorea dumetorium starch performed as much better as a disintegrant in sodium salicylate tablets as maize starch but less than Ac-di-sol. Key words: Disintegrant, starch, Dioscorea dumetorium, sodium salicylate. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/789F79C32252 en Copyright © 2008 Ibezim, Emmanuel C., Ofoefule, Sabinus I, Omeje, Edwin O and Odo, U. E.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:AC7DA4B32306 2008-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Citalopram in the treatment of depressive disorders: An open label, multicenter study in China Tianmei Si and Liang Shu Full Length Research Paper Results of randomized, placebo-controlled trials with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram suggest that this agent is safe and effective for the treatment of depressive disorders. We investigated the safety and efficacy of citalopram in the treatment of Chinese patients with depressive disorders. An 8-week, open-label, multicenter study evaluated the safety and efficacy of citalopram in the treatment of patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of depressive disorder or depressive episode of bipolar disorder. Efficacy measures included the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI). A total of 6080 patients (2553 men, 3527 women) (mean age 40.9 plusmn; 15.6 years, range 18 ndash; 92) participated in the study. Mean HAMD scores decreased significantly (plt;0.001) after 2 weeks of treatment and at all subsequent study visits. Endpoint analyses showed that 89.9% of the patients demonstrated a clinical response, defined as a ge;50% reduction in HAMD scores. The mean daily dose of citalopram at endpoint was 23.65 mg. Nausea (7.6%), headache (3.7%) and dry mouth (2.9%) were the most frequently reported adverse events. Patients with bipolar depression and comorbid obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) received a higher mean daily dose (26.4 and 27.7 mg, respectively), while patients with comorbid physical disorders received a lower dose (21.9 mg) than patients with simple depressive disorder. The results of this 8-week open-label study suggest that citalopram is safe and effective in the treatment of depression in Chinese patients. Limitations is an open-label and uncontrolled. Key words: Antidepressant, citalopram, depression, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/AC7DA4B32306 en Copyright © 2008 Tianmei Si and Liang Shu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:A92B3B032330 2008-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Current status of salt iodization and level of iodine nutrient in India Umesh Kapil Full Length Research Paper In India, Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are present throughout the country. Out of 282 districts surveyed by Government of India institutions like Indian Council of Medical Research and Central Goitre Survey Teams in different States and Union Territories, 241 have been found to be endemic for iodine deficiency disorders. Issues relating to the safety of Universal Salt Iodization were carefully examined by eminent Scientists, Programme Managers and Administrators and based on hard scientific evidences, the Government of India implemented a policy decision, in 1984, for Universal Salt Iodization (USI ) that is, all edible salt in the country should be fortified with iodine. This became the mandate for the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme. The present research communication reviews the history of iodine deficiency disorders, progress of achieved under USI, safety of iodized salt and impact of this intervention on the iodine status of Indian population. Key words: Iodine, goitre, urinary iodine excretion Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/A92B3B032330 en Copyright © 2008 Umesh Kapil
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:BC47A5E32363 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Does alcohol consumption increase the risk of severe adverse events to ivermectin treatment? Takougang I., Ngogang J., Sihom F., Ntep M., Kamgno J., Eyamba A., Zoureacute;H., Noma M. and Amazigo U. V. Full Length Research Paper The present investigation is a case-control study designed to assess the level of association between alcohol consumption and the occurrence of severe adverse reaction (SAE) following ivermectin consumption. Thirty-six (36) cases of SAE occurred in the health districts of Bankim, Nanga Eboko, Obala, Okola and Sarsquo;a. Case and control (43) individuals were submitted to a questionnaire related to their alcohol consumption 24 before and 24 to 48 h following ivermectin intake. An in-depth interview of siblings and local health worker was conducted to assess alcohol consumption around Mectizan intake. The degree of alcohol use was assessed using the level of serum transaminases and the alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT). The alcoholic beverages of the study communities were conventional such as beer, whisky, or locally made. Locally produced beverages included ldquo;arkirdquo; (ldquo;Odontolrdquo;, ldquo;Hahrdquo;, ...) and palm wine. The bark, sap or fruit of plants adjuvant are known to contain alkaloids and tannins which are potent neurotropic substances. The likelihood of developing SAE among cases and controls did not differ significantly with history of consumption of alcoholic beverages. Nor did it differ for other indicators of chronic alcohol consumption. Key words: Alcohol consumption, onchocerciasis, AUDIT, serious adverse events, encephalopathy. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/BC47A5E32363 en Copyright © 2008 Takougang I., Ngogang J., Sihom F., Ntep M., Kamgno J., Eyamba A., Zoureacute;H., Noma M. and Amazigo U. V.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:7329D0932379 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Pharmacognostical studies on Dodonaea viscosa leaves Sama Venkatesh, Y. S. R Reddy, M. Ramesh, M. M. Swamy, N. Mahadevan and B. Suresh Full Length Research Paper Dodonaea viscosa Jacq is a popular medicinal plant. Its leaves are used as anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-bacterial and antifungal agents and in the treatment of fractures. In view of its medicinal importance and taxonomic confusion, pharmacognostic studies, microscopical structure, morphological characters, chemical analysis and numerical values in epidermal study were carried out. These studies provided referential information for identification of this crude drug. Key words: Dodonaea viscosa, macroscopy, anatomy, ash values, extractive values, leaf constants, microscopy, phytochemical. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/7329D0932379 en Copyright © 2008 Sama Venkatesh, Y. S. R Reddy, M. Ramesh, M. M. Swamy, N. Mahadevan and B. Suresh
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:BFF6CC832434 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Antimicrobial screening of stembark extracts of Vitellaria paradoxa against some enteric pathogenic microorganisms El-Mahmood, A. M, Doughari, J. H. and Ladan, N Full Length Research Paper Preliminary phytochemical screening of the stem bark extracts of Vitellaria paradoxa revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and cardiac glycosides. Ethanol, acetone and aqueous extracts of the plant inhibited the growth of pathogenic Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella dysenterie and Salmonella typhi with varying degrees of activity with the ethanol extracts demonstrating the highest activity against all the test organisms. The activity of the extracts increased as the pH was adjusted towards alkalinity, but no significant increase was observed with increase in temperature. The MBC and MIC values ranged between 6.5 - 200 mg/ml and to some extent comparable to those of the conventional antibiotic chloramphenicol (6.5 mg/ml). There is scientific basis for the use of this plant as a traditional medicine and can therefore be used to source new antibiotic substances for the treatment of various enteric infections. Key words: Antibiotic, enteric infections, extracts, MBC, MIC, pathogenic, phytochemical screening, Vitellaria paradoxa. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/BFF6CC832434 en Copyright © 2008 El-Mahmood, A. M, Doughari, J. H. and Ladan, N
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:A7B167332453 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Lysine vasopressin blocks the effect of chlorodiazepoxide in behavioral tests Edvaldo Rodrigues de Almeida Full Length Research Paper The aim of the study presented here was to determine the influence of subcutaneously administered lysine-vasopressin (LVP, 1 U/kg, s.c.), chlorodiazepoxide (BDZ, 20 mg/kg, i.p.), and vehicle (veh, chlorobutanol + saline (0.85%) + Tween 80, 0.1 mL/100 g) administered through the peritoneum on anxiety-related-behavior using the Vogel conflict test, the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) and the marble-burying test. The results of the Vogel test referring to the number of shocks received by rats after administration of vehicle + BDZ was highly significant (p lt; 0.01), that is, the animals did not show any inhibition during the phase of shock. However, when LVP + BDZ were used the data obtained showed that there was a significant inhibition of BDZ action on the number of shocks received (p gt; 0.05). In the second phase of the test the veh + BDZ group received a significant number of shocks, benzodiazepine effect and the group receiving LVP + BDZ showed the same result as the vehicle + LVP group (p gt; 0.05). In the elevated plus-maze (EPM), the group of mice treated with veh + BDZ showed no significant change in their behavior, that is, number of entries and time spent on the open arm was not inhibited (p lt; 0.01). Already the veh + LVP group has shown inhibition in the number of entries and the time spent on the open arm (p gt; 0.05). The same result was obtained when the LVP + BDZ group was used in the EPM. In the marble-burying test, the number of marbles hidden was significantly higher in mice treated with the veh + BDZ (p lt; 0.01). The group treated with veh + LVP presented a small number of hidden spheres (p gt; 0.05). The data obtained in this study show that LVP in behavioral tests related to anxieties presents an inhibitory action on the BDZ, and the LVP alone does not present any significant effect when compared with the veh (p gt; 0.05). Veh is the shortened form of vehicle which is the chemical element (solvent) used for dilution of the compound test. Key word: Lysine-vasopressin, chlorodiazepoxide, behavioral tests, rodents. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/A7B167332453 en Copyright © 2008 Edvaldo Rodrigues de Almeida
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:18375F632478 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Repeat-dose effects of Zanthoxylum chalybeum root bark extract: A traditional medicinal plant used for various diseases in Uganda Ogwang P. Engeu, Tumusiime Ralph, Agwaya Moses, Mugisha Gerosome, Grace Nambatya Kyeyune, Galiwango Badru and Waako Paul Full Length Research Paper Zanthoxylum chalybeum is a traditional medicinal plant used in the treatment of various ailments in the African region. In sickle cell disease a decoction of the root bark extract is administered for life. The safety of long term use of this plant is not documented. This study investigated the systemic effects of daily administration of low and high oral doses of the root bark extract of this plant in rodents. Three groups of six young Albino Wister rats each were used. The first and second groups received a daily dose of 100 and 4000 mg/kg of the extract respectively orally for 4 weeks. Animal weight, renal, liver function tests, heamatological indices, plasma electrolytes and tissue pathology were used to assess safety. No serious adverse event was observed with both study doses in the experimental animals. Histology revealed presence of squamous cell growth in the small and large intestines of the rats that received the dose of 4000 mg/kg. This group also showed significant elevations in plasma creatinine, sodium and potassium levels (plt; 0.05). Long term administration of low doses of the root bark extract of Z. chalybeum is safe in experimental animals. High doses however may be associated with impaired renal function and intestinal neoplasms. We recommend cautious dosing in traditional use of the root bark extracts of Z. chalybeum as there is a possibility of dose-dependant toxicity. There is need for further studies to document the effectiveness of these extracts in sickle cell disease Key words: Zanthoxylum chalybeum, safety, repeat dose. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/18375F632478 en Copyright © 2008 Ogwang P. Engeu, Tumusiime Ralph, Agwaya Moses, Mugisha Gerosome, Grace Nambatya Kyeyune, Galiwango Badru and Waako Paul
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:B6AA08932494 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Evaluation of the effect of colloidal silver on the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the lichen Parmelia Perlata Momoh, M. A. and Adikwu, M. U. Full Length Research Paper Substances extracted from lichens have previously been reported to possess antimicrobial activities against various groups of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Due to the high abundance ofParmelia perlata in the Eastern parts of Nigeria, we decided to explore the effect of colloidal silver on the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The lichen extract was obtained via cold maceration with ethanol. The phytochemical tests was carried out on the extract of lichen. The minimum inhibitory zone MICs of the ethanolic extract against S. aureus was determine and the solution of the colloidal silver was also determine separately on S. auerus, the MIC of each was noted and their admixture in the presence of concentration of colloidal silver using bore-plate method. Result of the phytochemical tests showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, steroidal aglycone, carbohydrates. The result also shows that, the ethanol extract of the lichen has activity on S. aureus while the colloidal silver at the dilution used, has very little activity on the S. aureus. It was also seen from the result that the zone of inhibitory of the ethanol extract was increased in the presence of colloidal silver and MICs is concentration dependent. It was therefore finally concluded that colloidal silver potentates the effect of ethanol extract of the lichen P. perlata key words: Parmelia perlata, Lichen, Staphylococcus aureus, evaluation, colloidal silver. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/B6AA08932494 en Copyright © 2008 Momoh, M. A. and Adikwu, M. U.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:78AC04F32512 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Synthesis, antiviral and cytotoxic activities of some novel 2-Phenyl-3-Disubstituted Quinazolin-4(3H)-ones Periyasamy Selvam, K. Babu, R. Padamraj, Leentje persoons and Erik de Clercq Full Length Research Paper The 2-phenyl-benzoxazin-4-ones were condensed with primary amine to form the 2,3-disubstituted quinazolin-4(3H)-ones. Their chemical structure was elucidated by means of spectral (FT-IR, 1H-NMR, MS) and elemental analysis. The antiviral activity and cytotoxicity of the compounds were tested in HeLa cells (vesicular stomatitis virus, Coxsackie virus B4 and respiratory syncytial virus), HEL cells [herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), vaccinia virus], Vero cells (parainfluenza-3, reovirus-1, Sindbis virus, Coxsackie virus B4 and Punta Toro virus). Among the new derivatives evaluated, specific antiviral activity was noted with compound QAA against vaccinia virus, parainfluenza-3 virus and Punta Toro virus, compound QOPD against HSV-1, HSV-2 and vaccinia virus, and compounds QONA and PD-NFIN against Coxsackie virus B4. Key words: Quinazoline, antiviral, HSV, vaccinia, sulphanamides. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/78AC04F32512 en Copyright © 2008 Periyasamy Selvam, K. Babu, R. Padamraj, Leentje persoons and Erik de Clercq
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:69FFE4A32541 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Gender independent pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in healthy black African subjects Mbang A. Owolabi, Grace E. Ukpo, Martin E. Okenne, Olayinka O. Oyeniyi, Olajumoke O. Oladipo and Smith I. Jaja Full Length Research Paper The pharmacokinetic profile of levofloxacin in healthy black African subjects as well as the influence of gender on its pharmacokinetic parameters was investigated. Sixteen healthy adult volunteers (8 males and 8 females) enrolled in the study and took single oral dose of 500 mg levofloxacin (LevofloxOgrave;) after informed consent. The blood of the volunteers was withdrawn from their antecubital vein at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24 and 36 h post dosing and analysed for levofloxacin concentration. The results of this study revealed that levofloxacin was well tolerated and detectable in the plasma seventeen min after dosing being faster in female than male. Bioavailability was not affected by gender and Tmax showed no significant difference between the genders (pge;0.05). The Cmax and AUC0-infin; were higher in the female than in the male subjects, plasma clearance (CL) was lower in female than in the male thus explaining the differences in the total systemic exposure of the drug. The volume of distribution (Vd) was significantly reduced in female compared to the male. When pharmacokinetics parameters were expressed relative to mg drug/total body weight or renal function, gender-related differences were attenuated. This result indicates that subject body weight or renal function may be involved in the pharmacokinetic differences of the subjects, thus drug administration based on sex is not relevant. Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, gender, levofloxacin, bioavailability, volume of distribution. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/69FFE4A32541 en Copyright © 2008 Mbang A. Owolabi, Grace E. Ukpo, Martin E. Okenne, Olayinka O. Oyeniyi, Olajumoke O. Oladipo and Smith I. Jaja
