2023-12-06T16:34:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:E7C3B6041248 2007-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2007
Political assassinations in Nigeria: an exploratory study 1986-2005 Afeaye Anthony Igbafe and O. J. Offiong Full Length Research Paper Political assassinations have been the major outcome of political violence in Nigeria. The activities and actions of political individuals and groups are now centered on lsquo;adoption of assassinationrsquo; in settling political scores. The paper examines the spate of political assassinations in the Nigerian political terrain from 1986 - 2005. The central focus is the continued killing of political actors, with the dismal effort of the security agencies, particularly the police; in bringing culprits to book and attribution of reported cases to armed robbery. Utilizing secondary data, the study reveals that approximately 53% of the deaths took place in the preceding decade (1991 - 2000), while 45% occurred in the present decade and 2% was recorded two decades ago. The paper observes with sadness, the inconclusive state of the various cases of political assassination. The ineffectiveness of the national security outfit, the intra-and inter-party squabbles and the lsquo;bloodyrsquo; political war that looms in some parts of the country are some of the factors that account for the rising incidence of political assassinations in Nigeria. Finally, the study notes that the era of blood shedding is still on-going and may pose a serious threat to the upcoming polls in 2007. Key words: Party squabbles, Political actors, Political violence, Political assassination, Nigeria, Politics, and Assassination. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/E7C3B6041248 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000077 en Copyright © 2007 Afeaye Anthony Igbafe and O. J. Offiong
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:9C607AA41247 2007-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2007
Emerging markets in Africa J.R. Kehl Full Length Research Paper Emerging markets present an exciting challenge for international finance and foreign investment. New markets hold both promise and peril. They have the potential for remarkably high returns, while simultaneously harbouring substantial risks. The objectives of this research are; 1) to refine our understanding of emerging markets based on new information about the foreign investment decision-making process, and 2) to more accurately identify emerging markets in Africa based on ten criteria previously excluded from analyses. The methodology consists of a performance evaluation regarding macro political and macro economic indicators; and CSTS regression to correlate investment patterns with investorsrsquo; preferences. The analysis identifies nine newly emerging markets in Africa, and an additional ten that are making progress. The results suggest specific strategies for lsquo;marketingrsquo; newly emerging economies to foreign creditors and global investors. Keywords: Emerging Markets, Development, Africa, Foreign Investment. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/9C607AA41247 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000041 en Copyright © 2007 J.R. Kehl
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:6F408DD41250 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2007
Corruption, Governance and Political Instability in Nigeria Omololu Fagbadebo Full Length Research Paper The Nigerian State is a victim of high-level corruption, bad governance, political instability and a cyclical legitimacy crisis. Consequently, national development is retarded, and the political environment uncertain. The countryrsquo;s authoritarian leadership faced a legitimacy crisis, political intrigues, in an ethnically - differentiated polity, where ethnic competition for resources drove much of the pervasive corruption and profligacy. While the political gladiators constantly manipulated the people and the political processes to advance their own selfish agenda, the society remained pauperized, and the people wallowed in abject poverty. This invariably led to weak legitimacy, as the citizens lacked faith in their political leaders and by extension, the political system. Participation in government was low because citizens perceived it as irrelevant to their lives. In the absence of support from civil society, the effective power of government was eroded. Patron - client relationships took a prime role over the formal aspects of politics, such as the rule of law, well-functioning political parties, and a credible electoral system. In order to break this cycle and ensure good governance, accountability and transparency must be guaranteed. Key words: Corruption, legitimacy, patron ndash; client relations, political stability, oil revenue, accountability, transparency. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/6F408DD41250 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000026 en Copyright © 2007 Omololu Fagbadebo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:F71C57B41249 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2007
Yoruba politics 1999-2003 Omobolaji Ololade Olarinmoye Full Length Research Paper This paper examines the politics of ethnic mobilization. It uses as a case study, the political mobilization activities of one of the major ethnic groups in Nigeria, the Yoruba of the Southwest, to chart the sequence of relations between the ethnic group and the Nigerian State between 1999 - 2003. The paper argues that ethnic mobilization is not an anomic response to the disequilibria generated by modernization and definitely not an expression of deep-rooted animosities or difference but a quest for group security and development within a chaotic and often inegalitarian state structure. The weakness of civil society structures and absence of viable democratic structures for societal ldquo;voicerdquo; has encouraged the rise of ethnic politics, an amalgam of traditional and modernist principles, values and structures, as a means for articulating the demands of society and taking the lead in actualizing such in the face of an unresponsive state. Key words: Ethnic, politics, Nigeria, identity, security, development, opposition. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/F71C57B41249 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000150 en Copyright © 2007 Omobolaji Ololade Olarinmoye
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:08E87EF5780 2008-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2008
Ripe without warning: Israel and Egypt 1967-1973 Brian Christopher Nethery Kelly Full Length Research Paper Ripeness is a situation in which conflicting parties are prepared for peacemaking. Ripeness theory, as applied to international relations, however, tends to be tautological. For Israel and Egypt, the early 1970s were a turbulent period of international relations. The decisions of these two nations, specifically the decisions to go to war, were unexpected and unexplainable given current models of rational choice. Using recently unclassified State Department manuscripts documenting telegram and telephone conversations between US government officials and those of Israel and Egypt, a more accurate explanatory model for decision making is considered. Combining international norm and prospect theory models create a framing device that can better explain the reference point from which decisions were made by the Egyptian and Israeli states during the early 1970s. A better understanding of these decision making processes could potentially lead to an improved method of predicting and recognizing situations of ripeness in international relations. Key words: Decision-making, ripeness theory, prospect theory, October war, Ramadan war, orientalism, deterrence. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/08E87EF5780 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000092 en Copyright © 2008 Brian Christopher Nethery Kelly
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:3F6C0745770 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2008
Path to African security under the 21st century nuclear regime V. O. S. Okeke Full Length Research Paper Historically, it is most unfortunate that not long after Africa extricated itself from the hellish pangs of colonialism spurned around her by the contradictions of industrial Revolution of the 19th century, the continent and the entire humanity for over 40 years have contended with global insecurity occasioned by the recent Cold War between the United States and the then Soviet Union. As the Cold War lasted, and arguably till today, African security also remained under threat, thanks to a resurgence of neocolonialism across the world. Today mankind has arrived the nuclear age and the bubble is about to burst. Today, not only the super powers but also the once pitied countries in the Third World countries in Asia and Latin America now engage one another in an unspeakable cut-throat competition in arms acquisition including the most lethal nuclear war-heads. The point is that this development posed very grave threat to the security of life to the entire mankind in general but also to that of Africa. In particular in this paper the author analyzed aspects of African security and constructed a new path to African security under the current nuclear regime. Key words: Africa-Africa security, nuclear regime, twenty first century. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/3F6C0745770 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000076 en Copyright © 2008 V. O. S. Okeke
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:7F1F8BF5816 2008-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2008
A myth and the reality: Does democratization bring investment? Adoyi Onoja Review With the collapse of the Soviet Union and all it symbolized in 1991 especially the seeming triumph of neo liberalism, the democratization project became a bestseller and the tool of interference in the politics of nations. The platform of relationship is the implementation of the Washington Consensus by most countries. But the real bogey is the one that linked improvement in standard of living, investments, jobs and stock market reaction to democratization. Embarking on political reform, it has been argued, would lead to inflow of investments. Since it is the only way to survive most developing countries have been hitching a ride. But it is a ride that is fraught with difficulties as expectation far outweighs the benefit. Is it really the case that democratization brings jobs and improvement in living standards? With most democratizing countries waiting for so little an investment, is there enough to go round? Considering Africarsquo;s economic rating in the global investment scale and the attraction of the Eastern European and Asian economies, how many investment resources is left for the continent? Is this not hype, in the many, sustained by western propaganda? Indeed what kind of investment is the government in Nigeria attracting? Key words: Democracy, investment, myth, reality, politics. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/7F1F8BF5816 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000002 en Copyright © 2008 Adoyi Onoja
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:4911B025830 2008-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2008
Rational emotive behaviour therapy in improving retirees’ attitude towards political participation Mary Ogechi Esere, Joshua A. Omotosho and Mary C. O. Arewah Full Length Research Paper This study investigated the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy in improving retireesrsquo; attitude towards political participation. Twenty four retirees (mean age = 55.50 years) within Ilorin Metropolis participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to one treatment and one control groups. A validated instrument termed ldquo;Retireesrsquo; Attitude towards Political Participation Questionnairerdquo;) was administered to the two groups before and after the experimental programme. ANCOVA was employed for the analysis of data. Results showed that the treatment package (Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy) was effective in improving retireesrsquo; attitude towards political participation, their religious affiliations notwithstanding. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the counseling curriculum in Nigeria be expanded to accommodate this new problem area and that retirees should always seek counseling. Key words: Retirees, attitude, political participation, Rational emotive behaviour therapy. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/4911B025830 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000086 en Copyright © 2008 Mary Ogechi Esere, Joshua A. Omotosho and Mary C. O. Arewah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:45CAC2D5851 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2008
Is there a monadic authoritarian peace: Authoritarian regimes, democratic transition types and the first use of violent force John Ishiyama, Ryan Conway and Katherine Haggans Full Length Research Paper This paper examines conflict proneness of authoritarian states and tests whether the monadic democratic peace argument can be extended to explain the conflict behavior of authoritarian states. Previous works have examined the propensity of authoritarian states to engage in conflict in dyadic relations with other states, rather than directly examining the conflict propensity of these states using monadic analysis (or who uses violent force first). Further, little empirical work has examined how different types of transitions from authoritarian rule affect the conflict propensity of states. Using Capriolirsquo;s and Trumborersquo;s (2004) First use of Violent Force (FuVF) dataset for 1980 - 2002, we find little support for the monadic argument that authoritarian regimes that have more institutional checks on executive authority are less likely to first use military force than are regimes that have fewer such checks; however, we find that the type of transition is a more important a variable than the type of authoritarian regime in explaining the conflict proneness of the state. Key words: Monadic democratic peace, first use of force, democratic peace, democratization Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/45CAC2D5851 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000067 en Copyright © 2008 John Ishiyama, Ryan Conway and Katherine Haggans
