2021-12-07T03:42:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:7A494D62306 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2007
Assessment of status and biomass of Swertia angustifolia : a high value Himalayan medicinal plant Arvind Bhatt, Anil K Bisht, R. S. Rawal and Uppeandra Dhar Full Length Research Paper Studies on population assessment and biomass variation in selected populations of Swertia angustifolia were undertaken in west Himalaya. Low population density across the surveyed populations indicates poor availability of the species in study area. Species showed random distribution and higher frequency of occurrence in most of the population, which is the indicator of better potential of the species in these sites. Density was positively correlated with biomass. The biomass showed peak value in senescence phase and thus has positive consequences of harvesting for the survival of the species. Key words: Endangered, conservation, Himalaya, Swertia angustifolia, medicinal plant. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/7A494D62306 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000032 en Copyright © 2007 Arvind Bhatt, Anil K Bisht, R. S. Rawal and Uppeandra Dhar
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:4AC9C192333 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2007
Allozyme diversity in South Western Ghats populations of Terminalia paniculata Roth.(Combretaceae) Thangaraja A. and Ganesan V. Full Length Research Paper Terminalia paniculata Roth. (Combretaceae) is a tropical tree with a large natural distribution in Western Ghats. The tree is extensively utilized in pharmaceutical, timber tannin, leather and silk industries. However, the species has been overexploited and information on its existing gene pool is currently lacking. The present work was therefore carried out using allozyme markers to assess the genetic diversity within and between populations in order to suggest conservation and management strategies. Six enzyme systems generated 15 loci from four populations which were used to estimate allele frequency, percentage of polymorphic loci, observed heterozygosity (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) and Shannon information index. In the Sasthakovil populations 12 rare alleles, two private alleles (AAT-1C and PGM -2C), and a high level of polymorphism (86.66%) were observed. The levels of heterozygosity observed in all populations were lower than expected from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium values, except Sasthakovil populations. As a priority, the population at Sasthakovil may be targeted for conservation. This would ensure the conservation of a relatively rich proportion of genetic diversity and presence of private allele representative of that existing in other populations. Key words: Allozyme, genetic variation, allele frequency, heterozygosity, homozygosity. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/4AC9C192333 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000012 en Copyright © 2007 Thangaraja A. and Ganesan V.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:35D8ADC2300 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Effect of pre-sowing, temperature and light on the seed germination of Arnebia benthamii (Wall. ex G. Don): An endangered medicinal plant of Central Himalaya, India L.S. Kandari, K.S. Rao, R.K. Maikhuri and Kusum Chauhan Full Length Research Paper Arnebia benthamii is under intensive utilization because of its wide use as medicinal and aromatic plant resource. Self-propagation of this species is by both seed and vegetative propagation. In an effort to improve and promote the cultivation of this over-exploited medicinal herb, the effect of temperature and light on the germination of seeds was investigated with various presowing treatments of water and GA3. Germination was found to be temperature and light dependent. Though the seed viability was 82% as determined by tetrazolium staining, maximum germination of 100% was obtained only when the seed was soaked in 100 ppm GA3 solution for 24 h and incubated for germination at 25oC constant temperatures in 12 h light conditions. Barring this treatment all other presowing treatments, incubation temperatures and photoperiod treatments showed less germination. Mean germination time (MGT) was lowest at 25oC both in light and continuous dark conditions. The present study indicates that constant 20oC temperature incubation and light have a positive relationship with seed germination of the species even under no pretreatments. All the treatments at 25oC and presoaking in 100 ppm GA3 and incubation at 15 and 25oC seems to be effective treatments and could be easily adopted by the potential farmers for economic cultivation of this species. Key words: Arnebia benthamii, seed germination, pre-soaking treatments, Himalaya, medicinal, aromatic plants. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/35D8ADC2300 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000086 en Copyright © 2008 L.S. Kandari, K.S. Rao, R.K. Maikhuri and Kusum Chauhan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:58C8F952283 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Molecular analysis of dicot-monocot split and relationship among major angiosperm groups Mir Abid Hussain, Vijeshver Verma and Malik Zanul Abdin Full Length Research Paper The relationship among the major angiosperm groups are modeled based on cladistic analyses primarily using RAPD technique. Phylogenetic trees of relationship derived from molecular data confirm dicots as the ancestral class of monocots, there seems no dicot-monocot split. Dicots form an ancestral class of magnoliids and the monocot lineage was derived from one of the basal magnoliids, since monocots share several synapomorphies dicots do not contain all the descendants of their common ancestor. Key words: RAPD (Random amplified polymorphic DNA), rRNA (Ribosomal RNA), rbcL (Ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase gene). Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/58C8F952283 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000167 en Copyright © 2008 Mir Abid Hussain, Vijeshver Verma and Malik Zanul Abdin
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:403F5CE2360 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Epiphytic organisms on the pneumatophores of the mangrove Avicennia marina: occurrence and possible function Y. Naidoo, T. D. Steinke, F. D. Mann, A. Bhatt and S. Gairola Full Length Research Paper The nature of the epiphytism of red algae and also the occurrence and possible role of other epiphytic micro-organisms within the superficial tissues of pneumatophores of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed that bacteria and holdfasts of red algae were present in damaged tissue of the periderm. Culture studies indicated that some bacteria were diazotrophic. A mutualistic relationship between epiphytes and mangrove pneumatophores was postulated. Keywords: Algae, bacteria, epiphytism, mangrove, Avicennia marina. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/403F5CE2360 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000101 en Copyright © 2008 Y. Naidoo, T. D. Steinke, F. D. Mann, A. Bhatt and S. Gairola
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:66A6EE92391 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Variation in the essential oil composition of Artemisia annua L. of different growth stages cultivated in Iran Verdian-rizi Mohammadreza Short Communication Variation in the quantity and quality of the essential oil of Artemisia annua L.(Asteraceae) at different developmental growth stages including pre-flowering, flowering and post-flowering, are reported. The oils were obtained by hydro distillation of the air-dried samples. The yields of oils (w/w %) in different stages were in the order of: pre-flowering (0.97%), flowering (1.23%) and flowering (0.87%). The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 32, 35 and 33 constituents were identified and quantified in the oil of pre-flowering, flowering and post-flowering plants, representing 97.67, 92 and 92.4% of the oils, respectively. Camphor, 1,8-cineole, camphene, spathunelol, alpha;ndash;pinene and artemisia ketone were the main compounds in all samples. Monoterpenes were the main group of compounds in pre-flowering (69.96%), flowering (72.44%) and post flowering (70.96%) stages. Key words: Artemisia annua L., essential oil, GC/MS, variation. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/66A6EE92391 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000256 en Copyright © 2008 Verdian-rizi Mohammadreza
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:1BD39CD2429 2008-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Performance of green maize and soil nutrient changes with fortified cow dung O. T. Ayoola and E. A Makinde Full Length Research Paper Organic manures are known to have the ability of supplying both the required macro and micro plant nutrients but in low quantities and usually not early enough for quick utilization. Enriching the manure combats the deficiency of late and low supply of nutrients. Experiments were conducted to assess the growth and yield of maize with Nitrogen-enriched cow dung. This was compared with performance with inorganic NPK fertilization and no fertilizer control. Maize growth was significantly (P = 0.05) affected by application of an enriched cow dung. The plants were comparable in height and leaf area with inorganic fertilizer. Fertilization of maize gave significantly (P = 0.05) higher grain yields. Fortified cow dung gave an average yield of 3.78 t ha-1 while inorganic fertilizer gave a yield of 3.70 t ha-1. The unfertilized control plants had an average yield of 2.47 t ha-1. Yield from the enriched cow dung was comparable with yield from inorganic fertilization. This shows the potential of the use of N-enriched cow dung as an alternative to inorganic fertilizers. Fortified cow dung increased soil N, P and K contents by 25, 1 and 62%, respectively. It also increased the soil Ca and Mg contents by 2 and 8%, respectively. Decomposed cow dung, fortified with Nitrogen can be applied at 2.5 t ha-1 to cultivate maize. It gives a comparable yield as inorganic fertilizer and increases the soil N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents. Key words: Maize, growth, yield, cow dung, N-fortification, soil nutrients. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/1BD39CD2429 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000184 en Copyright © 2008 O. T. Ayoola and E. A Makinde
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:38A4B412443 2008-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Relationship between growth and ion relation in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) at different growth stages under salt stress Khalid Hussain, Muhammad Ashraf and Muhammad Yasin Ashraf Full Length Research Paper Seedlings of two pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) lines were exposed to 0 (control) and 100 mol mndash;3 NaCl salinity. Treatments were applied fourteen days after germination. Growth of the shoot and root system and ion contents were determined at seedlings (21 days after treatment) and vegetative stage (42 days after treatment). NaCl concentration caused reduction in the plant growth, particularly of the shoot, always with much intensity in the sensitive line. Results obtained indicated that the difference in growth between these two lines might be due to differences in ion transfer rates to the shoot and salt accumulation in the shoot. The sensitive line showed higher Na+ plus Cl- transfer rates to the shoot, especially in the beginning of the stress application and greater accumulation of these ions in the leaves The tolerant line, on the other hand, showed higher K+transfer rates and lower relative reduction in the Ca2+ transfer rates to the shoot under salt stress. So, these results suggest that tolerance to salt stress, in pearl millet lines studied may be related to plant ability to prevent accumulation of toxic ions like Na+ and Cl- and to maintain the shoot. Plant ability to make adequate osmotic adjustment, however, should not be ignored. Keywords: salinity, growth, ions, pearl millet. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/38A4B412443 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000203 en Copyright © 2008 Khalid Hussain, Muhammad Ashraf and Muhammad Yasin Ashraf
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:9FFE1812487 2008-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Studies on the vegetative growth requirements of Psathyrella atroumbonata, pegler, an edible mushroom in Nigeria S. M. Ayodele Full Length Research Paper Growth requirements of Psathyrella atroumbonata Pegler, a Nigeria edible mushroom were studied. Glucose was the best carbon source. This was followed by maltose, starch and manitol in that order. The least growth was observed in lactose and cellulose. Yeast extract which is organic nitrogen proved to be the best nitrogen source. P. atroumbonata utilizes organic nitrogen better than inorganic nitrogen. Thiamine was the best vitamin among the vitamins tested. This was followed by nicotinic acid riboflavin. The least growth was observed in folic acid. Asparagine proved best among the amino acids tested followed by aspartic acid and the least stimulatory amino acid was glycine. Carbon to nitrogen ratio of 4: 1 and 1: 4 stimulated good mycelial growth. The implication of these results is discussed in relation to the growth of P. atroumbonata. Key words: Studies, vegetative growth, requirement, Psathyrella atroumbonata,edible mushroom Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/9FFE1812487 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000237 en Copyright © 2008 S. M. Ayodele
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:F6D56122529 2008-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Changes in fatty acid composition of polar lipids associated with growth and senescence in leaves of Catharanthus roseus Sanjay Mishra and Rajender Singh Sangwan Full Length Research Paper Polar lipids are important membrane components of plant cells. They are known to affect certain membrane properties like permeability, fluidity and active transport. In the present study, individual leaf buds were tagged on the day of appearance and sampling began 7 days later. Additional samples were taken at 7 days intervals until leaf abscission occurred about 77 days after tagging. The experiments were performed from July to October, a time period characterized by a day length of 12 plusmn; 1.5 h and average day and night temperature of approximately 30 and 20deg;C, respectively. The fatty acid composition of polar lipids from young, mature and senescent leaves of Catharanthus roseus was studied in the present study. Green leaves were observed to contain a considerable amount of hexadecatrienoic acid (16:3) in monogalactosyldiglyceride (MGDG), which suggests that C. roseusbelongs to 16:3 plants. Further, the percentage of linolenic acid (18:3) in the chloroplast lipids was lower in senescent leaves than that of green tissues. Senescent leaves also had lower proportions of MGDG 16:3 and phosphatidyl glycerol (PG) hexadecanoic acid (16:1). Such selective catabolism of molecular species of these lipids may be suggestive of significant alterations in ultra structure of chloroplast membranes, thus probably affecting the accumulation of indole alkaloids in the leaf tissue. Besides, the age dependent alterations in the fatty acid composition of other polar lipids, namely, phosphatidyl choline (PC), phosphatidyl inositol (PI), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidyl serine (PS) indicate the possibility of degradation of the organelles other than chloroplast (principally vacuoles) in the leaf cells. Key words: Catharanthus roseus, fatty acid composition, glycolipids, leaf development, polar lipids, phospholipids, senescence, sterol Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/F6D56122529 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000040 en Copyright © 2008 Sanjay Mishra and Rajender Singh Sangwan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:7124A752784 2008-06-18T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Forest vegetation patterns along an altitudinal gradient in sub-alpine zone of west Himalaya, India Sanjay Gairola, R. S. Rawal and N. P. Todaria Full Length Research Paper The present study describes vegetation diversity along an altitudinal gradient in three sites of sub-alpine forests. The altitude of the study sites ranged from 2800 - 3600 m asl and represented a transition from closed canopy temperate forests to open canopy sub-alpine forests. The results revealed that from low to high altitude strata, size and density of trees decline sharply. The density of sapling and seedling do not follow the trend of trees and exhibit site/location specific trends. Shrub and herb also did not exhibit uniform patterns across altitudinal range of the sites. As sub-alpine forests are considered to be potentially prone to the adverse effects of climate change, present study will provide important baseline information for future evaluation of the impact of climate change on sub-alpine forest communities. Key words: Diversity, timberline, altitude, west Himalaya Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/7124A752784 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000126 en Copyright © 2008 Sanjay Gairola, R. S. Rawal and N. P. Todaria
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:3EF387B2727 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Molecular analysis and phenotype characterization of the progeny of two antisense potato plants Olawole O. Obembe, Evert Jacobsen and Richard G. F. Visser Full Length Research Paper Two transgenic potato lines csr2-1 and csr4-8, containing two different antisense constructs, csr2 and csr4, respectively, were crossed to investigate the possibility of achieving double transformants with combined effects of the two antisense transgenes on plant phenotypes and cellulose deposition. Molecular analysis revealed an expected segregation ratio of 1:1:1:1 of the four classes. Phenotype characterization revealed that offspring containing either one or both transgenes produced more tubers than the control plants but individual tubers were mostly smaller and had lesser weight than the control tubers. Key words: Antisense technology, double transformants, genetic crossing, potato, segregation analysis. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/3EF387B2727 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000166 en Copyright © 2008 Olawole O. Obembe, Evert Jacobsen and Richard G. F. Visser
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:DEC5E592806 2008-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Edaphic factors and survival of a red mangrove species (Rhizophora mangle) in two mangrove swamp soils J. A. Onwugbuta-Enyi, B. A. Onuegbu and K. Zuofa Short Communication The effects of two Niger Delta Mangrove Swamp Soils on growth and growth components of Rhizophora mangle were studied. The mud flats had higher manganese, organic carbon, lower sodium, higher phosphorus, lower pH and no sand particle compared with peaty clays. The mud flats also had very low cation exchange capacity (CEC) and these qualities affected adversely the plant height, survival, disease index and stability of the plants compared with those grown in peaty clays. Recommendations for improvement of the mud flats for mangrove swamp re-vegetation are made. Key words: Red mangrove species, mangrove swamp soil, survival rate Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/DEC5E592806 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000072 en Copyright © 2008 J. A. Onwugbuta-Enyi, B. A. Onuegbu and K. Zuofa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:53391FD2884 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
The morphology and ultrastructure of glandular and non-glandular trichomes of Pteronia incana (Asteraceae) Buyisile Mayekiso, Micheal L. Magwa, Roger Coopoosamy Full Length Research Paper The electron microscopical investigation of foliar appendages of Pteronia incana(Burm) has shown that there are two types of trichomes. The non-glandular type which consists of two-four cells forms a dense mass of long fibrous hairs, covering the entire surface of plant. The glandular trichome types which are club-oval shape and consist of several glandular cells. The gland cells of the glandular trichome are characterized by a dense cytoplasm containing osmophilic droplets, various organelles such as modified plastids, endoplasmic reticulum, a large nucleus with a dense cytosol. The secreted material accumulates in a cavity beneath a wall derived from separation of the cuticularized outer wall surface of the top tier of secretory cells and are released to the outside when the cavity ruptures. Only the apical pair of cells participates in secretion. Cells of both types possess plastids without thylakoids. These active compounds secreted by P. incana might be the reason why this plant is unpalatable to livestock. Key words: Pteronia incana, trichomes, oil glands, electron microscope Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/53391FD2884 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000247 en Copyright © 2008 Buyisile Mayekiso, Micheal L. Magwa, Roger Coopoosamy