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:BE0454632559 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Phytochemical screening and antibacterial evaluation of the leaf and root extracts of Cassia alata Linn. El-Mahmood, A. M. and Doughari, J. H. Full Length Research Paper Phytochemical screening of the leaves and roots of Cassia alata (Linn) revealed the presence of some bioactive components, which have been linked to antimicrobial properties. The effects of water, methanol and chloroform extracts on some pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis showed that the plant parts can be used to treat infections caused by these bacteria. S. aureus, Str. pyogenes and P. mirabilis were more susceptible, while E. coli andP. aeruginosa were less sensitive. The effectiveness of the crude extracts were enhanced at elevated temperatures and at near neutrality pH values, which attests to its use in traditional medicine to treat skin, urinary tract and gastrointestinal infections. The aqueous extract was less effective than the organic solvents, thus suggesting the inability of the traditional medicine practitioners to exhaustively extract all the bioactive components with water. The MICs and MBCs of the extracts against the test bacteria were high and correlate with sensitivity test results. The effectiveness of the extracts were less than the conventional antibiotic, metronidazole. Key words: Antimicrobial bioactive, pathogenic, phytochemical, traditional medicine Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/BE0454632559 en Copyright © 2008 El-Mahmood, A. M. and Doughari, J. H.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:D8DBB1632577 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Effects of plants and medicinal plant combinations as anti-infectives Ramesh, Putheti and Okigbo, R. N Full Length Research Paper The ascendancy of the Human Immuno Deficiency virus (HIV) has spurred intensive investigation into plant derivatives, which may be effective, especially for use in underdeveloped nations with little access to expensive western medicines. This review describes mostly the current state of ant microbial substances of plant origin ranging from extracts commonly in use, largely by the community, to substances being prospected screened and tested by researchers and clinicians. This review focuses on plant and their extracts, which are anti microbial in nature or in other words the anti microbial substances of plant origin and their eventual therapeutic effects on human affairs. Only phytochemicals or anti microbial substances reported to have anti microbial or anti-infective properties are examined. Key words: Phytomedicines, medicinal plants, human, diseases. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/D8DBB1632577 en Copyright © 2008 Ramesh, Putheti and Okigbo, R. N
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:E8CB3E132585 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Analytical study for the charge-Transfer complexes of gabapentin Hesham Salem Full Length Research Paper Studies were carried out, for the first time, to investigate the charge-transfer reactions ofgabapentin as n-electron donor with the sigma;-acceptor: iodine and various pi;-acceptors: 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquino-dimethane (TCNQ), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ), 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranilic acid, pCA), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil). Different colored charge-transfer complexes and radical anions were obtained. Different variables affecting the reactions were studied and optimized. The formations of the colored complexes were utilized in the development of simple, rapid and accurate spectrophotometric methods for the analysis ofgabapentin in pure form as well as in its pharmaceutical preparation. Under the optimum reaction conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (0.9995 - 0.9999) were found between the absorbance and the concentrations of gabapentin in the range of 6.0 - 200 g ml-1. The limits of assays detection ranged from 0.39 to 7.59 g ml-1. No interference could be observed from the additives commonly present in the pharmaceutical preparation. The methods were success-fully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical preparation that contain gabapentin, with good accuracy and precision; the percentages recovery plusmn; S.D. ranged from 99.29 plusmn; 0.651 to 100.36 plusmn; 1.56. The results were compared favorably with the reported method. Key words: Charge-transfer complexes, gabapentin, pharmaceutical analysis, spectrophotometry. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/E8CB3E132585 en Copyright © 2008 Hesham Salem
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:077C55732593 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Adherence of HIV/AIDS patients to antiretroviral therapy in a tertiary health facility in Benin City Patrick O Erah and John E Arute Full Length Research Paper Adherence to ART is a major predictor of the success of HIV/AIDS treatment. We assessed adherence to ART in Benin City and identified the contributing factors. In a prospective study, we evaluated adherence to ART among 125 outpatients in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City using self-reporting and pill counting methods and determined the predictors using bivariate analysis. Structured interview was used to evaluate access to medicines and patientsrsquo; factors affecting treatment adherence. Adherence level of 58.1% plusmn; 2.4% was observed which was significantly lower than those reported in many other sub-Saharan African countries. The adherence was dependent on adverse effects and educational level of patients. Poor financial status, medication adverse effects, lack of confidentiality, occupational factors and stigmatization were the major reasons given for non-adherence. All the prescribed medicines were always in stock during the study period but some patients had stock out of medicines at home. It is concluded that the level of adherence to ART in a poor resource health facility in Nigeria is comparable to levels reported from North America. Poverty, medication adverse effects, confidentiality, occupational factors, and stigma and discrimination were the major determinants of the level of adherence. Key words: HIV/AIDS, antiretroviral therapy, adherence, access to medicines. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/077C55732593 en Copyright © 2008 Patrick O Erah and John E Arute
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:76A6D7832623 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Effect of viscosity grades of ethylcellulose on the sustained release properties of indomethacin from its tablets matrix Amri Ahmed and Sfar Souad Full Length Research Paper The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of ethyl cellulose (EC) with different viscosity grades on in vitro drug release from EC matrix tablets containing Indomethacin. Four viscosity grades of EC (7, 10, 50 and 100 cp) were studied. The 90 - 125/ m particle size fraction was collected by manual dry sieving and the compression force was varied to produce tablets of equal hardness. The drug release from Indomethacin tablets was determined by dissolution testing as described in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). The tablets pore characteristics were studied using helium pycnometry and mercury porosimetry. The release rate constant ranged from 1.25 plusmn; 0.98 for the 7cp viscosity grade tablets to 1.49 plusmn; 1.02 for the 100cp viscosity grade tablets whereas porosity ranged from 5.6% plusmn; 0.3 to 6.8 plusmn; 0.1 when based on gaz pycnometry and from 3.9% plusmn; 0.4 to 5.1 plusmn; 0.2 when based on mercury intrusion. These results indicate that the release rates marginally increased with an increase in viscosity grade. The main explanation for the viscosity grade effect on release rates would be differences in tablet porosity. Key words: Matrix, ethylcellulose, viscosity grade, indomethacin, dissolution, porosity paste electrode, pharmaceutical formulations, biological samples, voltammetric techniques. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/76A6D7832623 en Copyright © 2008 Amri Ahmed and Sfar Souad
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:4F8C5D732636 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Determination of prednisolone, dexamethasone and hydrocortisone in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluid samples by voltammetric techniques using b-cyclodextrin modified carbon paste electrode K. Balaji, G. V. Raghunadha Reddy, T. Madhusudana Reddy and S. Jayarama Reddy Full Length Research Paper A simple, sensitive and accurate voltammetric studies on prednisolone (PE), dexamethasone (DE) and hydrocortisone (HC) were carried out by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at bare carbon paste electrode (CPE) and beta;-cyclodextrin modified carbon paste electrode (CDMCPE) in Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer solution. PE, DE and HC show marked enhancement of peak currents at CDMCPE when compared to CPE due to the inclusion complex between keto-group from the drug and beta;-cyclodextrin (modifier). All these compounds exhibit a well-defined single peak in the studied pH range which is attributed to the reduction of keto-group. BR buffer of pH 3.0 was found to be reliable supporting electrolyte for the analytical estimation of these compounds. CV studies indicate that the process was irreversible and adsorption controlled. The reduction peak currents at CDMCPE for PE, DE and HC changes linearly over the concentration range from 5.6 times; 10-7 M to 2 times; 10-5 M (PE), 4.1 times; 10-7 M to 2 times; 10-5 M (DE) and 4.2 times; 10-7 M to 2.5 times; 10-5 M (HC) with a correlation co-efficient of 0.9991, 0.9986 and 0.9995 for the respective compounds. DPV technique is used for the determination of PE, DE and HC in pharmaceuticals and biological fluid samples. For quantification, standard addition method was carried out in both pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluid samples. Key words: Prednisolone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, b-cyclodextrin modified carbon paste electrode, pharmaceutical formulations, biological samples, voltammetric techniques. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/4F8C5D732636 en Copyright © 2008 K. Balaji, G. V. Raghunadha Reddy, T. Madhusudana Reddy and S. Jayarama Reddy
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:5E9FCEC32650 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Evaluation of antimicrobial potentials of stem bark extracts of Cochlospermum planchoni Doughari, J. H., El-Mahmood, A. M. and Phillip, B. Full Length Research Paper Antimicrobial activity of root extracts of Cochlospermum planchoni against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi were investigated using the filter paper disc diffusion method. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence saponins, tannins, glycosides and aikaloid as phytochemicals. Methanol extracts (40 mg/ml) exhibited the highest activity (16 - 30 mm zone diameter of inhibition, MIC and MBC values 2.5 - 22.5 mg/ml) against the test organisms. Chloroform extracts demonstrated the least activity. The activity of the extracts increased with increase in temperature (4 - 100ordm;C) and increasing acidity (pH 2.5 - 6), but alkaline pH (pH 10) neither enhanced nor depreciated the activity of the extracts. The plant can be used to source newer antibiotic substances and can be used for the treatment of typhoid fever, dysentery, urinary tract and wound infections and mycotic infections. Key words: Activity, antimicrobial, disc diffusion method, extracts, infections, pathogenic, phytochemicals. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/5E9FCEC32650 en Copyright © 2008 Doughari, J. H., El-Mahmood, A. M. and Phillip, B.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:91E566032656 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Antidiabetic activity of hydro-ethanolic extracts of Nymphaea Stellata flowers in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats K. Rajagopal and K. Sasikala Full Length Research Paper The antidiabetic effect of hydro-ethanolic extract (HEE) of Nymphaea stellata Willd flower was investigated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In the present study, the animals were divided in to normal control, diabetic control, diabetic treated and control treated group (n = 6). Effect of oral administration of HEE (300 mg/kg) for 30 days on the level of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), phospholipids, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), Hexokinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Glucose-6-phosphatase in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were evaluated. When comparing the values of the HEE treated group with those of the control diabetic group, we found that the HEE significantly decreased the elevated blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, LDL, VLDL and it showed a significant increase in liver glycogen, insulin and HDL level. Treatment with HEE in diabetic rats increased the Hexokinase, LDH activity and decreased the glucose 6-phosphatase activity. These results clearly indicated that N. stellata flowers possess promising antidiabetic effect in diabetic rats. Key words: Antidiabetic, alloxan, blood glucose, Nymphaea stellata. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/91E566032656 en Copyright © 2008 K. Rajagopal and K. Sasikala
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:08DC05732665 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Accelerated stability testing of celecoxib nanoemulsion containing Cremophor-EL Faiyaz Shakeel, Sanjula Baboota, Alka Ahuja, Javed Ali and Sheikh Shafiq Full Length Research Paper Celecoxib (CXB), a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor has been recommended for the treatment of arthritis and osteoarthritis upon oral administration. However, long term oral administration of celecoxib cause serious gastrointestinal adverse effects. Therefore the aim of the present study was to enhance CXBrsquo;s physical and chemical stability using nanoemulsion formulation in order to eliminate gastrointestinal adverse effects of its oral administration. Optimized nanoemulsion formulation was prepared by spontaneous emulsification method. Nanoemulsion was characterized by droplet size, viscosity and refractive index. Stability studies were performed for the period of 3 months. Droplet size, viscosity and refractive index were determined every month. Shelf-life of nanoemulsion formulation was also determined by accelerated stability testing. It was found that droplet size, viscosity and refractive index were slightly increased at refrigerator and room temperature in 3 months period. However, the changes in these parameters were not statistically significant (p ge; 0.05). The shelf-life of optimized nanoemulsion formulation was found to be 2.38 years at room temperature. These results indicated that both physical as well as chemical stability of celecoxib can be enhanced in nanoemulsion formulation using Cremophor-EL as surfactant. Key words: Nanoemulsion, celecoxib, shelf life, cremophor-EL. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/08DC05732665 en Copyright © 2008 Faiyaz Shakeel, Sanjula Baboota, Alka Ahuja, Javed Ali and Sheikh Shafiq
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:056306C32673 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Proniosome based drug delivery system of piroxicam A. Chandra and P. K. Sharma Full Length Research Paper Piroxicam is a widely used potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, with due potential for dermal delivery. Permeation of piroxicam from proniosome based reservoir type transdermal gel formulation across excised rat abdominal skin was investigated using Keshery Chein diffusion cell. There was considerable improvement in flux over the control gel formulation. The lipid vesicles were evaluated for entrapment efficiency and vesicle size of niosomes formed. It was observed that Span 60 based formulations produced vesicles of smallest size and higher entrapment efficiency while those of Span 80 produced vesicles of least entrapment efficiency. Incorporation of lecithin further enhanced entrapment efficiency. Proniosomes were prepared by conventional technique and employing maltodextrin and sorbitol as base. The morphology of the proniosomes was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Maximum flux achieved was 35.61 mu;g/cm2/h, an enhancement of 7.39 times was achieved for transdermal system based on proniosomal gel as compared to control gel. Anti-inflammatory studies revealed that proniosome based transdermal drug delivery system of piroxicam were promising carriers for delivery of piroxicam. There was significant reduction in carrageenan induced rat paw inflammation compared to control. Key words: Piroxicam, niosomes, permeation enhancement, dermal delivery. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/056306C32673 en Copyright © 2008 A. Chandra and P. K. Sharma
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:DB89C4632680 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Anti-Inflammatory and antipyretic effects of an ethanolic extract of Palisota hirsuta K. Schum roots E. Boakye-Gyasi , E. Woode, G. K. Ainooson, D. D. Obiri , C. Ansah , Duwejua M. and Donkoh A. Full Length Research Paper The effect of Palisota hirsuta root ethanolic extract, a herbal preparation used in Ghana for pain and inflammatory disorders, was assessed in acute inflammation in carrageenan-induced foot oedema in chicks and brewerrsquo;s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Two paradigms were used for the inflammation assessment; effect of the extract on established inflammation (curative protocol) and effect before the induction of inflammation (preemptive protocol). P. hirsuta extract (50 - 400 mg/kg, p.o) dose-dependently reduced foot oedema with maximal effect of 58.90 plusmn; 11.38% (prophylactic) and 62.52 plusmn; 4.73% (curative). Similarly, the NSAID, diclofenac (10 - 100 mg/kg, i.p.) used as a reference drug, dose-dependently reduced the oedema with a maximal effect of 96.82 plusmn; 3.64% (prophylactic) and 60.74 plusmn; 5.58% (curative). The steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, dexamethasone (0.5 - 2 mg/kg, i.p), inhibited the oedema with a maximal effect of 86.51 plusmn; 2.61% (prophylactic) and 55.76 plusmn; 9.56% (curative). In terms of potency, the ethanolic extract of P. hirsuta exhibited similar potency when it was administered 1 h before (ED50 178.00 plusmn; 56.8 mg/ kg) and 1 h after (ED50 181.10 plusmn; 49.89 mg/kg) carrageenan injection and this was found to be less potent than both dexamethasone and diclofenac in both the prophylactic and curative protocols. Also, PHE caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in yeast-induced pyrexia in rats (IC50: 265.10 plusmn; 63.73 mg/kg) which was raquo; 15 times less potent than the standard, paracetamol (IC50: 18.05 plusmn; 4.08 mg/kg). The results thus confirm the use of the plant for inflammatory disorders in traditional medicine. Key words: Palisota hirsuta, carrageenan, yeast, chicks, rats. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/DB89C4632680 en Copyright © 2008 E. Boakye-Gyasi , E. Woode, G. K. Ainooson, D. D. Obiri , C. Ansah , Duwejua M. and Donkoh A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:F5EC08332689 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanolic extract of the stem bark of Ficus vallis-choudae delile (Moraceae) A. Lawan, U. A. Katsayal and A. H. Yaro Full Length Research Paper The methanolic stem bark extract of Ficus vallis-choudae was investigated for anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity. The anti-inflammatory effects were investigated using rat paw edema model, while the analgesic effects were studied using acetic acid induced writhing in mice. The results obtained revealed that the methanolic stem bark extract of F. vallis ndash; choudae in doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg posses significant (P lt; 0.05) dose dependent anti-inflammatory effect and inhibit abdominal contractions caused by acetic acid in mice. The intraperitoneal LD50 in mice was found to be 470 mg/kg. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and saponins. The results of this study indicated the presence of biologically active substances which may be beneficial in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Key words: Acetic acid - induced writhing, anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, F. Vallis-choudae, rat paw edema. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/F5EC08332689 en Copyright © 2008 A. Lawan, U. A. Katsayal and A. H. Yaro