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:EED35E25867 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2008
The 2008 political parties’ code of conduct in Ghana: A toothless Bulldog? Ransford Edward Van Gyampo Full Length Research Paper The idea of drafting a Code of Conduct for political parties in the run up to the December 2008 General Elections by the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA-Ghana) under the auspices of the Ghana Political Partiesrsquo; Programme (GPPP) was hailed by many Ghanaians and political analysts as a step in the right direction. Indeed, the establishment and inauguration of enforcement bodies under the Code was seen as a useful initiative by The IEA to give the Code ldquo;teeth to biterdquo;. This study however reveals that the establishment and inauguration of the enforcement bodies under the Code did not make it unique after all. In more practical terms, the study revealed that the 2008 Political Partiesrsquo; Code of Conduct is not in anyway different from the ones drafted in 2000 and 2004. It is just as ineffective as a toothless bull dog that can only bark but cannot bite. The whole process of drafting the Code can therefore be described as one of the numerous Ghanaian efforts at looking for solutions to problems through workshops, retreats and symposia whose outcomes and resolutions are never implemented but left on shelves to gather dust. Key words: Political parties, code of conduct, enforcement bodies. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/EED35E25867 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000102 en Copyright © 2008 Ransford Edward Van Gyampo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:F498E725881 2008-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2008
UN discourse and information power: An illustration via HIV/AIDS news in Uganda Tara Das Full Length Research Paper International organizations disseminate vast amounts of information on social problems. To what extent does this dissemination manifest in discourse and information power? That is to say, how do country-level actors respond to international information on HIV/AIDS? This paper addresses this question using Uganda as case study and examines how actors adopt, modify, or ignore information disseminated by UN organizations. Using news content analysis, it is discerned that while international information is influential, country actors exercise agency. They identify and adopt specific international information that accord with their particular objectives and situations. With respect to national adoption of international information, the extent to which country policy actors adopt international information derives from country experiences and relations with the international community. International information is not imposed on blank canvases; it intersects with domestic politics. Regional information on HIV/AIDS has also developed on issues like donor fraud and government corruption, traditional medicine, and access to antiretroviral treatment. Key words: UNAIDS, World Bank, Uganda, HIV/AIDS, discourse, power, international organizations. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/F498E725881 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000138 en Copyright © 2008 Tara Das
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:23783635900 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2008
Godfathers, political parties and electoral corruption in Nigeria Omobolaji Ololade Olarinmoye Full Length Research Paper Electoral corruption is mostly seen in Nigeria as a direct subversion of the electoral process by individuals, who are greedy for personal enrichment that electoral success underwrites in Nigeria. While not questioning the personal enrichment thesis of electoral corruption, as it is true, the paper adopts a more nuanced approach to the understanding of electoral corruption. It focuses on the realities of existence of godfathers, political parties and voters in Nigeria. It argues that electoral corruption is the result not just of the avariciousness of godfathers and politicians but of the logic of electoral competition (zero-sum) which demands that political parties in Nigeria, incapacitated by a weak votersrsquo; mobilization capacity derived from their elite/caucus nature, resort to individuals (godfathers) possessing of certain attributes such as an ldquo;intuitive grasp of and control of local voting structure,rdquo; to effect electoral success through activities that distort the electoral process or through electoral competition. Electoral corruption is further entrenched by the political and social existential demands of the godfather, which can only be met by further exercises in electoral corruption, though this time in favor of the godfathers themselves. Key words: Godfathers, political parties, elections, corruption, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/23783635900 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000059 en Copyright © 2008 Omobolaji Ololade Olarinmoye
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:F34CDCF5930 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2008
International politics of oil and the clash of dependencies Goke Lalude and Antonia T. Simbine Full Length Research Paper The term dependency has a direct reference to the Southern developing nations, which through their underdeveloped state, are reliant on the Northern developed nations. However, the international oil politics gives a totally different picture of dependency. This is because Northern developed nations, disadvantaged in both reserves and production, but with a very large appetite for oil, are dependent on the South for he product that is critical to their economics and civilization. There is therefore a clash of the two dependencies; one that is structural and the other that is product. A critical analysis is thus done in this notable clash in contemporary international relations. Key words: Oil politics, dependency. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/F34CDCF5930 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000064 en Copyright © 2008 Goke Lalude and Antonia T. Simbine
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:52383FD5946 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2008
African philosophy and the method of ordinary language philosophy Fasiku Gbenga Full Length Research Paper One of the vibrant topics of debate among African and non-African scholars in the 20th and 21st centuries centered on the existence of African philosophy. This debate has been described as unnecessary. What is necessary is, if African philosophy exists, we should show it, do it and write it rather than talking about it, or engaging in endless talks about it. A popular position on the debate is that what is expected to be shown, done and written is philosophy tailored along the stereotyped and paradigmatic sense peculiar to Western Philosophy. Interestingly, a non-African scholar, Barry Hallen argues that using the method of ordinary language philosophy, African philosophy is philosophy per se, and should be recognised as such. The focus of this study is to analyse what Hallen refers to as ordinary language philosophy and explain how it authenticates African philosophy as unique lsquo;speciesrsquo; of philosophy, thus, putting an end to the controversy on the ontology of African Philosophy. Key words: African philosophy, language philosophy. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/52383FD5946 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000008 en Copyright © 2008 Fasiku Gbenga
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:91665325960 2008-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2008
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb: the evolution from Algerian Islamism to transnational terror David H. Gray and Erik Stockham Full Length Research Paper For over the past half century, Algeria has suffered from on-going political violence and terrorism. The international rise of al-Qaeda has brought this radical movement to this already-troubled North African nation. This scholarly work describes in details how Algerian Islamism has evolved into transnational terrorism. Specifically, this paper will explore how al-Qaeda has now become deeply rooted in the Islamic Maghreb. Key words: Al-Qaeda, Algeria, Maghreb, Islamism, international terrorism, international security issues. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/91665325960 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000009 en Copyright © 2008 David H. Gray and Erik Stockham
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:9A3DE715820 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The space for Congolese self-determination between absences and presences of the African Union and the United Nations Marta Intilde;iguez de Heredia Full Length Research Paper The conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo demonstrates the many challenges that the international community (the UN and AU in this case) faces with its new self-proclaimed responsibility of reconstruction and state building. It is argued that both the UN and the AU would be more effective by guiding their strategies in light of the principle of self-determination. This approach would leave the necessary space for Congolese institutions to develop while focusing UN and AUrsquo;s on stopping external intervention and resource plundering as well as securing prosecution for war crimes and crimes against humanity. The article follows a time-sequencing method that assumes outcomes to be affected by the sequence of events at specific points in time. Key words: Congolese self-determination, The African Union and the United Nations. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/9A3DE715820 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000130 en Copyright © 2009 Marta Intilde;iguez de Heredia
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:81DA35C5829 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
New regionalism in sub-saharan Africa: A means to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to legitimate democratic governments Elie Ngongang Full Length Research Paper The regional integration process in Africa is increasingly becoming an indispensable instrument in the promotion of domestic and foreign direct investment (FDI), and as a means for the legitimization of the fragile nascent democratic government, which are slowly and painfully being put in place all over the continent. The achievement of these policy objectives for sub-Saharan African countries requires the identification and formation of clear priorities and strategies whose implementation should be feasible, effective, and supported by strong political will, if the regional integration failures of the past fifty years of African independence have to be avoided. The key strategies and priorities seem to be based on a belief that the harmonization of regional policies and infrastructures projects of all kinds constitutes the very foundation of a regional integration. According to this belief, these projects are considered to be instrumental and conducive to increased market openness and capital inflows, which in turn could act to stimulate trade among states, the movement of workers and the intermingling of people and cultures. As a result, peace and harmony is maintained within the integrated region. It therefore suggest that the effective implementation of these strategies and priorities, combined with domestic policy reforms would necessarily attract increased regional and foreign direct investment given the continentrsquo;s rich endowment in natural and human resources. The paper examines this basic tenet of regional integration process in Africa and argues that the African political leaders most threatened by integration will be very unwilling to face a successful integration outcome. Hence, it will be up to the international community to support the reforms efforts of these leaders and to help overcome their resistance. Furthermore, the author suggests that the conciliation between the suppression of trade obstacles (economic reforms) and democratization in these countries (political reforms) is the most significant action which bilateral and multilateral financial backers can do to support the recovery of the continent. Key words: Regionalism, trade-democratization, foreign investment, development, sub-saharan Africa. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/81DA35C5829 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000074 en Copyright © 2009 Elie Ngongang
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:9A5E1D05838 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Debating international relations and its relevance to the third world Boniface E.S. Mgonja and Iddi A.M. Makombe Full Length Research Paper In 1935, Sir Alfred Zimmern described IR not as a single field or discipline, but a ldquo;bundle of subjectshellip;viewed from a common anglerdquo; drawn toward questions of international and global continuity and change. However, since its emergence as a ldquo;formal separate disciplinerdquo; of study IR manifests a very little emphasis from the point of view of the Global South realities. Generally, the study of IR has largely neglected the epistemological position of the Global South, its intellectuals and their roles in the continuity and change in the discipline. This paper draws a postcolonial approach to critique, the Eurocentric nature and character of IR discipline and its exclusive emphasis on what happens or happened in the West. The claim is made on how IR as a discipline privileges the Eurocentric world views as an integral to the ordering and functioning of the discipline. Key words: International relations, euro-centrism, postcolonialism, Global South. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/9A5E1D05838 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000027 en Copyright © 2009 Boniface E.S. Mgonja and Iddi A.M. Makombe