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:4F95A6B2909 2008-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Irrigation suitability evaluation and crop yield – An example with Amaranthus cruentus in Southwestern Nigeria Fasina, A. S., Awe, G. O. and Aruleba, J. O. Full Length Research Paper A detailed soil survey of 1.03 hectares of land within University of Ado Ekiti Teaching and Research Farm was carried out to evaluate the suitability of the soils for irrigation agriculture and to examine the influence of three different soil types, water and fertilizer rates on the yield of Amaranthus cruentus. All the soils evaluated were considered not suitable for gravity irrigation but soil A was considered highly suitable, soils B and C were considered moderately suitable for drip irrigation respectively. The results showed that soil types greatly influencedAmaranthus yield significantly (Plt;0.05). Soil A gave the highest total biomass yield (4597.9 kg/ha), followed by soil C (3152.2 kg/ha) and soil B (3111.1 kg/ha). Fertilizer regime based on soil test gave the highest biomass yield of 4051.6 kg/ha followed by the control with 3636.7 kg/ha and lastly the blanket with 3173.9 kg/ha. The study showed that watering the crop daily gave the highest biomass yield of 3703.1 kg/ha followed by once in two days with 3632 kg/ha and twice daily with 3527 kg/ha. This study confirmed that fertilizer recommendations based on soil test is necessary for determining the adequate level of nutrients that could replenish the soil as well as satisfy the need of the crop. The study suggests the use of drip irrigation rather than gravity irrigation in terms of water use. Key words: Drip irrigation, gravity irrigation, Amaranthus, suitability evaluation, yield. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/4F95A6B2909 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000154 en Copyright © 2008 Fasina, A. S., Awe, G. O. and Aruleba, J. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:E4FC5413005 2008-08-29T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Induction of anti-oxidative enzymes by cadmium stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Sbartai Hana, Rouabhi Rachid, Sbartai Ibtissem, Berrebbah Houria and Djebar Mohammed-Reacute;da Full Length Research Paper In the present study, the cadmiumrsquo;s effect on anti-oxidative enzymes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants was evaluated. Plants treated with increasingly CdCl2concentrations (0, 20, 40, 80, 100 and 200 mu;M respectively) were grown in a basic nutrient solution for 7 days. APX (Ascorbate Peroxidase) and GPX (Guaiuml;gol Peroxidase) activities showed to increase below 100 mu;M concentration after treatment. In excessive concentration however, more than determined level, a significant decrease in the enzymes activities was determined. The increase in enzymatic activity can be associated with induction of oxidative stress by cadmium treatment. Excessive calcium displayed also low APX and GPX activities, which were virtually the same activity levels of control plants. However, it should be note that concentration more than 80 mu;m of Cd resulted in decreasing of APX and GPX activity. The enzymatic activity of GSH followed in the presence of Cd showed a significant increase by 80 mu;M of Cd then the activity showed decreasing. Calcium treatment resulted in impairing of GSH stimulation in the presence of Cd conditions. Eventually, Cd treatment resulted in decline in GST activity that was significantly increased in the presence of calcium, suggesting stimulation of antioxidant enzymatic activities. Therefore, accumulation of Cd can be associated with oxidative stress, which may be inhibited and reduced its adverse effects by calcium treatment in the cell culture. Keywords: Cadmium, Calcium, APX, GPX, GSH, GST, Lycopersicon esculentum,enzymatic activity. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/E4FC5413005 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000146 en Copyright © 2008 Sbartai Hana, Rouabhi Rachid, Sbartai Ibtissem, Berrebbah Houria and Djebar Mohammed-Reacute;da
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:A873F512966 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Response of mustard and linseed to thermal power plant wastewater supplemented with nitrogen and phosphorus Afroza Akhtar, Akhtar Inam and Arif Inam Full Length Research Paper The effect of thermal power plant discharged waste water (TPPW) on growth, yield and quality of mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Alankar) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. cv. Neelam) was studied. TPPW increased growth characteristics, net photosynthetic rate, seed yield, oil content and oil yield of the two crops. In mustard, treatments TPPW N112P60 (112 kg N/ha + 60 kg P/ha), TPPW N112P30 (112 kg N/ha + 30 kg P/ha) and TPPW N90P60 (90 kg N/ha + 60 kg P/ha) were equally effective while in case of linseed lower levels of N and P with waste water proved beneficial. TPPW may be considered as an alternative of fresh water for irrigation purpose improving yield and quality of mustard and linseed. Key words: Nitrogen, phosphorus, wastewater, mustard, linseed, seed yield, oil yield. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/A873F512966 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000207 en Copyright © 2008 Afroza Akhtar, Akhtar Inam and Arif Inam
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:F3D9AB83050 2008-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Morphological and agronomical characterization of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] germplasm collection from Tanzania Fred Tairo, Emmarold Mneney and Alois Kullaya Full Length Research Paper One hundred and thirty six sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) landraces collected from three different agro-ecological Zones of Tanzania [Lake Victoria basin (LZ), Eastern (EZ) and Southern Highlands Zones (SHZ)] were characterized morphologically and agronomically using International Potato Centre (CIP) descriptors in two seasons. The cluster analysis revealed existence of two major groups, 1 and 2 with low genetic variability of 0.52. Number of roots, weight of roots, fresh weight/plant and dry matter content differed significantly among and within agro-ecological Zones. Landraces Lubisi from southern highlands Zone had the highest number of roots (12 per plant) and Shinamugi from Eastern Zone had highest dry matter content of 39.4%. Overall, landraces from Lake Zone recorded highest average root weight of 8,977.7 kg ha-1 followed by Southern highlands (7,561.2 kg ha-1) and Eastern zone (4,333.0 kg ha-1). Principal coordinate analysis (PCA) indicated variances accumulated by the first five components of the six major morphological characters was 52.5% and produced similar groups corresponding to those of cluster analysis. Our data indicate low genetic variation despite significant variations shown by agronomical traits. Many landraces recorded in different names from three different agro ecological Zones showed close resemblance and grouped into two major groups suggesting presence of duplicates or mislabelling. Keywords: Morphological traits, agronomical traits, diversity, germplasm characterization, Ipomoea batatas, sweet potato Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/F3D9AB83050 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000173 en Copyright © 2008 Fred Tairo, Emmarold Mneney and Alois Kullaya
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:017AF189615 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Assessment of phenotypic diversity of macadamia (Macadamia spp) germplasm in Kenya using leaf and fruit morphology Lucy Gitonga, , Esther Kahangi, Anne Muigai, Kamau Ngamau, Simon Gichuki, Wilson Cheluget and Simon Wepukhulu Full Length Research Paper The ability to identify genetic variation is indispensable to effective management and use of genetic resources. Morphological traits are among the earliest markers used in germplasm characterization and management. Leaf and fruit morphological characteristics were recorded for 23 cultivars of Macadamia using a sample of 30 for each trait and replicated three times. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences in leaf length, width, petiole length and leaf marginal serrations. Significant differences were also revealed in fruit cluster length, number of fruits per cluster, fruit length but not fruit width. Cluster analysis using R statistics grouped the accessions into three major clusters referring to the two cultivated Macadamia species; Macadamia integrifolia and Macadamia tetraphylladisplaying the highest dissimilarity, and the hybrids at the intermediate position. These markers are found to be reliable in distinguishing between the macadamia cultivars in Kenya. Among the markers, leaf petiole and marginal serrations are easily assessable and possible to use in distinguishing between the species. Key words: Genetic diversity, macadamia germplasm, morphological markers, cluster analysis. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/017AF189615 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000029 en Copyright © 2008 Lucy Gitonga, , Esther Kahangi, Anne Muigai, Kamau Ngamau, Simon Gichuki, Wilson Cheluget and Simon Wepukhulu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:6853A579627 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Isolation of total RNA from ripe and unripe soursop (Annona muricata L.) fruit Isabella Montenegro Brasil, Maria de Lourdes Oliveira Otoch, Joseacute; Heacute;lio Costa, Geraldo Arraes Maia, Maria da Guia Silva Lima, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt and Dirce Fernandes de Melo Full Length Research Paper Soursop fruit tissue is known by its acidic pH and high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenolics and secondary metabolites. These conditions are recognized to interfere unfavorably with conventional methodologies for RNA isolation. We describe here a rapid and simple method for the isolation of total RNA from soursop fruit. RNA was extracted in less than 4 h through a combination of SDS/potassium acetate precipitation and selective binding on a silica-gel-based membrane (Qiagen) through microspin speed technology. In comparison to other methods applied for RNA extraction from soursop fruit, our protocol improved substantially RNA quality as well as RNA yield. The isolated RNA served as a robust template for RT-PCR analysis. Comparable RNA quality and yield per dry weight were obtained from unripe and ripe fruits. This makes the method appropriate to being used in studies on differential gene expression in post-harvest behavior. Key words: Annona muricata L., RNA isolation, tropical fruit. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/6853A579627 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000157 en Copyright © 2008 Isabella Montenegro Brasil, Maria de Lourdes Oliveira Otoch, Joseacute; Heacute;lio Costa, Geraldo Arraes Maia, Maria da Guia Silva Lima, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt and Dirce Fernandes de Melo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:E7F95C49635 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Bioindicators in sustainable management of tropical forests in India P. C. Kotwal, L. S. Kandari and D. Dugaya Full Length Research Paper Nature follows its own pattern to regulate the dynamic ecosystem. If the process is closely monitored it provides indication for the cause and effect of the changes occurring owing to natural factors and anthropogenic activities. The bioindicators are potentially useful tool for the scientists, researchers and foresters to assess the sustainable forest management (SFM) in countries like India, which is rich in biodiversity at ecosystem, species and genetic levels. Although the concept of bioindicators is well known to indicate the change in the forest ecosystems but its application in monitoring the health of forest ecosystems and its documentation is limited in India. Despite of heavy anthropogenic and developmental pressures (2.1% of the land mass, about 1% forest area, 16% human population and 18% livestock population of the world); India is committed to SFM. In this study, an attempt has been made to classify and identify the range of bioindicators (plants and animals both) in reference to SFM in two Forest Management Units (FMUs) in Central India. Key words: Bioindicators, biodiversity, indicators, Sustainable Forest Management, criteria and indicator, Forest Management Unit. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/E7F95C49635 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000036 en Copyright © 2008 P. C. Kotwal, L. S. Kandari and D. Dugaya
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:48C03109638 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Regeneration efficiency of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] via embryonic axes explants M. Yusuf, A. A. Raji, I. Ingelbrecht and M. D. Katung Full Length Research Paper The experiment was conducted to test the in vitro regeneration efficiency of cowpea shoots via embryonic axes explants and the effect of benzyl amino purine (BAP) concentration on shoot formation. A total of 600 explants (embryonic axes) were plated from which 237 shoots were regenerated. The average regeneration ratio was 39% and the number of shoot per explant obtained stood at an average of 6.0. This indicates likelihood that higher regeneration percent and number of shoots per explant could be possible as more proficiency is attained in the use of the protocol. The role of the growth regulator, benzyl amino purine (BAP), as a shoot growth inducing factor and modifier in cowpea in vitro regeneration was demonstrated in the experiment. The protocol used in the experiment gave promising results for the efficient regeneration and subsequent genetic transformation of cowpea. Key words: Cowpea, in vitro, regeneration ratio, benzyl amino purine (BAP), embryonic axes explants. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/48C03109638 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000201 en Copyright © 2008 M. Yusuf, A. A. Raji, I. Ingelbrecht and M. D. Katung
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:ACD01E59650 2008-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Regeneration of plants from rice caryopsis derived callus culture of Nigerian local cv. Suakoko 8 and a NERICA cv. FARO 55 Abolade S. Afolabi , O. Oyebanji , O. Odusanya, M. E. Abo, M. Misra and G. H. Ogbadu Full Length Research Paper The regeneration protocol for rice plants from callus culture obtained from dehusked and sterilized whole rice seeds (caryopses) of a popular Nigerian local cultivar Suakoko 8, and a NERICA cultivar FARO 55 is described. Utilizing a modified Nippon Barre medium (NBm) consisting of: Macro N6, Micro B5, Fe-EDTA, B5 vitamin and 30 mg/l of locally produced St Louisreg; sugar (to save cost) supplemented with casein hydrolysate and proline, and with cytokinin and auxin hormones (ratio 1:10), profuse and friable calli were obtained at 25oC in the darkness. The friable calli produced were transferred to fresh medium once every week for three weeks before transferring them to pre-regeneration medium containing ABA and NAA (replacing 2-4,D in the callus induction medium), and incubated for 9 days in the darkness at 25oC. Finally the creamy calli were transferred into regeneration medium containing high cytokinin (3 mg lndash;1 BAP) with incubation at 28oC and 12 h ndash; photoperiod. Regeneration of plantlets was obtained between two to four weeks of transfer on the regeneration medium. The regeneration frequency (efficiency) of 53 and 42% were obtained for Suakoko 8 and FARO 55. Regenerated plants also produced viable seeds and hence fertile plants. Key words: Embryogenic calli, regeneration, Suakoko 8, FARO 55, new rice for Africa (NERICA), Oryza sativa, Oryza glaberrima. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/ACD01E59650 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000202 en Copyright © 2008 Abolade S. Afolabi , O. Oyebanji , O. Odusanya, M. E. Abo, M. Misra and G. H. Ogbadu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:6663E2A9724 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Phytochemical and antioxidant screening of some plants of apocynaceae from South West Nigeria Ayoola G. A., Folawewo A. D., Adesegun S. A., Abioro O. O., Adepoju-Bello A. A., Coker H. A. B. Full Length Research Paper The phytochemical and antioxidant properties of Strophantus hispidus (stem and root), Voacanga africana (stem and leaf) and Thevetia neriifolia (stem and leaf) were investigated. The parts of the plants used were based on those used locally. All the plants tested positive for the presence of tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, all except S. hispidus (stem) tested positive for the presence of anthraquinone. Only V. africana (stem and leaves) and Thevetia neriifolia (leaves) tested positive for the presence of saponins, all except S. hispidus (root) tested positive for the presence of terpenoids. Only V. africana leaves and T. neriifoliatested positive for the presence of phlobatannins. The free radical scavenging activities were investigated based on the presence of flavonoids and tannins in all the plant materials. Preliminary screening of the free radical scavenging activity of the methanolic extracts of the plants with 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) using thin layer chromatography only tested positive for V. africana leaves. IC50values (concentration of sample required for 50% inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging activity) for the inhibition of DPPH were 0.048 and 0.054 mg/ml for V. africana and Vitamin C respectively. The phenolic content, total flavonoid content and proanthocyanidin contents of V. africana were determined as, 124, 30 and 90 mg as gallic acid, rutin and catechin equivalents per gram of extract respectively. A good correlation was observed between radical scavenging capacity of V. africanaand total phenolic, total flavonoid and proanthocyanidin content (R2 = 0.96 in all cases), showing that flavonoids are likely to be responsible for antioxidant activity. Keywords: Antioxidants, free radicals, phenolic content, proanthocyanidin content, total flavonoid, DPPH, Strophantus hispidus, Voacanga africana, Thevetia neriifolia. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/6663E2A9724 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000188 en Copyright © 2008 Ayoola G. A., Folawewo A. D., Adesegun S. A., Abioro O. O., Adepoju-Bello A. A., Coker H. A. B.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:24D03C59713 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Exogenous ascorbic acid (vitamin C) induced anabolic changes for salt tolerance in chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants Mohamed Salah Beltagi Full Length Research Paper The effect of exogenous supply of ascorbic acid on growth and metabolic changes in chick pea under salinity treatment was carried out in pot experiment. The exogenous supply of ascorbic acid (4 mM) improved the fresh and dry matter gain in roots, shoots and leaves of chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.) Plants attenuated by the salt stress (40 mM NaCl) environment in the soil solution. Significant synergistic effect between NaCl (40 mM) and ascorbic acid treatment increased the contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll stability index (CSI %) in leaves of chick pea plants. The total number of protein bands/lane did not change under the low (20 mM) NaCl concentration but was dramatically reduced by the high (40 mM) NaCl treatment. The sum of optical densities (O. D.) of protein bands was inhibited by both levels of NaCl, but was induced by 10.68% by the added ascorbic acid at 20 mM NaCl and by 21.39% at 40 mM NaCl. Six different polypeptides of molecular weights 146.28, 117.98, 51.55, 49.6, 44.49 and 38.34 were completely disappeared under NaCl stress (40 mM). These bands reappeared in response to the added ascorbic acid treatment. Moreover, the optical density of every individual protein band was induced by ascorbic acid under the low NaCl concentration. The results indicate synergistic interaction between salinity stress and ascorbic acid for the sake of salt resistance in chick pea plants. Keywords: Plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll stability index, SDS-PAGE protein. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/24D03C59713 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000124 en Copyright © 2008 Mohamed Salah Beltagi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:0DE43159699 2008-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Evaluation of crisphead lettuce cultivars (Lactuca sativa L.) for winter production in a soilless production system Maboko M. M. and Du Plooy C. P. Full Length Research Paper Soilless cultivation of lettuce gained popularity in recent years in South Africa because of improved yield and quality. Thirteen crisphead lettuce cultivars were evaluated in a gravel-film production system during the winter season at the experimental farm of the ARC-Roodeplaat. The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design with five replicates. For each cultivar, yield, internal quality, compactness, uniformity, ribbing, tip-burn, disease tolerance, bolting tolerance and number of days to maturity were recorded. The cultivars were ready for harvest from 70 - 77 days after transplanting. Results showed clear differences between cultivars, with four cultivars, namely Del-Rio, Patagonia RZ, Winter haven and Winter Supreme, out yielding the rest of the cultivars included in the trial. These four cultivars were also more tolerant to tipburn and disease, compared to most other cultivars included in the trial. Cultivars Annie, Del Rio, Supreme Plus and L425 showed the best core ratio, combined with a good colour and tip burn resistance. Results, thus, indicate that variability in yield and quality of crisphead lettuce are determined by cultivar differences, changes in environmental conditions, as well as different production systems utilized by farmers. Improved yield and quality can be obtained by selecting the correct cultivars for winter production in a soilless medium. Key words: Gravel-film technique, quality, yield, growing season. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/0DE43159699 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000114 en Copyright © 2008 Maboko M. M. and Du Plooy C. P.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:B860A529756 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