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:D80FCE732692 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic determination of atorvastatin calcium in pharmaceutical dosage form Zahid Zaheer, M. N. Farooqui, A. A. Mangle A. G. Nikalje Full Length Research Paper A simple, selective, precise and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of analysis of Atorvastatin Calcium in pharmaceutical dosage form was developed and validated. The chromatographic conditions comprised of a reversed-phase C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm), 5 with a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of Methanol: Acetonitrile: Phosphate Buffer solution in the ratio (45:45:10). Flow rate was 1 mL / min. Detection was carried out at 246 nm. The retention time of Atorvastatin was 6.98 min. Atorvastatin Calcium was subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, photochemical degradation and thermal degradation. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship in the concentration range 52.20 to 156.60 g/mL. The value of correlation coefficient, slope and intercept were, 0.9999, 36.02 and 26.45, respectively. The method was validated for precision, recovery, ruggedness and robustness. The drug undergoes degradation under acidic, basic, photochemical and thermal degradation conditions. All the peaks of degraded product were resolved from the active pharmaceutical ingredient with significantly different retention time. As the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation product, it can be employed as a stability-indicating one. Key words: Atorvastatin, chromatography, stability indicating, degradation. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/D80FCE732692 en Copyright © 2008 Zahid Zaheer, M. N. Farooqui, A. A. Mangle A. G. Nikalje
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:4B720D632697 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Bachir Raho Ghalem and Benali Mohamed Full Length Research Paper The antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves of two Eucalyptus species (globulusand camaldulensis) was determined against Staphylococcus aureus Gram (+) andEscherichia coli Gram (-) bacteria. The inhibiting activity was evaluated by three methods: aromatogramme, microatmosphere and germs in suspension. Results demonstrated of the leaf essential oils of the two species showed an excellent inhibitory effect on S. aureus than that of E. coli. These data would indicate the potential usefulness of the two Eucalyptusspecies as a microbiostatic, antiseptic or as disinfectant agent. Key words: Antibacterial activity, essential oil, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/4B720D632697 en Copyright © 2008 Bachir Raho Ghalem and Benali Mohamed
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:923076D32703 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2008
Comparison of the physical and chemical changes of magistral suspension with anesthesin and aethenamine after date of expiration Rade Injac Full Length Research Paper This study reports the differences in physical and chemical stability of suspension with dissolved and non dissolved main active compound. In the first case it is methenamine and the other one is anesthesin. At the same time we analyzed two fresh and two 18-months old formulations of both magistral preparations. Anesthesin suspensions did not show any significant physical or chemical changes in 18 months except changes in appearance. On the other hand suspension with methenamine showed as very unstable system. Methenamine was hydrolyzed in water and ammonia and formaldehyde were determined as degradation products. Level of methenamine in preparations after 18 months was 84.6 plusmn; 1.1%. Also the value of water was slightly decreased in old formulation with methanamine, which indicates a physical unstable system. Key words: Methenamine, anesthesin, suspensions, magistral preparation stability. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/923076D32703 en Copyright © 2008 Rade Injac
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:485EC2A27951 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Resistin and cardiovascular disorder Ramica Sharma, Chetan Kumar, Shaveta Gangwani, Gurfateh Singh Sugga and A. C. Rana Review Resistin belongs to a family of cysteine-rich secreted polypeptides produced by monocy-tes/macrophages. It is also regarded as a novel adipokine that has been suggested to play a role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity. In humans, inflammatory cells seem to be the major source of resistin. Resistin has been suggested to be an independent risk factor involved in the pathogenesis of numerous disorders. Cardiovascular complications account for significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, resistin has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, coronary artery disease and heart failure. Hence, the present review discussed the role of resistin in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. Key words: Resistin, cardiovascular disorders, adipokine, cysteine, macrophages, monocytes. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/485EC2A27951 en Copyright © 2009 Ramica Sharma, Chetan Kumar, Shaveta Gangwani, Gurfateh Singh Sugga and A. C. Rana
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:46D8EDC28014 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Ethno-zoological studies and medicinal values of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa, India N. Mishra, S. D. Rout and T. Panda Full Length Research Paper This paper documents zootherapeutic practices in Similipal Biosphere Reserve of Mayurbhanj district, Orissa, India. It is primarily based on field surveys carried out in villages, where dwellers provided information on animal species used as medicine, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and the illnesses to which the remedies were prescribed. The dominant tribes involved in using animal parts as medicines in the district are Santhal, Kol, Bhumija, Bhuyan, Mahalis, Sounti and Saharas. The animal parts, namely, blood, excreta, feather and hair were used in raw or cooked forms for the treatment of piles, asthma, skin diseases, fever and rheumatism.The species used as medicinal drug and their respective families were: Bos gaurus gaurus(Mammalia), Buceros bicormis (Bucerotidae), Crocodylus palustris(Crocodilidae), Pavo cristatus(Phasianidae), Hystrix indica (Rodentia), Pterocarpus giganteus (Chiroptera) and Sus scorofacristatus (Mammalia).These zootherapeutical resources were used for the cure of 12 illnesses. Key words: Ethnomedicine, ethnozoology, Orissa, Similipal, traditional knowledge, zootherapy. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/46D8EDC28014 en Copyright © 2009 N. Mishra, S. D. Rout and T. Panda
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:5F312A029489 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Effect of consumption of Cucurbita pepo seeds on haematological and biochemical parameters G. K. A. Adepoju and A. A. Adebanjo Full Length Research Paper The study investigated the effect of Cucurbita pepo seeds on haematological and biochemical parameters on Wistar albino rats. The rats were maintained on diets composed of different concentrations of pulverized seeds of C. pepo. Blood samples and organs investigations were carried out using standard laboratory tests. The result revealed that C. pepo seeds significantly affected these parameters with beneficial effects on the vital organs and blood. The concentrations of the platelets, white blood cells and eosinophil were increased, while it reduced the concentrations of the neutrophils, packed cell volume and lymphocytes. It also significantly increased mean weights of the liver and the kidneys as evidenced by the statistically significant increase in total protein values of these organs. The doses significantly reduced the plasma levels of AST and ALT in these organs (plt;0.05). The seeds showed a dose-dependent nephro- and hepato-protective ability. In conclusion, C. pepo seed has beneficial nutritional values when consumed adequately. Key words: Haematological parameters, white blood cells, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, Cucurbita pepo, nutritional values, laboratory investigation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/5F312A029489 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPP10.186 en Copyright © 2009 G. K. A. Adepoju and A. A. Adebanjo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:DCFAFF930484 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Evaluation of hyaluronate anti-ulcer activity against gastric mucosal injury Fouad Al-Bayaty, Mahamood Abdulla, Poya Darwish Full Length Research Paper The present study was performed to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of hyaluronic acid against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Four groups of adultSprague Dawley rats were orally pre-treated respectively with distilled water (ulcer control groups), omeprazole (reference group), high molecular weight hyaluronic acid and 0.8% hyaluronic acid gel (experimental groups) one hour before oral administration of absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal. After an additional hour, the rats were sacrificed and the ulcer areas of the gastric walls were determined. Grossly, the ulcer control group exhibited severe mucosal injury, whereas pre-treatment with omeprazol, and both types of hyaluronic acid gel, exhibited significant protection of gastric mucosal injury. Histological studies of the gastric wall revealed that ulcer control group exhibited severe damage of gastric mucosa; along with edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with hyaluronic acid gels which showed comparatively gastric mucosal protection, reduction or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer. The present finding suggests that high molecular weight hyaluronic acid gel promotes higher ulcer protection. Key words: Hyaluronic acid gel, cytoprotection, gastric ulcer, histology. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/DCFAFF930484 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPP10.211 en Copyright © 2009 Fouad Al-Bayaty, Mahamood Abdulla, Poya Darwish
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:6CD983730570 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Formulation and evaluation of immediate release tablets with different types of paracetamol powders prepared by direct compression Biljana Govedarica, Rade Injac, Rok Dreuand Stane Srcic Full Length Research Paper Paracetamol (PAR) crystals exhibit poor compressibility, poor flowability and its tablets show a tendency to cap. To improve the mechanical strength of tablets several kinds of ldquo;Paracetamol for direct compressionrdquo; are present on the market. Current research demonstrated the best tablet properties with coated paracetamol (mass of tablets, diameter, height and mechanical strength, friability RSDlt;2%). Furthermore, coated paracetamol in combination with both investigated superdisintegrants such as Vivasolreg;and Polyplasdonereg; XL-10 shows faster disintegration time and dissolution rate in comparison to paracetamol for direct compression. Eventually, the major advantages of the formulation with coated paracetamol for industrial production are decrease of friability and superiority in terms of flowability, compressibility, quick disintegration and dissolution. Regarding the results, coating of PAR particles is beneficial for the manufacturing of tablets with immediate release. Key words: Paracetamol, powder, direct compression, immediate release, superdisintegrants. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/6CD983730570 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPP10.274 en Copyright © 2009 Biljana Govedarica, Rade Injac, Rok Dreuand Stane Srcic
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:52B9D9E30666 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Effect of alpha-lipoic acid and time-of-day on interleukin-6 response to exhaustive exercise in humans Zekine Lappalainen Full Length Research Paper Circadian rhythms have an influence on human performance. Interleukin-6 is a cytokine which plays a role in muscle energy homeostasis during physical exercise. This study tested the effect of diurnal variation and alpha-lipoic acid, a natural thiol antioxidant, on skeletal muscle contractile properties, interleukin-6 response and oxidative damage. Male subjects (n=26) performed isokinetic exercise in different time-of-day. Next, the subjects were supplemented with alpha-lipoic acid for two weeks and the exercise tests were repeated. Blood samples were analyzed at baseline and immediately after exercise. Leg extensor muscle parameters were compared withtime-of-day. Maximal work per single repetition and total work values were higher in the afternoon time, suggesting a time-of-day effect. Serum interleukin-6 levels increased in response to exercise, but were not associated with time-of-day. Alpha-lipoic acid did not have a significant effect on any of the measured parameters. Diurnal variations during exhaustive eccentric exercise seem to reflect muscle contractile work capacity. Exercise increases serum interleukin-6 levels irrespective of diurnal variation. Key words: Diurnal variation, lipoic acid, interleukin-6, muscle performance. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/52B9D9E30666 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPP10.390 en Copyright © 2009 Zekine Lappalainen
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:1CD5B8330697 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Antisickling activities of extracts of leaf, seed and seed pod of Garcinia kola Heckel O. E. Adejumo, M. D. Ayoola, A. L. Kolapo, V. O. Orimoyegun and P. O. Olatunji Full Length Research Paper Garcinia kola has been hitherto speculated as effective in the management of sickle cell disease (SCD). Investigations into the antisickling activities of both crude methanol extracts and the aqueous fractions of the leaf, seed and seed pod of G. kola were carried out using p-hydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline as positive and negative controls respectively. At the tested concentrations of 10.0, 1.0 and 0.1 mg/ml, the leaf extracts exhibited greatest antisickling activity whilst the seed pod had the least antisickling activity. However, it was observed that the activity of methanol extract of the seed pod did not differ significantly (pgt;0.05) from that of the positive control, p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Results for screened phytochemicals of the investigated parts revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, combined and free anthraquinones. The results infer a preliminary confirmation for the effectiveness and use of Garcinia kola in the management of SCD and its implication in drug development. Key words: Antisickling activity, Garcinia kola, phytochemicals, sickle cell disease. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/1CD5B8330697 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPP10.052 en Copyright © 2009 O. E. Adejumo, M. D. Ayoola, A. L. Kolapo, V. O. Orimoyegun and P. O. Olatunji
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:E69A5B630725 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
The effect of levosimendan on BNP and other myocardial injury indicators in chronic atrial fibrillation cases with heart failure Ibrahim Halil Kurt, Murat Ccedil;ayli and Mustafa Kemal Batur Full Length Research Paper To compare effects of levosimendan on brain natriuretic factor (BNP) and other myocardial injury indicators in heart failure (HF) patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) versus sinus rhythm (SR). This study was prospective, double blinded and included a total of 62 chronic HF patients in NYHA III-IV classes. Left ventricular ejection fraction pound;35%, and with either SR (n=38) or AF (n=24) received a 12 mu;g/kg dose of levosimendan. Then they were followed up by IV infusions, as tolerated. BNP, cardiac troponin I, creatinine kinase-myocardial band levels were measured. Age mean (67.5 plusmn; 16.5 years), demographic features and medical history were not significantly different between groups. Diastolic blood pressure was lower (p=0.008), whereas blood urea nitrogen was higher (p =0.03) in the AF group. The frequently used concomitant medication in the AF group was amiodarone (p=0.02). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were decreased in the SR Group (p=0.009 and 0.006, respectively). Despite the reduction in systolic blood pressure (p=0.04), diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged in the AF group. Levosimendan significantly decreased BNP levels in the SR group (p=0.002). There was symptomatic improvement and decrease in the NYHA classification among patients in both groups, but no significant difference between groups. Levosimendan did not reduce BNP levels in patients with AF patients, which might be considered as an indicator of a limited efficacy of levosimendan on decompensated, acute HF patients with AF, compared to patients with SR. Key words: Atrial fibrillation, Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), heart failure, levosimendan, myocardial injury. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/E69A5B630725 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPP10.180 en Copyright © 2009 Ibrahim Halil Kurt, Murat Ccedil;ayli and Mustafa Kemal Batur
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:4E0528730756 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Turkish pharmacy technicians’ counseling practices and attitudes regarding emergency contraceptive pills Sule Apikoglu-Rabus, Mesut Sancar, Betul Okuyan and Fikret V. Izzettin Full Length Research Paper Supplying emergency contraception pills through community pharmacies without the need for a doctorrsquo;s prescription is an important public health role for the pharmacy staff, as a way of reducing unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions. Therefore, we aimed to assess the Turkish pharmacy techniciansrsquo; counseling practices and attitudes regarding emergency contraception pills. A survey tool which was structured to question pharmacy techniciansrsquo; demography, professional experience, counseling practices and attitudes regarding emergency contraception pills was administered to pharmacy technicians at the end of the ldquo;pharmacy technician certification programrdquo;. The fully completed questionnaires (n=145) were further analyzed. Mean [SEM] age of the pharmacy technicians was 25.3 [0.4] years and majority (89%) of them were practicing in a community pharmacy. Despite their positive attitude towards the emergency contraception pills, pharmacy technicians were found to provide insufficient emergency contraception pill counseling to clients. We suggest that organization of continuing education programs on ldquo;reproductive and sexual health and emergency contraceptionrdquo; for the pharmacy technicians could help increase the quality of emergency contraception pill counseling provided by the pharmacy technicians. Key words: Emergency contraception pill, counseling, attitude, community pharmacy, pharmacy technician. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/4E0528730756 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPP10.192 en Copyright © 2009 Sule Apikoglu-Rabus, Mesut Sancar, Betul Okuyan and Fikret V. Izzettin