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:85B118D5857 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Do the people have faith in electoral democracy? Lessons from Kenyan 2007 presidential elections Chris, M. A. Kwaja Full Length Research Paper This paper seeks to examine the concept of mandate protection, its challenges and impact in building and strengthening electoral democracy in Kenya. It is the contention of this paper that in situations where citizensrsquo; voice and choices are systematically negated communities have no alternative but to rise in resistance to protect the sanctity of their electoral mandates in a ldquo;non-violentrdquo; manner. It argues further that the conduct of controversial elections can reduce citizensrsquo; confidence in the electoral process and cast a shadow on the legitimacy of the electoral outcome as evident in the pervasive violence that was witnessed in Kenya after the 2007 elections. Mandate protection is essentially about the will of the people and it is a function of power relations. The balance of power in the polity determines how much space and access the people can have in the protection and defence of their interests. In the case of Kenya, violence as a viable option became inevitable in the power calculus as it relates to the balance of political power between the PNU and the ODM led by Mwai Kibaki and Raila Odinga respectively. In the final analysis of this paper we contend that the use of violence as part of a political bargaining process among other important instruments, when options become limited in confrontational politics is politically efficacious as a result of the power sharing agreement between the PNU and the ODM. Key words: Elections, democracy, mandate protection, power sharing. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/85B118D5857 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000034 en Copyright © 2009 Chris, M. A. Kwaja
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:99ECFD55868 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Political education through the university: A survey of Nigerian university students M.A. Adelabu and A.O. Akinsolu Full Length Research Paper The higher institutions are known for where ideologies are formed. They also serve as instruments of motivating students. Tertiary education in particular is fundamental to the construction of knowledge and knowledge itself has become a vital factor for political education. Nigerian students are politically active and have in no small measure influenced policies within their universities and in the nation as a whole. Nigerian universities have produced a lot of activists that are presently influencing the Nigerian political landscape. These activists have been known to have developed their political ideologies and activism while in the university. The major objective of this study is to determine whether in reality universities play a role in political education of students. A number of factors, such as, curriculum, media, peer influence and lecturersrsquo; influence are also used to determine the agents of political socialization of the students within the university. The study also highlighted which of the agents seem to have the greatest impact on the studentsrsquo; political education within the university. The study design is survey research using a questionnaire tagged ldquo;Political Education of Students in the Universityrdquo; (PESUQ). The study population is Obafemi Awolowo University. The university is selected because it is deemed to be one of the most politically active among Nigerian universities. The study sample is 1,000 students. 536 new students and 464 old students were selected through a disproportionate stratified random sampling. The questionnaire is divided into two sections. The first section is the personal data of students while the second section addresses studentsrsquo; agents of political education.The study was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics; such as mean, frequency, T-test and chi-square to test relationships, using the SPSS package. Findings revealed that the students are politically influenced in the university system. However, more old than new are influenced. In the same to the male students are more politically socialised than female. It was also found that the main agents of studentsrsquo; political education are the curriculum, the students union and the lecturers. Key words: Political education, political socialisation, ideologies, international politics, campaign for democracy, official curriculum, political agents. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/99ECFD55868 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000079 en Copyright © 2009 M.A. Adelabu and A.O. Akinsolu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:2B96AE25882 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Social inequity, democratic transition and the Igbo nationalism resurgence in Nigeria Duruji, Moses Metumara Full Length Research Paper Between 1960 and 2008 Nigeria has been characterized by social inequities in the distribution of power and resources. These inequities, which are rooted in the foundation of the Nigerian state led to a civil war in 1967 in which the Igbo, one of the major ethnic groups sought to secede from Nigeria. But, the attempt was not successful. The war was followed by a number of systematic and calculated policies, which the victors used to keep the Igbo people down and to hegemonise their grip of political domination of Nigeria for a long time in both the Nigerian military and civilian rules. The widened democratic space in 1999 gave rise to a renewed expression of resentment by Igbo youths whose rejection of their post-war socio-political and economic repressions have sparked off the emergence of youth based movements. Thus, nationalism resurgence is manifested in the renewed demand for Biafra by these organizations. They elicited responses from the democratic government, which seemed to have relapsed to the old order of military style of violent repression of dissension that end up as counter productive. Through the processing of primary data, this paper examines the reinvention of Igbo nationalism in eastern Nigeria. The paper looks at its linkage with the 1999 democratic transition in Nigeria, the implications of this development and the management of the issue by the government. The paper concludes that the resurgence of nationalism is caused by the peoplersquo;s perception of social inequities and injustice in the distribution of power and resources. Hence a deliberate effort to correct these social problems assuages ethnic tensions and presumptions of political violence. Key words: Igbo nationalism, Nigerian politics, marginalization, Biafra. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/2B96AE25882 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000098 en Copyright © 2009 Duruji, Moses Metumara
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:D8F8E465895 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The State and civil society in Africa: A North African perspective Hamdy Abdel Rahman Hassan Full Length Research Paper The concept of civil society is one of the most controversial in cultural and political circles in both of the Arab and African Worlds. Yet, it did not receive the appropriate attention of both its advocates and its detractors, who consider it to be the product of an alien civilization. Furthermore, the concept of civil Society was misused for political purposes, as, for example, some North African States reverted to it in order to exclude the formations of political Islam. On the other hand, Arab movements of opposition and political dissent, resort to the same concept to entrench themselves against state oppression and authoritarianism.Thus this study is based on the premise that the existence of a real Civil Society, independent of both State and Family, and based on the concepts of civilization and tolerance, will lead to full integration on all national, regional and continental levels. Key words: Civil society, The Arab world, Egypt, Tunisia. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/D8F8E465895 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000131 en Copyright © 2009 Hamdy Abdel Rahman Hassan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:502F60B5917 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Voices, positions and empowerment: Women in the Kolkata urban context Bonita Aleaz Full Length Research Paper Interest in the urban space as distinct from the rural is an offshoot of the continuing concern with the city, as a necessary corollary of the postmodern debates. However the question has the city attaining to its exclusivity, or its distinctness, which it was supposed to attain still remains a problematic area, the argument has to be addressed anew from the perspective of various socio-political and geo-specific contexts. It is with this concern that we reflect upon the gendered being in the urban space; has the gendered subject been able to reflect any traces of this exclusivity, which the modernity coterminous with the urban space is supposed to project? By referring to exclusivity, we mainly refer to the acceptable indicators of modernity/urbanity, requisite amounts of empowerment, visible through physical representation and oral/written communication. It was Manuel Castells who demolished such assumptions, way back in the seventies of the twentieth century,that the lsquo;exclusiversquo; urban phenomena was merely an expression of the lsquo;capitalist dominationrsquo; ensuing from the mode of production. In other words, he sees an essentialist connection between the two spaces, the urban and the rural, existing and substantiating each other. The article enters into this urbanndash;rural continuum, and examines how far the urban by adopting its exclusivity empowers the gendered subject. We are encounteringthree problematic issues, when we talk in terms of gender, (the first issue), in the urbanspace (the second issue), and we locate both into a specific geo-physical space of Kolkata(the third issue). Discussions on the gendered subject became fashionable since the twentieth century; however, its contextualization in the urban space as a distinct spatial concern is distinctly a very recent phenomenon. The city of Kolkata, on the other hand, draws attention because despite its history of liberal democratic reforms, on analysis however, much of its liberality is subsumed under an all pervasive bounded rational space. Each of the three issues therefore has possibilities of positive or even subversive impact.An interface between the three issues, therefore, offers interesting insights for study. Key words: Empowerment, women, Kolkata, urban, rural. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/502F60B5917 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000142 en Copyright © 2009 Bonita Aleaz
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:BDC306F5933 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Globalization, migration and the philosophy of in-ward looking: The contemporary Igbo nation in perspective Chris C. Ojukwu Full Length Research Paper The prevailing global order has maximally influenced the rate of migratory behaviour of people in recent times as so many individuals have been compelled by circumstances to shift bases. For instance, the rate of exodus of the cream of Igbos from their home-front in the last 30 years is excessive. It is a situation where about the weakest 30% of them are at home and the upper 70% of others live outside. Key words: Globalisation, migration, Igbo nation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/BDC306F5933 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000056 en Copyright © 2009 Chris C. Ojukwu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:ECCD0317527 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Surviving in a hostile environment: An analysis of Zimbabwe’s foreign relations in 21st century international relations Percyslage Chigora and Didmus Dewa Full Length Research Paper Zimbabwe at the turn of the new Millennium has received widespread condemnation particularly following abandonment of Structural Adjustment programmes (ESAP), intervention in Democratic Republic of Congo and with the implementation of the controversial land reform. The image portrayed abroad has been tattered because of reports of violence, instability and abandonment of the rule of law, which has created a serious challenge to modern developments on democracy and human rights. On one hand Zimbabwe has seemingly lost many friends especially those from the West and/or West controlled institutions. On the other hand it has sought acquaintance with countries in the East and other developing countries. From such a standpoint the paper seeks to examine the causes behind this strain in relations between Zimbabwe and western global actors. It is the aim of this paper to analyse the underlying causes and tracing the origin of the strained relations with western world Key word: Foreign policy, international relations, Zimbabwe. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/ECCD0317527 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000101 en Copyright © 2009 Percyslage Chigora and Didmus Dewa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:FCFC4587529 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Tobacco regulation in South Africa: Interest groups and public policy Bossman E. Asare Full Length Research Paper The article examines the role of interest groups in the adoption of comprehensive tobacco control policies in South Africa. While various studies have noted that interest groups shape and influence public policies especially in advanced industrialized polities, this study looks at the impact of tobacco control groups in regulating tobacco use in a developing, middle-income country, South Africa. Using interviews of leading experts on tobacco control from South Africa and tobacco control policy documents, the study finds that since the last decade or so, the lobbying and campaigns of anti-tobacco interest groups have led to the adoption of more restrictive policies. Key words: Tobacco control, interest groups, anti-tobacco groups, South Africa. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/FCFC4587529 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000135 en Copyright © 2009 Bossman E. Asare