RAPD and SSR analysis of wild oats (Avena species) from North West frontier Province of Pakistan Zahid Hanif, Zahoor A. Swati, Imtiaz Khan, Gul Hassan, K. B. Marwat, sabz Ali and M. Ishfaq Khan Full Length Research Paper Genetic diversity of 10 biotypes of wild oats (Avena species) which differ in certain morphological and physiological characters were analyzed using 9 Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 2 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) primer sets. RAPD and SSR primers revealed different levels of genetic polymorphisms among the various biotypes. Range of genetic distances estimated by using individual primers was 0 ndash; 100 % but on an average genetic distances were in the range of 30 - 65% indicating that these biotypes were genetically very diverse and possess a high degree of polymorphism. Key words: Wild oats, DNA, Polymorphism, RAPD, SSR. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/B860A529756 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000199 en Copyright © 2008 Zahid Hanif, Zahoor A. Swati, Imtiaz Khan, Gul Hassan, K. B. Marwat, sabz Ali and M. Ishfaq Khan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:D5071079749 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Long term effect of Leucaena leucocephala on soil physico-chemical properties and fresh fruit bunch (FFB) production of oil palm Imogie, A. E., Udosen, C.V., Ugbah, M. M. and Utulu, S. N. Full Length Research Paper The study investigated a long-term effect of Leucaena leucocephala a leguminous tree crop on the soil physico-chemical properties and its possible effect on the fresh fruit bunch (FFB) production of oil palm. L. leucocephala had a highly significant (Plt;.01) effect on soil physico-chemical properties than the control. The soil under Leucaena leucocephala exhibited relatively high mean weight diameter, water retention, total soil available N, available P and Exchangeable cation, than the control, and thus enhanced fresh fruit bunch (FFB) production. Mean fresh fruit bunch yield, over a three year period, was significantly higher (Plt;0.05), with FFB yields of 10.93 tons / ha in plots with L. leucocephala as against 6.8 tons / ha in the control plots. Key words: Long term (to be deleted), Leucaena leucocephala, physico-chemical properties, fresh fruit bunch yields. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/D5071079749 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000161 en Copyright © 2008 Imogie, A. E., Udosen, C.V., Ugbah, M. M. and Utulu, S. N.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:2C4CB5B9796 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Watermelon production on stored rainwater in Sahelian sandy soils D. Fatondji, D. Pasternak and L. Woltering Full Length Research Paper Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb) Matsun and Nakai ] is an important cash crop in West Africa where it is cultivated under rainfed conditions. The objective of this work was to identify best cultural practices for production of watermelons in the Sahel on stored rainwater in acid sandy soils. The experiments were carried out at the ICRISAT Sadore research center in Niger during two consecutive dry seasons, 2003 - 2004 and 2004 - 2005. Three soil management treatments were applied: micro-catchments (also called half-moons), planting pits (also called zaiuml;) and sowing on flat land. Each of these three treatments came with and without a soil amendment comprising of 500 g of manure mixed with 24 g of a complete (NPK) fertilizer (15-15-15) individually applied to each planting hill. Two watermelon cultivars were tested: lsquo;Malalirsquo; and lsquo;Kaolackrsquo;. In each of the two years the experiments were sown on the 1st and on the 21st of September. Fruit and biomass yield, fruit Total Soluble Solids (TSS), days to fruiting and harvesting were determined. Soil fertility, root development and other physiological parameters were monitored to explain some of the differences between treatments. Soil amendments increased marketable yields from 1.3 to 3.5 tons ha-1 on average. Marketable yields at the first planting date were double the yields of the second planting date (3.2 vs. 1.6 tons ha-1). Yield differences were due to changes in fruit number not in fruit weight. Deep placement of soil amendments resulted in significant root development in deeper soil layers. Highest watermelon yields were achieved when sowing the Malali cultivar in amended planting pits on September 1st giving a yield of 8.2 tons ha-1. Key words: Citrullus lanatus, Malali, Kaolack, Zaiuml;, planting pits, half moons, stored water, root development, Sahel. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/2C4CB5B9796 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000261 en Copyright © 2008 D. Fatondji, D. Pasternak and L. Woltering
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:6E747D19780 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Effect of leaf cutting on physiological traits and yield of two rice cultivars Ali abdalla basyouni Abou-khalifa, A. N. Misra and Abd El- Azeem K. M. Salem Full Length Research Paper Field experiments were conducted during two summer seasons 2003 and 2004 to study the effect of leaf cutting on physiological traits and yield of two rice cultivars hybrid (H5) (IR 70368 A /G 178) and inbred rice. The leaf cutting was followed from flag leaf as follows: 1.) L; Control = without leaf cutting, 2.) L1; flag leaf cut, 3.) L2; second leaf cut, 4.) L3; third leaf cut, 5.) L4; both flag leaf and second leaf cut. 6.) L5; flag leaf, second leaf and third leaf cut together. A split plot design with four replications was used; the main plots were devoted to the cutting of leaves, while the sub-plots were assigned to the two rice cultivars. Chlorophyll, sugar, starch and grain yield parameters were severely affected by L5, followed by L4, L1, L3 and L2 in sequence. However, as a single component affecting maximum to these parameters is the removal of flag leaf. The flag leaf contributed maximum to the yield of rice grains. L5, L4, L1, L2 and L3 treatments grain yield (relative % of control) by 59.87, 94.92, 44.89, 29.58 and 19.98 % respectively. Flag leaf contributed to 45% of grain yield and is the single most component for yield loss.The contribution of leaf removal in hybrid rice was minimum, suggesting the probability of maximum translocation of photosynthesis from stem to the grain during grain feeling stage of hybrid rice after leaf removal. Key words: Rice, leaf cutting, physiological traits, yield and cultivars. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/6E747D19780 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000084 en Copyright © 2008 Ali abdalla basyouni Abou-khalifa, A. N. Misra and Abd El- Azeem K. M. Salem
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:3E922D29772 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2008
Studies on the pollen biology of Terminalia paniculata Roth. (Combretaceae) Thangaraja, A. and Ganesan, V. Full Length Research Paper Terminalia paniculata is a deciduous tree widely distributed in tropical semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forest. Flowers of T. paniculata have ten stamens, which remain inside the bud and anthesis is carried out at different times of the day. Pollen grains are medium spherical, tricolpate 17 mm in diameter, smooth exine and yellow in colour. The pollen: ovule ratio approximated 16,000: 1. Pollination efficiency was increased daily, from first day of flower opening (0.000076), reaching the maximum on third day (0.00083) and there was no pollen deposition on the fourth day. To effectively assess in-vitro pollen viability in T. paniculata, an optimized germination medium (30% sucrose with Brewbaker and Kwakrsquo;s medium) was developed. Pollen grains stored under cryopreservation (-20oC) had prolonged viability. Using the hand pollination for testing the in-vivoviability of pollen grains the maximum number of fruit set was obtained in the fresh pollen grains (0 h ndash; pollen collected at the time of anthesis) on the stigma. Afterwards, increase in the age of the pollen decreased the fruit set. After 15 h of anthesis, the pollen grains lost their viability and there was no fruit set. The current findings will be useful in studying, pollen ndash; pistil interactions, gene flow and heterozygosity of the T. paniculata populations. Key words: Cryopreservation, in vitro germination, pollen storage. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/3E922D29772 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000236 en Copyright © 2008 Thangaraja, A. and Ganesan, V.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:12521C09871 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Bactericidal activity of Pistacia atlantica. Desf mastic gum against certain pathogens Bachir Raho Ghalem and Benali Mohamed Short Communication The hydro-distilled essential oils from the exudates of Pistacia atlantica. Desfstems have been tested against three bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) using three different methods (agar disc diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentration and Maruzella method, and showed antimicrobial activity against all these microbes. Key words: Antibacterial activity, essential oil, gum of Pistacia atlantica. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/12521C09871 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000034 en Copyright © 2009 Bachir Raho Ghalem and Benali Mohamed
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:C5A5AE39834 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Biocontrol of wilt disease complex of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) by isolates of Pseudomonas spp. Z. A. Siddiqui and U. Shakeel Full Length Research Paper Biocontrol of wilt disease complex of pigeon pea, caused by Meloidogyne incognita, Heterodera cajani and Fusarium udum, was studied using 21 isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonads isolated from pathogen suppressive soils. The isolates Pf 718, Pf 719 and Pf 736 of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pa 737 of P. aeruginosa caused 79, 84, 87 and 93% reductions in hatching of M. incognita, and showed inhibition in the growth of F. udum in the dual inoculation. Isolate Pf736 caused 309, 9 and 78% increases in seedling growth, phosphate solubilization and IAA production respectively and also showed moderate HCN production. Isolate Pa737 was the best to colonize roots of pigeon pea followed by Pf736. The effects of these four isolates (Pf718, Pf719, Pf736 and Pa737) were studied on the wilt disease complex both in mono and multi-pathogenic combinations. The isolates Pf736 caused greater increase in plant growth and higher reduction in nematode multiplication and wilting index followed by Pa737, Pf718 and Pf719. The use of these isolates along with Rhizobium (pigeon pea strain) further increased plant growth and reduced nematode multiplication and wilting index. Twelve isolates production of siderophores in Chrome Azurol S (CAS) agar medium. The results suggest that P. fluorescens Pf736 along with Rhizobium may be used for the management of wilt disease complex of pigeon pea. Keywords: Fusarium udum, Heterodera cajani, Meloidogyne incognita,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, rhizobium. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/C5A5AE39834 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000035 en Copyright © 2009 Z. A. Siddiqui and U. Shakeel
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:11ACA5C9936 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Performance of exotic mulberry (Morus spp.) germplasm on growth and yield traits in Indian condition Amalendu Tikader and Chandrakant Kamble Full Length Research Paper Exotic mulberry germplasm accessions were evaluated under tropical dry agro-climatic condition of India. Mulberry accessions showed great extent of variation in growth and yield traits. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences in all growth and yield traits. The interaction between accession x season was significant for all traits except number of branches per plant, total shoot length and Internodal distance. The coefficient of variation was maximum in leaf yield per plant followed by total shoot length and minimum in leaf moisture content. The relationship among different growth traits indicated that leaf yield is depended on number of branches per plant and total shoot length. The CIMMYT selection index was used to identify the best accessions studied in the experiment. The divergence analysis using R statistics grouped the accession into 7 clusters of which maximum numbers of accessions were in cluster IV and minimum in cluster V. Inter-cluster distance was maximum in between cluster V and VII whereas minimum in cluster IV and I. The intra cluster distance was higher in cluster VI and minimum in cluster V. The diversity among the accessions measured by Dsup2; values may be used for selection of exotic mulberry accessions for crop improvement. Key words: Genetic diversity, mulberry, exotic germplasm, yield traits, cluster analysis. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/11ACA5C9936 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000183 en Copyright © 2009 Amalendu Tikader and Chandrakant Kamble
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:5E3EA1C9920 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Evaluation of antibacterial properties of Chebulic myrobalan (fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz.) extracts against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli Anwesa Bag, Subir Kumar Bhattacharyya, Premananda Bharati Nishith Kumar Pal and Rabi Ranjan Chattopadhyay Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible antibacterial potential of Chebulic myrobalan extracts (cold aqueous, hot aqueous and ethanol) against multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens. For this purpose both clinical isolates (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli) and standard type control strains were tested in this study. Antibacterial potency of the extracts was tested by standard growth inhibitory assay methods. All the tested extracts showed to varying degrees of strain specific antibacterial potential against tested strains of which ethanol extract showed superior activity against E. coli and hot aqueous extract against S. aureus. Cold aqueous extract exhibited the least antibacterial activity against all the tested strains. These promising findings suggest to antibacterial activity of the plant material exhibited bioactive compounds against multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens and serving them as an alternative antimicrobial agent against diseases caused by these organisms. Key word: Chebulic myrobalan, MRSA, Escherichia coli, antibacterial activity. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/5E3EA1C9920 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000109 en Copyright © 2009 Anwesa Bag, Subir Kumar Bhattacharyya, Premananda Bharati Nishith Kumar Pal and Rabi Ranjan Chattopadhyay
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:165E4499897 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to different rates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on vertisols at Debre Berhan, in the central highlands of Ethiopia Zelalem A., Tekalign T. and Nigussie D. Full Length Research Paper A study was conducted to determine the response of potato (Solanum tuberosumL.) to different rates of nitrogen (N) applied as urea (0, 69, 138 and 207 kg/ha) and phosphorus (P) (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg/ ha) fertilization on Vertisols of Debre Berhan in the highlands of central Ethiopia. Application of 207 kg N/ha delayed days to flowering and physiological maturity by four and nine days, respectively compared to the control. Similarly, it increased plant height by 24 cm, above ground biomass by 224.5%, underground biomass by 108%, marketable tuber yield by 175%, total tuber yield by 119%, marketable tuber number by 95.6%, total tuber number by 34% and average tuber weight by 82% over the control. On the contrary, nitrogen fertilization significantly reduced tuber specific gravity and dry matter content without affecting stem number, unmarketable tuber yield and number, and harvest index. Application of 60 kg P/ha significantly increased days to flowering by two days, plant height by 10.5 cm, aboveground and underground biomass by 32 and 28% respectively, marketable tuber yield by 60%, and marketable tuber number by 43%. Other parameters such as days to physiological maturity, stem number, total tuber yield and number, unmarketable tuber yield and number, average tuber weight, specific gravity, dry matter content and harvest index were not significantly influenced by phosphorus fertilization. Total tuber yield was positively correlated with total tuber number (r = 0.60***), marketable tuber number (r = 0.87***) and average tuber weight (r = 0.81***) indicating that tuber yield increase in response to the fertilization was due to the increase both in tuber number and weight. It was observed that application of 138 kg N and 20 kg P/ha is required for optimum productivity of Gorebiella variety on the vertisols of Debere Berhan in the central highlands of Ethiopia under rain fed conditions. Key words: Debre Berhan, fertilizer, potato, quality, vertisols, yield. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/165E4499897 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000208 en Copyright © 2009 Zelalem A., Tekalign T. and Nigussie D.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:9A5DD879977 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Qualitative analysis of tree species in evergreen forests of Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India Geeta Kharkwal Full Length Research Paper Current study provides information on the characteristics of tree species in five forests types in the Kumaun Himalaya. On the basis of importance value index, it was observed that Pinus roxburghii is the common tree species at site 1 and 2,Quercus leucotricophora is common at site 3, 4 and 5 is dominated by Quercusfloribunda and Quercus semecarpifolia, respectively. Tree density (individual/100 m2) varied from 5.3 to 9.4 in different forest sites. Diversity and dominance indices showed a range of 0.1 to 1.6 and 0.6 to 1.0, respectively. Equitability index in different sites varied from 1.1 to 4.4. It was noticed that with an increase in species richness, diversity and equitability increases. Dominance value decreases with an increase in equitability and diversity indicating inverse relationship between diversity and dominance. Key words: Diversity index, dominance index, equitability, Kumaun Himalaya. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/9A5DD879977 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000195 en Copyright © 2009 Geeta Kharkwal
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:F6D34CF9969 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Molecular analysis of type III polyketide synthase (PKS) gene family from Zingiber officinale Rosc Radhakrishnan E. K. and E. V. Soniya Full Length Research Paper Enzymes of the type III polyketide synthase family is considered to have significant role in biosynthesis of structurally diverse polyketide scaffolds in Zingiber officinale. Genome wide analysis of polyketide synthase gene family in Z. officinale identified partial sequences of six members. Comparative sequence analysis showed that four of them ZoPKS2, 3, 4 and 6 were novel forms as revealed by the significant variations at the highly conserved regions. Phylogenetic analysis also showed separate clustering of the novel forms along with the non-chalcone forming PKSs. This sequence identified in the study forms the first and basic information of the PKS gene family from the Zingiberaceae. Key words: Zingiber officinale, CHS, PKS, multigene family, phylogenetic analysis. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/F6D34CF9969 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000168 en Copyright © 2009 Radhakrishnan E. K. and E. V. Soniya
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:F2E51509958 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Morphological evaluation of olive plants propagated in vitro culture through axillary buds and somatic embryogenesis methods Leva Annarita Full Length Research Paper The morphological fidelity of the olive plants propagated through axillary buds, microplants and somatic embryogenesis, somatic plants was evaluated. Thirty-two morphological traits were used to characterize the tissue culture propagated olive plants. The microplants showed very high phenotypic similarity compared to plants produced by conventional cutting propagation method. The somatic plants exhibited variant morphological stable phenotypes, among somaclonal population two variant phenotypes were studied: BOS (bush-olive somaclone) and COS (columnar-olive somaclone). A wide range of plant traits were differently involved in somaclonal variation as plant height, canopy dimensions, leaf, inflorescence and fruit dimensions in respect to the putative control plants. The present study has established that the morphological stability of tissue culture-derived olive plants is strictly related with the in vitro propagation method used. Key words: Tissue culture, phenotypic stability, somaclonal variation, Olea europaea. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/F2E51509958 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000174 en Copyright © 2009 Leva Annarita