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:D8C08DE30812 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Chemotaxonomic clarification of pharmaceutically important species of Cyperus L. Muhammad Zafar, Mushtaq Ahmad, Mir Ajab Khan, Shazia Sultana, Gul Jan, Farooq Ahmad, Asma Jabeen, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Shabnum Shaheen, Amin Shah, Abdul Nazir and Sarfaraz Khan Marwat Full Length Research Paper The evaluation of the crude herbal drug which eventually enters the pharmaceutical market is obviously of considerable importance. This operation involves the identification of the material and determination of its quality, purity and of adulterated nature of the adulterants. The present paper is based on the above objectives which confined to chemotaxonomic authentication of Cyprus rotundus L. (Nagar mootha) and its other similar species. Chemotaxonomic techniques including morphology, organoleptography, palynology, anatomy and phyto-chemical analysis were carried out in order to clarify the pharmaceutically important species of Cyperus that is Cyperus rotundus, Cyperusalopecuroides, Cyperus difformis and Cyperus niveus. It is concluded from this study that the genuine source of herbal drug Nagar Mootha is C. rotundus instead of other species. Such type of studies is the need of herbal industry to ensure validation process which applied in the manufacturing of herbal medicines and phyto- pharmaceuticals. This will provide the credibility in the regulation and grown of pharmaceutically important herbal medicines for the foreseeable. Key words: Cyperus L., chemotaxonomic, pharmaceutical. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/D8C08DE30812 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPP10.254 en Copyright © 2009 Muhammad Zafar, Mushtaq Ahmad, Mir Ajab Khan, Shazia Sultana, Gul Jan, Farooq Ahmad, Asma Jabeen, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Shabnum Shaheen, Amin Shah, Abdul Nazir and Sarfaraz Khan Marwat
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:17DA62030831 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Effect of various superdisintegrants on the drug release profile and disintegration time of Lamotrigine orally disintegrating tablets C. Patil and S. Das Full Length Research Paper The demand for orally disintegrating tablets of lamotrigine has been growing during the last decade especially for the geriatric and pediatric patients. Lamotrigine is a recognized drug for epilepsy, so development of an ODT of lamotrigine and to evaluate the effect of various superdisintegrants on its disintegration time and release profile was the prime objective of this research work. Tablets were prepared by direct compression technique using 3 different superdisintegrants. Sodium starch glycolate, Croscarmellose sodium and Crosspovidone XL-10 were used as superdisintegrants in combinations to achieve optimum release profile, disintegration time and hardness. Direct compression process was selected for this formulation of ODT tablets, because porous nature is more in direct compression blend than wet granulation blend, so it will give faster disintegration. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as diluent and mannitol, mint flavor and sodium saccharin were used to enhance the organoleptic properties of tablets. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, in-vitro disintegration time and drug release characteristics. Hardness and friability data indicated good mechanical strength around 3 kg/cm2 for all the batches. The results of in-vitro disintegration time indicated that the tablets dispersed rapidly in mouth within 8 s. Dissolution study revealed release rate of drug from the tablets was comparable with marketed tablet formulation of lamotrigine. It was concluded that superdisintegrants addition technique is a useful method for preparing orally disintegrating tablets by direct compression method. Key words: Orally disintegrating tablets, superdisintegrants, Lamotrigine, direct compression. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/17DA62030831 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPP10.279 en Copyright © 2009 C. Patil and S. Das
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:CECFFD730872 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Assessment of the medical benefit in the folkloric use of Bryophyllum Pinnatum leaf among the Igbos of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension S. Ghasi, C. Egwuibe, P. U. Achukwu and J. C. Onyeanusi Full Length Research Paper The effects of aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum on the blood pressure of anaesthetized cats, as well as on the liver and kidney status of the rabbit were investigated in this study. The results revealed that, the extract produced a small fall in the blood pressure of the anaesthetized cat and also reduced the effect of adrenaline-induced elevation of blood pressure. In rabbits, biochemical analysis of serum was carried out; urea and creatinine were used as tests of its effect on the renal function while alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) served as enzyme indices of the liver function. In addition, the tissues of the liver and kidney were microscopically examined. The treated rabbits showed a significant decrease (P lt; 0.05) in their serum creatinine accompanied by significant increase in their serum urea (P lt; 0.05). No significant changes of these biochemical parameters were seen in the serum of control animals. While a significant increase (P lt; 0.05) was observed in the activity of the ALP of the treated animals, a non-significant increase (P gt; 0.05) was recorded in the AST and ALT aminotransferases of both the treated and control animals. The increase recorded in the treated group was much higher (8.64 and 13.63%) as compared to the control group (0.69 and 7.05%). The histopathological examination of the kidney and liver of treated animals showed shrunken glomeruli with increased urinary space, mild necrosis of the tubules and hyaline droplets, while the liver tissue revealed necrosis of the liver cells, lymphocytic infiltration and peri-cuffing of the bile duct. The control animals, however, showed normal histological structure. In addition after 4 weeks of treatment, body weight in the control group was significantly higher than those in the treated group. It was concluded that the pharmacological basis for the use of B. pinnatum among the Igbos of Nigeria to lower blood pressure was established by this study. However, the facts that the reduction in blood pressure produced is slight and the B. pinnatum leaf extract is potentially organotoxic negate its use as a blood pressure lowering agent. Key words: Byophyllum pinnatum, blood pressure, biochemical analysis, histopathology, rabbit. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/CECFFD730872 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPP10.309 en Copyright © 2009 S. Ghasi, C. Egwuibe, P. U. Achukwu and J. C. Onyeanusi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:BB7F8C430909 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
The effect of acute exercises on blood electrolyte values in handball players Huuml;rmuuml;z Koccedil; Full Length Research Paper This study aimed at determining the effect of five-day competitions on some blood electrolyte, values of male handball players. 12 male handball players voluntarily participated into the study. After briefing the handball players concerning the test to be conducted, physical measurements including age, body height, body weight, body-mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BFP) were taken from the players before and after the competitions. In order to determine their level of blood electrolytes, 5 ml blood samples were taken before (BC) and after the competition (AC) in line with hygiene rules from the forearm ante-cubital area into yellow-tap tubes with gels and analyzed in the central laboratory by using auto-analyzer for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorine, iron, iron binding capacity, creatine and urea levels. Measurement results were presented as averages and standard deviation. Student t-test for dependant samples was used in order to make a comparison between BC and AC values. In the outcome of the study, the change in BC and AC body weight, BMI, BFP and calcium values was found to be significant (plt;0.01) whereas the changes in magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorine, iron and iron binding capacity values were insignificant (pgt;0.05). As a conclusion, findings show that acute competition exercises do not have any effect on blood electrolyte levels. Key words: Handball players, competition, blood electrolytes. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/BB7F8C430909 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPP10.391 en Copyright © 2009 Huuml;rmuuml;z Koccedil;
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:9D2F60430955 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Chromosomal aberrations induced in bone marrow cells of mice due to the administration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Piroxicam Mohamed A. Dkhil, Amany Tohamy and Mohamed S. Gabry Full Length Research Paper Cytogenetic changes in male albino mice due to the effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Piroxicam was investigated after daily intraperitoneal injection with 0.3 mg/kg body weight, for 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The observed structural chromosomal aberrations were in the form of chromatid breakage, centric fusion, centromeric attenuation, ring chromosome and end to end association. At all the treatment periods used the number of cells with chromatid breakages and with total structural aberrations increased to statistically significant levels. Only after one and four weeks of treatment it was noticed that the number of cells with end to end association increased significantly. No significant changes in the mitotic indicies could be detected in all mice groups. The study demonstrated that Piroxicam affects the bone marrow cells where it causes some aberrations in the chromosomes. Thus, Piroxicam should be used under strict medical control, and these serious side effects should be considered and taken in consideration when using Piroxicam in treatments. Key words: Cytogenecity, chromosomes, Piroxicam. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/9D2F60430955 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPP10.267 en Copyright © 2009 Mohamed A. Dkhil, Amany Tohamy and Mohamed S. Gabry
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:1B173D632709 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Medicinal plants of Aguambu – Bamumbu in the Lebialem highlands, southwest province of Cameroon Focho, D. A., Ndam, W. T. and Fonge, B. A. Full Length Research Paper Ethnobotanical investigations were conducted in Aguambu ndash; Bamumbu Village in Wabane Subdivision (Lebialem Division), Southwest Province of Cameroon to identify the different medicinal plants used in the traditional pharmacopoeia for the treatment of diseases affecting the human body. Ethnobotanical information was collected through questionnaires and personal interviews during field trips. A total of 248 respondents were interviewed and 133 medicinal plants belonging to 59 families identified and documented. Among these plants, 55 were used to treat ailments of the digestive system, 49 for ailments of the urinary - genital system, 25 for ailments of the nervous system, 11 for ailments of the respiratory system and 3 for ailments of the cardiovascular system. The modes of herbal drugs preparation were concoctions, decoctions, macerations and infusions. The most frequently used plant parts were the leaves. Key words: Ethnobotany, medicinal plants, biodiversity, Lebialem highlands. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/1B173D632709 en Copyright © 2009 Focho, D. A., Ndam, W. T. and Fonge, B. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:EEAC39C32712 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Nitric oxide producing effect of six extracts from Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex Poiret (Guttiferae) stem bark Iwalewa E. O., Naidoo V., Bagla V. and Eloff J. N. Full Length Research Paper Preliminary pharmacological screening of the aqueous extract from the leaves, stem and root of Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex Poiret (Guttiferae) are reported to have effect on some cardiovascular diseases like bleeding, cadiopathy, hematuria, and other complications. However, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect is not known. The effects of six extracts from the stem bark of H. madagascariensis on equine platelets and chicken hepatocyte cells were explored to examine the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in platelet aggregation and cell viability capacity. Extracts exhibited concentration dependent platelet aggregation, and synergistically increased NO synthesis in platelets pre-treated with NO and prostaglandin (PG) inhibitors (L-NAME and ASA). The ED50 values observed in the extracts of H. madagascariensis extracts in this study were potentiated and the graphs were shifted to the left in the presence of both inhibitors. However, acontrary effect was observed in berberine, in which its ED50 was shifted to the right non-competitively by the inhibitors. These results demonstrate that extracts from the stem of H. madagascariensis stimulates NO release and this may be a mechanism whereby the constituents of the plant elicit its therapeutic effects in herbal medicine. This study may have relevance in hemostasis, thrombosis and cancer chemotherapy. Key words: Harungana madagascariensis, nitric oxide, equnine platelets, chicken hepatocyte cells, cytotoxicity. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/EEAC39C32712 en Copyright © 2009 Iwalewa E. O., Naidoo V., Bagla V. and Eloff J. N.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:8150CD632714 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Antibacterial activity of terpenoidal fractions from Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides against community acquired infections Mann A., , Amupitan J. O., Oyewale A. O., Okogun J. I. and Ibrahim K. Full Length Research Paper Terpenoidal fractions were isolated from both Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) Guill and Perr (Stem) and Terminalia avicennioides Guill and Perr (Root) and assayed against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The terpenoidal fractions exhibited antimicrobial activities against all the test microorganisms. All test organisms were susceptible to the terpenoidal fractions. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 0.213 and 5.0 g/ml. The terpenoidal fractions from A. leiocarpus and T. avicennioides could be a potential source of chemotherapeutic agents. The antimicrobial activities of these terpenoidal fractions provide justification for the chemotherapeutic utilization of these plants. Key words: Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia avicennioides, terpenoidal fractions, antimicrobial activities. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/8150CD632714 en Copyright © 2009 Mann A., , Amupitan J. O., Oyewale A. O., Okogun J. I. and Ibrahim K.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:57B722932721 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Effect of Faidherbia albida on some biochemical parameters of rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei Tijani A. Y, Uguru M. O, Salawu O. A, Abubakar A. Onyekwelu N. O and Akingbasote J. A. Full Length Research Paper Current drugs used in the management of African Trypanosomiasis are toxic and can encounter parasite resistance, hence the need for urgent, less toxic and readily available alternative source of trypanocide. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of the stem bark of Faidherbia albida in albino rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei strain Lafia/CT/66/NITR was evaluated. The oral acute toxicity of the extract was determined in rats. Parasitaemia was determined and estimated daily while the packed cell volume (PCV), Total protein, albumin, globulin and free fatty acid were determined at days 5 and 10 post treatment. The results showed that the oral median lethal dose (LD50) was greater than 5000 mg extract/ Kg body weight. There was prolongation of life in the treated groups when compared to the negative control. The administration of the extract led to a highly significant (Plt;0.01) increase in Total protein, albumin, and packed cell volume levels while the globulin and free fatty acid levels decreased significantly (Plt;0.01). It is suggested that the hydro-alcoholic extract of F. albida is trypanostatic and effective in the management of anaemia induced by Trypanosoma brucei brucei in rats. Key words: Trypanosome brucei brucei, Faidherbia albida, PCV, free fatty acid. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/57B722932721 en Copyright © 2009 Tijani A. Y, Uguru M. O, Salawu O. A, Abubakar A. Onyekwelu N. O and Akingbasote J. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:79CCDF432725 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Industries formulating oral antimicrobial suspensions in Nigeria Mukhtar, M. D., Oyeyi T. I. and Ameh, J. B. Full Length Research Paper Pharmaceutical Companies concerned with the manufacture and trading of the commonest varieties of Oral antimicrobial suspensions in Nigeria were identified. This was prompted by an effort to provide a clue to the current Pharmaceutical Industrial growth of the country. This was achieved through a survey conducted to identify the number, distribution and location as well as the product of the industries with the aid of questionnaires distributed to manufacturers (Pharmacists and Sales representatives). Presence of the products was assessed through consultation with whole sales and patent medicine dealers in Kano market one of the main drug distribution foci in Nigeria drug market. A total of 62 functional factories, unevenly distributed in ten states of the federation were identified. There were 26 (41.93%) in Lagos, 12 (19. 35%) in Kano and five (8.06%) in Enugu. Imo, Kwara and Ogun States had four (6.45%) each. There were three (4.83) in Oyo. Anambra had two (3.23%) but Osun and Niger State haboured one (1.61%) in each case. The industries formulated one or more among Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Ampiclox, augmentin, Cloxacillin, Choramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, Chloroquine, erythromycin and metronidazole suspensions presented in various trade names. The study confirmed the proliferation of local Pharmaceutical manufacturing companies capable of producing one or more first choice antimicrobial suspension for use in chemotherapy. This seems as a mark of industrial progress in Nigeria today. Keywords: Oral antimicrobial suspension, industries, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/79CCDF432725 en Copyright © 2009 Mukhtar, M. D., Oyeyi T. I. and Ameh, J. B.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:809078632974 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Pharmacognostical standardization of Commiphora berryi (Arn) Engl and phytochemical studies on its crude extracts Palanisamy Selvamani, Dhrubo Jyoti Sen and Jayanta Kumar Gupta Full Length Research Paper Commiphora genus of Burseraceae family comprises of more than 175 species. Among them many species have been reported with diverse medicinal potential.Commiphora berryi (Arn) Engl is a member of this genus and has been reported to have potential use in folklore medicine to treat various ailments such as ulcer, infection, loss of appetite etc. To supplement the necessary information for the systematic identification and authentication of this particular species, pharmacognostic standardization of various parts of this plant as per WHO guidelines and phytochemical studies on various crude extracts obtained from the stem bark of this plant were carried out and reported. Key words: Commiphora berryi, burseraceae, pharmacognostical standardization, phytochemical studies, TLS, LS, RLS. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/809078632974 en Copyright © 2009 Palanisamy Selvamani, Dhrubo Jyoti Sen and Jayanta Kumar Gupta