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:8ABC5747531 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Administrative problems of state creation in Ekiti State, Nigeria Femi Omotoso Full Length Research Paper The Nigerian Federal system is beset by a lot of complex challenges. One of such challenges is the seemingly implacable and intractable agitation for the creation of new states. The study explores the problems of state creation in Nigeria through a descriptive case study analysis of the politics of state re-organization in Ekiti State. The study specifically focuses on three major administrative challenges of state re-organization; namely revenue allocation, assets sharing and personnel administration. The study finds that the new Ekiti State is troubled by a low level of internally generated revenue, political corruption, over dependence on central statutory allocation etc. It also reveals that the problem of assets sharing has fuelled protracted legal, political and administrative conflicts while personnel administration problems undermine bureaucratic efficiency and effectiveness. The study raises important questions about the desirability and viability of state re-organization in the Nigerian federation. Key words: Administrative problem, state creation, Nigerian Federal system. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/8ABC5747531 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000005 en Copyright © 2009 Femi Omotoso
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:2CD21AD7533 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Regimes as mechanisms for social order in international relation Sunday E .N. Ebaye Full Length Research Paper As the state centric realist approach and other paradigms to the study of international relations appears too limited for explaining an increasingly complex and interdependent world, the need for a search for new ways to organize intellectually and understand international activities arises. This paper attempts to improve on our understanding of international cooperation and social order in the international system through the analysis of the regime theory. Anarchy in the international system does not entail continual chaos, as cooperative international arrangements do exist. Sovereign states have a rational incentive to develop processes for making joint decisions when confronting problems of common interest or common aversions. Also, self interested actors rationally forgo independent decision making and construct regimes. More germane to this paper therefore is the suggestion for transnational and trans-governmental actors in the coordination of activities in the international system. Key words: Regimes, instrument, world order, international relations. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/2CD21AD7533 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000087 en Copyright © 2009 Sunday E .N. Ebaye
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:30DEBA57536 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Is forgiveness and amnesty a panacea to Kenya’s post-conflict crisis? Nasongo, J. W., Achoka, J. S. K. and Wamocha L. L. M. Full Length Research Paper For a long period, Kenya was rightfully branded ldquo;Island of Peacerdquo; in the tumultant Eastern Africa Region. After the December, 2007 General Elections, the country plunged into civil war and rebellion especially in the region west of the great rift valley. Provinces located in the region: Rift Valley, Nyanza and Western witnessed: murder, looting, eviction, rape, arson, burning of food and food stores, destruction of homes, animals and crops, emotional harassment and other kinds of human abuse. Most survivors ended up in concentration camps for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). Effects of what happened between December 2007 and February 2008 were felt not only in the whole of Kenya but the entire Eastern Africa Region and beyond. At the intervention of the United Nations Organization through their previous and current secretaries, Dr. Kofi Anan and Dr. Ban Ki Moon respectively, a peace accord between the warring camps: Party of National Unity (PNU) and Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) was signed. Although many IDPs have been resettled, the talk of the day in Kenya is Forgiveness for peace building to enhance acceptance. Forgiveness is most associated with religious faiths. Within the secular realm, the term amnesty obtains. Regardless of whether we opt for forgiveness or amnesty, various challenges are anticipated. This paper attempts to provide an understanding of the post-election violence in Kenya with a view to find ways to contribute to the peace building challenge. The paper is divided into seven parts. The first part deals with the concept of peace followed in the second part by an elucidation of some peace theories. Importantly, each theory provides a basis upon which critical reflection and observation regarding the post-election violence in Kenya are made. The third portion of the paper deals with some vivid causes of the violence. This diagnosis is logically followed by the fourth part which addresses the role of the church in enhancing forgiveness and neighbourly love as a panacea for peace. In the fifth section, a discussion on the amnesty dilemma is undertaken followed by the sixth section containing conclusions to the discussions. The seventh section contains suggestions on the way forward. It is recommended that the grand-coalition government should encourage forgiveness and reconciliation among all Kenyans in order to attain lasting peace. Key words: Conflict, peace building, forgiveness, amnesty. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/30DEBA57536 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000066 en Copyright © 2009 Nasongo, J. W., Achoka, J. S. K. and Wamocha L. L. M.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:99480487538 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Whose e-governance? A critique of online citizen engagement in Africa Isaac Olawale Albert Full Length Research Paper This paper takes a critical look at the state of e-governance in Africa from the supply and demand points of view. The supply side refers to the readiness of African states to practice e-governance while the demand segment refers to the capacity and motivation of citizens to force e-governance on their representatives in government, the paper reviewed the state of e-readiness in the continent and concluded that the continent is far behind the global standards. This problem is blamed in extant literature on the pervasiveness of poverty in the continent which makes the necessary infrastructure of e-governance to be lacking. The paper moved the debate forward by arguing that lack of infrastructure is not as weighty in the explanation of the problem as corruption and lack of the political will for e-democracy. The paper cited some examples to back up this argument. Citizens of African states are equally not able to boost the state of e-governance in their societies largely because many of them are still bugged down with how to ensure daily survival in the harsh social, economic and political environments under which they live. Efforts made by non-governmental organizations to open websites to promote deliberative democracy have led to different types of problems. To solve all these problems, the paper made three important recommendations, the dismantling of the secret state, the democratization of the concept of national security and the integration of the e-democracy processes within broader constitutional structures and debates of African states. Key words: E-governance, e-readiness, e-democracy, supply, demand, secret state, national security. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/99480487538 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000147 en Copyright © 2009 Isaac Olawale Albert
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:3CBF12B7540 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Children’s human rights in underdeveloped country: A study in Ethiopian perspective Vaibhav Goel Full Length Research Paper Children have human rights like any human being. In addition to the general human rights they also have special rights because of their status of mental and psychical development due to age. According to the 1989 convention on the rights of the child, lsquo;in all actions concerning children whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative institutions or legislative bodies, the best interest of the child shall be a primary consideration.rsquo; Both parents and states party to the convention are responsible for the upbringing and development of the child according to the convention stated above. The upbringing and development requires hygiene, health care, access to edu-cation, environmental sanitation, preservation of accident and others. The convention recognizes to make primary education compulsory and available free to all. It is not the only CRC but ILO too, which give priority with regards to the protection of child right. It is the state obligation to take appropriate measures for the same. But it is panic on the part of the state when it denies or escape in fulfilling its obligation because of the insufficient resources with it. And no doubt one can observe the same practice in the underdevelopment countries. Child exploitation, either economical or sexual, child abuse, neglect and trafficking are wildly observed in these countries. This might be related to several factors, like poverty, insufficient efforts and commitment from concerned bodies, law rates of reporting child abuse, cultural norms or values and harm full traditional practices or others. Any way these child exploration abuse and neglect highly affect the up bringing and development of the child including education. The same is with one of the underdeveloped country of Africa that is, Ethiopia. Key words: Human rights, child rights, child abuse, sexual exploitation, child trafficking, Ethiopia. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/3CBF12B7540 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000021 en Copyright © 2009 Vaibhav Goel
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:723314D7542 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The Nigerian state, political assassination and democratic consolidation: A historical exploration Olaopa Olawale Rafiu Akinola Owolabi and Salaam Najeem Folasayo Full Length Research Paper Given the current harvest of political assassinations that characterized the Nigerian political landscape and its worrisome nature, this paper, using a retrospective analysis of events, accepts the thesis that ldquo;the emergence of the Nigerian Colonial State is a by - product of a lsquo;fraudulent social contractrsquo; and not of a lsquo;negotiated willrsquo; of the wielded partsrdquo; (Ajetumobi,1991). As a result of this, the colonial state, in order to be able to protect the commercial interests of the colonialists, imposed a patrimonial system of administration by enlisting the dominant group in their services as co-conspirators. Nigerian post colonial state inherited this mode of administration and its vices from their colonial master, Britain. Thus, the relationship between the political leaders and the led masses was that of domination and exploitation. Governance deviated from a call to service, but avenue for corruption and accumulation of wealth. A system of patronage in public offices and the practice of political intolerance became the order of the day. This actually led to political assassinations because professional, economic and political elites sought political power as a condition to fulfilling and furthering their economic interests. The control of instrument of the state gave them access to a share in the profitable opportunities offered by the Neo-colonial economy. It is against these matrices of historical deformities amidst the seeming privatization of political power by few in both the colonial and post colonial state that shape the nature and character of our Nigerian Political Elites, actors and office holders in the current democratic dispensation, their implications on democratic good governance as well as the way out, can be understood. The prevalent lsquo;loot and warfarersquo; approach to politics, the opposition phobia, the pre-occupation with interests of politics of survival and personal security (African leadership forum, 1990) and political killing/assassinations due to sit-tightism seek expression in this paradigm and our leaders keep drawing inspirations from Machiavelli political thought, with emphasis on his slogan, the end justifies the means. Key words: Political assassinations, fraudulent social contract, colonial state, patrimonial system of administration, co-conspirator, democratic governance, system of patronage, neo-colonial economy, sit-tightism, Machiavelli Political Thought. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/723314D7542 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000120 en Copyright © 2009 Olaopa Olawale Rafiu Akinola Owolabi and Salaam Najeem Folasayo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:F72DBEE7544 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The African union, African diasporas and the quest for development: In search of the missing link Raphael O. Ogom Full Length Research Paper As a development resource, the potential implications of the African diaspora are indubitable. Thus, in underscoring this recognition, the African union has sought to actively cultivate and engage the former as the missing link in the development efforts of the continent. Grounded on a political economy analysis, we argue this move is most salutary and, in deed, long overdue. However, it is grounded on a fallacious mode of thought that predicates the problematique of African development on the external environment and with it, an erroneous prognosis for action that locates the solution from that (external) environment. This is analytically tenuous because a more comprehensive accounting of the African development experience lies in both the external and internal milieu of the continent and how these impact Africarsquo;s development efforts. The convoluted internal African environment would likely undermine the development impulses of the African diaspora. For the much sought after development contributions of the AD to take root, a total re-orientation of the African (internal) development environment towards one that is less replete with development-choking obstacles that currently predominate its economies is necessary. Key words: African union, diaspora, African development, leadership, economic development. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/F72DBEE7544 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000103 en Copyright © 2009 Raphael O. Ogom