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:5197AB510596 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Trade offs in grain and leaf yield of cowpea based on timing of leaf harvest Matikiti A., Chikwambi Z., Nyakanda C. and Mashingaidze A. B. Full Length Research Paper The critical period for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walpers) leaf harvesting on grain yield of black eyed bean (BEB) cowpea type was determined by timing termination and commencement of leaf harvesting during 2005-2007 rain seasons. Two leaves were harvested from each plant per treatment up to pod formation as compared to no leaf harvesting. The times at which leaf harvesting began and ended had significant effects (plt;0.05) on leaf yield, grain yield and above ground biomass. Highest leaf yield was obtained in the 2 - 8 weeks after crop emergence (WACE) leaf harvesting period for both on farm and on station in both seasons. The same period (2 ndash; 8 WACE) produced the lowest grain yield, while highest grain yield was obtained when leaf harvesting was terminated at 2 WACE or commenced at 8 WACE. However, above ground biomass was less affected by leaf harvesting. Using Nieto curves to estimate grain and leaf yield trade offs, the critical leaf harvesting duration was 2 - 8 WACE, during which no leaf harvesting should be done to attain maximum grain yield, corresponding to start of branching to start of pod formation. It is recommended that farmers use morphological indicators to mark leaf-harvesting periods. Key words: Black-eyed bean, cowpea, Nieto curves, critical leaf harvesting. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/5197AB510596 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000254 en Copyright © 2009 Matikiti A., Chikwambi Z., Nyakanda C. and Mashingaidze A. B.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:25831F410590 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Application of soil conditioners and man-made erosion control materials to reduce erosion risk on sloping lands A. Akbarzadeh, R. Taghizadeh Mehrjardi, H.G. Refahi, H. Rouhipour and M. Gorji Full Length Research Paper The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soil conditioners and man-made erosion control materials on stabilization of sloping hills using rainfall simulator and small flume facilities. Treatments were man-made erosion control materials (from polypropylene fabric) and soil conditioners (gypsum and PAM), these treatments were evaluated on a soil sample with a clay texture taken from a hill having 15 to 30% slopes. Soil surface were subjected to 3 simulated rainstorm including 25, 50 and 75 mm h-1. Runoff and sediment loss rates were determined in different times for 60 min after initiation of runoff. Man-made erosion control materials were reduced sediment concentration and runoff intensity between ranges of 4 - 82% and 0 - 8% respectively compared with the bare soil. Also, amending soil surface with soil conditioners did not reduce runoff significantly compared with the control on steep slopes. Appli-cation of soil conditioners alone had low efficiency. Whereas application of high levels of conditioners reduced soil loss to non detectable levels as compared with the control treatment. Obtained results from measurements of aggregate stability index and mean weight diameter of soil particles, for various amount of soil conditioners also showed that using these materials with improving soil physical properties, decreasing surface sealing, and enhancing infiltration rate, will reduce soil loss. Key words: Soil conditioners, man-made erosion control materials, simulated rainfall, runoff and sediment yield. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/25831F410590 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000027 en Copyright © 2009 A. Akbarzadeh, R. Taghizadeh Mehrjardi, H.G. Refahi, H. Rouhipour and M. Gorji
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:36DD2EB10582 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Investigation of morphophysiological variation in field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) populations of Karaj, Varamin, and Damavand in Iran A. Mehrafarin, F. Meighani, M. A. Baghestani, M. J. Mirhadi and M. R. Labbafi Full Length Research Paper Diversity in field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) populations collected from Karaj, Varamin, and Damavad during 2006 (for seed collection) to 2007 (for seed germination and plant growth in green-house) at the Weed Research Department, Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute for identification of morphophysiological variation using multivariate analysis methods. The most important variables were shoot dry weight, leaf dry weight, and leaf area, respectively. Results showed 11, 15 and 16 biotypes in Karaj, Varamin, and Damavand populations, respectively. Varamin was clustered near to Damavand, but both these populations had significant differences with Karaj population. Key words: Biodiversity, ecotype, biotype, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, field bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/36DD2EB10582 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000152 en Copyright © 2009 A. Mehrafarin, F. Meighani, M. A. Baghestani, M. J. Mirhadi and M. R. Labbafi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:0CE91AB10576 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Stomatal features and humidification potentials of Borassus aethiopum, Oreodoxa regia and Cocos nucifera A. A. Abdulrahaman and F. A. Oladele Full Length Research Paper The atmosphere contains water vapors which humidifies it and later condenses in order to form cloud and subsequently rainfall. The falling of rain is an inevitably necessary thing for plants and animals, which in turn release water back to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration. Larger portion of water is obtained in the atmosphere through plant transpiration. Transpiration rate is relatively regulated by the opening and closing processes of stomata located on the leaf surfaces. Leaves of Borassus aethiopum, Oreodoxa regia and Cocos nucifera are hypoamphistomatic, epiamphistomatic and hypostomatic respectively. Tetracytic stomata were present in B. aethiopum and O. regia and paracytic stomata in C. nucifera. Stomatal size and density show differences from one species to another as feature, which influences rate of transpiration. O. regia has more stomata on its adaxial surface than abaxial (hypoamphistomatic), tetracytic stomata, large stomata and high stomatal density transpired at faster rate (7.63x10-5 mol/m2/s) and humidifies the atmosphere faster than C. nucifera with paracytic stomata which were restricted to adaxial surface. Key words: Stomatal complex types, atmosphere, humidification, palms, transpiration. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/0CE91AB10576 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000231 en Copyright © 2009 A. A. Abdulrahaman and F. A. Oladele
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:744EE4810569 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Evaluation of some hybrid rice varieties in under different sowing times Ali Abdalla Basyouni Abou-Khalif Full Length Research Paper A field experiment was conducted in the experimental farm of Rice Research and Training Center (RRTC) ndash; Sakha, Kafr- El Sheikh Governorate, and Egypt during rice season in 2008 for physiological evaluation of some hybrid rice varieties in different sowing dates. Four hybrid rice H1, H2, GZ 6522 and GZ 6903 were used. Seeds were sown on six different sowing dates April 10th, April 20th, May 1st, May 10th, May 20th and June 1st; and seedlings of 26 days old were transplanted at 20 acute;20 cm spacing. All agricultural practices recommended for each cultivar were applied. Nitrogen fertilizer was used as urea (46.5% N) in two splits; that is, 2/3 were added and mixed in dry soil before flooding of irrigation water and the other 1/3 was added at panicle initiation stage. Experimental design was spilt plot design, with sowing dates as main and varieties as sub plot treatments. Results indicated that early date of sowing (April 20th) was superior to other dates of sowing for MT, PI, HD, number of tillers /M2, (plant height and root length) at PI and HD stage, chlorophyll content, number of days up to PI and HD, leaf area index, sink capacity , spikelets-leaf area ratio, number of grains / panicle, panicle length(cm), 1000-grain weight (g), number of panicles/ M2, panicle weight (g) and grain yield (ton/ha). Sterility percentage was the lowest in sowing 20th April. 1st of June, sowing gave the lowest with all traits under study. H1 hybrid rice variety surpassed other varieties for all characters studied except for number of days to PI and HD. Key words: Sowing dates, hybrid rice, physiological characters and yield. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/744EE4810569 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000118 en Copyright © 2009 Ali Abdalla Basyouni Abou-Khalif
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:F05204710814 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Screening of low temperature tolerance on cassava genotypes according tostomatal conductances S. O. Akparobi Full Length Research Paper 8 cassava genotypes were evaluated under growth chambers (15/10, 20/15, 25/20 and 32/22deg;C day/night temperature respectively) and field conditions (Ibadan: 27B plusmn; 5deg;C and Jos plateau: 18 plusmn; 5deg;C) from 1993 to 1996. In a growth chamber study, none of the tested genotypes survived after 3 week at 15/10deg;C, low temperature regimes by 20/15 and 25/20deg;C had significantly (P lt; 0.05) reduced leaf stomatal conductances compared to high temperature, 32/22deg;C. the abaxial stomatal conductance ranged from 0.13 to 0.63 mol ms-1. The total dry biomass per plant was higher at ambient than at lower temperature (20/15deg;C). In a field study, stomatal conductances were significantly higher at Ibadan compared to Jos plateau. The leaf stomatal conductance ranged from 5.6 to 21.0 mol ms-1. Genotypic variations were observed by stomatal conductances depending on temperature regimes and locations. At 20/15deg;C and Jos plateau, TMS 91934, Danwaru, TMS 30572 and TME1 had the highest leaf stomatal conductances. This result showed that high stomatal conductances contributed to the tolerance of TMS 91934, TMS 30572 and TME1 to low temperatures, these genotypes had the highest total dry biomass compared to other evaluated genotypes. The correlation of dry biomass with stomatal conductances (r = 0.77, n = 8) suggest that high stomatal conductances are important physiological characteristics of cassava genotypes tolerant to low temperatures. Key words: Low temperature, stomatal, tolerance, cassava genotypes. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/F05204710814 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000215 en Copyright © 2009 S. O. Akparobi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:428DFAC10808 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Cellulase activity in tomato fruits infected with Penicillium funiculosum Thom. Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon, Adejoke Oluwasola Oni, Adesola Adetutu Ajayi, and Patrick Ojo Olutiola Full Length Research Paper Within eight days of incubation at room temperature (27oC), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits infected with Penicillium funiculosum Thom. had deteriorated. Extracts from the infected fruits exhibited cellulase activity. Uninfected fruits lacked cellulase activity. The enzyme was partially purified by a combination of gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. On separation by molecular exclusion chromatography, two peaks of absorption with molecular weight estimates of 223,800 Daltons and 89,100 Daltons were obtained. Only the components of the peak with the lighter weight exhibited cellulase activity. The enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 4.5 and 40oC. Na+ ions and Ca++ ions stimulated enzyme activity while EDTA and Hg++ ions were inhibitory. The apparent km for the hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose was approximately 0.53 mgml-1. The occurrence of cellulase in tomato fruits infected with P. funiculosumThom. and its absence in uninfected fruits suggests a role of this enzyme in pathogenicity of the fungus. Cellulolytic components of the fruits are degraded, the fruits are deteriorated and lost to this post harvest pathogen. Knowledge of the conditions of growth of this fungus and properties of this enzyme will assist the farmer in optimizing production of these fruits and engaging the best conditions for preservation. Key word: Gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, enzyme activity, molecular weight, Carboxymethyl-cellulose, deteriorated, infected. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/428DFAC10808 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000038 en Copyright © 2009 Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon, Adejoke Oluwasola Oni, Adesola Adetutu Ajayi, and Patrick Ojo Olutiola
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:B3A840310802 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Stomatal complex types and transpiration rates in some tropical tuber species Saadu, R. O., Abdulrahaman, A. A. and Oladele, F. A. Full Length Research Paper Anatomical study of the leaf epidermis in 6 tuber species namely Manihot esculenta Crantz, Cyperus esculentus Linn. Ipomoea batatas Linn., Xanthosoma sagittifolium Schott, Colocasia esculenta Schott and Caladium hortulanum Vent was conducted. Among these species, only C. esculenta has epistomatic leaves with stomata occurring only on the adaxial or upper surface of the leaf. The remaining 5 species have amphistomatic leaves, with stomata on both surfaces of the leaf. M. esculenta, C. esculentus and I. batatas have paracytic stomatal complex type with a frequency of 100%, while X. sagittifolium, C. esculenta and C.hortulanum have brachy-paracytic stomatal complex type with a frequency of 100%. Species with stomatal density range of 22 - 26 stomata per square millimetre, namely I. batatas, X. sagittifolium, C. esculentus and C. esculenta were the most transpiring with high potentials for humidification of the atmosphere. Those species with the density range of 16 - 21 stomata per square millimetre, namely C. hortulanum and M. esculenta were the least transpiring with low humidification potentials. There was no positive correlation between stomatal size and transpiration rate as C. hortulanum with the highest stomatal size had the least rate of transpiration. However, stomatal index, that is, the % spread of stomata was positively correlated with transpiration as I. batatas with the highest stomatal index of 20.94 had the highest rate of transpiration. Massive cultivation of these tuberous species through intercropping with tree species may help in combating drought and desertification processes. Since these tubers with the exception of C. hortulanum are edible, there is added advantage of increased food production, through this suggested cropping system. I. batatas being a creeping plant can also be a useful cover crop as part of conservation measures for desertified or exposed areas. Key words: Tuber species, stomatal complex types, transpiration. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/B3A840310802 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000230 en Copyright © 2009 Saadu, R. O., Abdulrahaman, A. A. and Oladele, F. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:9CC764310759 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Screening of four common Nigerian weeds for use in phytoremediation of soil contaminated with spent lubricating oil Ogbo Erute Magdalene, Avwerosovwe Ufuoma and Odogu Gloria Full Length Research Paper Phytoremediation is a non destructive and cost effective in situ technology that can be used for the cleanup of contaminated soils. The potential for this technology in the tropics is high due to the prevailing climatic conditions which favour plant growth and stimulates microbial activity. The present study investigated the use of use of 4 common weeds in Nigeria - (Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn.,Hyptis spicigera Lam., Sida rhombifolia L. and Mariscus alternifolius Vahl.) for their reaction to spent lubricating oil contamination and subsequent reduction of the contaminant by the plants. Shoot length, leaf area and root length and chlorophyll contents were determined for these plants grown in spent lubricating oil contaminated soils. The residual hydrocarbons were extracted from soil and percentage degradation was gravimetrically determined for the total hydrocarbons and saturated hydrocarbons present in the spent lubricating oil. The contamination caused a reduction in the shoot length, leaf area, root length and total chlorophyll content of the test plants used. A statistically significant influence of spent lubricating oil on the test plants could not however be established. The degradation of total petroleum content was low as the highest degradation recorded was 35.30% for the plant P. amarus, however appreciable degradation of the saturated hydrocarbons as the plant S. rhombifolia and M. alternifolia removed over 60% of the saturated hydrocarbons present. H. spicigera recorded the least degradation for the saturated hydrocarbons (39.04%). The growth of the plants- S. rhombifoliaand M. alternifolius which caused a reduction of over 60% of the saturated hydrocarbons makes these 2 plants choice plants for the remediation of spent lubricating oil from contaminated soils. The 2 plants are unwanted plants indigenous to Nigeria and can be found growing abundantly in the wild. Key words: Phytoremediation, phyto-assessment, contamination, spent lubricating oil. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/9CC764310759 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000214 en Copyright © 2009 Ogbo Erute Magdalene, Avwerosovwe Ufuoma and Odogu Gloria
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:37FCB0910607 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Quantitative genetic parameters in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze): I. combining abilities for yield, drought tolerance and quality traits S. M. Kamunya, F. N. Wachira, R. S. Pathak, R. C. Muoki, J. K. Wanyoko, W. K. Ronno and R. K. Sharma Full Length Research Paper The combining abilities for yield, drought tolerance and quality related traits inCamellia sinensis were estimated using a 4 x 4 full diallel mating design. There was significant phenotypic variation for the nine traits measured among the progeny and their parents. Generally, parents with good combining ability produced progeny with above average performance for all the traits evaluated. The general combining ability (GCA) effects were significant for all but one black tea quality trait, TF:TR, while specific combining ability (SCA) effects were significant for fermentability, pubescence and bud weight. All the traits but TF:TR however were predominantly governed by additive gene effects. Strong maternal influence for all traits was evident except for thearubigins and bud weight signifying the importance of the choice of female parents in tea breeding programmes targeting yield, abiotic stress related traits and processing of black tea and special tea products like the silvery tips. Significant non-additive effects were demonstrated by all traits apart from yield, TF:TR and bud weight. However, only drought tolerance, TF and pubescence exhibited unidirectional dominance effects. The results show that the assessed traits are highly heritable and guided breeding and judicious clonal selection would lead to further tea improvement. Although no trait can be treated singly, utilization of open pollinated seed targeted towards improvement of yield and black tea quality traits particularly high levels of total polyphenols and pubescence aimed at developing a designer clone for specialty tea product would suffice given judicious choice and inclusion of suitable progenitors in seed orchards. It is inferred that the basic information about combining abilities is valuable for breeding of elite cultivars. Key words: Tea, Camellia sinensis, general combining ability, specific combining ability. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/37FCB0910607 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000196 en Copyright © 2009 S. M. Kamunya, F. N. Wachira, R. S. Pathak, R. C. Muoki, J. K. Wanyoko, W. K. Ronno and R. K. Sharma
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:D1170F510953 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Physiological and anatomical comparison between four different apple cultivars under cold-storage conditions Saleh A. M. Ghafir, Suliman O. Gadalla, Benissa N. Murajei and Mohamed Fathi El-Nady Full Length Research Paper The work was carried out in two successive seasons (2005 and 2006) to investigate the storability of four apple cultivars viz. Golden Delicious, Starking Delicious, Star Cremson and Gala, which were grown under El Jabal El Akhdaer conditions, in Libya. Fruits were harvested and stored at 85-90% relative humidity and 0ordm;C for 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days. The obtained results exhibited the significant differences between the tested cultivars in the studied parameters comprising physiological and anatomical parameters. Star Cremson cv. had a potentially high fruits storability trend, as they showed less fruit weight loss, while cv. Gala fruits had the highest level of weight loss. On the other hand, cv. Golden Delicious gave the highest values of fruit firmness, while the lowest values were obtained in fruits of cvs. Starking Delicious and Star Cremson. Fruit weight loss percent increased, while other studied parameters decreased gradually by extending storage period. Anatomical data demonstrated that fruit surface of cvs. Gala and Star Cremson were smooth, while undulate and ripples surfaces were obtained in cvs. Starking Delicious and Golden Delicious, respectively. Gala fruits had the thick cuticle layer compared to the other cultivars. Crushed parenchymatous cells (cpc) were found in storage tissue in Starking Delicious and Golden Delicious. It may be concluded that obtained results indicated a great variability among cultivars. All studied parameters of four apple cultivars reduced during cold-storage periods. The highest fruit storability was achieved in cv. Star Cremson. This study gives useful information to use the suitable cultivar for reducing the quality losses which result from postharvest diseases. Key words: Apple cultivars, cold-storage, cuticle, crushed parenchymatous cells, storability. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/D1170F510953 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000186 en Copyright © 2009 Saleh A. M. Ghafir, Suliman O. Gadalla, Benissa N. Murajei and Mohamed Fathi El-Nady