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:8200C7C33016 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Quantitative structure activity relationship studies for new antimicrobial N2- substituted phenazines M. S. Khairi Fahelelbom and Moawia Al-Tabakha Full Length Research Paper The increased availability of iminophenazines with polar substitute in the N2- side chain (notably B826 with a (3-diethylaminopropyl) imino substituent) in the spleen of mice following oral administration prompted an investigation of a possible correlation between the partition coefficient (log P) values and electronic properties expressed by s* with the concentration of the iminophenazines in the spleen of mice. The correlation studies between log P values and the concentration of the iminophenazines in the spleen of mice showed a poor correlation coefficient (r = 0.515), while a much better correlation was obtained using the electronic parameter s*, where the correlation coefficient was 0.911, indicating the significance of the electronic factor in relation to the transport of the compounds to the spleen of mice, despite the high lipophilicity of the iminophenazines. Key words: QSAR, iminophenazines, partition coefficient, electronic parameter. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/8200C7C33016 en Copyright © 2009 M. S. Khairi Fahelelbom and Moawia Al-Tabakha
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:EE30A3D33080 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Pharmaceutical potentials of the oils of some popular insects consumed in southern Nigeria K. E Ekpo, A. O Onigbinde and I. O Asia Full Length Research Paper Macrotermes bellicosus (MB), Imbrasia belina larva (IBL), Oryctes rhinoceroslarva (OR) and Rhynchophorus pheonicis (RP) larva oils were extracted, and the oils were physically and chemically characterized. The lipid content recorded for the insects were 31.46 plusmn; 0.57%, 15.16 plusmn; 0.18%, 14.87 plusmn; 0.33% and 23.30 plusmn; 0.33% (wet weight) for MB, IBL, OR and RP respectively. RP and OR insect oils were golden yellow, odourless and fluid at room temperature (26 plusmn; 2oC), while that extracted from IBL and MB were of a lighter yellow colour. The insect lipids all gave a low solidification temperature and high iodine number indicating a relatively high level of unsaturation of the insect/larval oils. Their saponification values were high suggesting the presence of a fair amount of fatty acids but their acid values were low pointing to the fact that these fatty acids were not free but esterified acids. The cholesterol values were also low but highest in MB with a value of 41.8 plusmn; 0.15 mg/100 g lipid. For all the insects, the neutral lipid fraction was the major fraction in the insect oils. RP had the highest neutral lipid fraction of 88.40 while MB had the least value of 69.87. At the same time MB had the highest phospholipids and glycolipid fractions with values of 19.14 and 10.81 respectively while RP had the least phospholipids and glycolipid fractions with values of 8.20 and 2.60 respectively. For IBL, RP and OR (which are insect larvae the major fatty acids in the oils were palmitic and oleic acids while for MB (mature insect) the major fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic acids. The insect/larval oils contained more unsaturated fatty acids which explained the high iodine number, low solidification values and the liquid nature of the oils at room temperature. OR recorded the highest level of unsaturation of 65.61 while MB had the least level of unsaturation of 50.02%. Further analysis revealed a refractive index ranging from 1.1 plusmn; 0.01 to 1.3 plusmn; 0.05, specific gravity of 0.84 plusmn; 0.02 to 0.90 plusmn; 0.01, solidification value of 10 - 14deg;C, total lipid phosphorus ranging from 31.0 plusmn; 0.25 to 47.18 plusmn; 0.03 mg/gm lipid, acid value of 3.12 plusmn; 0.55 to 3.6 plusmn; 0.06, iodine value of 108 plusmn; 0.15 to 140 plusmn; 0.51, saponification value of 187.17 plusmn; 0.55 to 198.9 plusmn; 0.25 and unsaponifiable matter of 8.11 plusmn; 0.02 to 12.04 plusmn; 0.11. These values when compared with that observed in oils which have been considered to be of high quality and of much use in pharmaceutical industries suggest that these insect oils may have pharmaceutical potential. Key words: Macrotermes bellicosus, Imbrasia belina, Oryctes rhinocerosRhynchophorus pheonicis, pharmaceutical potential. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/EE30A3D33080 en Copyright © 2009 K. E Ekpo, A. O Onigbinde and I. O Asia
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:04CF89A33097 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of stem bark extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn) O. O. Igbinosa, E. O. Igbinosa and O. A. Aiyegoro Full Length Research Paper The in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude ethanolic, methanolic and water extracts of the stem bark of Jatropha curcas were investigated. The extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 5 to 12, 8 to 20 and 0 to 8 mm for ethanol, methanol and water extracts respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the ethanol extract was between 0.5 and 6.25 mgml-1 while that of methanol extract ranged from 0.5 to 10 mgml-1. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for ethanol extract ranged between 2.0 and 12.50 mgml-1, while that of methanol ranged from 2.0 to 20 mgml-1. Again all the extracts exhibited appreciable activity against all the fungal species investigated. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the extracts against the test fungal species ranged between 15 and 18, 15 and 20 and 5 and 10 mm for ethanol, methanol and water extracts respectively. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponin, steroids, tannin, glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids in the extracts. The ability of the crude stem extracts of J. curcas to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial potential which may be employed in the management of microbial infections. Key words: Jatropha curcas, antimicrobial activity, phytochemical screening, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/04CF89A33097 en Copyright © 2009 O. O. Igbinosa, E. O. Igbinosa and O. A. Aiyegoro
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:7A28A6333121 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Anticonvulsant activity of Morinda tinctoria-Roxb P. Thirupathy Kumaresan and A. Saravanan Full Length Research Paper Anticonvulsant activity for Morinda tinctoria was evaluated in albino mice of either sex at 3 different dose levels (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg ip) by MES and chemical methods. The extract showed significant (plt;0.001) against both MES ( maximal electroshock) and chemical methods. Key words: Morinda tinctoria, anticonvulsant, PTZ, MES. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/7A28A6333121 en Copyright © 2009 P. Thirupathy Kumaresan and A. Saravanan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:962480433155 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Contact toxicity of some fixed plant oils and stabilized natural pyrethrum extracts against adult maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) H. N. Wanyika, P. G. Kareru, J. M. Keriko, A. N. Gachanja, G. M. Kenjiand N. J. Mukiira Full Length Research Paper The contact toxicity of some selected fixed plant oils and stabilized natural pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) blends against adult maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais) were investigated. Natural pyrethrum extract was stabilized against ultraviolet (UV) light by blending with fixed oils extracted from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem tree), Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton) seeds. Cottonseed oil had the highest stabilization effect on the pyrethrum blend exposed to UV light of 366 nm. The results indicated that the natural pyrethrum extract blended with cottonseed oil was the most potent against maize weevils and that the potency was concentration-time dependent. Cottonseed and neem seed oils enhanced the stabilization of the natural pyrethrum insecticide. Key words: Contact toxicity, maize weevils, ultraviolet light, natural pyrethrum,cottonseed oil. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/962480433155 en Copyright © 2009 H. N. Wanyika, P. G. Kareru, J. M. Keriko, A. N. Gachanja, G. M. Kenjiand N. J. Mukiira
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:8DBFF7C33305 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Accessibility of medicines and primary health care: The impact of the revolving drug fund in Khartoum State Gamal Khalafalla Mohamed Ali Full Length Research Paper This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of a country where a revolving drug fund (RDF) has lasted for fifteen years and serves more than three million patients annually, with more than SDG 2.8 million (Sudanese Pound) (US$11.1 million) annual turn over. Regardless of the fact that the supply of medicines and improvement in public health facilities utilization are among the main objectives of user fees policy, there is little information on the effect of RDF on accessibility of essential medicines and its impact on the utilization of public health services where RDF schemes have been introduced. We measured the percentage of prescribed medicines dispensed to patients in selected health facilities (both RDF and non-RDF), the availability of essential medicines in a twelve month period in order to determine whether the cost of the medicines is a barrier to utilization of public health services with RDF scheme in Khartoum State (KS). Structured interviews with users (186), personal observations, and archival as well as statistical records were used to capture data of interest relevant to the study objective. The average availability rate of key items was greater (93%) in the RDF facilities compared to 86% in non-RDF facilities. RDF records also showed that the availability of medicines in the RDF health facilities ranged from 95 to 100% in the twelve months period studied. Data from the household survey, demonstrated that over a third (36%) of respondents did not consult public health facilities when a member of a household was ill two weeks prior to the date of interview. Of note, only 9% of them said that this was because of unavailability of medicines. This study suggests that the RDF scheme adopted by KS made essential medicines available at its health facilities and increased health services utilization compared to those without RDF scheme. Therefore, sustained availability of low cost medicines near where people live that benefit previously disadvantaged poor population, particularly the vulnerable rural groups is achievable through RDF. Key words: RDF, accessibility, availability, affordability. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/8DBFF7C33305 en Copyright © 2009 Gamal Khalafalla Mohamed Ali
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:CE31F7933350 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Herbalism and resources for the development of ethnopharmacology in Mount Cameroon region E. N. Ndenecho Full Length Research Paper Tropical forests are a biologically lavish and diverse ecosystem with plants whose potential value as a natural pharmacy is yet to be discovered. The native people have for centuries used plants as medicine. There is a need to stimulate traditional healers to evaluate the strong and weak aspects of indigenous knowledge base and to devise methods to test and improve knowledge. The study uses a combination of primary and secondary data to provide baseline knowledge on the concept of herbalism, endogenous knowledge of medicinal plants, pharmaceutical uses, marketing status and threats to sustainable development. It establishes an ethno-medicinal plant inventory consisting of a total of 30 plants with major ailments. In terms of life form, 70% were composed of trees, 6.6% shrubs, 10% climbers and 13.3% herbs. Some 70% of these plants are locally marketed and 66.6% have other non-medicinal uses. The paper identifies the stresses and vulnerabilities of the plants and the scope for western biomedical practitioners to assess this traditional knowledge, that is, methods of testing, refining and validating indigenous knowledge in traditional medicine in order to support the process of integration. It finally posits that since different paradigms of health and illness stand in the way of real integration, western biomedicine and African traditional medicine may remain apart as two parallel systems hence the need to locate and catalog these plants for the identification of their pharmaceutical properties. Key words: Herbalism, ethno-pharmacology, medicinal plants, indigenous knowledge, threats, sustainability Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/CE31F7933350 en Copyright © 2009 E. N. Ndenecho
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:628E8BA33400 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Essential oil from gum of Pistacia atlantica Desf.: Screening of antimicrobial activity B. R. Ghalem and B. Mohamed Full Length Research Paper The essential oil from the gum of Pistacia atlantica Desf. grown in Algeria was obtained by the hydrodistillation method, and its antimicrobial activities against the growth of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli andStreptococcus pyogenes were evaluated using three different methods; agar disc diffusion and dilution broth methods and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) which was subsequently, determined. The results of the study revealed thatessential oil resin of P. atlantica has antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and -negative bacteria which are resistant to commonly used antimicrobial agents,and they were considerably dependent on concentration. Key words: Gum of Pistacia atlantica Desf., essential oil, antimicrobial activities,Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/628E8BA33400 en Copyright © 2009 B. R. Ghalem and B. Mohamed
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:2DF436633428 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Antimicrobial activity evaluation of the oleoresin oil of Pistacia vera L. B. R. Ghalem and B. Mohamed Full Length Research Paper The hydrodistilled essential oils from Pistacia vera.L stem exudates have been tested against three bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus andProteus spp) using three methods: agar disc diffusion, determination of MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and in the liquid phase by Maruzella method.The results obtained showed that essential oil resin of P. vera L. has antimicrobial activity against gram negative bacteria (E. coli and Proteus spp.) as well as gram positive bacteria (S. aureus), when Proteus spp. was the greatest inhibited of all the strains tested. Key words: Essential oils, resin, Pistacia vera L., strains tested, antimicrobial activity. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/2DF436633428 en Copyright © 2009 B. R. Ghalem and B. Mohamed
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:DB06E2233449 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Eclipta prostrata L (Astearaceae) G. Arunachalam, N. Subramanian, G. P. Pazhani and V. Ravichandran Full Length Research Paper The methanol extract of leaves of Eclipta prostrata Linn was investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in albino Wistar rats. The methanolic extract administered by the oral route at a concentration of 100 and 200 mgkg-1 showed the significant dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin and egg white induced hind paw oedema in rats. Anti-inflammatory activity of the tested extract was comparable with that of the standard drug indomethacin (10 mgkg-1) and cyproheptadine (8 mgkg-1). The results lend support to the traditional use of E. prostrata in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Key words: Eclipta prostrate, methanolic extract, albino Wistar rats, anti-inflammatory activity. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/DB06E2233449 en Copyright © 2009 G. Arunachalam, N. Subramanian, G. P. Pazhani and V. Ravichandran
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:35C476B33535 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Antibacterial evaluation of selected Moroccan medicinal plants against Streptococcus pneumoniae K. Warda, M. Markouk, K. Bekkouche, M. Larhsini A. Abbad, A. Romane and M. Bouskraoui Full Length Research Paper In Morocco, most people particularly in rural areas use medicinal plants to treat diseases. In order to find new anti-pneumococcal extracts, an ethnobotanical survey has been conducted in different regions of Marrakech (south of Morocco). Four plants often cited by traditional practitioners (Marrubium vulgare, Thymus pallidus, Eryngium ilicifolium and Lavandula stoechas) are tested againstStreptococcus pneumoniae responsible for pharyngitis, rhinitis, otitis and sinusitis infections. Aqueous and methanol extracts have been prepared and tested on S. pneumoniae collected in four regions of Marrakesh. A significant activity has been observed with methanol extracts of three of the plants; M. vulgare, T. pallidus andL. stoechas (MIC= 256 g/ml). Key words: Streptococcus pneumoniae, antibacterial activity, medicinal plants, phytochemical screening Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/35C476B33535 en Copyright © 2009 K. Warda, M. Markouk, K. Bekkouche, M. Larhsini A. Abbad, A. Romane and M. Bouskraoui