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:46D75387546 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The most difficult decision yet: Ghana’s 2008 Presidential elections Michael Amoah Full Length Research Paper Ghanarsquo;s presidential election was held from 7 December 2008 through to 2 January 2009. The paper highlights the difficulty of choice between two good candidates which polarised the nation into two nearly equal halves. This paper also discusses the significance of the election to Africa and the rest of the international community. The article makes the point that the incumbent NPP administration would have won the presidency if their supporters had made sure to vote sufficiently enough in the first round. The article adds that the mixed quality of opinion polls had an influence on the electoral process. The article further emphasizes the utter independence and efficiency of the Electoral Commission. The impossible challenge for the new administration to live up to real and imagined expectations also has potential to cost them the next election. The article finally sets the scene for the next presidential election in 2012, and concludes with a note on the role of the international community, particularly the African Union, in future democratic governance in Africa. Key words: Ghana, elections. opinion polls, African union, international observers, electoral commission, democratic governance. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/46D75387546 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000115 en Copyright © 2009 Michael Amoah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:812B2A67549 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Igbo nation, modern statecraft and the geopolitics of national survival in a multiethnic Nigeria Chris C. Ojukwu Full Length Research Paper The central argument of the paper is that the Nigerian state has consistently failed in its efforts to address the structurally-defective pattern of governance characterized largely by imbalance and lopsidedness, particularly in the allocation and distribution of human and material (public) resources. A situation where a country of this nature is being monopolized largely by one section or reign for the past four decades is a source of concern to many especially those from the other geo-political zones. Key words: Ethnic identity, modern statecraft, Igbo Nation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/812B2A67549 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000061 en Copyright © 2009 Chris C. Ojukwu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:B2D13D17551 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The Niger Delta crisis: Issues, challenges and prospects L. A. Afinotan and V. Ojakorotu Full Length Research Paper Nigeriarsquo;s Niger Delta region is not only home to the greater part of Africarsquo;s largest mangrove forest, but also the source of Nigeriarsquo;s oil wealth. Here, in this amazing network of creeks, and an aquatic splendor comprising marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems, lie the operational bases of a kaleidoscope of ethnic militia and insurgent organizations dedicated to the socio-economic emancipation of the Niger Delta peoples. These have culminated in the Niger Delta Crisis. Thus, the area has become a hot bed of violence, insurgency, kidnapping, hostage-taking, oil pipeline sabotage, crude oil theft, gang wars, internecine struggles and so much else by way of anarchy and chaos. Making use of library research and content analysis methodologies, the paper detailed in a systematic manner the real issues involved in the struggle, from the perspectives of the Nigerian State, the Niger Delta communities, and the oil Companies. The paper identified and analysed the major challenges posed by this crisis to the Nigerian State. It concluded that in spite of the continuing deterioration of the crisis into anarchy, terror and a revolving criminality, and the militarization of the region by the Nigerian state, the conflict can still be amicably resolved. It recommended among other things that the commitment of government to infrastructural development of the region and corporate social responsibility would bring enduring peace and stability. Key words: Niger Delta, oil wealth, ethnic militia, content analysis, corporate social responsibility. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/B2D13D17551 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000118 en Copyright © 2009 L. A. Afinotan and V. Ojakorotu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:EC57F957553 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The concept of change and James N. Rosenau: Still international relations? Murat Guuml;l Full Length Research Paper This article aims to study issue of lsquo;change and continuityrsquo; in the field of international relations and the capability of mainstream approaches of international relations and history to cover the issue of change from perspective of James N. Rosenau. The dynamics of change and statics of continuity, at micro and macro levels and interaction between two levels will be analyzed, with the aim of designing a theoretical framework for the issue of lsquo;change and continuityrsquo;. Methodologically, conceptual framework Rosenau uses to explain dynamics of change will be given priority and primacy he attaches to improvement in micro phenomena will be explained. It is argued in this article that even it is far from clear whether global turbulence is a temporary or a permanent condition, change is in progress and is altering the parameters of world politics. Thus, the mainstream conceptual framework and history understanding is incapable to approach the issue of change and there is the need of a jail-breaking process that is to consider new concepts, new actors and new types of relationships. Key words: Postinternational politics, turbulent change, micro and macro phenomena, prametric transformation, multi-centric world. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/EC57F957553 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000106 en Copyright © 2009 Murat Guuml;l
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:F53A5357555 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Science and technology parks: An overview of the ongoing initiatives in Africa Raymond Tavares Full Length Research Paper The aim of our study is to review the readiness of selected African countries to invest in Science and Technology Parks and manage them effectively. This is justified by the fact that the number of ongoing or foreseen projects aiming at the establishment of Science Parks is growing on one side. On another side, we observe simultaneously a persisting lack of critical scientific mass for knowledge production and the limited cases of success with regard to those which have been already established. Our study will also raise a provocative query or concern about possible alternative forms of infrastructure that can be most effective and appropriate to support the promotion of technologies and innovations in African countries. Key words: Science park, technology park, Africa, knowledge society, high technology readiness. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/F53A5357555 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000095 en Copyright © 2009 Raymond Tavares
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:DC62D427557 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Poverty, oil exploration and Niger Delta crisis: The response of the youth Ajiboye Olanrewaju Emmanuel, Jawando Jubril Olayiwola, Adisa Waziri Babatunde Full Length Research Paper Oil and gas have been described as the mainstay of the Nigerian economy today. The irony of it however, is that the Niger Delta areas, where the countryrsquo;s oil wealth is being derived from, has been neglected since the 1970s that Nigeriarsquo;s oil boom became noticeable in the global market. Successive administration in the country have either paid lip attention to the prevalence of the magnitude of problems. The operations of governmentrsquo;s oil companies and the multinational corporations exploring oil in the regions or engage the poor population in military warfare. The responses of the people especially the youth to this perceived structural inequality are usually in forms of domestic terrorism, kidnapping of oil workers, incessant attacks on oil plants by militants whose major populations are the youth who are seriously being affected by this problem of marginalization. The aim of this study was to take a critical look at poverty as a key economic problem predisposing the youth to violent attacks on oil workers. The paper used Marxian theory of conflict to extrapolate the issue. It therefore stated that the present violent and militarized approach of the Federal Government to the Niger Delta crisis is a utopian. Key words: Poverty, Niger Delta, youth response. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/DC62D427557 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000083 en Copyright © 2009 Ajiboye Olanrewaju Emmanuel, Jawando Jubril Olayiwola, Adisa Waziri Babatunde
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:12DAA897558 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The legislatures in Africa: A trajectory of weakness Mojeed Olujinmi A. Alabi Full Length Research Paper The paper examined the historical underpinnings of the under-development ofrepresentative institutions in Africa. The author noted that notwithstanding its worldwideprevalence, the legislature had been involved in struggles for political power and relevance across political systems. Specifically, he viewed the African parliaments as products of specific historical experiences, notably of colonialism and militarism, that not only stultified their growth and development but also left legacies that continued to constrain their capacity to serve as effective checks on the ever-growing powers of the executive arms of post-independence governments. Accordingly, the legislatures of Africa had not been placed in vantage positions akin to those of their counterparts in the advanced democracies, and their capacities as effective agents of limited government were seriously constrained. In the circumstances, the workings and challenges of representative institutions in Africa had to be understood within the context of the historical forces that shaped and continued to shape their emergence and contemporary relevance. It identifiedpeople-centred constitutional re-engineering, more proactive posture on the part of legislators themselves and capacity-building supports as the irreducible minimum for strengthening the legislatures and creating responsive and citizens-friendly environments for sustainable democracy and good governance in Africa. Key words: Legislature, colonialism, military rule, African politics. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/12DAA897558 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000114 en Copyright © 2009 Mojeed Olujinmi A. Alabi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:720F6397559 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Dependency approach: Chances of survival in the 21st century Sofiane Sekhri Full Length Research Paper Since the end of the Cold War, Dependency Approach has been facing a number of changes in the international system and had to deal with several theoretical challenges. But, whilst many academic writings emphasized the demise of Dependency Approach, this paper has endeavored to breathe life into Dependency thoughts by exploring what chances Dependency Approach has in order to remain effective and competitive. Deep analysis of current facts and events in the international, regional and sub-regional settings has sustained the main theoretical assumptions of Dependency Approach and illustrated that several thoughts and concepts from the Dependency Approach are still systematic and applicable. Key Words: Dependency approach, dependence, north, south, core, periphery, dominant, development, underdevelopment, The Third World. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/720F6397559 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000030 en Copyright © 2009 Sofiane Sekhri