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:53DF1F910842 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Antifungal properties of some locally used spices in Nigeria against some rot fungi Ayodele, S. M., Ilondu, E. M. and Onwubolu, N. C. Full Length Research Paper Water extracts of three spices (Allium sativum, Afromumum melegueta andZingiber officinale) were tested for antifungal activities against three rot fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium notatum ) using mycelial growth extension method. The extracts showed varying degrees of antifungal activities against the test fungi. P. notatum was observed as the most susceptible fungus while A. niger was the least susceptible. There was no significant difference (P=0.05) in the antifungal activities of the three spices against the test fungi. The effectiveness of the spices extracts increased with increase in extract concentrations. The result of this study indicated that the three spices can be used as alternatives to chemical preservatives of agricultural products against fungal rots caused by the three fungi in storage. Keywords: Antifungal properties, Allium sativum, Afromomum melegueta Zingiber officinale, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium notatum. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/53DF1F910842 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000021 en Copyright © 2009 Ayodele, S. M., Ilondu, E. M. and Onwubolu, N. C.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:184D8BB10834 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Genotype x environment interaction for soybean grain yield and other reproductive characters in the forest and savanna agro-ecologies of South-West Nigeria Akande, S. R., Taiwo, L. B., Adegbite, A. A. and Owolade, O. F. Full Length Research Paper Eight soybean varieties were evaluated in 2006 and 2007 at three locations in the forest and savanna agro-ecologies of South west Nigeria for grain yield and other reproductive characters. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and genotype plus genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot analysis. The main effects of year, location, variety and their interactions had significant effects on all the characters except pod length and number of seeds per pod. Among the varieties, number of days to 50% flowering, number of seeds per pod and 100 seed weight had average values of 45.29, 2.31 and 13.07 respectively while that of grain yield was 1027.49 kg/ha. The highest yielding variety across years and locations was TGx 1805-31F while TGx 1485-1D had the lowest value. Grain yields recorded in 2006 and 2007 were 1059.94 and 995.04 kg/ha. Ballah (southern guinea savanna) produced the highest grain yield while Ilora (derived savanna) had the least. GGE biplot analysis showed that genotype, location and genotype x location interaction were responsible for 21.66, 37.63 and 40.71% of their total variations respectively. The variety TGx 1922-1F was found to be high yielding and stable. Suitable varieties were also identified for the three locations under evaluation. Key words: Soybean, genotype, environment, grain yield, adaptation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/184D8BB10834 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000130 en Copyright © 2009 Akande, S. R., Taiwo, L. B., Adegbite, A. A. and Owolade, O. F.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:E9B446510830 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Characterization of callus formation in leaf of Euphorbia helioscopia Zi-Song Yang, Guang-Deng Chen, Yun-Xiang Li, and Jiao Chen, Full Length Research Paper The callus was induced on Murashige and Skoogrsquo;s (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlo-rophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) from the Chinese medicinal herb Euphorbia helioscopia in the family Euphorbiaceae. The highest frequencies of callus induction were observed on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg l-1 2,4-D. Callus (yellow, loose, granular) was chosen as research focus in the long-term callus maintenance, the proliferation coefficient could still hold about 10 after subcultured 5 turns. Histological analysis was done to reveal the developmental pattern of callus formation. Detailed analysis revealed induction of leaf yielded many endogenous eumeristematic cells which were still embedded in the parenchymatic tissue. Key words: Euphorbia helioscopia, callus induction, callus maintenance, histological, developmental pattern. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/E9B446510830 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000042 en Copyright © 2009 Zi-Song Yang, Guang-Deng Chen, Yun-Xiang Li, and Jiao Chen,
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:5DA05F310994 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Antiviral properties of two Nigerian plants O. O. Ojo, J. O. Oluyege and O. Famurewa Short Communication Ethanolic extracts were prepared from Bambusa vulgaris and Aframomum melegueta. They were analysed for antiviral activities against three human viruses namely: measles, yellow fever and polio viruses by standard laboratory tests. Both extracts showed antiviral activities against one or two viruses. B. vulgaris resulted in inhibition only on measles virus at MIC of 62.5 g/ml while A. melegueta inhibited measles and yellow fever viruses at MICs of 125 and 250 g/ml respectively. Polio virus type 1 was not susceptible to any of these extracts. Key words: Bambusa vulgaris, Aframomum melegueta. antiviral measles, yellow fever and polio viruses. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/5DA05F310994 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000025 en Copyright © 2009 O. O. Ojo, J. O. Oluyege and O. Famurewa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:695756C10988 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Agronomic, culinary, and genetic characterization of selected cowpea elite lines using farmers’ and breeder’s knowledge: A case study from Malawi K. K. Nkongolo, J. Bokosi, M. Malusi, Z. Vokhiwa, and M. Mphepo Full Length Research Paper Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important crop in Malawi. It provides dietary nutrients and income to poor-resource farmers. However production and productivity are below the potential level due to lack of suitable varieties. The objective of the study was to select the productive and diverse cowpea varieties that are acceptable to farmers and consumers using a participatory variety selection (PVS) strategy. Farmersrsquo; perceptions based on focused group discussions, and interviews varied little among the villages. Yield was the most frequently used selection criteria by farmers, regardless of gender profile. There was great variability for seed production among entries. Other agronomic traits such as days to maturity, seed size, pod shape, disease resistance, growth habit, culinary traits including taste, cooking time, broth color and thickness were used at different stages of the selection process. Initially, farmers were invited at the research stations to select the best 20 lines out of 127 entries. These selected lines were subjected to further evaluation in community plots managed by male and female farmers. The genetic analysis revealed a high level of genetic variation among accessions and confirms the absence of redundancy within the genetic materials used. At the end, farmers selected six entries that were released in the two agricultural development divisions (ADDs). The present study is the first documented case of multidisciplinary approach for the selection of elite accessions while maintaining biodiversity. Key words: Participatory variety selection, Vigna unguiculata, Malawi, agrobiodiversity, indigenous knowledge. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/695756C10988 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000009 en Copyright © 2009 K. K. Nkongolo, J. Bokosi, M. Malusi, Z. Vokhiwa, and M. Mphepo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:75C10D210972 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Effect of benzyl amino purine (BAP), coconut milk (CM) and manure applications on leaf senescence and yield in photoperiod sensitive cowpea variety (Kanannado) F. B. Mukhtar, M. Mohammed and A. H. Ajeigbe Full Length Research Paper The relationship between leaf senescence in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.] and yield was studied in pot grown population of a local variety, kanannado. Treatments comprising of farm yard manure (single and double application), 200 ppm benzyl amino purine (BAP), 15% coconut milk (CM) and a combination of both manure and the hormones were also applied to determine their effects on senescence and yield. The experiment was carried out at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (I.I.T.A), Kano station, Nigeria. Chlorophyll level was increased by all the treatments with greater increase in the 200ppm BAP and 15% CM treated plants. The level of chlorophyll also decreased with increase in age of the cowpea plants. Senescence commenced earlier and progressed faster in the manure treated plants while it was significantly delayed by 200ppm BAP and 15% CM. Fodder and grain yields were greater in all the treated cowpea plants compared with the control. Interactive effects were observed in the combined treatments (manure +15% coconut milk and manure +200 ppm BAP) as chlorophyll increased above that of manure and control plants. Also senescence process was delayed and yield was increased. The study suggests that leaf senescence in the photoperiod sensitive cowpea could be delayed by application of 200 ppm BAP, 15% CM and a combination of manure +15% CM and manure +200 ppm BAP and the delayed senescence resulted in increase in yield. Key words: Farmyard manure, benzyl amino purine, coconut milk, leaf senescence, yield Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/75C10D210972 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000074 en Copyright © 2009 F. B. Mukhtar, M. Mohammed and A. H. Ajeigbe
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:9B3443411070 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Radiosensitivity test on two varieties of Terengganu and Arab used in mutation breeding of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) S. S. Harding and O. Mohamad Short Communication A study was carried out in a greenhouse to determine the effective doses for mutation breeding of roselle during the year 2006/2007. Seedling height was the parameter recorded at 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks after sowing of M1 seeds of 2 varieties Terengganu and Arab. The results indicated that increasing doses of gamma irradiation from 0 to 1200 Gy in steps of 100 Grey (Gy) caused increasing physiological effect on seedling height. There was a progressive increase in seedling height from 2 until 5 weeks after sowing. However, at week 2 and 3 after sowing there was no significant difference between seedling heights. The LD50values determined from regression analyses for Terengganu based on seedling height were 754, 821.4, 761.7 and 766.7% at 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks after sowing, respectively and the LD50 values for Arab were 773.8.%, 804.1.%, 704.2 and 708.3% at 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks, respectively. 2 weeks after sowing appears to be the most appropriate time for data collection. The LD50 values at 2 weeks were not significantly different from 3, 4 and 5 weeks after sowing. The LD50 values for Terengganu and Arab determined at 2 weeks were 754 and 773.8%, respectively. Key words: Roselle, mutation breeding, seedling height, LD50, radiosensitivity, dosimetry, Hibiscus sabdariffa, gamma irradiation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/9B3443411070 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000198 en Copyright © 2009 S. S. Harding and O. Mohamad
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:54DD22C11039 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Improvement of mungbean varieties through induced mutations Samiullah Khan and Sonu Goyal Full Length Research Paper Mutations were induced in two mungbean varieties, K-851 and PS-16 using EMS and gamma rays as mutagens. Selection studies were conducted to improve the yield and to generate genetic variability in different quantitative traits viz., fertile branches per plant, pods per plant and seed yield per plant. Mean values in traits increase significantly over the controls and genetic parameters were recorded higher for the mutants isolated in M5 generation. High values of heritability and genetic advance for the mutants indicate that further improvement could be made in next generations. Key words: Mungbean, EMS, gamma rays, genetic variability, selection, yield Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/54DD22C11039 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000143 en Copyright © 2009 Samiullah Khan and Sonu Goyal
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:5AA733B11029 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Genetic differentiation of Senna tora (L.) Roxb. and Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby by using RAPD markers Vivek Tripathi, Sandhya Goswami, Anil Kumar and Palpu Pushpangadan Full Length Research Paper Genetic relationships were examined among 19 accessions belonging to twoSenna species by using RAPD markers. Within 60 tested primers, 9 primers only produced clear banding patterns that have been expected. An initial test of 60 primers, gave only 9 with consistently clear banding patterns. These 9 primers generated 108 scorable amplified products, of which 72 were polymorphic (66.6%). This degree of polymorphism is relatively low. An average of 12 bands was obtained per primer, ranging in size from 150 to 3530 bp. A UPGMA cluster analysis of genetic similarity indices grouped all the accessions into two major clusters corresponding to the pre-existing, species-level classification. Our result showed that RAPD technique is a sensitive, precise and efficient tool for genomic analysis in genetical discrimination of Senna species that may be useful in future studies by assigning new, unclassified germplasm accessions to specific taxonomic groups and reclassifying incorrectly classified accessions of otherSenna species. Key words: Molecular taxonomy, Senna tora L. and Senna obtusifolia L. RAPD. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/5AA733B11029 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000127 en Copyright © 2009 Vivek Tripathi, Sandhya Goswami, Anil Kumar and Palpu Pushpangadan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:C9BC15D11012 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Litter production, decomposition and physico-chemical properties of soil in 3 developed agroforestry systems of Meghalaya, Northeast India O. P. Tripathi, H. N. Pandey and R. S. Tripathi Full Length Research Paper The present study was conducted under 3 developed agroforestry systems that is, Khasi mandarin (Citrus reticulata), Alder (Alnus nepalensis) and Khasi pine (Pinus kesiya) in the state of Meghalaya, northeast India to study the litter dynamics and physico-chemical properties of soil. The findings of our investigation revealed that the soil texture in 3 systems varied from sandy to loamy sand and water holding capacity varied significantly (P lt; 0.05) between plots and depths. Porosity and soil temperature was higher at surface layer than into the subsurface layer. Soil was acidic in all the plots. Soil organic carbon as well as organic matter content was high in Khasi mandarin-based system than the other systems. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration was low in all the soils. It was lowest in Khasi pine based system and a similar trend was observed in concentrations of available phosphorus and potassium. Monthly variation in litter mass varied markedly between different agroforestry systems. The leaf litter constituted 65 - 76% of total litter mass. The rate of weight loss of Alder leaf litter was much faster than other 2 species. Litter decomposition was fast during rainy season and slow during winter season. Rate of release of nitrogen and phosphorus from the decaying leaf litter of Alder occurred at much faster rate compared to Khasi mandarin and Khasi pine, however, potassium release was faster from Khasi mandarin. Total input of N, P and K through litter was higher in Khasi than other 2 species due to greater litter production. Key words: Agroforestry systems, litter accumulation, nutrient release, soil properties, northeast India. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/C9BC15D11012 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000160 en Copyright © 2009 O. P. Tripathi, H. N. Pandey and R. S. Tripathi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:A654A6011077 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Growth parameters of Pistacia atlantica Desf under different soil conditions in Iran Sedigheh Rezaeyan, Mohammad Reza Pourmajidian, Hamid Jalilvand and Aidin Parsakhoo Full Length Research Paper Pistacia atlantica Desf. is one of the most important wild species in Zagros forests which is of high economical and environmental value. Therefore the investigation on the vegetative parameters of this native species is necessary. The study was conducted in Shoorab nursery placed in Khoram Abad city, which was located in west of Iran. Experiment was carried out based on randomized plot (block) design including 4 soil treatments (pure forest soil, sandy soil, nursery soil and mixed forest soil) with 100 replications for each treatment. The height, vitality, and leaf number, collar diameter, survival, stem length, root length, stem: root length ratio and stem: root dry weight ratio of P. atlantica Desf seedlings were measured. The results showed significant effects of different soil treatments on different growth properties of seedlings except for effects on root length and stem: root length ratio. Grown seedlings on the forest soil had highest height, vitality, leaf number and survival, while the stem: root dry weight ratio for grown seedlings on this soil type was the least. The greatest collar diameter growth was observed on seedlings grown on the nursery soil. In conclusion the forest soil had better effects on vegetative parameters of Pistacia atlantica Desf seedlings. Key words: Soil treatments, Pistacia atlantica desf., seedlings, vegetative parameters, nursery. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/A654A6011077 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000133 en Copyright © 2009 Sedigheh Rezaeyan, Mohammad Reza Pourmajidian, Hamid Jalilvand and Aidin Parsakhoo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:CF43BCA11090 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
The structure and function of trichomes in the leaf of Salvia repens Burch. Ex Benth Buyisile Mayekiso, Zoleka Mhinana and Micheal L. Magwa Full Length Research Paper The anatomical investigation using scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that Salvia repens is characterized by both non-glandular and glandular trichomes. It has been demonstrated that both trichomes appeared to originate from epidermal cells of the leaf, stem and vegetative area through a series of periclinal and anticlinal division. Non-glandular trichomes were composed of uniseriate cells. The terminal cells of the non-glandular trichomes were the first cells to mature. A progressive maturity resulted in continuous death of the uniseriate cells progressing towards the basipetal position. The dead cells resembled fibrous like clothing threads which were covering the epidermis. Structurally, these fibrous ends were similar in composition to the components of the suberized cell wall. The glandular trichomes were multicellular and uniseriated. Their shape ranged from oval to club, and they were composed of a basal cell, stalk cell and a three to four sided glandular head. The orientation of these glandular trichomes was not uniform, however, a different orientation of glandular trichomes was observed in the leaves and stem. The micrograph of these glandular trichomes showed that they started as outgrowth of the epidermis cells, and subsequent periclinal division followed by anticlinal division, giving rise to a trichome with a basal epidermal cell, stalk cell and three to four celled secretory head. At maturity the glandular trichome gland cells contained a distended cuticular sac due to the accumulation of the essential oil. Key words: Non-glandular, glandular trichomes in Salvia repens. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/CF43BCA11090 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000251 en Copyright © 2009 Buyisile Mayekiso, Zoleka Mhinana and Micheal L. Magwa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:D29413911096 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Habitat studies for conservation of medicinal orchids of Uttarakhand, Western Himalaya Jeewan Singh Jalal and Gopal Singh Rawat Full Length Research Paper An extensive sampling was conducted for medicinal orchids in the state of Uttarakhand between the years 2003 to 2005 covering an altitudinal range of 600 ndash; 3600 m. Transects of 1 km length were laid randomly in various habitat types depending upon the geographical coverage of the habitats. Six medicinal orchid species belonging to four genera were recorded in different habitats. Dactylorhiza hatagirea and Habenaria intermedia are highly endangered in the state. A total of seven habitat types were identified where medicinal orchids were found. Among seven habitats Banj-oak habitat was found the most suitable habitat for the orchids followed by Mixed-oak and Banj Grassy Slopes. Key words: Uttarakhand, medicinal orchids, habitat, Banj-oak, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Habenaria intermedia. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/D29413911096 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000136 en Copyright © 2009 Jeewan Singh Jalal and Gopal Singh Rawat