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:8DA89C933631 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Ultra structural study of gentamicin and ofloxacin effect on testis tissue in rats: Light and transmission electron microscopy Arash Khaki, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, AmirAfshin Khaki, Fatemeh Fathiazad, Morteza Khaberi, Jafar Hossinchi, and Reza Sehizadeh Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study was to investigate the comparative effects of aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones on testis tissue in rats. Thirty male Wister rats were randomly divided into control (n=10) and experimental (n=20) groups.The experimental groups subdivided into two groups of ten. Each received 5 mg/kg (IP) Gentamicin and 72 mg/kg (IP) Ofloxacin daily for 14 days, respectively; however, the control group just received vehicle (IP). In the fourteenth day, rats were killed and testis tissues were also prepared for light and electron microscopic study. All animals exposed to drugs were seen as depletion of germ cells, germinal cells necrosis, especially in spermatogonia and Leydig cells had an abnormal fibroblast-like appearance, abnormal space between neighbor sertoli cells, mitochondria were lost cristae and vacuolated (none energized), lyzosome seen more in cytoplasm of sertoli cells, nucleus of moiled cell was done heterochromatin. Gentamicin and Ofloxacin have negative effects on testis architecture and germinal cells damages in rats. Therefore, it is recommended that usage of this drug have harmful side effects on male fertility. Key words: Gentamicin, ofloxacin, testis, rat. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/8DA89C933631 en Copyright © 2009 Arash Khaki, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, AmirAfshin Khaki, Fatemeh Fathiazad, Morteza Khaberi, Jafar Hossinchi, and Reza Sehizadeh
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:76F107A33659 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Clinical evaluation of 99mTc-2IT-INH in normal subjects and patients with tubercular lesions Namrata Singh, and Aseem Bhatnagar Full Length Research Paper 99mTc-INH of high labeling efficiency and stability has been developed using indirect method. In vitro studies and animal experiments indicated its advantages as a specific tuberculosis imaging agent. The objective of this study was to establish the efficacy of 99mTc-INH in humans with sensitive as well as resistant tuberculosis by conducting a phase I clinical trial. The biodistribution studies were done in normal subjects and phase I clinical trial was conducted in 20 patients. Whole body scan and spots were acquired at 1 and 4 h. Angiography, blood pool and 24 h spot images of the lesion bearing areas were also acquired. The biodistribution suggested absence of in vivo breakdown of radiotracer, with main excretory pathways being hepatobiliary and renal. The biodistribution of 99mTc-INH was similar to the unlabeled INH reported earlier. Out of 20 patients, 13 patients with sensitive tubercular lesions in the lungs or bone and 2 patients with resistant tubercular lesion in lungs concentrated the 99mTc-INH while in the other 5 cases with old healed lesions no concentration of 99mTc-INH was observed in scintigraphy. An unsuspected bony lesion was discovered in a patient with known pulmonary disease. Bone lesions were visualized within 1 h while pulmonary lesions accumulated 99mTc-INH very slowly with time and 24 h acquisition appeared essential for the diagnostic interpretation. No adverse reaction was observed in the patients post injection. 99mTc-INH developed is safe for human use and has potential to qualify as a specific tuberculosis imaging radiopharmaceutical. Key words: Isoniazid (INH), 99mTc, scintigraphy, clinical trials, radiopharmaceutical. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/76F107A33659 en Copyright © 2009 Namrata Singh, and Aseem Bhatnagar
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:EC1D64633669 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Pre-hospital and prescription use of antibacterial drugs at a secondary health centre in Ibadan, Nigeria F. A. Fehintola Full Length Research Paper The overall goal of this study is to reduce morbidity and mortality ascribable to bacterial infections by encouraging rational use of antibiotics. Antibiotics use prior to and prescriptions of antibiotics by the attending physicians were evaluated in a group of patients attending a secondary health facility. A quasi-exit interview was conducted using a structured questionnaire. The major presenting symptoms were sought from patients and/or parents and/or guardians; drug history was taken and doctorsrsquo; prescriptions were copied onto an already prepared format. All data were entered into EPI-INFO version 6 for analyses. The mean age of patients who were enrolled was 14 plusmn; 16.96 [range: 0.08-78 years] but males patients were statistically younger than females: respectively 9.94 plusmn; 15.48 years (0.08-78 years) and 18.43 plusmn;17.10 years (range: 0.08 ndash; 70 years); F: 122 Plt; 0.00. Pre-hospital use of antibiotics was documented in about a third of all the patients and cotrimoxazole was the most commonly used antibiotics accounting for 68.5% of antibiotics use in this group patients. Antibiotics were contained in more than half of all the prescriptions and erythromycin and cephalosporin were antibiotics of choice. This is contrary to the previous findings in the same area of study but different health facility. There is need for formulation of appropriate drug policy and establishment of continuing medical education for doctors as well as public enlightenment programmes on rational use of antibiotics. Key words: Antibiotics, Nigeria prescription, cotrimoxazole use, pre-hospital. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/EC1D64633669 en Copyright © 2009 F. A. Fehintola
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:CB7917633690 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Formulation and evaluation of novel mucoadhesive ketorolac tromethamine liquid suppository Esmail Mohamed Ramadan, Thanaa Mohamed Borg, and Maha Osama Elkayal Full Length Research Paper Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) loaded mucoadhesive liquid suppository was prepared as a site-specific mucoadhesive rectal dosage form. Poloxamer mixture formed of 21% P407 and 9% P188 were used as liquid suppository base. In-vitrorelease rate of KT from liquid suppository was studied and compared to that from conventional suppository. The safety of the prepared suppository on GIT was conducted, hepatotoxicity of KT after 5 days of administration of liquid suppository was evaluated histologically and biochemically. The levels of liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were used as the biochemical markers of liver damage. The results obtained revealed that the addition of KT increased the gelation temperature of poloxamer gel and reduced the gel strength and the mucoadhesive force. The study of the release rate of KT from liquid suppository was significantly higher than from conventional suppositories. Histological pictures of the GI tissues indicated no pathological damage after 5 days of rectal administration compared to oral administration. Also, it was revealed that no hepato-cellular damage occurred after administration of liquid suppository; unlike oral administration, which produced certain hepato-toxicity. The administration of KT liquid suppository did not significantly increase the basic levels of ALT and AST when compared to the control. On the other hand, the administration of KT oral solution in a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight/day for 5 days significantly increased serum ALT and AST levels, thus, KT liquid suppository in poloxamer gel was a convenient, safe and effective rectal dosage form for administration with lower hepato-toxic effect. Key words: Liquid suppository, poloxamer, ketorolac tromethamine, safety, histological study Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/CB7917633690 en Copyright © 2009 Esmail Mohamed Ramadan, Thanaa Mohamed Borg, and Maha Osama Elkayal
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:1A7EE1433704 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Production of phenolic compounds from Spirulina maxima microalgae and its protective effects in vitro toward hepatotoxicity model Hanaa H. Abd El-Baky, Farouk K. El Baz and Gamal S. El-Baroty Full Length Research Paper This study illustrates the process of enhancing phenolics synthesis in Spirulinamaxima grown in Zarroukrsquo;s medium supplemented with sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and or phenylalanine (L-PA), attaining highest production obtained in medium containing 3.77 g.L-1 NaNO3 and 100 mgL-1 L-PA. HPLC profile showed the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids predominantly with gallate, chlorogenate, cinnamate, pinostrobate and p-OH-benzoates. The protective action of Spirulina phenolic compounds (SPC) against CCl4-induced in vitro hepato-toxicity symptoms like microsomal lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl radical formation was studied. SPC exhibited antioxidant effects on DPPH radical scavenging with IC50 values ranging from 23.22 to 35.62 gmL-1 and inhibit CCl4 induced lipid peroxidation in hepato-microsoms model, in dose-depended manner. Their protective potential was comparable to that of standard phenolic antioxidants such as BHT, BHA and alpha; ndash;tocopherol (IC50 values ranged from 13.22 to 23.62 gmL-1). Key words: Spirulina maxima, antioxidant activity, carbon tetrachloride, hepatoprotective effects. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/1A7EE1433704 en Copyright © 2009 Hanaa H. Abd El-Baky, Farouk K. El Baz and Gamal S. El-Baroty
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:E20033033736 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Antisickling properties of the fermented mixture of Carica papaya Linn and Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Cyril-Olutayo Christianah Mojisola, Elujoba Adebolu Anthony and Durosinmi Muheez Alani Full Length Research Paper The antisickling properties of fermented mixture of dried unripe fruit pulp of Carica papaya and dried Sorghum bicolor leaves, mixed in equal proportions in distilled water, was carried out using sodium metabisulphite sickled red blood cells and the result presented. Equal weight of dried C. papaya fruit pulp and S. bicolor leaves were fermented together in distilled water at room temperature and the aqueous extract obtained and used for antisickling assays. The extract gotten from the materials incubated for 5 days indicated as SP5, was found to have the highest antisickling properties with 93% inhibitory and 84% reversal activities. The concentration of the day 5 extract was further varied. 0.2 ml was found to be the optimum volume of the test extracts. Key words: Antisickling, reversal, inhibitory, Carica papaya, Sorghum bicolor,sickle cell anaemia. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/E20033033736 en Copyright © 2009 Cyril-Olutayo Christianah Mojisola, Elujoba Adebolu Anthony and Durosinmi Muheez Alani
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:B40F95F33804 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Ethnobotany and phytomedicine of the upper Nyong valley forest in Cameroon T. Jiofack, l. Ayissi, C. Fokunang, N. Guedje and V. Kemeuze Full Length Research Paper This paper presents the results of an assessment of the ethnobotanical uses of some plants recorded in upper Nyong valley forest implemented by the Cameroon wildlife conservation society project (CWCS). Forestry transects in 6 localities, followed by socio-economic study were conducted in 250 local inhabitants. As results, medicinal information on 140 plants species belonging to 60 families were recorded. Local people commonly use plant parts which included leaves, bark, seed, whole plant, stem and flower to cure many diseases. According to these plants, 8% are use to treat malaria while 68% intervenes to cure several others diseases as described on. There is very high demand for medicinal plants due to prevailing economic recession, however their prices are high as a result of prevailing genetic erosion. This report highlighted the need for the improvement of effective management strategies focusing on community forestry programmes and aims to encourage local people participation in the conservation of this forest heritage to achieve a sustainable plant biodiversity and conservation for future posterity. Key words: Conservation, ethnobotanical uses, diseases, posterity, Nyong valley. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/B40F95F33804 en Copyright © 2009 T. Jiofack, l. Ayissi, C. Fokunang, N. Guedje and V. Kemeuze
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:918A77E33830 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
The modulatory effect of Cochlospermum tinctorium a rich aqueous root extract on liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats E. U. Etuk, B. M. Agaie, M. J. Ladan and I. Garba Full Length Research Paper The aqueous root extract of Cochlospermum tinctorium (CTR) was investigated for its phytochemical composition; acute oral toxicity and hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in rats. Phytochemical screening indicates the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, triterpenes, cyanogenic glycosides and volatile oils while steroids and anthraquinones were absent. Administration of 5000 mg/kg (body weight) of the extract orally did not produce any death in the rats within the observable period. The extract at 100 ndash; 300 mg/kg (body weight) significantly and dose dependently reduced the levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes levels in the CCl4 -treated rats. The values of serum albumin, serum total protein and reduced glutathione in the extract treated groups of rats remained comparatively higher than its values in the CCl4 - treated group. The pretreatment of the rats with the extract produced a significant (P lt; 0.05) reduction in blood clotting time. The histopathological findings were in support of the biochemical changes recorded during the study. These results suggest that aqueous root extract of CTR possess hepatoprotective effect against CCl4- induced liver damage in rats and the extract at 5000 mg/kg body weight appeared to be safe when administered orally. Key words: Cochlospermum tinctorium, carbon tetrachloride, transaminases, hepatoprotective. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/918A77E33830 en Copyright © 2009 E. U. Etuk, B. M. Agaie, M. J. Ladan and I. Garba
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:EF5590E33859 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Potential antioxidant phenolic metabolites from doum palm leaves Omayma A. Eldahshan, Nahla A. Ayoub, Abdel-Nasser B. Singab and Mohamed M. Al-Azizi Full Length Research Paper The antioxidant activity of the aqueous ethanolic extract of doum leaves, Hyphaene thebaica L. (Palmae) was studied. Data obtained showed that the extract can inhibit reactive oxygen species attack on salicylic acid (IC50 = 1602 g/ml) in a dose dependant manner using xanthine/hypoxanthine oxidase assay. Four major flavonoidal compounds were identified by LC/SEI as; Quercetin glucoside,Kaempferol rhamnoglucoside and Dimethyoxyquercetin rhamnoglucoside. While, further in-depth phytochemical investigation of this extract lead to the isolation and identification of fourteen compounds; their structures were elucidated based upon the interpretation of their spectral data (UV, 1H, 13C NMR and ESI/MS) as; 8-C-beta;-D-glucopyranosyl-5, 7, 4`-trihydroxyflavone (vitexin) 1, 6-C-beta;-D-glucopyranosyl-5, 7, 4`-trihydroxyflavone (iso-vitexin) 2, quercetin 3-O-beta;-4C1-D-glucopyranoside 3, gallic acid 4, quercetin 7-O-beta;-4C1-D-glucoside 5, luteolin 7-O-beta;-4C1-D-glucoside6, tricin 5 O-beta;-4C1-D-glucoside 7, 7, 3` dimethoxy quercetin 3-O-[6#39;#39;-O-alpha;-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-beta;-D-gluco-pyranoside (Rhamnazin 3-O-rutinoside) 8kaempferol-3-O-[6#39;#39;-O-alpha;-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-beta;-D-glucopyranoside (nicotiflorin) 9, apigenin 10, luteolin 11, tricin 12, quercetin 13 and kaempferol 14. Key words: Doum leaves, Hyphaene thebaica (Palmae), phenolics, hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/EF5590E33859 en Copyright © 2009 Omayma A. Eldahshan, Nahla A. Ayoub, Abdel-Nasser B. Singab and Mohamed M. Al-Azizi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:847C33333887 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Pilot study comparing technologies to test for substandard drugs in field settings Roger Bate, , Richard Tren, ,Kimberly Hess, Lorraine Mooney and Karen Porter Full Length Research Paper Researchers procured a range of antimalarial, antibiotic and antimycobacterial drugs from cities in six countries: Ghana, India, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda. Semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and disintegration tests, Raman spectrometry, and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry were used to measure the concentration of active ingredients and excipients (spectrometry only) to determine whether the tested samples were of good quality. Overall, 15% of tested samples failed TLC, 13% of tested samples failed disintegration tests, 41% of tested samples failed NIR spectrometry, and 47% of tested samples failed Raman spectrometry. The drug testing technologies were qualitatively compared in terms of time, cost, and reliability for identifying substandard drugs in the field. NIR and Raman spectrometry compared favorably to TLC in most respects except cost. If the indirect costs of TLCmdash;including requirements for a climate controlled location and trained laboratory staffmdash;are considered, the cost advantage of TLC may disappear in developing countries. Key words: Raman and near-infrared spectrometry, thin-layer chromatography, counterfeit and substandard drug production, regulation of drug quality. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/847C33333887 en Copyright © 2009 Roger Bate, , Richard Tren, ,Kimberly Hess, Lorraine Mooney and Karen Porter
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:AA123FE34034 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Anti-diabetic properties of Tinospora cordifolia stem extracts on streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats M. Rajalakshmi, J. Eliza, Cecilia Edel Priya, A. Nirmala and P. Daisy Full Length Research Paper The oral administration of various extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol) of Tinospora cordifolia stem (TCS) were found to have potent antidiabetic activity that reduces blood sugar level in streptozotocin-(STZ) induced diabetic rats. In this study, the chronic (100 days) antihyperglycemic effect of the extracts at a dose of 250 mg/kg b.w.p.d of TCS were investigated. Insulin was used as a reference drug at a dose of 3 I.U/kg.b.w.p.d. Fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1C), serum insulin, C-peptide and liver enzymes levels were evaluated in normal, diabetic and treated rats. Supplementation of methanol extract significantly reduces the fasting blood glucose level when compared to other 2 extracts. Moreover this supplementation significantly decreases the glycosylated hemoglobin level as compare to diabetic control (p lt; 0.001), reduced glucokinase and increased glucose-6-phoaphatase activity were reversed significantly by the treatment of TCS methanol extract in respect to diabetic group. In the TCS treated groups, the insulin and C-peptide levels were improved which shows the regeneration of beta;-cell which secretes insulin, histopathological studies of pancreas of TCS methanol extract treated groups substantiate the regenerating capacity of extract. Key words: Tinospora cordifolia, streptozotocin, hypoglycemic, glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1C), serum insulin, C-peptide, glucokinase and glucose-6-phoaphatase. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/AA123FE34034 en Copyright © 2009 M. Rajalakshmi, J. Eliza, Cecilia Edel Priya, A. Nirmala and P. Daisy