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:A84358F7560 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The state, identity mobilization and conflict: A study of intra ethnic conflict in Ebira land, north central -Nigeria Marietu O. Tenuche Full Length Research Paper This study focused mainly on changes in the traditional institutions of governance occasioned by colonial rule and the impact of such changes on the organization of social life of erstwhile republican communities in Nigeria. These changes appeared to be the most fundamental and underlying cause of incessant violent conflicts and the seeming powerlessness on the part of State authorities to exert control and provide security to the communities. Relying essentially on content analysis of media reports, materials from the archives including reports by colonial officials on the Ebira community complimented largely with in-depth interviews carried out with leading actors in the conflicts, the study also examined the overall impact of the crises of the Nigerian State on politics and society among the Ebira and how that related to the dynamics of intra-ethnic violence. Among others, the study recommends that there is an urgent need to emphasise informal and traditional approaches to conflict management and peace building so as to ensure the empowerment of local communities and institutions in the management of conflict. Key words: Clan, conflict, Ebira-Tao, ethnic group, identity mobilization, traditional institution. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/A84358F7560 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000132 en Copyright © 2009 Marietu O. Tenuche
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:08ECB177561 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Economic development and change in Tanzania since independence: The political leadership factor Honest Prosper Ngowi Full Length Research Paper The author makes a critical examination of the contribution of political leadership in the economic development and change of Tanzania since her 1961 political independence from Britain. He divides the countryrsquo;s economic development and change into three more or less discrete time epochs. The first epoch is the period from independence to 1967; the second is from the 1967 Arusha Declaration to the mid-1980s and the third is from the mid-1980s reforms to the present time (2007). The outstanding general economic developments and change in each epoch are identified. A critical analysis on the extent to which the developments and change in each epoch can be attributed to the political leadership of the time or even of the past is made. It is found in the work that, the economic developments and change in Tanzania can be highly attributed to political leadership. Interestingly and contrary to the orthodox understanding and narrow scope of some analyses, both the political leadership of the day and that of the past are found to be responsible for economic developments and change in a particular epoch. Interestingly also, it is found that political leadership outside Tanzania, especially among its neighbours, trade partners and the donor community, has far-reaching impacts in the countryrsquo;s economic development and change. It is concluded in the paper that political leadership is an important factor in a countryrsquo;s development and change. It is recommended that policy and decision makers should facilitate a process where adequate political leadership for good development and change is established, improved and maintained. Recommendations for further studies include the need to review this work over time and conduct similar ones in other countries for the purpose of, inter-alia, comparisons and learning lessons. Key words: Economic development and change, Tanzania, political factor. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/08ECB177561 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000038 en Copyright © 2009 Honest Prosper Ngowi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:AED570C31547 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Godfatherism and the future of Nigerian democracy O. Akinola Adeoye Full Length Research Paper The study explores the relationship between godfathers and godsons with a particular attention to its influence on the development of Nigeriarsquo;s politics, and seeming demise of resourceful governance in the country. The study adopts unstructured interview to elicit the perception of actorsrsquo; involved and political elites, relying on qualitative and content analyses of data. The study found that there was a shift in the modus operandi of post independence godfatherism, and what obtains in contemporary Nigeria was violence-inspired godfatherism, which successfully replaced politics of welfare by politics of warfare in the affected areas. This acted as impediments to sustainable democratization process in Nigeria. The study concludes by recognizing the inevitability of godfathers in politics but there was the need for proper management of godfather/godson relationship. Key words: Godfatherism, patron-client politics, mafianism. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/AED570C31547 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000058 en Copyright © 2009 O. Akinola Adeoye
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:143FB7031576 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Assessing the quality of accountability in Ghana’s district assemblies, 1993 - 2008 Emmanuel Debrah Full Length Research Paper The article delineates the forms and mechanisms of accountability in Ghanarsquo;s District Assemblies (DAs) and probes their efficacy in the current decentralization policy. It provides empirical data on how accountability relationships have improved or not improved local democracy in Ghana. The DAs were created to be pillars of grassroots governance. The devolution of power to the DAs aimed at enhancing a system of local public monitoring and checks on their elected representatives. This was justified that local representatives would be more accessible to the local populace and could be held at close range for their policies and actions than distant national political leaders. The paper notes that the challenges of local accountability are many but they stem from the tendency of the central government to recentralize power by placing grassroots leaders under its influence. The practice of appointing the DCE and thirty percent members of the DAs, and the upward reporting mechanism reflect a growing culture of central controls in order to side step the autonomy of the DAs. The most apposite remedy for overcoming weak grassroots accountability lies in reform measures that allow the direct election of all officials of the DAs by the local populace. Key words: District assemblies, accountability, elected representatives, local electorate, democracy, decentralization. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/143FB7031576 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000012 en Copyright © 2009 Emmanuel Debrah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:B954D8031615 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
“Locking-in” Liberal democracy in South Africa, explaining democratization through an alternative perspective Nicholas Knowlton Full Length Research Paper As the state of South Africa transitioned from Apartheid and into democracy in 1994, many speculated whether South Africarsquo;s democratic experiment would last beyond the initial presidency of then-President Nelson Mandela; fortunately democracy has appeared to have taken rather resilient roots since its inception. However such a development begs the question as to how can South African democratic successes is explained. In this analysis the theory of republican liberalism is introduced, with its propositions regarding the balancing of foreign and domestic interests, as well as the ldquo;locking-inrdquo; of democratic regimes via international institutions. This paper will explain South African democratization within the purview of republican liberalism, and illustrate not only the explanatory ability of republican liberalism towards the transitioning state of South Africa in 1994, but also exhibit the ability of republican liberalism to be applied in future democratic-theory research. Key words: South Africa, democratization, apartheid, republican liberalism, institutionalism. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/B954D8031615 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000015 en Copyright © 2009 Nicholas Knowlton
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:131C47731635 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The impact of manipulated re-elections on accountability and legitimacy of democratic regimes in Africa: Observations from Nigeria, Zambia and Kenya U. B. Ikpe Full Length Research Paper This study analyzes causes and impact of pharisaic free and fair elections on African democracies. It is absurd when democratic governments in Africa perform poorly in office, yet they continue to renew their mandates in supposedly free and fair elections. This problem derives from regarding political offices by incumbent elites as sources of private wealth accumulation without suffering negative consequences. This engenders poor government performances, inveterate corruption and vitiated accountability. As political elites depend extensively on mobilization of ethnic solidarity and electoral frauds to retain power, the problem continues to recycle, with deleterious consequences for democracy in Africa. Key words: Accountability, consolidation, corruption, democracy, election, legitimacy, re-election, responsiveness. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/131C47731635 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000113 en Copyright © 2009 U. B. Ikpe
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:591B39131673 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Falsification of population census data in a heterogeneous Nigerian state: The fourth republic example Bamgbose, J. Adele Full Length Research Paper This paper examines critically the controversy surrounding the recently concluded population census in Nigeria which came up between March 21 and 25, 2006. While population census is a deliberate attempt to enumerate people within a delimited territory at a specific time so as to determine their number, their contribution over the land area and their basic socio-demographic and economic characteristics, many of such exercises have been juggled especially in Nigeria. Many infallible proofs for several scores of years have been showing that census taking in Nigeria has been surrounded by deliberate falsehood with the intents and purposes to derive one benefit or the other from the government. The paper argues that the Nigeriarsquo;s 2006 population census was no way different from the past falsified ones in Nigeria. The paper concludes that for an accurate population census in Nigeria, population census should not be used for allocation of governmental benefits. Key words: Census, population, data. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/591B39131673 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000046 en Copyright © 2009 Bamgbose, J. Adele
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:A9BB5A431693 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Africa and the challenges of unipolar world: Sovereignty, civil society and women’s rights as case studies F. A. Olasupo Full Length Research Paper Close to two decades after the emergence of unipolar world, more than ample opportunities are provided to access the impact of this phenomenon on Africa. It emergence ushered in what is known today as ldquo;global villagerdquo;. Happenings in any state are no longer the exclusive preserve of the lsquo;villagersquo; or lsquo;hamletrsquo; concerned but that of the entire globe. Sovereign nations in Africa and indeed anywhere that were previously unchallengeable not least by external bodies but more importantly by the internal ones ndash; civil societies, women groups among many other bodies ndash; now have high degree of freedom to operate and connect one another locally, nationally and internationally to challenge despotic sovereigns. These are done in a way that the sovereigns in Africa, both traditional and modern, are powerless to do anything than to bow. The paper examines the ways and methodologies by which unipolar world and its allies in the African states, even if unwillingly, open up the political space for participation by all and sundry. Not least in their focus are the mechanisms by which these tyrants are challenged, corrected or possibly removed from office e.g. Sani Abacha and Charles Taylor. African women also regain their voices and actions. How these happen is what this paper sets out to examine. Key words: Sovereignty, traditional state, post-traditional State, traditional rulers, monarchy, civil society, women. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/A9BB5A431693 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000006 en Copyright © 2009 F. A. Olasupo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:D01D8BF31722 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Determinants of regime survival in Africa Michael Seifu Full Length Research Paper Political instability has arguably been the most important factor that defined the African political landscape for the past five post-independence decades. Few countries in the region were immune from the costly conflicts that afflicted the region. It is perhaps no surprise then that a growing volume of literature on African political economy chose to explain the lacklustre economic performance of the countries in terms of absence of political stability. However, studies generally tend to downplay the diversities in the political economy trajectories of the different countries in the region. By highlighting one such cross-country variation, this study analyses the determinants of regime survival in Africa. More specifically, we apply survival analysis techniques to identify the institutional features behind observed differences in regime survival. We find that colonial legacy as well as level of income is important determinants of the hazard rates for regime survival in Africa. Key words: Africa, regime survival, democracy, colonial legacy. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/D01D8BF31722 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000031 en Copyright © 2009 Michael Seifu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:8415CB840443 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