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:897CDBE11101 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Activity concentration of radionuclides in plants in the environment of western Ghats, India P. K. Manigandan Full Length Research Paper A field study on the transfer of primordial radionuclides 238U, 232Th, 40K and fallout radionuclides 210Po in different plant species in tropical forest of western Ghats environment, India, is presented. The Top storey, Short storey, Shrubs and Epiphytic plant species were sampled and concentration of these radionuclides in plant and soil were measured by employing a gamma ray spectrometer and an alpha counter. The soil-plant concentration ratio shows the variation of radionuclide accumulation in different species while a wild plant Elaeocarpus oblongus and epiphytic plants indicated preferential uptake of these radionuclides. The dust particles dust trapped in the root system of epiphytic plants could be used as bioindicator to monitor fallout radionuclides in the Western Ghats. The concentration of 232Th and 40K in leaves depends on the age of the leaves Key words: Western Ghats, primordial radionuclides, concentration ratio,Elaeocarpus oblongus, bioindicator. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/897CDBE11101 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000008 en Copyright © 2009 P. K. Manigandan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:836C8B111108 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Diversity and abundance of soil mesofauna and microbial population in South–Western Nigeria Adeduntan, Sunday Adeniyi Full Length Research Paper The study was carried out to examine the diversity and abundance of soil mesofauna and microbial population in three (3) Forest Reserves in Southwestern Nigeria (Oluwa, Omo and Akure forest reserves). Soil samples were collected from the study areas and the mesofauna present were isolated and identified. The bacteria count and fungi count were also obtained and identified. The pH was also determined likewise the soil physical properties were obtained. It was observed that the diversity and abundance of bacteria were significantly higher (plt; 0.05) in Oluwa Forest Reserve and significantly lower in Omo Forest Reserve. There were no significant differences (pgt;0.05) in the fungi diversity and abundance in the study habitats. The results for the soil pH show that 5.83, 5.93 and 6.40 values were obtained for Omo, Akure and Oluwa forest reserves respectively. Also, there were no significant differences in the soil physical properties recorded from the study habitats. The Shannon- Weiner diversity index for the mesofauna for Omo, Oluwa and Akure Forest Freserves were 1.69, 0.19 and 1.82 respectively. Furthermore, the species evenness for Omo Forest Reserve is 0.19, while it was 0.19 and 0.20 for Oluwa and Akure Forest Reserves respectively. This shows that species diversity of mesofauna in Omo and Akure Forest Reserves were significantly (plt;0.05) higher than what was obtained from Oluwa Forest Reserve. The correlation coefficient values indicated that there was no significant correlation between soil pH and bacteria count in both Oluwa and Akure Forest Reserve (R2 lt; 50%). But, there is a significant correlation between soil pH and bacteria count in Omo Forest Reserve (R2 gt; 50%). Likewise, there were no significant correlation between the soil pH and fungi count and between the soil pH and mesofauna in all the three Forest types / habitats. Key words: Mesofauna, forest reserve, habitat, diversity, micro-organism. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/836C8B111108 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000063 en Copyright © 2009 Adeduntan, Sunday Adeniyi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:32A65E611115 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Studying of essential oil variations in leaves of Mentha species Bohloul Abbaszadeh, Sayed Alireza Valadabadi, Hossein Aliabadi Farahani and Hossein Hasanpour Darvishi Full Length Research Paper To evaluate the beneficial impacts of different species on mint, some yield characters were investigated. Our objective in this research was the studying of different species effects on essential oil variations. In this respect, the experimental unit had designed by achieved treatment in completely randomized block design with three replicates. The factor including mint species (Mentha longifolia var. amphilema (from Qazvin and Ardabil localities), Mentha spicata (from Tehran and Yazd localities), Mentha piperita (from Tehran and Ardabil localities), Mentha aquatica (from Gheilan and Ardabil localities)) at Iran was studied. Our final statistical analysis was indicated that mint species significantly affected essential oil yield of leaves, essential oil percentage of leaves and leaf yield (P lt; 0.01) and leaf length (P lt; 0.05). M. longifalia var. amphilema from Ardabil locality were provided highest essential oil yield of leaves (25.13 kg/ha) and essential oil percentage of leaves (1.64%). Longest leaf length (4.01 cm) was achieved by M. piperita from Tehran locality and highest leaf yield (914.4 kg/ha) was obtained byM. aquatica from Tehran locality. Our findings indicated that were significant difference between essential oil variations of mint species. Therefore, the selection of species that performs well over a wide range of environments can increases essential oil yield of medicinal and aromatic plants. Key words: Mentha species, essential oil yield of leaves, essential oil percentage of leaves and leaf yield. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/32A65E611115 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000242 en Copyright © 2009 Bohloul Abbaszadeh, Sayed Alireza Valadabadi, Hossein Aliabadi Farahani and Hossein Hasanpour Darvishi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:C60B76D11126 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Analysis of phenanthrene biosorption to the roots of Cyperus hermaphroditus by microscopy, spectroscopy and photoacoustic techniques Angeacute;lica Guerrero Zuacute;ntilde;iga, Alfredo Cruz Orea, Juvencio Galiacute;ndez Mayer and Angeacute;lica Rodriacute;guez Dorantes Full Length Research Paper Understanding the process of contaminant accumulation by plants is essential to assessing crop contamination; organic chemicals may be adsorbed to roots and then be taken up, translocated, metabolized, or transpired by plants. The biosorption of phenanthrene by the radical system of Cyperus hermaphroditus,was studied by plants exposed to different concentrations of this pollutant, during 3 and 12 days and phenanthrene adsorbed was detected by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques and measured by photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). The sorption of phenanthrene in this species increased with plant age and the exposition time to the contaminant, due to the root mass with more surface area that enhanced affinity of the roots for the contaminant. The radical system of C. hermaphroditus may thus provide a surface for phenanthrene biosorption; that could be an important control in the immobilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Key words: Phenanthrene, radical system, photoacoustic spectroscopy. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/C60B76D11126 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000016 en Copyright © 2009 Angeacute;lica Guerrero Zuacute;ntilde;iga, Alfredo Cruz Orea, Juvencio Galiacute;ndez Mayer and Angeacute;lica Rodriacute;guez Dorantes
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:0B97A6F11131 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Evaluation of cowpea genotypes for soil moisture stress tolerance under screen house conditions Y. A. Abayomi and T. O. Abidoye Full Length Research Paper A potted experiment was conducted in a screen house at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria to evaluate the growth and grain yield responses of 10 genotypes of cowpea to soil moisture stresses. The experiment was designed as a 4 x 10 factorial and laid out in split-plots arrangement, evaluated ten genotypes of cowpea at four soil moisture stress levels with all factorial combinations replicated four times. Growth and flowering parameters were measured at full flowering, while yield components as well as grain yield per plant were determined at plant maturity. All data collected were analysed using analysis of variance and moisture stress tolerance was evaluated by the rank summation index (RSI). Plant height, numbers of leaves and flowers per plant increased significantly with decreasing soil moisture stress. However, higher soil moisture stress levels have no appreciable effects on branching, but delayed onset of and time to full flowering. Numbers of pods and seeds, HI and shelling percentage as well as grain yield decreased with increasing soil moisture stress, while biomass yield was not significantly influenced by the stress. The overall rankings of the evaluated genotypes in terms of growth and grain yield responses to soil moisture stress tolerance from the best to the worst are IT97K-499-38 gt; IT99K-1060 gt; ITA 271 gt; IT99K-1245 gt; ITA 352 gt; IT97K-598-18 gt; IT98K-131-2 gt; IT97K-356-1 gt; IT98K-491-4 gt; IT00K-901-5. Not withstanding these ranks, ITA 271 and ITA 352 had the best yield stability, while IT99K-1060 was drought tolerant but has low yield potential. Key words: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), genotypes, soil moisture stress, growth and grain yield responses, yield potential, stability. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/0B97A6F11131 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000113 en Copyright © 2009 Y. A. Abayomi and T. O. Abidoye
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:BF3044711151 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Stem and leaf anatomy of ten Geranium L. species in Iran Fahimeh Salimpoursup;, Ali Mazoojisup; and Samira Onsorisup; Full Length Research Paper An anatomical study on stem and leaf of ten species of Geranium has been performed in order to distinguish tuberous from rhizomatous species. Cross section of stem, number of palisade parenchyma, presence or absence of crystals and shape of epidermal cells in leaf are important characters to distinguish taxa. Key words: Anatomy, Taxonomy, Geraniaceae, Iran. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/BF3044711151 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000228 en Copyright © 2009 Fahimeh Salimpoursup;, Ali Mazoojisup; and Samira Onsorisup;
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:795A92B11191 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Gum arabic yield in different varieties of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd in Kenya C. Wekesa, P. Makenzi, B. N. Chikamai , J. K. Lelon, A. M. Luvanda and M. Muga Full Length Research Paper A comparative study was conducted at four locations namely Ngare Ndare, Daaba, Kulamawe and Ntumburi to assess gum arabic yield per tree per picking for different varieties of natural stands Acacia senegal (var. kerensis; var. senegal and var. leiorhachis) in Kenyan drylands for a period of five months. Sample plots measuring 1 hectare were established, one at each study site. Trees in each sample plot were measured for basal diameter and classified into three diameter classes (3.0-6.0, 6.1-9.0 and 9.0 cm). 10 trees from each diameter class were tapped while another 10 trees left untapped. Data collected was analyzed using Genstat version 10.0. Results showed that there was a significant difference in gum arabic yield (plt;0.001) between tapped and non-tapped A. senegal trees as well as between tree stems and branches. Tapping increased gum arabic yield by 77.42%. Yield was highly affected by soil moisture and soil temperature, correlating negatively and positively respectively. Trees with basal diameter of 3.0-6.0 cm produced high quantities of gum arabic than big trees of basal diameter gt;6.0 cm for A. senegal varieties senegal and leiorhachis (plt;0.001). These findings in the present study can be used for predicting yield in relation to the variety and site. Key words: Natural stands, gum arabic, yield, Acacia senegal varieties, tree tapping, basal diameter. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/795A92B11191 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000135 en Copyright © 2009 C. Wekesa, P. Makenzi, B. N. Chikamai , J. K. Lelon, A. M. Luvanda and M. Muga
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:128480411183 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
An improved method for screening Fusarium stalk rot resistance in grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] T. Tesso, N. Ochanda, L. Claflin and M. Tuinstra Full Length Research Paper Screening for resistance to Fusarium stalk rot under natural infection has been difficult because of irregularities in disease development. The toothpick inoculation technique was introduced to overcome this problem, but it lacked a mechanism to monitor inoculum dose. In this study, we introduce an improved procedure where inoculum doses are monitored and disease incubation periods are optimized. Five inoculum doses of Fusarium verticillioides (0, 1 times; 103, 1 times; 104, 1 times; 105 and 1 times; 106 conidia ml-1) and five disease incubation periods (14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days) were studied using sorghum genotypes of variable stalk rot reaction. Plants were inoculated on day 14 after flowering. Disease reaction was scored as length (cm) of necrotic lesion and number of nodes crossed. The effects of both inoculum dose and incubation period were significant. Inoculum doses of 1 times; 104 conidia ml-1 and greater and incubation periods of 21 to 42 days clearly resolved differences among genotypes. Noting the burden of producing a highly concentrated inoculum and the lack of need to keep plants after physiological maturity, incubation for 28 days following inoculation with 1 times; 104 to 1 times; 105 conidia ml-1 is recommended for germplasm screening. Key words: Stalk rot, Fusarium, Sorghum bicolor, inoculum dose (ID), incubation period (IP). Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/128480411183 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000014 en Copyright © 2009 T. Tesso, N. Ochanda, L. Claflin and M. Tuinstra
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:4C87FF811168 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Antioxidant substances and pesticide in parts of beet organic and conventional manure Maria Rosecler Miranda Rossetto, Fabio Vianello, Suraya Abdallah da Rochaand Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima Full Length Research Paper Organic agriculture together with sustainable management systems are growing in the world due to concerns about the environment and the health of the populace: being real and exhaustively documented the damages caused by pesticides. The aim of this work was to observe the possible differences in the concentrations of free radical scavengers and substances recently classified as functional, in different beet parts cultivated following organic and conventional procedures. Regarding the total antioxidant activity (AA%), significant differences were not observed between the two cultivation procedures, being found a high AA% in every beet part analyzed. Organic plants concentrated higher vitamin C content (6.7 - 16.6 mg/100 g) with respect to the conventional ones (4.1 - 9.1 mg/100 g); higher flavonoid content (0.5 - 5.2 mg rutin/ g) and, when cooked, the pulp of organic beet maintained a higher polyamine content and higher amount of total carotenoids. No significant differences were observed for total phenolic compounds. Key words: Vitamin C, pesticides, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, index of antioxidant activity. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/4C87FF811168 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000024 en Copyright © 2009 Maria Rosecler Miranda Rossetto, Fabio Vianello, Suraya Abdallah da Rochaand Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:0F99E4811235 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Effect of auxins and auxin polar transport inhibitor (TIBA) on somatic embryogenesis in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) K. Venkatesh, A. Roja Rani, Nirmala Baburao and G. Padmaja Full Length Research Paper The phytohormone auxin plays an important role in growth, developmental and physiological processes. The effect of auxins, 2,4-D, NAA, IAA, Dicamba and picloram, was tested for somatic embryogenesis in groundnut. Among the different auxins tested 2,4-D favored the best response of somatic embryogenesis with induction of 18.3 somatic embryos per explant that were big, healthy, succulent and green in color. Immature zygotic embryos axes cultured on MS medium with 4 mg/l TIBA (Auxin polar transport inhibitor) did not respond for somatic embryogenesis but when cultured on medium supplemented with TIBA (2 mg/l and 4 mg/l) and 2,4-D (4 mg/l) showed the induction of somatic embryogenesis. When the concentration of TIBA was increased (6 mg/l) keeping the level of 2, 4-D (4 mg/l l) constant, it resulted in browning of explants within a week of culture. These observations demonstrate the requirement of 2,4-D for induction of somatic embryogenesis and that addition of TIBA (2 mg/l and 4 mg/l) decreases the response of somatic embryogenesis and further higher levels (6 mg/l) being inhibitory for somatic embryogenesis. Key words: Auxin polar transport inhibitor, somatic embryogenesis. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/0F99E4811235 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000073 en Copyright © 2009 K. Venkatesh, A. Roja Rani, Nirmala Baburao and G. Padmaja
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:91F89D511215 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Evaluations of the methanol extract of Ficus exasperata stem bark, leaf and root for phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities E. A. Adebayo, O. R. Ishola, O. S. Taiwo, O. N. Majolagbe and B. T. Adekeye Full Length Research Paper The methanol extract of Ficus exasperata (stem bark, leaf and root) was investigated for activity against some human pathogenic organisms. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponin, tannins, steroids and phlobatannins with no traces of alkaloids and anthraquinones. The results of in vitro antimicrobial screening of the methanol extract exhibited a wide range of activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The leaf methanol extract inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. aureus, and E. coli at concentrations of 5.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 1.25 mg/ml respectively, while the stem bark extract had minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50 mg/ml on P. aeruginosa,1.0 mg/ml on S. typhi and 75 mg/ml on S. aureus. The extract from the root inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa at a concentration of 75 mg/ml and inhibitedS. typhi at concentration of 1.0 mg/ml, while S. aureus and E. coli were inhibited at a concentration of 1.25 mg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the leaf extract were obtained against P. aeruginosa, S. typhi S. aureus, and E. coliat concentration of 75, 1.0, 5.0 and 1.25 mg/ml respectively, while the extract from stem bark had the MBC against P. aeruginosa, and S. typhi at concentration of 75 and 1.25 mg/ml respectively. The bactericidal effects from the root extract were 50, 5.0, 1.5, 1.25 and 1.25 mg/ml against P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. aureus, E. coliand Vibrio cholerae respectively. The above results show that F. exasperata leaf, stem bark and root contained bioactive substances with the highest inhibitory activities against some human pathogenic organisms. Key word: Ficus exasperata, phytochemical, antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/91F89D511215 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000122 en Copyright © 2009 E. A. Adebayo, O. R. Ishola, O. S. Taiwo, O. N. Majolagbe and B. T. Adekeye
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:B157CDA11199 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2009
Phytoextracting cadmium and copper using Mucuna pruriens E. O. Nwaichi, M. O. Wegwu and E. N. Onyeike Full Length Research Paper Mucuna pruriens var pruriens commonly known as Mucuna, a fast-growing, high-biomass-accumulating plant was investigated to underscore its suitability for metal (Cd and Cu) extraction in an oil spill condition. Process enhancement was made using NPK, UREA and Poultry manure fertilizers. These amendments facilitated metals availability in the order PMgt;NPKgt;UREA for Cd extraction and PMgt;UREA gt;NPK for Cu extraction for both root and shoot samples. Mucuna accumulated appreciable quantities of Cd (up to 32 mg/kg) and Cu (up to 62 mg/kg) metals in their tissue regardless of the concentration of metal in the soil and achieve gt; 50% contaminant removal for both Cu and Cd. Extraction was maximal with increased metal bioavailability evident in PM treated groups. Below 10% (w/v) pollution, non-assisted Mucuna competed favourably with those of amendment-assisted groups for Cd extraction into tissues. However, there was a marked variation between non-assisted and assisted groups for Cu extraction into tissues. Key words: Mucuna, extraction, amendment, metals, soil. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/B157CDA11199 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000190 en Copyright © 2009 E. O. Nwaichi, M. O. Wegwu and E. N. Onyeike
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:DDDB8AC11275 2010-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Assessment of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants in Central Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia Gidey Yirga Full Length Research Paper This research was initiated to document indigenous knowledge associated with traditional medicinal plants; specifically to identify the plant parts used for medicinal purposes and investigate plant species that are used as medicines for the treatment of human health problems. Twelve traditional healers in the study area were interviewed to gather information on the knowledge and use of medicinal plants used as a remedy for human ailments. The study reported that 16 plant species were commonly used to treat various human ailments. Most of these species (68.75%) were wild and harvested mainly for their leaves and the remedies were administered through oral and dermal. The indigenous knowledge transfer was found to be different. Some traditional healers transfer their indigenous knowledge while others kept the knowledge with them for the sake of secrecy. Most of the traditional healers were found to have poor knowledge on the dosage and antidote while prescribing remedies to their patients. More than one medicinal plant species were used more frequently than the use of a single species for remedy preparations. Key words: Ethno-botany, indigenous knowledge, knowledge transfer, medicinal plants. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/DDDB8AC11275 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000028 en Copyright © 2010 Gidey Yirga