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:322EE3134098 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Saffron (Crocus sativus) increases gastric acid and pepsin secretions in rats: Role of nitric oxide (NO) Fatemeh Nabavizadeh, Ehsan Salimi, Zahra Sadroleslami, Seyed Morteza Karimianand Jalal Vahedian Full Length Research Paper This study was designed to investigate the effects of saffron extract on gastric acid and pepsin secretion. In this study wistar rats (n = 8) were divided into 3 groups, N-L-Nitro-L- arginine methyl ester (LNAME) + saffron and control groups. In the saffron group 100 mg/kg saffron extract was administered orally for 5 days. In the LNAME + saffron group, 40 mg/kg LNAME was injected intraperitoneally 1 h before using saffron extract. In the control group normal saline was given orally for 5 days before the experiment. Under general anesthesia with 50 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p) sodium thiopental, laparotomy was done and a cannula was inserted into the duodenum. Gastric content was collected by wash out technique. Basal and stimulated acid and pepsin secretions were measured using titration and the Anson method, respectively. In this study, pentagastrin (25 g/kg, i.p) was used as a stimulator. In the saffron group, basal and stimulated acid and pepsin secretions were significantly more than control group (p = 0.006, p = 0.008). But there were no significant differences in basal and stimulated acid and pepsin secretions in the LNAME + saffron and control groups. Saffron extract increased basal and stimulated gastric secretions. It seems that the saffron extract increases them via NO increment. Key words: Saffron, gastric acid secretion, pepsin secretion, NO. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/322EE3134098 en Copyright © 2009 Fatemeh Nabavizadeh, Ehsan Salimi, Zahra Sadroleslami, Seyed Morteza Karimianand Jalal Vahedian
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:14ACCF434129 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Bacteriological examination of some diluted disinfectants routinely used in the Specialist Hospital Yola, Nigeria El-Mahmood, A. M. and Doughari, J. H. Full Length Research Paper Five frequently used disinfectants in our hospital (Specialist Hospital, Yola, Nigeria) were analyzed for bacterial contamination and sensitivity to antibiotics. For each disinfectant, 20 different samples of stock and left-over diluted solutions were used for the analysis. All the stock undiluted samples were free from any bacterial growth. However, all the left-over disinfectant samples were found to have significant bacterial contamination, predominantly gram negative bacteria and the contamination level varied from 2.6 x 105 to 3.5 x 108 cfu/ml. Amongst the 5 different disinfectants analyzed, Purit was found to be highly contaminated (30%), followed by Dettol (25%), Parazone (20%), Z-germicide (15%), Septol (10%). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the isolates were significantly higher than that of the control sensitive strains, but were lower than the values quoted by the manufacturers of these disinfectants. All the isolates showed variable sensitivity to antibiotics with each disinfectant showing sensitivity to at least four antibiotics tested in this study. Key words: Disinfectant, bacterial contamination, left-over diluted samples, antibiotic susceptibility Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/14ACCF434129 en Copyright © 2009 El-Mahmood, A. M. and Doughari, J. H.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:FA9F00E34163 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
The protective effect of quercetin, green tea or malt extracts against experimentally-induced lung fibrosis in rats Nesrine S. El-Sayed and Sherine M. Rizk Full Length Research Paper The possible protective potentials of quercetin (50 mg/kg, p.o.), green tea extract (1 mg/kg, p.o.) malt extract (625 mg/kg, p.o.) and deprenyl (10 mg/kg, i.p.) against paraquat (PQ)-induced lung injury in rats were examined. PQ was administered twice a week (20 mg/kg, i.p.) with or without daily pretreatment with any of the chosen agents for 3 successive weeks. Changes in the enzymatic activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as reduced glutathione (GSH), protein thiols (Pr-SHs) and nitric oxide (NO) contents of the lungs were determined. In addition, estimation of lung content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) measured as malondialdehyde. Moreover, histopathological examination of the lung tissue was performed. On the biochemical level, PQ provoked remarkable lung damage noted by elevation of neutrophils MPO activity accompanied by decreased activities of cytosolic SOD and LDH, depletion of GSH and Pr-SHs contents as well as increased production of NO and TBARS. Furthermore, histopathological examination revealed marked edema, subpleural hemorrhage, acute inflammation and lymphocytic infiltration. Treatment significantly protected against most of PQ-induced lung biochemical and histopathological changes. It could be concluded that quercetin, green tea, malt extract and deprenyl offered remarkable protection against PQ-induced lung injury. Key words: Paraquat, quercetin, green tea, malt, deprenyl, lung, rats. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/FA9F00E34163 en Copyright © 2009 Nesrine S. El-Sayed and Sherine M. Rizk
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:521BA1234182 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Gentamicin and erythromycin modify post prandial glucose excursion in New Zealand rabbits Bello, Shaibu Oricha and Chika, Aminu Full Length Research Paper The influence of gentamicin and erythromycin on glucose excursion after oral glucose loads was evaluated in twelve New Zealand rabbits, weighting between 1278 and 1861 g. The rabbits were randomized into three equal groups and were given either 5 mg/kg of Gentamicin i.m., 50 mg/kg of Erythromycin per oral or 0.9% Saline. One hour later, all the rabbits were given 2.5 g/kg of glucose per oral in 5 mls of 0.9% saline. Blood glucose levels were determined just before oral glucose loads, then every 1 h for 4 h, using commercial glucometer. Gentamicin pre-treatment significantly increased the peak glucose level (1 h) and significantly reduced the half-life of the rise in glucose level compared to controls. On the other hand, erythromycin pre-treatment caused significant increase in the glucose levels at 3 and 4 h while the peak glucose level (1 h) was not significantly different. The perturbation of glycemic response to glucose load revealed by both drugs may be clinically important in persons undergoing screening for glycemia and patients under care. Key words: Gentamicin, erythromycin, glucose, insulin, rabbits, kinetics, prandial. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/521BA1234182 en Copyright © 2009 Bello, Shaibu Oricha and Chika, Aminu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:A25B8F934267 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Effect of liquid disinfectant Morigad® on the growth patterns of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans El-Mahmood, A. M. and Doughari, J. H. Full Length Research Paper The antimicrobial properties of various use dilutions of Morigadreg; against some test and control strains of nosocomial infectious agents namely Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were investigated by measurement of viability of the organisms using turbidometric studies and various diluents (sterile tap water (STW), sterile deionized water (SDW) and 10% rabbit serum) and cultivation on solid media. Results showed that loss of viability was faster in SDW, followed by STW, then 10% rabbit serum. A higher percentage of the resistant (control) strains S1, E1 and C1 survived compared to the susceptible (test) strains S2, E2 and C2. The viability of the cells in the disinfectant was also concentration dependent with the death rates (Kmin-1) higher in SDW than in STW and E. coli more susceptible followed by S. aureus and C. albicans. Measurement of microbial resistance using decimal reduction time (DRT) against the lethal effects of the disinfectant shows that the slopes were lower for the test organisms and higher for the control organisms, while E. coli (E1 and E2) had higher DRT, followed by S. aureus (S1 and S2) and then C. albicans (C1 and C2). Result also showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values from the different diluents used were highest for serum, followed by STW, while the lowest values were obtained from SDW. For the organisms investigated, E. coli had the highest MIC (0.042) and MBC (0.046) followed by S. aureus (MIC 0.034, MBC 0.038), while C. albicans demonstrated the lowest MIC (0.032) and MBC (0.034) values. Key words: Antimicrobial resistance, disinfectant, Morigadreg;, MIC, MBC, nosocomial infection, viability, turbidometry. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/A25B8F934267 en Copyright © 2009 El-Mahmood, A. M. and Doughari, J. H.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:0A788E034296 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of crude extracts from the root, stem bark, and leaves of Terminalia glaucescens Adebayo, E. A. and Ishola, O. R. Full Length Research Paper The root, stem-bark and leaves of Terminalia glaucescens were investigated for activity against some pathogenic organisms. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and phlobatannins (mostly in root and stem-bark). The results of in-vitro antimicrobial screening of the crude methanol extract exhibited a wide range of activity on Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans. The crude leaf extracts inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhi and C. albicans at a concentration of 50, 80, 40 and 60 mg/ml respectively, while the stem-bark extract had minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 40 mg/ml on K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, S. typhi and 30 mg/ml on C. albicans. The extract from the root inhibited the growth of E. coli at a concentration of 10 mg/ml while K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis and C. albicans were inhibited at a concentration of 60 mg/ml. The findings indicated that the extracts from T. glaucescens, contained bioactive components that have antimicrobial properties. Key word: Terminalia glaucescens, phytochemical, antimicrobial agents, crude extract, minimum inhibitory concentration. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/0A788E034296 en Copyright © 2009 Adebayo, E. A. and Ishola, O. R.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:562F4FA34318 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Ethnophytotherapeutic information for the treatment of high blood pressure among the people of Ilugun, Ilugun area of Ogun State, south-west Nigeria Lawal, I. O., Uzokwe, N. E., Ladipo, D. O. , Asinwa, I. O. and Igboanugo, A. B. I. Full Length Research Paper Ethnophytotherapeutic information includes the contribution of indigenous knowledge using plants to provide native remedies for varieties of ailment. In African, various species of plants are used in the traditional medicine for the cure of chronic cardio-vascular diseases, where hypertension is one of them. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain enthnomedical information on the treatment of high blood pressure in the Yoruba speaking communities of Ilugun area of Ogun State. Nine species: (Ficus exasperata, Heliotropium indicum,Afromomum melegueta, Justicia schimperi, Persea americana, Talinium triangulare, Afraegle paniculatum, Newboldia laevis and Chenopodium ambrosioides) from different families were identified as being used for curing high blood pressure. Plants are documented for further research on chemical composition and active ingredients contained in these plant parts. Key words: Ethnophytotherapy, herbal treatment, high blood pressure, Ilugun people, traditional medicines. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/562F4FA34318 en Copyright © 2009 Lawal, I. O., Uzokwe, N. E., Ladipo, D. O. , Asinwa, I. O. and Igboanugo, A. B. I.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:F12999C34347 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
PAMAM-drug complex for delivering anticancer drug across blood-brain barrier in-vitro and in-vivo Daming Cui, Qiwu Xu, Shixin Gu, Jinlong Shi and Xiaoming Che Full Length Research Paper The delivery of anticancer drugs to the brain is profoundly limited by blood-brain barrier (BBB)The purpose of this work is to develop a new carrier for doxorubicin to overcome the BBB. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a novel nanoscopic high-branching polymer, was exploited as an efficient carrier of doxorubicin. The MTT assay showed that PAMAM (generation 3) had little cytotoxicity in brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs). The results of fluorescence intensity assay and fluorescent microscopy showed that the cellular uptake of PAMAM/doxorubicin complex was much higher than that of free doxorubicin and exhibited concentration and time dependent manners. The action of PAMAM in increasing the cellular uptake of doxorubicin was stronger than that of verapamil, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor. In body distribution study, the brain uptake of doxorubicin in PAMAM/doxorubicin group increased dramatically (about 6-fold) compared to that in free doxorubicin group. These data suggest that the novel PAMAM/drug complex is a simple but efficient system, which showed great capability to cross the BBB. PAMAM dendrimer could be used as an effective carrier to deliver anticancer drugs to the brain. Key words: PAMAM, doxorubicin, blood-brain barrier, p-glycoprotein. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/F12999C34347 en Copyright © 2009 Daming Cui, Qiwu Xu, Shixin Gu, Jinlong Shi and Xiaoming Che
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:9F36E8434373 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Effect induced by hemisuccinate of pregnenolone on perfusion pressure and vascular resistance in isolated rat heart L. Figueroa-Valverde, F. Diacute;az-Cedillo, E. Diaz-Ku and A. Camacho-Luis Full Length Research Paper Experimental studies suggest that pregnenolone can regulate blood pressure. Nevertheless, there is scarce information about the effects of pregnenolone and its derivatives at cardiovascular level. In addition, to date the cellular site and mechanism of action of pregnenolone at cardiovascular level is also unclear. In order, to clarify on those phenomena, we evaluated the effects of pregnenolone and hemisuccinate of pregnenolone on perfusion pressure in isolated rat heart using Langendorff flow model. Our results demonstrated that pregnenolone-derivative (10-9 M) significantly increase the perfusion pressure (p = 0.005) and vascular resistance (p = 0.006) in isolated heart. The activity exerted by hemisuccinate of pregnenolone on perfusion pressure (10-9 M to 10-4 M) was blocked in presence of indomethacin (10-6 M) and montelukast (10-6 M). These data suggest that activity induced by hemisuccinate of pregnenolone on perfusion pressure and vascular resistance is dependent upon its chemical structure. This phenomenon possibly involves the thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthesis and secretion. Key words: Hemisuccinate of pregnenolone, Langendorff, perfusion pressure. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/9F36E8434373 en Copyright © 2009 L. Figueroa-Valverde, F. Diacute;az-Cedillo, E. Diaz-Ku and A. Camacho-Luis
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:FE811EB34401 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect of silymarin in experimental animal model of chronic inflammation Kasim Mahmood Juma#;a, Zheen Aorahman Ahmed , Intesar Tariq Numanand Saad Abdul Rehman Hussain Full Length Research Paper Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) that has anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and anticarcinogenic effects. It has been used medicinally to treat liver disorders including acute and chronic viral hepatitis, toxin/drug induced hepatitis and alcoholic liver disease. The efficacy and dose-response effect of silymarin (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) were assessed against negative and positive control using formalin-induced paw edema in rats as a model of chronic inflammation. In this model, all doses of silymarin were given intraperitonealy (IP) 30 min before induction of inflammation and continued for 7 consecutive days. Paw edema was measured before and 6 days after induction of inflammation using vernier caliper method and balance method. Silymarin in 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly lowered paw edema (P lt; 0.05) in both methods and found to be comparable with that produced by the reference drug dexamethazone and significantly different from that produced by acetyl salicylic acid and silymarin 125 mg/kg (P lt; 0.05). Therefore, silymarin exerts anti-inflammatory activity in rat model of chronic inflammation which was significantly increased as the dose increased up to 500 mg/kg. Key words: Silymarin, chronic inflammation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/FE811EB34401 en Copyright © 2009 Kasim Mahmood Juma#;a, Zheen Aorahman Ahmed , Intesar Tariq Numanand Saad Abdul Rehman Hussain
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:9B99C9134451 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Study of Nigella sativa oil in the management of wheeze associated lower respiratory tract illness in children Jameel Ahmad, Rahat Ali Khan and M. Ashraf Malik Full Length Research Paper Nigella sativa seeds and its oil had been widely used in traditional medicine (particularly in Unani Medicine) for a wide variety of illnesses including bronchial asthma in adults. The adjuvant effect of N. sativa oil in patients of bronchial asthma has already been reported but, no work had yet been done in very common disease of children called wheeze associated lower respiratory tract illness (wheeze associated LRTI). So In the present study 84 patients of wheeze associated LRTI were investigated for any beneficial role of N. sativa oil in this condition. Control group (41) and test group (43), were administered with Standard treatment and N. sativa oil along with Standard treatment in dose of 0.1 ml/kg/day, respectively. Patients were assessed on 0 (Zero) day and reassessed on 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day of treatment by using Pulmonary Index (PI) and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). The PI was reduced more in test group as compared to control group in all days of treatment and difference was statistically significant on 3rd day (P lt; 0.05). The inter-group comparison on 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day also showed significant reduction in PI of test group compared to control group (Plt;0.001).PEFR showed higher improvement in test group compared to control group in all days of treatment, although, here the difference was statistically insignificant (P gt; 0.05). In inter-group comparison, the improvement in PEFR was observed only till 7th day of treatment in the control group but it was unto 14th day of treatment in the test group (Plt;0.0001). Key words: Nigella sativa oil, wheeze, pulmonary index, PEFR. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/9B99C9134451 en Copyright © 2009 Jameel Ahmad, Rahat Ali Khan and M. Ashraf Malik