An overview of pseudo-therapeutic approaches to poverty in Nigeria: The citizens and the state Jonathan S. Maiangwa Review Mounting pressures on poverty eradication on world scale is informed by it severity and impact on the poor and the disadvantaged. In Nigeria for instance, where its large population lived in rural communities and engaged in subsistence agriculture they are said to be the worse hit; their condition is exacerbated by poor rural infrastructure, bad governance, unsustainable population growth, ethno-religious and tribal conflicts, adverse effects of globalization, inappropriate economic policies, HIV/AIDs pandemic among others. This paper is a general survey of therapeutic approaches on poverty issue in Nigeria. It delved into theoretical and empirical postulations of causes and types as well as attempt to chat a course for critical examination of the depth and magnitude of poverty. The survey drew curtain on the relationship between the citizens and the state in a post-colonial Nigeria. The broad focus of this work hinged on the premise of prevailing trend of poverty in Nigeria and the inadequacies of governmental policies and actions to meet up the yearnings and aspirations of its citizens. The work finally identified the deepening crisis of development in Nigeria as a function of mismanagement, corruption, inequitable distribution of political power and resources. The general perception of the recent economic reform policy in the country is that the policies are alien and western oriented meant to deepen the existing economic gap in the society. This notion has led to the situation of citizens verses the state in series of unhealthy engagements since the reconstitution of democratic institutions in the country. Key words: Citizens, states, economic policies, corruption, poverty eradication, bad governance, tribal conflicts. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/8415CB840443 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000011 en Copyright © 2009 Jonathan S. Maiangwa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:5D125B740450 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Understanding the crisis of development in Africa: Reflections on Bedford Umez’s analysis M. Alumona Ikenna Full Length Research Paper Despite the presence of huge mineral and human resources found in Africa, the continent has remained a victim of underdevelopment. This has prompted several efforts by scholars, African leaders and the international development agencies to understand and solve the development crisis. This paper is a review of Bedford Umezrsquo;s analysis of the development crisis in Nigeria. The paper exposed the implications of Umezrsquo;s analysis bearing in mind the realities of the Nigerian environment. The paper concludes that simple as they could appear to be, the policy prescriptions suggested by Umez are worthy of attention since they will help in solving the crisis of development in Nigeria. Key words: Development, underdevelopment, politics, Umez, Nigeria and Africa. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/5D125B740450 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000139 en Copyright © 2009 M. Alumona Ikenna
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:1A553A540459 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Resource conflict among farmers and Fulani herds men: Implications for resource sustainability E. Tenuche Marietu and O. Ifatimehin Olarewaju Full Length Research Paper This study describes the traditional relationship between farmers and Fulani herdsmen in the incessant resource conflict witnessed in Kogi State, Nigeria and how it affects livelihood security of those involved and resource sustainability for the communities. These conflicts are most responsible for the unsustainable utilization of land and water resources as the trampling by the hooves of herds of cattle compacts the soil of farm land, destroy farm crops by the herdsmen, places restraint on effective utilization of arable farmland among other destruction of available resources. It is understood that these conflicts have their roots in the land tenure system, settlers are indigenes contest over land and misplaced development strategies of the government. The study relied extensively on a research conducted in the Benue valley region in 2006 which identified the major causes of conflict in the area of study. The study concluded that there is the need for state resolution of the critical issues that are at the roots of the conflict i.e. land tenure system and provide a clear policy on grazing land. These are constitutional matters that would involve all stakeholders if a peaceful and lasting solution is to be evolved. Key words: Conflict, farmers, herdsmen, land, resource, sustainability, water. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/1A553A540459 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000090 en Copyright © 2009 E. Tenuche Marietu and O. Ifatimehin Olarewaju
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:4B5C09440462 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Political intolerance as a clog in the wheel of democratic governance: The way forward S. T. Akindele, O. R. Olaopa and N. F. Salaam Full Length Research Paper This paper synoptically discusses the concept of political (in)tolerance and its implication on any democratic setting alongside with the concept of governance. Against this background, it argues that most African states took over from centralized and unrepresentative colonial ethnic and religious separatism ndash; tribalism ndash; and become victims to centrifugal aspirations of ambitious politicians speaking in the name of ethnic, religious and regional minorities (Esman, 1997). This monocratic political order (which derives from the Hobbesian notion/conception of the state) not only failed as a system but led to serious in tolerance and in some cases disastrous consequences for the economy and people of Africa (Olowu, 1995). And as a result, enormous amount of money is being spent worldwide on questions of political tolerance. Political intolerance and lack of debate, according to literature, had caused retardation in ideas, innovation, creativity and growth of political consciousness among people due to the fear of misconception of such ideas by their political opponents or fellow comrades. This makes democratic transitions arduous thereby threatening the consolidation of democracy. Political tolerance is not easy to practice. However, its exercise, without jettisoning social justice or the abandonment or weakening of one#39;s conviction will promote a culture of political pluralism. This, without any controversies, will guarantee peace and harmony which is a cornerstone of democratic consolidation. For democratic engine to be well propelled, regardless of any strategy, the best public policy should arise out of citizensrsquo; willingness to imbibe positive values as well as any other attribute and be ready to tolerate the expression of a plurality of political opinions, including those different to their own. This is essential because, instrumental to good democratic governance is human beings with positive values and other dimensions of human performance that enable social, economic and political institutions to function and remain functional, over time (Adjibolosoo, 1995). Key words: Political (in)tolerance, democratic governance, political consciousness, monocratic, democratic engine, positive values, centrifugal aspiration, ethnic and religion separatism, social justice, hobbessian, democratic consolidation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/4B5C09440462 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000080 en Copyright © 2009 S. T. Akindele, O. R. Olaopa and N. F. Salaam
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:04EB6A340470 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The politics of historying: A postmodern commentary on Bahru Zewde’s history of modern Ethiopia Semir Yusuf Full Length Research Paper This short commentary poses a timely challenge to positivist historiography both at the theoretical and the practical levels. Theoretically, it challenges, but only implicitly, many of the assumptions of modernist, objectivist historiography in a number of ways. Perhaps more interestingly and directly, it faces up to the intellectual difficulties of some of the discourses about the history (ies) of Ethiopia. This it does by debunking a rightist nationalist discourse in Ethiopian historiography, indirectly leaving a call for doing the same with regards to the ethnonationalist one, as well as for even developing further both the theoretical assumptions and the scope of the discussion on Ethiopianist historiography. The paradigmatic affiliation gravitates towards post-modernism and the analytical tool used is what is termed as ldquo;hi/storyingrdquo;, referring to the notable simultaneousness and inseparability of the processes of ldquo;tellingrdquo; the hi/story and making it. All this is demonstrated just by directly and briefly assessing one renowned book on Ethiopia authored by a ldquo;doyenrdquo; of modern Ethiopian history. Key words: hi/storying, hi/story-telling/making, essentialism, nationalist history, hi/story of the present. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/04EB6A340470 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000125 en Copyright © 2009 Semir Yusuf
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:AB630EE40478 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Federalism and the search for national integration in Nigeria Emmanuel O. Ojo Full Length Research Paper The thrust of this paper is to account for the gap between mere aspirations and actual practices vis-agrave;-vis the management of Federalism in Nigeria. The paper begins with the plural character of Nigeria in all its ramifications which makes federalism compelling. The second part which is the theoretical anchor is an in-depth discussion of the general optimism in the literature as regards the capability of federalism to integrate plural and divided societies. The segment on the travails of federalism accounts for the problems in the convoluting polity. The paper however infers that Nigeria needs a lsquo;truersquo; federal arrangement based on a different philosophy rather than ldquo;the present warped union where there is too much power and resources concentrated in the centre. Key words: Federalism, travails, democracy, convoluting, federation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/AB630EE40478 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000047 en Copyright © 2009 Emmanuel O. Ojo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:CBFB07140479 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Federalism and the search for national integration in Nigeria Emmanuel O. Ojo Full Length Research Paper The thrust of this paper is to account for the gap between mere aspirations and actual practices vis-agrave;-vis the management of Federalism in Nigeria. The paper begins with the plural character of Nigeria in all its ramifications which makes federalism compelling. The second part which is the theoretical anchor is an in-depth discussion of the general optimism in the literature as regards the capability of federalism to integrate plural and divided societies. The segment on the travails of federalism accounts for the problems in the convoluting polity. The paper however infers that Nigeria needs a lsquo;truersquo; federal arrangement based on a different philosophy rather than ldquo;the present warped union where there is too much power and resources concentrated in the centre. Key words: Federalism, travails, democracy, convoluting, federation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/CBFB07140479 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000048 en Copyright © 2009 Emmanuel O. Ojo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:CBCBBFB40568 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
‘Crime’, poverty, political corruption and conflict In apartheid and post apartheid South Africa: The implications on economic development Brian-Vincent Ikejiaku Full Length Research Paper The transition to a democratic, elected, non-racial government, which set in motion in early 1990, stirred a debate on the course of economic policies to accomplish sustained economic growth, while at the same time remedying the poverty, and other socio economic discrepancies generated by apartheid government. These include inequality and unemployment (particularly in the black South Africans), corruption, rash in conflict and the most horrible ndash; high rate of crime. This paper examines and compares the level of crimes in the lsquo;two phasesrsquo; (Apartheid and Post Apartheid periods- lsquo;1994-2005rsquo;), and their implications, especially on the socio-economic development in South Africa. The paper further elicits comparative evidence on other socio-economic issues (poverty and inequality, political corruption and conflict) in the two phases and argues that the consolidation of democracy has ameliorated these problems. However, the paper concludes that there are still much improvements needed, particularly on crime. The paper calls on some other African countries to copy a leaf from South Africarsquo;s practical democracy, rather than democracy in principle as the cases in many countries in the continent. Key words: Democracy, poverty, conflict, political corruption, crime, economic development. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/CBCBBFB40568 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000014 en Copyright © 2009 Brian-Vincent Ikejiaku