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:8F7047F11260 2010-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Evaluation of antioxidant activity, quantitative estimation of phenols and flavonoids in different parts of Aegle marmelos Nadeem Ahmad Siddique, Mohd Mujeeb, Abdul Kalam Najmi and Mohd Akram Full Length Research Paper In existing study, we carried out an efficient record of the comparative antioxidant activity in methanolic extract of the selected parts (leaves, root and stem bark) ofAegle marmelos. Total content of phenol and flavonoid was quantitatively estimated in different parts of A. marmelos. The total phenolic contents varied from 9.8367 plusmn; 0.0235 to 1.7281 plusmn; 0.049 mg g-1. Total flavonoid contents were between 8.248 plusmn; 0.029 to 1.087 plusmn; 0.002 mg g-1. Free radical scavenging activity of different extracts was evaluated by using DPPH (1, 1 -Diphenyl- 2 -picryl hydrazyl) method. The highest free radical scavenging effect was observed in leaves with IC50 = 2.096 g ml ndash;1. The effectiveness of radical scavenging activity of leaves extract was about 10 times greater than reference antioxidant butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT). The greater amount of phenolic compounds leads to more powerful radical scavenging effect as shown by methanolic extract of A. marmelos leaves. Key words: Aegle marmelos, antioxidant, flavonoids, phenols, 1, 1 ndash;diphenyl - 2 -picryl hydrazyl. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/8F7047F11260 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000110 en Copyright © 2010 Nadeem Ahmad Siddique, Mohd Mujeeb, Abdul Kalam Najmi and Mohd Akram
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:3DD392811317 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Effect of chemical properties of soils on gum elementary compositions from Acacia senegal var. kerensis in Samburu and Marsabit Districts Joseph K. Lelon, Meshack O. Muga, David W. Odee, Chemuku Wekesa and Beatrice Ndakwe Full Length Research Paper Geographical Positioning System was used to mark the sites of Acacia senegalvar. kerensis in Marsabit and Samburu districts. Soil and gum samples were collected for analysis of pH, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Soil pH (6.0 - 6.7) varied significantly (p lt; 0.05) with pH of gum (4.54, 4.50, 4.51 and 4.52) in all the sites. In Merrile, organic carbon in gum (0.15%) was significantly higher than 0.073, 0.055 and 0.027% in Logologo, Laisamis and Sereolipi, respectively. Soil nitrogen (0.30, 0.4 and 0.8%) in Merrile, Laisamis and Logologo were significantly correlated (p lt; 0.05) to the nitrogen (0.31 - 0.32%) in gum, while soil N (0.3%) in Sereolipi was not significantly correlated with gum nitrogen (0.23%) and was significantly lower than those of Merrile, Laisamis and Logologo (0. 31, 0.32 and 0.32%). Phosphorus (700.2 and 705.2 ppm) in gums from Sereolipi and Merrile were significantly higher than 412.2 and 412.2 ppm in Laisamis and Logologo. pH (4.5 - 4.54) and nitrogen content (0.31 - 0.32%) in gum from Merrile, Laisamis and Logologo were within the international standards (pH 4.2 - 4.8) and (0.24 - 0.41%). Chemical properties of soils were major factors that influenced the gum quality. Key words: Acacia senegal, soil, gum arabic quality, sites. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/3DD392811317 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000078 en Copyright © 2010 Joseph K. Lelon, Meshack O. Muga, David W. Odee, Chemuku Wekesa and Beatrice Ndakwe
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:775A4D211293 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Genetic variability of some agronomic traits in the Iranian Fenugreek landraces under drought stress and non-stress conditions Davoud Sadeghzadeh-Ahari, M. R. Hassandokht, A. K. Kashi, A. Amri and K. H. Alizadeh Full Length Research Paper This study was carried out to assess the genetic diversity and heritability of various agronomic traits using twenty fenugreek landraces from Iran. The trial was conducted at Maragheh experiment station in North-west of Iran under rainfed (RF) and irrigated (IR) conditions during 2008 cropping season. Results of combined analysis of variance showed significant differences among landraces for all traits except for harvest index under rainfed conditions and in number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant and dry biomass under irrigated conditions. The highest phenotypic and genotypic variances are found for grain yield under rainfed conditions and plant type and growth habit in both rainfed and irrigated conditions. The highest heritabilities were shown by thousand kernel weight, days to flowering and plant type under both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Cluster analysis allowed to classify the landraces into similar four groups for rainfed and irrigated conditions. Key words: Fenugreek, landrace, heritability, variability, agronomic traits. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/775A4D211293 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000129 en Copyright © 2010 Davoud Sadeghzadeh-Ahari, M. R. Hassandokht, A. K. Kashi, A. Amri and K. H. Alizadeh
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:0BF426211347 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Virulence of Puccinia triticina on wheat in Iran S. Elyasi-Gomari Full Length Research Paper Wheat leaf rust is controlled mainly by race-specific resistance. To be effective, breeding wheat for resistance to leaf rust requires knowledge of virulence diversity in local populations of the pathogen. Collections of Puccinia triticina were made from rust-infected wheat leaves on the territory of Khuzestan province (south-west) in Iran during 2008 - 2009. In 2009, up to 20 isolates each of the seven most common leaf rust races plus 8 -10 isolates of unnamed races were tested for virulence to 35 near-isogenic wheat lines with different single Lr genes for leaf rust resistance. The lines with Lr9, Lr25, Lr28 and Lr29 gene were resistant to all of the isolates. Few isolates of known races but most isolates of the new, unnamed races were virulent on Lr19. The 35 Lr gene lines were also exposed to mixed race inoculum in field plots to tests effectiveness of their resistance. No leaf rust damage occurred on Lr9, Lr25, Lr28 and Lr29 in the field, and lines with Lr19, Lr16, Lr18, Lr35, Lr36, Lr37 and the combination Lr27 + Lr31 showed less than 15% severity. A total of 500 isolates of P. triticina obtained from five commercial varieties of wheat at two locations in the eastern and northern parts of the Khuzestan region were identified to race using the eight standard leaf rust differential varieties of Johnson and Browder. Thirteen known wheat leaf rust races and several new, unnamed races were identified. The most common races in each year were races 57, 64, 84, 143 and 167. Key words: Puccinia triticina, wheat leaf rust, specific resistance. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/0BF426211347 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000259 en Copyright © 2010 S. Elyasi-Gomari
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:19593F911379 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil and methanol extract of Jasminum sambac from Djibouti Fatouma Abdoul-Latif, , Prosper Edou, Franccedil;ois Eba, Nabil Mohamed, Adwa Ali, Samatar Djama, Louis-Cleacute;ment Obame, Ismael Bassoleacute; and Mamoudou Dicko Full Length Research Paper The essential oil was subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by two complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging and beta;-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was used as positive control in both test systems. In the DPPH test system, the IC50 value of essential oil and methanol extract were respectively 7.43 and 2.30 g/ml. In the beta;-carotene-linoleic acid system, oxidation was effectively inhibited by Jasminum sambac, the RAA value of essential oil and methanol extract were respectively 96.6 and 93.9%. When compared to BHT, the oil and methanol extract were nearly the same value. Furthermore, the essential oil and methanol extract were evaluated for its antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion and microdilution methods. The essential oil and methanol extract showed better activity against bacterial species than against yeast. Key words: Jasminum sambac, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, essential oil, methanol extract. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/19593F911379 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000023 en Copyright © 2010 Fatouma Abdoul-Latif, , Prosper Edou, Franccedil;ois Eba, Nabil Mohamed, Adwa Ali, Samatar Djama, Louis-Cleacute;ment Obame, Ismael Bassoleacute; and Mamoudou Dicko
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:560D53211430 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
S1 selection of local maize landraces for low soil nitrogen tolerance in Zambia Francisco Miti, Pangirayi Tongoona and John Derera Full Length Research Paper Low soil nitrogen (N) limits maize production in Zambia. S1 selection was used to select for tolerance to low N among ninety-six maize landraces during 2004 - 2007 in Zambia. The landraces were evaluated under low N, drought and optimal conditions; and selfed in a nursery, under optimal conditions. Data on grain yield (GY), number of ears per plant, leaf senescence and anthesis-silking interval were used to calculate selection indices. Fourteen S1 lines, from each of the best four landraces under each environment and across all environments were evaluated under the three environments, and at the same time crossed to a tester. Twenty-two best S1 lines under each environment and across were identified and also their testcrosses were evaluation under the three environments. Significant GCA effects for GY under low soil N were found, suggesting that population improvement under soil N stress was effective. Heritability for GY under low soil N conditions was low (0.38) implying that selection based on GY was ineffective. TherG for GY under low soil N and optimal environments was moderate (0.458), suggesting that selection for GY in one environment was not as effective as in the other. Low soil N tolerant landraces were identified and should be used to breed for the low soil N conditions. Key words: Maize, landrace, heritability, correlation, nitrogen, tolerance, stress. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/560D53211430 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000211 en Copyright © 2010 Francisco Miti, Pangirayi Tongoona and John Derera
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:09872D411417 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Degradation of fungal cell walls of phytopathogenic fungi by lytic enzyme of Streptomyces griseus A. Anitha and M. Rabeeth Full Length Research Paper In vitro tests of interactions between Streptomyces griseus strains and some soil-borne plant pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternate, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani) and 2 isolates of Aspergillus flavus were studied on PDA medium. Strains tested produced a metabolite that inhibited growth of plant pathogenic fungi on PDA medium (dual culture test). When grown in liquid medium having fungal cell walls as sole carbon source, S. griseus produced chitinase enzyme in the medium. Higher levels of this enzyme were induced by cell wall ofAspergillus flavus and the crude chitinase enzyme extracted showed zone of inhibition on all pathogens inoculated PDA plates at all tested concentrations. When lytic enzyme produced by S. griseus was incubated with hyphal wall of the test fungi treated with 2 M NaOH and chloropharm: Methanol, the release of glucose and N acetyl glucosamine significantly increased relative to the untreated one. This result suggests that proteins in the cell walls of pathogens may make these walls more resistant to degradation by the extracellular lytic enzymes. Ionic strength of NaOH on lytic activity was tested, where as the enzymes lysed fungal cell wall best at ionic concentration of 2 M treatment. Pretreatment with alkali or proteolytic enzyme increases their susceptibility for lysis. In vitro lytic activity provides an appropriate condition and the effect of biocontrol organism in field level treatment. Key words: Chitinase enzyme, dual culture test, plant pathogenic fungi, NaOH treatment and Ionic strength. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/09872D411417 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000058 en Copyright © 2010 A. Anitha and M. Rabeeth
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:CAC07A811404 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
How fertilization affects yam (Dioscorea alata L.) growth and tuber yield across the years V. K. Hgaza, , L. N. Diby, , A. Assa and S. Ake Full Length Research Paper This study deals with the response of Dioscorea alata to NPK-Ca fertilization as affected by differences in weather conditions in two growing seasons. Experiments were conducted in the central Cocirc;te drsquo;Ivoire in 2006 and 2007. The experimental design was a randomised complete block design with 4 replications. The dose of 160-10-180-110 kg ha-1 of NPK-Ca, respectively was compared to the control (no fertilizers applied). Growth parameters and weather conditions were measured during the growth periods. Rainfall and solar radiation varied much between the two years. Fertilization has significantly increased the tuber yield of both years. In 2006, however, this increase in aboveground organs dry matter was not reflected in tuber dry matter increase, suggesting possible physiological imbalance in which fertilizer has favoured top growth over the tubers. This resulted in higher leaf area index and lower fresh tuber yield. This physiological imbalance could be related to higher water supply during the vegetative period in 2006. Although the weather conditions varied much between years, the leaf area index and the fresh tuber yield were similar between years under non-fertilization, indicating a good adaptation ofD. alata to low soil fertility across the year. Explanations are needed to understand source (leaves) - sink (tubers) relationship in yam and investigation to clarify implications of mineral fertilizers in this important process is warranted. Key words: Dry matter partitioning, fertilization, leaf area index, radiation use efficiency, water distribution, year. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/CAC07A811404 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000139 en Copyright © 2010 V. K. Hgaza, , L. N. Diby, , A. Assa and S. Ake
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:DAAB37411390 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Morphometric study of the genus Senna Mill. in South-western Nigeria Mike O. Soladoye, Monsurat A. Onakoya, Emmanuel C. Chukwuma, Mubo A. Sonibare Full Length Research Paper Thirteen quantitative characters of the leaves, fruits, seeds and flowers were used in the study of eight Senna Mill. species. The characters include leaflet length, leaflet width, leaflet length/width, Number of leaflets, lamina length, petiole length, pedicel length, petal length, fruit length, fruit width, fruit length/width, seed length and seed width. These characters were measured with the aid of a line ruler and subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The results revealed that three out of the thirteen characters employed contributed significantly in differentiating each of the species from the other at 95% level of significance. The species have great similarities hence their grouping under the same genus. Results also showed that Senna hirsuta (Linn.) H. S. Irwin and Barneby and Senna sophera (L.) Roxb. are more closely related, Senna occidentalis (Linn.) Link,Senna siamea (Lam.) H. S. Irwin and Barneby and Senna spectabilis (DC.) Irwin and Barneby all share some resemblance while S. occidentalis is distantly related to S. sophera. Key words: Morphometrics, morphology, Senna, leguminosae, caesalpinioideae, numerical taxonomy. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/DAAB37411390 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000175 en Copyright © 2010 Mike O. Soladoye, Monsurat A. Onakoya, Emmanuel C. Chukwuma, Mubo A. Sonibare
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:5E7707411368 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Effects of Terralyt - Plus® on soil pH, nutrient uptake and dry matter yield of maize M. O. Akande E. A. Makinde, L. B. Taiwo and J. A. Adediran Full Length Research Paper Acid soils are common in the tropics and managing them for sustainable cropping usually demands soil amendments. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan, Nigeria to evaluate the effects of a soil amendment substance - organic biostimulator - Terralyt-Plusreg; on the growth, soil pH, nutrient uptake and dry matter production of maize. The soils used for the study (Entisol, Alfisol) were collected from the coastal and forest zones of Nigeria. The Terralyt-Plusreg; was applied (0, 20, 40 and 60 ml m-2) with the conventional urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash fertilizers. These were compared with a no-fertilizer control. The experiment was laid out with completely randomised design (CRD) replicated three times. Maize was grown for six weeks when the shoot and roots were harvested for dry matter yield assessment and determination of selected chemical constituents. Complementing inorganic fertilizer application with Terralyt-Plusreg; significantly improved maize performance on the soils. Shoot dry matter yield increased from 15 - 32% compared with sole inorganic fertilizer treatment. It was 64 -77% over the control. Phosphorus uptake was highest at 40 ml m-2 on the soil at Ilora while for soils at Ikenne and Badagry; it was at 20 ml m-2. Application of 20 - 40 ml m-2 (200 - 400 l ha-1) gave optimum height and dry matter yield of maize, and improved nutrient uptake of maize plant. Key words: Corn, nutrients, plant growth, SAR, soil fertility. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/5E7707411368 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000098 en Copyright © 2010 M. O. Akande E. A. Makinde, L. B. Taiwo and J. A. Adediran
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:4594AB611480 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Agronomic, economic and ecological aspects of the papaya (Carica papaya) production in Tabasco, Mexico E. Guzman-Ramon, R. Gomez Alvarez, J. M. Pat-Fernandez, H. A. J. Pohlan, J. C. Alvarez-Rivero, V. Geissen, F. Mirafuentes and R. Ramos Full Length Research Paper The cultivation of papaya is important in the tropic because it provides source of income to the farmer within a short time. Statistical data were obtained from farmers located in the Chontalpa, Rios and Centro-Sierra regions; the size of the survey was 67 farmers. The study shows the results of the farmersrsquo; problem in a drastic reduction of their productivity because of the virosis and low prices in commercialization. The farmers were classified into three levels of technology, ldquo;lowrdquo;, ldquo;middlerdquo; and ldquo;highrdquo;. The first one covers 88% of the farmers in seasonal conditions in contrast with the high technology that concentrates 4.5% in irrigation conditions. According to the technology used, the fertilizer shows more yields. Economically, the high technology had an internal tax return of 0.43 in comparison with the low technology of 0.25, which means that the investment is recovered with different yields. However, the use of high technology makes the system more competitive. Key words: Production, profitability, technology levels, pollution. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/4594AB611480 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000010 en Copyright © 2010 E. Guzman-Ramon, R. Gomez Alvarez, J. M. Pat-Fernandez, H. A. J. Pohlan, J. C. Alvarez-Rivero, V. Geissen, F. Mirafuentes and R. Ramos
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:F71DD1311487 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Seed metrics for genetic and shape determinations in African yam bean [Fabaceae] (Sphenostylis stenocarpa Hochst. Ex. A. Rich) harms B. D. Adewale, O. B. Kehinde, J. O. Popoola and C. O. Aremu Full Length Research Paper The metric measures on seeds, their correlation and relationship are important for systematic breeding for seed yield and shape determination. Variations among eighty genotypes of African yam bean (AYB) for six metric seed characters (seed length, width and thickness and their ratios) were evaluated in this study. Paired comparison among the six characters revealed very high significance (P lt; 0.001), approving the six traits as unique parameters for evaluating AYB. They equally exhibited high and substantial genetic variance: the genotypic proportion of the total variation ranged between 90 and 97%, broad sense heritability (81 - 94%) and genetic advances (14 - 31%). Seed length and width had the highest joint inheritance of 99.04%, the least, 4.32% was between width and WT as depicted by co-heritability. Positive and significant (P lt; 0.05) phenotypic and/or genotypic correlation existed between seed width and thickness, the three ratios and seed length with the ratios except WT. Non-significant negative correlation existed between seed thickness with LT and WT. There were very reliable and highly significant linear relationships between the seed traits except for length and width whose relationship was non-linear. Breeding concentration on any of these traits may simultaneously influence the others. The seed shape indices were the metric ratios and the flatness index; they described the common shapes of AYB seeds as: round/spherical, oval/ellipsoidal, oblong and rhomboid. Key words: Seed metrics, seed shape, co-heritability, flatness index, heritability. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/F71DD1311487 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000220 en Copyright © 2010 B. D. Adewale, O. B. Kehinde, J. O. Popoola and C. O. Aremu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:084464911497 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Structure and composition of vegetation in subtropical forest of Kumaun Himalaya Geeta Kharkwal, and Yaswant Singh Rawat Full Length Research Paper An extensive sampling was conducted for vegetational analysis in different forest sites between 1600 and 2600 m asl in Kumaun Himalaya. Quercus leucotrichophora A. Campus, Quercus floribunda Lindl. ex Rehder, Quercus semecarpifolia J. E. Smith and Pinus roxburghii Sarg. are the dominant tree species in Banj-oak, Tilonj-oak, Kharsu-oak and Chir-pine forests, respectively.Among the sampling sites, total density of tree, shrub and herb species was ranged from 10 to 28.6 individuals (indv/100 m2) 1.8 to 21.7 indv/25 m2, and 28.1 to 103.7 indv/m2, respectively. The total abundance-frequency (AF) ratio of tree, shrub and herb species across the sampling sites varied from 0.23 to 1.25, 0.25 to 1.79 and 3.4 to 27.3, respectively. The abundance-frequency ratio in the present study showed contagious distribution pattern in tree, shrub and herb species. Key words: Species composition, density, frequency, distribution pattern, Kumaun Himalayan forest. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/084464911497 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000232 en Copyright © 2010 Geeta Kharkwal, and Yaswant Singh Rawat