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:018666934503 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Anti-ulcerogenic properties of methanolic root extract of Piliostigma reticulatum (DC) Hoechst (Syn. Bauhinia reticulate DC) -Leguminosae in rats Salawu, O. A., Tijani, A. Y., Obidike, I. C., Rafindadi, H. A. and Emeje, M. Full Length Research Paper Piliostigma reticulatum (DC) Hoechst (Syn. Bauhinia reticulate DC) -Leguminosae is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine against peptic ulcer. Effects of its methanolic root extract on basal gastric acid secretion and on ethanol and piroxicam-induced ulceration in rats were evaluated in this study. The methanolic extract evoked a dose-dependent decrease in gastric secretion and significantly (P lt; 0.05) reduced ulcer index induced by ethanol (27.3 - 63.60%) and piroxicam (6.25 -68.75%). Histopathological studies of rat stomach tissues from control and extract-treated groups at 100 mg/kg b.w extract showed inflammation characterized by eosinophil infiltration, while the extract treated groups at 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w showed no obvious lesions and this is comparable to misoprostol (400 mg/kg b.w) treated group. These findings indicate the cytoprotective effects of the extract against ulceration and thus justify the folkloric uses of the plant in the symptomatic management of peptic ulcer. Key words: Piliostigma reticulatum, leguminoseae, anti-ulcer activity, cytoprotective. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/018666934503 en Copyright © 2009 Salawu, O. A., Tijani, A. Y., Obidike, I. C., Rafindadi, H. A. and Emeje, M.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:6D9AF1C34528 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Some basic requirements for preparing an antisickling herbal medicine -NIPRISAN® Ameh, S. J., Obodozie, O. O., Afolabi, E. K., Oyedele, E. O., Ache, T. A., Onanuga, C. E., Ibe, M. C. and Inyang, U. S. Full Length Research Paper NIPRISANreg;, an antisickling phytomedicine for the management of sickle cell crises, was developed at the National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) from a traditional medicine used among the Yoruba people of Nigeria, for the treatment of ldquo;abikurdquo; or ldquo;ogbanjerdquo; ndash; a condition characterized by high frequency of ill health, painful crises, jaundice and childhood death. The product is prepared from the seeds of Piper guineense; flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllata; stem parts of Pterocarpus osun; leaf stalk of Sorghum bicolor; and trona - a solid mineral. The five starting materials are normally sourced from their natural habitats, and procured as such, from local food stalls or herbal medicine dealers. This paper describes and quantifies as per WHO (1998) and BP (2004), the most striking physicochemical characteristics of these materials; and demonstrates that all, except E. caryophyllata, exist in more than one variety, differing significantly in either loss on drying alone, or in both total ash and water extractable matter. The results, including the occasional presence of lead in the trona samples, are discussed in the context of production according to good manufacturing practice (GMP). Key words: NIPRISANreg;, starting materials, characteristics, antisickling, herbal medicine, chemical-manufacturing-control. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/6D9AF1C34528 en Copyright © 2009 Ameh, S. J., Obodozie, O. O., Afolabi, E. K., Oyedele, E. O., Ache, T. A., Onanuga, C. E., Ibe, M. C. and Inyang, U. S.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:BDD434234559 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Isolation, characterization and compaction properties of Afzelia africana gum exudates in hydrochlorothiazide tablet formulations Emeje Martins, Ihimekpen Omoyeme, Isimi Christiana, Sabinus Ofoefule and Kunle Olobayo Full Length Research Paper Afzelia gum was obtained from the bark exudates of Afzelia africana plant, characterized and evaluated for its compaction properties in hydrochlorothiazide tablet formulations. Compressional properties of the formulations were analyzed using density measurements and the Heckel equation as assessment parameter. Formulations containing Afzelia gum as a binder show a slower onset and lower extent of plastic deformation than those containing the 2 standard binders, tragacanth and gelatin. While retative density Db values for formulations containing tragacanth and gelatin generally increased with increased concentration up to 3% w/w, those containing Afzelia gum were at variant with the binder concentrations. Formulations containing Afzelia gum were also found to exhibit higher degree of packing than those containing tragacanth and gelatin. Yield values for formulations containing Afzelia gum was also found to be at variant with the binder concentration. The values decreased between 1 and 3% w/w and increased at 4% before decreasing again at 5% w/w. Afzelia gum improved the fluidity of hydrochlorothiazide granulation better than tragacanth and gelatin. This study suggests that Afzelia gum has good physicochemical properties that would make it a useful binder in hydrochlorothiazide tablet formulations. Key words: Afzelia gum, tragacanth, gelatin, hydrochlorothiazide, Heckel equation, compaction characteristics. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/BDD434234559 en Copyright © 2009 Emeje Martins, Ihimekpen Omoyeme, Isimi Christiana, Sabinus Ofoefule and Kunle Olobayo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:2AE5E1134595 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
The anti-inflammatory potential, heamatological and histological changes induced in rats due to the administration of methanolic extracts of Ficus thonningii leaves Coker M. E., Emikpe B. O., Adeniyi B. A. and Budale B. A. Full Length Research Paper This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential,heamatological and histological changes induced in rats due to the administration of methanolic extracts of Ficus thonningii leaves. Fifteen wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of 5 rats per group to measure the anti-inflammatory activity using the inhibition of carageenan-induced oedema. For the acute oral toxicity test, twenty mice divided into 4 groups of 5 animals each were used. The doses of the extract given were 0.2, 0.4, and 1.0 g/kg body weight while the control group was given an equivalent volume of 2.5% v/v propylene glycol. The blood samples were collected for haematology before, mid-way and after 21 days. The body weightswere also noted. Student ldquo;trdquo;-test was used to determine the degree of significance between the treatment groups. The liver, kidney, spleen, ovary, uteri and lungs the animals were examined for histopathological changes. The extract of F. thonningiihas anti-inflammatory properties that are comparable to aspirin and are significant(Plt;0.05) to Tween 80. There were no significant haematological and visible tissue pathological changes in the treated groups. F. thonningii appeared to be safe andcan be recommended as a good source of feed for animals during dry season. Key words: anti-inflammatory, Ficus thonningii, heamatological and histological changes, rats. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/2AE5E1134595 en Copyright © 2009 Coker M. E., Emikpe B. O., Adeniyi B. A. and Budale B. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:431EC1734679 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Isolation, characterization and antibacterial activity of alkaloid from Datura metel Linn leaves Donatus Ebere Okwu and Ephraim Chintua Igara Full Length Research Paper A new antibacterial agent 51,71 dimethyl 61ndash; hydroxy 31, phenyl 3  - amine  - yne sitosterol 1 has been isolated from Datura metel leaves. The structure of 1 was established using 13C, 1H NMR, IR and MS spectroscopic data. Compound 1 displayed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabis, Solmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilisand Klebsiella pneumonia but could not inhibit Escherichia coli. This result supported the use of Datura metel in phytomedicine for the treatment of asthma, cough, burns and healing of wounds in Nigeria. Key words: Datura metel, sterol alkaloid, antibacterial agent, phytomedicine. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/431EC1734679 en Copyright © 2009 Donatus Ebere Okwu and Ephraim Chintua Igara
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:B47C31734719 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Central nervous system depressant and analgesic activity of Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) parker leaf extract in mice Md. Mokarram Hossain, Israt Jahan Biva, Rumana Jahangir and Md. Mynol Islam Vhuiyan Full Length Research Paper In the present study, we have investigated the possible CNS (Central Nervous System) depressant and analgesic action of the methanol extract ofAphanamixis polystachya leaf. Its CNS depressant activity was evaluated by using thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time, hole cross and open field tests. The analgesic activity was also investigated for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions using hot plate and tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice respectively. The extract decreased the motor activity and exploratory behavior of mice in hole cross and open field test (p lt; 0.001). Moreover, the extract significantly maximized the duration of sleeping time when administered with thiopental sodium (p lt; 0.001). The extract, at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg, produced a significant (p lt; 0.05, p lt; 0.001) increase in pain threshold both in hotplate and tail immersion methods in a dose dependent manner. The results were comparable to the reference standard Nalbuphine. In acetic acid-induced writhing test, the extract (500 mg/kg) produced a maximum of 75.9% inhibition (p lt; 0.001) of writhing reaction compared to the reference drug Diclofenac-Na (10 mg/kg) (78.1%). These results suggest that the extract possesses strong CNS depressant and analgesic activity in mice. Key words: Aphanamixis polystachya, CNS depressant activity, analgesic activity. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/B47C31734719 en Copyright © 2009 Md. Mokarram Hossain, Israt Jahan Biva, Rumana Jahangir and Md. Mynol Islam Vhuiyan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:28E7B7C34856 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Bioefficacies of Cassia fistula: An Indian labrum M. Moshahid A. Rizvi, , Irshad M. Gamal El Hassadi, Salaem Ben Younis Review Cassia fistula Linn, a semi-wild Indian labrum has been used in the treatment of various diseases in different parts of the world since time immemorial. In Indian literature there has been multiple descriptions regarding its usefulness in the treatment of various diseases. Some authors have reported its antibacterial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and hypoglycemic potentials. Many other authors have indicated towards the free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential of C. fistula both in vitro as well as in vivo. Despite this valuable available information on this plant there appears a vast virgin area of research on this plant to find out the real natural treasure. The antioxidant and hepatoprotective nature of Cassia fistulaseems to depend on the total phenolic, proanthocyanidin and flavanoid contents of this labrum. This paper reviews all the experimental studies so far performed on C. fistula. This is likely to have important implications on designing any future research on this plant for their potential utility in herbal drug system or in nutritional supplements. Key words: Cassia fistula Linn, antibacterial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/28E7B7C34856 en Copyright © 2009 M. Moshahid A. Rizvi, , Irshad M. Gamal El Hassadi, Salaem Ben Younis
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:FBB773F34895 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
In vitro antibacterial activities of crude extracts of the leaves of Helichrysum longifolium in combination with selected antibiotics O. A. Aiyegoro, A. J. Afolayan and A. I. Okoh Full Length Research Paper This study has been done to evaluate the interactions between acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Helichrysum longifolium in combination with six first-line antibiotics comprising of Penicillin G sodium, Amoxicillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline, Erythromycin and Ciprofloxacin using both the time-kill and the chequerboard methods and against a panel of bacterial isolates comprised of referenced, clinical and environmental strains. The time-kill method revealed the highest bactericidal activity exemplified by a 6.7 Log10 reduction in cell density against Salmonella spp. when the extract and Penicillin G are combined at frac12; times; MIC. Synergistic response constituted about 65%, while indifference and antagonism constituted about 28.33% and 6.67% in the time kill assay, respectively. The chequerboard method also revealed that the extracts improved bactericidal effects of the antibiotics. About 61.67% of all the interactions were synergistic, while indifference interactions constituted about 26.67% and antagonistic interactions was observed in approximately 11.66%. These suggest that the crude extracts of the leaves of H. longifolium could be potential source of broad spectrum antibiotics resistance modifying compounds. Key words: Synergism, antibiotics, extracts, chequerboard, time-kill. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/FBB773F34895 en Copyright © 2009 O. A. Aiyegoro, A. J. Afolayan and A. I. Okoh
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:7893FFB34929 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Anti-athletic fatigue activity of saponins (Ginsenosides) from American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) Keji Tang, Ruixin Nie, Longjun Jing, , Quansheng Chen Full Length Research Paper To study the anti-athletic fatigue effects of saponins from American ginseng (SAG), male Kunming mice were randomized into 4 groups equally based on body weight after one week adoption, and they are: C group (control mice given distilled water for 14 days), LS group (mice treated SAG with 50 mg/kg for 14 days), MS group (mice treated SAG with 100 mg/kg for 14 days) and HS group (mice treated SAG with 200 mg/kg for 14 days). The C group was given distilled water and LS, MS; HS groups were given various doses of SAG (50, 100, 200mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. The levels of lactate, serum urea nitrogen, liver glycogen, muscle glycogen, the swimming endurance time and body weight were determined before and after swimming test. Different doses of SAG significantly lengthened the swimming endurance time and increased the levels of liver glycogen and muscle glycogen, while reducing the levels of lactate significantly compared with control group, especially in the MS group. Our data demonstrated SAG has noticeable anti-athletic fatigue effect on mice. These effects were dose-dependent, and the strongest effect on most biomarkers was seen with 100 mg/kg dose. Key words: Saponins, American ginseng, anti-athletic fatigue activity. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/7893FFB34929 en Copyright © 2009 Keji Tang, Ruixin Nie, Longjun Jing, , Quansheng Chen
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:F45D35934971 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Perceptions of oncologists at two state hospitals in Gauteng regarding the ototoxic effects of cancer chemotherapy: A pilot study Victor de Andrade, Katijah Khoza-Shangase and Fatima Hajat Full Length Research Paper This project sought to obtain information regarding the perceptions of oncologists with regards to the ototoxic effects of cancer chemotherapy. Ten oncologists from 2 public hospitals in Gauteng participated in this project. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires completed by participants. Using a qualitative and quantitative paradigm, data analysis utilized content analysis and descriptive statistics. Only 50% of the participants reported referring patients for audiological management during the chemotherapeutic process. None of the respondents reported having protocols in place for ototoxicity monitoring. Therefore, it appears as though ototoxicity and the role of the audiologist are not fully realized within the sample in the current study. Furthermore, it would seem as though oncologists need to be aware of ototoxicity; the role of the audiologist; and the need to include an audiologist in the oncology team. Results from the current study highlight the need for establishment and implementation of protocols and ototoxicity monitoring programmes in government hospitals in Gauteng. Key words: South Africa, cancer, chemotherapy, ototoxicity, sensory neural hearing loss. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/F45D35934971 en Copyright © 2009 Victor de Andrade, Katijah Khoza-Shangase and Fatima Hajat
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPP:995169F35002 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPP AJPP:2009
Anticonvulsant activity of Rauvolfia Vomitoria (Afzel) Amole Olufemi Olatokunboh, Yemitan Omoniyi Kayode and Oshikoya Kazeem Adeola Full Length Research Paper The anticonvulsant activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Rauvolfia vomitoria(Afzel) was investigated by testing the effects of the extract on strychnine-, picrotoxin and pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in mice. Experiments were carried out on male albino mice and the animals were randomly allotted to the different control and test groups. The extract, at a dose of 200 mg/kg, prolonged the onset of seizures from strychnine, picrotoxin and pentylenetetrazole in the animals. Acute toxicity testing produced a medial lethal dose of 17.5 g/kg. Phytochemical screening of the plant reveals the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and reducing sugars. The results indicate a possible efficacy potential of the aqueous leaf extract of R. vomitoria in convulsions. Key words: Rauvolfia vomitoria, convulsion, phytochemical, acute toxicity. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPP/article-abstract/995169F35002 en Copyright © 2009 Amole Olufemi Olatokunboh, Yemitan Omoniyi Kayode and Oshikoya Kazeem Adeola
2020-02-23T19:47:48Z|100|oai_dc|ajpp