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:9CE34DC11461 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Application of a satellite-based climate-variability impact index for crop yield forecasting in drought-stricken regions Ping Zhang, Bruce Anderson, Mathew Barlow, Bin Tan and Ranga B. Myneni Full Length Research Paper A quantitative index is applied to monitor crop growth and predict agricultural yield in drought-stricken regions. This Climate-Variability Impact Index (CVII), defined as the monthly contribution to overall anomalies in growth during a given year, is derived from 1 km MODIS Leaf Area Index. The CVII integrated over the growing season represents the percentage of the climatological production either gained or lost due to climatic variability during a given year and is positively correlated with crop yields. In two test cases presented here, a statistical model is trained using the historical CVII and yield records and is then applied to predict crop yields for Illinois in 2005 as well as North and South Dakota in 2006. The model predictions are consistent with USDArsquo;s estimates obtained after harvesting. Since the CVII are available in near real-time, the model predictions can also be obtained monthly before the end of the growing season. The in-season CVII model shows predictability comparable to the concurrent NASS estimates. In addition, these model forecasts improve as more CVII series are added in the late season. Finally, this research highlights the need for explicit monitoring of vegetation growth when estimating yield as drought-monitoring indices such as the Standardized Precipitation Index can both overestimate and underestimate implied changes in vegetation in drought-stricken regions. Key words: Remote sensing, leaf area index, crop monitoring, early yield forecast, drought index, climate impacts. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/9CE34DC11461 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000026 en Copyright © 2010 Ping Zhang, Bruce Anderson, Mathew Barlow, Bin Tan and Ranga B. Myneni
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:417951A11473 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Assessment of physical properties of gum arabic from Acacia senegal varieties in Baringo District, Kenya J. K. Lelon, I. O. Jumba, J. K. Keter , Wekesa Chemuku and F. D. O. Oduor Full Length Research Paper A study was conducted to assess the physical properties of gum arabic obtained from two Acacia senegal varieties (var.senegal and var.kerensis). in Marigat division, Baringo district. Gum arabic samples from the experimental sites at Solit, Kapkun, Kimorok and Maoi were collected, dried and analysed to establish their physical characteristics. Moisture content in gum arabic obtained from varietykerensis in Kimorok and Maoi (17.5 plusmn; 1.00 and 15.4 plusmn; 0.50%) were significantly higher (P lt; 0.05) than those of variety senegal in Solit and Kapkun (15.0 plusmn; 0.50 and 14.9 plusmn; 1.80%), while internal energy (33.4 and 33.76%) were not significantly different (P gt; 0.05) from those of variety senegal found in Kapkun and Solit (33.0 and 32.96%), respectively. Ash content in gum arabic from variety senegal in Solit and Kapkun (2.94 and 3.16%) was higher (P lt; 0.05) than those of variety kerensisfound in Kimorok and Maoi (2.88 and 2.72%). In Kapkun, volatile matter in gum arabic from variety senegal (64.2%) was higher (P lt; 0.05) than the quantities of variety kerensis found in Kimorok, Solit and Maoi (63.8, 63.7 and 63.6%), respectively. Moisture content in gum arabic from variety senegal in Solit and Kapkun (15.0 plusmn; 0.40 and 14.9 plusmn; 1.80%) fell within international specifications (13 to 15%), while variety kerensis in Kimorok and Maoi (17.5 and 15.4%) fell outside the specifications. Moisture, ash and volatile matter contents in gum arabic from A. senegal variety senegal were 14.9, 3.16 and 64.24%, while A. senegal varietykerensis had 15.2, 2.88 and 63.8%, respectively. Moisture content in gum arabicfrom A. senegal variety senegal fell within international specifications while A. senegal variety kerensis fell outside the specifications. Ash, volatile matter andinternal energy contents in gum arabic from A. senegal variety kerensis and varietysenegal fell within the specifications. The gum arabic from A. senegal varietysenegal in Solit and Kapkun was of better quality than that of A. senegal varietykerensis in Kimorok and Maoi. Key words: Study sites, Acacia senegal varieties, physical properties, gum quality. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/417951A11473 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000030 en Copyright © 2010 J. K. Lelon, I. O. Jumba, J. K. Keter , Wekesa Chemuku and F. D. O. Oduor
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:CC3D97311502 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Development of a lemon sorting system based on color and size M. Khojastehnazhand, M. Omid and A. Tabatabaeefar Full Length Research Paper Grading systems give us many kinds of information such as size, color, shape, defect, and internal quality. Among these color and size are the most important features for accurate classification and/or sorting of citrus such as oranges, lemons and tangerines. Basically, two inspection stages of the system can be identified: external fruit inspection and internal fruit inspection. The former task is accomplished through processing of color images, while internal inspection requires special sensors for moisture, sugar and acid contents. In this paper, an efficient algorithm for grading lemon fruits is developed and implemented in visual basic environment. The system consists of two CCD cameras, two capture cards, an appropriate lighting system, a personal computer and other mechanical parts. The algorithm initially extracts the fruit from the background. The samples of different grades of lemon are situated in front of the cameras and are calibratted off-line. Then information on the HSI color values and estimated volumes of fruits are extracted and saved in a database. By comparing the information during sorting phase with the available information inside the database, the final grade of the passing fruits are determined. This algorithm can be easily adapted for grading and/or inspection of other agricultural products such as cucumber and eggplant. Key words: Lemon, sorting, volume, image processing, machine vision, HSI color. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/CC3D97311502 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000061 en Copyright © 2010 M. Khojastehnazhand, M. Omid and A. Tabatabaeefar
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:CECCB3211611 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Isolation of potential antibacterial and antioxidant compounds from Acalypha indica and Ocimum basilicum K. Ramya Durga, S. Karthikumar and K. Jegatheesan Full Length Research Paper In recent years multiple drug resistance has been developed in many microbes due to indiscriminate use of existing antimicrobial drugs in the treatment of infectious diseases. This paves the way for reconsidering traditional medicine; hence a study was carried out to explore the antimicrobial activities of the acetone and ethanol extract of Acalypha indica and Ocimum basilicum against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosaand Proteus sp. The results revealed that the ethanol extract of both the plants was more effective than acetone extract particularly on Proteus sp. Hence, both the plants can be vitally used in treating various diseases caused by those pathogens. Key words: Acalypha indica, Ocimum basilicum, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/CECCB3211611 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000156 en Copyright © 2010 K. Ramya Durga, S. Karthikumar and K. Jegatheesan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:C50E50511604 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Phytotoxicity of uncomposted and composted poultry manure M. Mar Delgado, Joseacute; V. Martin, Rosario Miralles De Imperial, Cristina Leoacute;n-Coacute;freces and M. Cruz. Garciacute;a Full Length Research Paper Different uncomposted and composted poultry manure types (laying hen and broiler), mixed at increasing rates (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) with two amended peat substrates, were tested to study the phytotoxicity using the cress (Lepidium sativum, L.) germination method. The results showed that composting generally reduced the phytotoxicity of the manure mixtures. The germination index was highest in both amended peat substrates. When the peat substrates were mixed with uncomposted poultry manure, only the rate of 25% of uncomposted poultry manure from laying hens showed reduced toxicity. These was not phytotoxicity when the poultry manure was composted in rates of 25, 50 and 75% of deep-pit manure from laying hens and in rates of 25 - 50% of the poultry manures from stock piled, deep litter and broiler litter in mixtures with both peat substrates. Key words: Uncomposted poultry manure, composted poultry manure, phytotoxicity, germination index, ammonia concentration, electrical conductivity. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/C50E50511604 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000191 en Copyright © 2010 M. Mar Delgado, Joseacute; V. Martin, Rosario Miralles De Imperial, Cristina Leoacute;n-Coacute;freces and M. Cruz. Garciacute;a
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:CFA1E3B11580 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Low intensity tapping systems applied to clone PR 107 of Hevea brasiliensis (Muell. Arg.): Results of 21 years of exploitation in South-eastern Côte d’Ivoire Eric Francis Soumahin, Samuel Obouayeba, Koulaka Emmanuel Dick, Denezon Odette Dogbo and Abo Pierre Anno Full Length Research Paper The cultivation of Hevea brasiliensis, which is the main source of natural rubber, is facing a problem of scarcity and/or high cost of skilled labour. One of the means to remedy this constraint is to reduce the intensity of tapping. This work aims at studying tapping systems of low intensity tapping but highly stimulated (S/4 d3 6d/7 8-10/y(m) and S/2 d6 6d/7 8-10/y(m)) which enable to reduce the need for tappers by 10 and 50% compared to a standard or traditional tapping system (S/2 d3 6d/7 4/y(3m), the control), in clone PR 107 of Hevea brasiliensis in south-eastern Cocirc;te d#39;Ivoire. This study was carried out on the basis of agronomic, physiological and economic criteria. The results of 21 years of exploitation have shown that reducing the frequency of tapping is not compensated, in terms of yield, by high stimulations. However, the reduction of the length of tapping cut is compensated, in terms of yield, by hormonal stimulation. Low intensity tapping systems do not adversely affect the growth and physiological profile of trees. They reduce the rate of tapping panel dryness. All tapping systems are profitable. The best low intensity tapping systems (S/4 d3 6d/7 10/y(m) and S/2 d6 6d/7 10/y(m)) may constitute an alternative to the standard or traditional tapping system so as to reduce the need for tappers and thus, make up for a deficit and/or a high cost of tapping labour. Key words: Hevea brasiliensis clone PR 107, low intensity tapping systems, stimulation, yield, growth, tapping panel dryness, labour, profit margin, Cocirc;te d#39;Ivoire. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/CFA1E3B11580 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000162 en Copyright © 2010 Eric Francis Soumahin, Samuel Obouayeba, Koulaka Emmanuel Dick, Denezon Odette Dogbo and Abo Pierre Anno
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:243A89D11570 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Dry matter yields and hydrological properties of three perennial grasses of a semi-arid environment in East Africa Kevin Z. Mganga, Nashon K. R. Musimba, Dickson M. Nyariki, Moses M. Nyangito, Agnes W. Mwangrsquo;ombe, Wellington N. Ekaya, Daniele Clavel, Judith Francis, Ralph von Kaufmann, Jan Verhagen and William M. Muiru Full Length Research Paper Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye), Cenchrus ciliaris L. (African foxtail grass)and Eragrostis superba Peyr (Maasai love grass) are important perennial rangeland grasses in Kenya. They provide an important source of forage for domestic livestock and wild ungulates. These grasses have been used extensively to rehabilitate denuded patches in semi-arid environment of Kenya. This study investigated the dry matter yields and hydrological properties of the three grasses under simulated rainfall at three phenological stages; early growth, elongation and reproduction. Laboratory seed viability tests were also done. Hydrological properties of the three grasses were estimated using a Kamphorst rainfall simulator. Results showed that there was a significant difference (p gt; 0.05) in dry matter yields and soil hydrological properties at the different grass phenological stages. Generally, all the three grasses improved the soil hydrological properties with an increase in grass stubble height. C. ciliaris gave the best soil hydrological properties followed by E. macrostachyus and E. superba, respectively. E. macrostachyus recorded the highest seed viability percentage. C. ciliaris and E. superba were ranked second and third, respectively. C. ciliaris yielded the highest biomass production at the reproductive stage followed by E. superba and E. macrostachyus, respectively. Key words: Cenchrus ciliaris, Enteropogon macrostachyus, Eragrostis superba, rangeland. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/243A89D11570 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000066 en Copyright © 2010 Kevin Z. Mganga, Nashon K. R. Musimba, Dickson M. Nyariki, Moses M. Nyangito, Agnes W. Mwangrsquo;ombe, Wellington N. Ekaya, Daniele Clavel, Judith Francis, Ralph von Kaufmann, Jan Verhagen and William M. Muiru
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:F32509711657 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Study of pollen tube growth, cross-compatibility and fruit set in some almond genotypes Y. Sharafi, M. Karimi and M. Ghorbanifar Short Communication Almond is one of the most important nut crops of Maragheh, Iran. In the present study, six Maragheh indigenous genotypes with favorable traits were selected for the investigations of pollen tube growth, fruit set and their compatibility. Genotypes were pollinated by the pollen of each other. Fruit set was studied in the filed, and pollen tube growth was studied in the laboratory with florescence microscopy. Experimental design was completely randomized with different number of treatments (pollen type) and 4 repeats in all of the crosses. Data were analyzed with SAS software. Results showed that, all of the genotypes were cross compatible, although the pollen tube number in the ovary was affected by the pollen type but fruit set was not affected. Key words: Almond, cross-compatibility, pollen tube growth, florescence microscopy, fruit set. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/F32509711657 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000241 en Copyright © 2010 Y. Sharafi, M. Karimi and M. Ghorbanifar
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:885A88611561 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Molecular genotyping of selected soybean (Glycine max L.) genotypes grown in different regions of East Africa Fredrick M. Njoka, Zedekiah A. Okwany and Elijah K. Githui Full Length Research Paper Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) is one of the most popular pulses because of its protein content and nodulating ability. However, most farmers and researchers do not have sufficient genetic information of the genotypes that they grow. This research aimed at determining the molecular characteristics of selected soybean genotypes grown in different regions of East Africa and make recommendations to the farmers and researchers. Genotypes were collected from Uyole, Ukiriguru, Kawanda, Namulonge, Njoro and Embu Agricultural Institutes as well as from farmers. Molecular analysis was done by DNA being extracted according to Phenol Chloroform method. This was followed with PCR process using custom ordered pair of primers that corresponded to the flanking ends of the targeted gene fragment (5S ribosomal genes). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and gene clean were then performed on the isolated PCR fragments. The elute was confirmed on agarose gel then sent for automated sequencing ABI prism (Applied Biosystems) at ILRI. The resulting gene sequences were compared with gene sequences of known Glycine species using various enzymes in computer based simulations. The gene sequences were then subjected to gene blast using MEGA 4 and resulted with a phylogenetic tree for the selected East African soybean. The studied cultivars were found to be closely related to Glycine maxspecies. Enzyme Sac11 was identified as a marker for the East African soybean genotypes. These results may also assist plant breeders to produce hybrids with the best performing cultivars based on their genetic diversity. Key words: Soybean, DNA analysis, sequencing, polymorphism, markers. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/885A88611561 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000170 en Copyright © 2010 Fredrick M. Njoka, Zedekiah A. Okwany and Elijah K. Githui
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:8CE8EC611724 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Chemical manipulation of tomato growth and associated biochemical implications on flavonoid, lycopene and mineral contents C. O. Olaiya and A. A. Adigun Full Length Research Paper The consumption of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) has been linked with reduced risk of chronic degenerative diseases. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the biochemical implications of bioregulator application on flavonoids, lycopene, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus and iron contents of tomato. Seeds of the tomato, genotype JM 94/47 were subjected to pre ndash;germination treatment by soaking in 60, 100 and 140mg/L of indole-acetic acid (IAA), indole butyric acid (IBA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and planted. The ripe tomato fruits were harvested at the orange red ripe stage and some biochemical parameters were investigated. The analysis results showed that flavonoid and lycopene content were significantly (p lt; 0.05) increased in tomato plants treated with IAA, IBA and NAA compared to control. The flavonoid content ranged from 0.081 to 0.169 mg/100 g while the 100 mg/L NAA resulted in the highest lycopene concentration of 1.16 g/100 gfwb and assayed minerals were also increased in tomatoes treated with all bioregulators. These results indicate that pre ndash; sowing seed treatment with 1AA, IBA and NAA have profound effect on improving the quality of tomato, especially the phytonutrients examined. Key words: Bioregulators, flavonoids, lycopene, minerals, Solanum lycopersicon. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/8CE8EC611724 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000044 en Copyright © 2010 C. O. Olaiya and A. A. Adigun
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPS:2C7ED5711729 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPS AJPS:2010
Anatomy and morphology of Nicotiana glauca with regard to its crystals characterization Zoleka Mhinana, Buyisile Mayekiso and Michael L. Magwa Full Length Research Paper Nicotiana glauca belongs to the Solanacese family of which Nicotiana tabacumand Nicotiana rustica are best known for their use as tobacco. N. glauca attains the greatest abundance and diversity in Central Argentina where it is considered native, and has been known as a weed in South Africa since the 19th Century. Extensive work on toxic effect of secondary metabolites extracted from this plant was conducted but their sources of origin and structure were not known. The leaves of N. glauca were characterized by the presence of solitary crystals and crystal-sand which originated from the cytosol and vacuoles. The presence of the compact tissues, isobilateral leaf with thick-cuticular epidermis and abundant crystals was assumed to be of ecological importance as this species appeared to be adapted to the xeromorphic habitats. Key words: Anatomy, morphology, crystals in Nicotiana glauca. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-abstract/2C7ED5711729 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS.9000017 en Copyright © 2010 Zoleka Mhinana, Buyisile Mayekiso and Michael L. Magwa