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:90A39E740561 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The privatized state and mass poverty in Nigeria: The factor of economic development programmes since 1980s Malachy Chukwuemeka Eze Full Length Research Paper The Nigeria state has adopted many development options since 1960. In-built in these options are numerous poverty alleviation programmes aimed at reducing and or eradicating poverty within a given time frame. It is paradoxical that while these programmes are on course, poverty level grows geometrically. This paper explores the phenomenon with a view to establish the primary factor responsible for it and to establish whether there is a correlation between the poverty alleviation programmes and the increasing level of poverty. Using the pluralist political economy framework, the paper discovered that the privatized character of the Nigerian state is the primary factor responsible for the increasing level of poverty in Nigeria. There is a correlation between the implementation of poverty alleviation programmes and the increasing level of mass poverty in Nigeria. It therefore recommends sovereign majority rule and the abrogation of federal character principle as panacea for mass poverty in Nigeria. Key words: Mass poverty, Nigerian State, economy framework, poverty alleviation programme. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/90A39E740561 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000127 en Copyright © 2009 Malachy Chukwuemeka Eze
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:772B66340530 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The challenges of regional integration in Southern Africa Mark Chingono and Steve Nakana Review Regional integration is increasingly being accepted as essential in facilitating economic and political development. Yet dominant development theories informing policy have yet to integrate lsquo;integration theoryrsquo; into their models. In Southern Africa, the attempt to achieve regional integration using lsquo;disintegrativersquo; development models has led to paralysis and pain. This paper highlights this contradiction and shows that regional integration presupposes complementary economic policies and productive structures. Economic nationalism and the mono-cultural production of raw materials militate against regional integration and this explains why in Southern Africa there is so much inertia but little progress. Keywords: Regional integration, economic development, political development, productive structures. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/772B66340530 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000105 en Copyright © 2009 Mark Chingono and Steve Nakana
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:1CFB2E440535 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Regional conflict resolution mechanisms: A comparative analysis of two African security complexes Essuman-Johnson A. Review The need for regional organizations to take up the resolution of the conflicts in their region or security complex has become important especially following the end of the cold war. Two regional security complexes in Africa, namely ECOWAS and SADC are examined in the light of conflicts erupting in their regions - Liberia and Sierra Leone in the ECOWAS and Lesotho and DR Congo in the SADC sub regions. The paper examines the efforts of the two regional bodies to resolve the conflicts and concludes that intervention in conflicts succeed or fail depending on the level of regionness or the existence of structures for conflict resolution in the regional security complex. In the case of the conflicts in the ECOWAS security complex the organizationrsquo;s conflict resolution efforts were ad hoc, even though they were bold and innovative, the efforts were not set within an effective conflict resolution mechanism and they were not very successful. In the case of SADC its conflict resolution effort in Lesotho was botched and in the DR Congo it did not make any meaningful effort at helping to resolve the conflict save some mediation efforts by South African leaders. Key words: Security complex, new regionalism, regionness, black holes, overlay, amity, enmity, ECOWAS, ECOMOG, SADC. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/1CFB2E440535 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000088 en Copyright © 2009 Essuman-Johnson A.
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:FCD3D6340543 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The role approach as a theoretical framework for the analysis of foreign policy in third world countries Sofiane Sekhri Full Length Research Paper The study of foreign policy usually focuses on the foreign policy of strong states. It is less common to analyze the foreign policy of Third World countries, not only because Third World countries are regarded as too weak and vulnerable to be influential externally, but also because finding an appropriate theoretical framework for the study of foreign policy in Third World countries is an extremely complex task. Against this background, this paper has endeavoured to challenge these pessimistic perspectives by assessing the effectiveness of one of the approaches to the study of foreign policy, that is, the Role Approach, in analyzing foreign policy in Third World states. This critical assessment has skilfully explored that the Role Approach is a functional theoretical framework for the analysis of foreign policy in Third World countries that have recurrently endeavoured to play a range of roles at the international, regional and sub-regional levels. Key words: The role approach, role perception (conception), role performance (conduct), foreign policy analysis, the study of foreign policy, Third World countries (states). Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/FCD3D6340543 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000128 en Copyright © 2009 Sofiane Sekhri
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:D10A8E440550 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Globalisation of the Nile perch: Assessing the socio-cultural implications of the Lake Victoria fishery in Uganda Kayiso Fulgencio Full Length Research Paper This is a review article that combines research findings to highlight the negative effects of Ugandarsquo;s adoption of the liberalization policies in its fisheries sector. Using Lake Victoria as a case study, the paper discusses the impact of a liberalised fisheries industry on the socio-cultural landscape of small-scale/artisanal fishers and fishery-dependent communities in Uganda. Dominated by the Nile perch, Ugandarsquo;s fish export industry is an important foreign exchange earner following the adoption of trade liberalisation policies by Government in the late 1980s. Although considered a lsquo;success storyrsquo;, the positive effects of the industrial fishery have hardly lsquo;trickled downrsquo; to the small-scale fishing communities. Conversely, small-scale fishers have been marginalised as they can ill afford to remain competitive amidst declining fish stocks. In early 1990s, there was considerable increase in the fish exports to the international market unmatched with effective measures to balance between local and international demand, ecological sustainability and sound fisheries conservation and management practices. By the late 1990s there was inevitably a noticeable decline in total Nile perch catches owing to widespread over fishing, harvesting of undersized Nile perch, and use of illegal fish gear and fishing methods. This unsustainable exploitation of the fishery resources undermined the lsquo;conservation ethicrsquo; and the traditional fisheries resource management institutions and practices that governed sustainable exploitation of resources and ensured ecological stability and cultural homogeneity. As a consequence, the fishery is today characterised by unemployment, malnutrition, food insecurity, environmental health hazards, and criminal activities such as thefts and piracy. The paper recommends a series of policy measures with a view to integrating social and cultural issues in the policy and regulatory framework. Key words: Trade liberalisation, commercial fishery, artisanal fishery, socio-economic livelihoods, ecological degradation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/D10A8E440550 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000055 en Copyright © 2009 Kayiso Fulgencio
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:898C20B40625 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Children as a source of happiness within the Iranian families: Profiles and challenges Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi Full Length Research Paper The broad intention of the present paper is to reflect a picture of children within families in Iran in so far as their value is concerned. We will find out how inspite of all the existing social and economic hardships and disorders, children try to maintain adequate synergy within their families and the society as a whole. Further, the paper is intended to provide a detailed overview of children lives in Iran in multiple dimensions. The paper mainly explores the attitudes and perceptions of the families towards the value of children! optimistically and positively as a source of happiness. The emerging modernity indicators and desire to improve quality of life is contributing to controversies towards having children. That is, the whole process needs appropriate policies to impede the possible consequences. Similarly, the increasing costs of raising children in modern time, is indeed affecting the traditional positive value of having children in the country. In assessing children as a source of happiness, their positive and negative values are searched out. The methodology used in this research is based on consulting relevant theories as well as conducting interviews. The paper explores and finds out that children experience difficult circumstances for a number of reasons, but in most cases the root problem is an underlying context of acute vulnerability. In many cases, it is the livelihood strategies that place children in difficult circumstances. These difficult circumstances are also often interrelated. Some of the factors like wars, economic stagnation, overpopulation and density of urban population affect children. However, the scenario of children as a source of both happiness and social problem is a new issue emerging not only in Iran, but in many other developing societies. The paper concludes that living in harmony within family depends on the quality and quantity of children in Iran as in any other developing country. It is argued that we need to consider the family as a controversial issue because of the differences between ideology of the family and the reality of the variety of various ways in which men, women, boys and girls, live together and interact. The paper aims to explore how families changed in the past half century, why people marry and/or have children and how synergy and solidarity in the family are achieved. The scope and scale of happiness in the family in terms of values (Croll, 2000) and whether the family is in a state of crisis are also investigated. Providing answers to such questions and many more, are some of the aims of the paper. The paper will reflect a synthesis of families in the ever-changing world with special reference to Tehran. Similarly, Iranrsquo;s current state of children and families need such investigation in terms of economic, social and cultural perspectives. Analysis of the dynamics of families in society is also a part of the aims of the paper. Key words: Positive values, negative values, happiness, synergy, quality of life. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/898C20B40625 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000020 en Copyright © 2009 Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:DAFC15C40622 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
From accommodation to discrimination and exclusion: The changing pattern of inter-group relations in Nigeria Azeez O. Olaniyan Review Interactions amongst the various ethnic groups making up the Nigerian polity, pre and immediate post-independence, were seldom adversarial. They dwelt on respect, mutual understanding and accommodation of differences. Religious festivals were celebrated communally; inter-creed and inter-ethnic marriages were not so frowned against; residing outside ones ethnic locality was not packed with apprehensions. Also, such factors as religious and ethnic affiliations were not given utmost primacy in such issues as the choice of friendships, neighbourliness, selection of who to employ or who to work with. There were fewer frictions in the interactions. However, from the late 70s, there have been gradual changes in this pattern. The spirit of accommodation and understanding that underlined the initial interaction is gradually changing to discrimination and exclusion. Discriminations and exclusions on the basis of religious affiliation, denomination and or ethnic background are now rife and social interactions often dictated by religious and ethnic sentiments. The thrust of this paper is to interrogate the contributing factors for this changing pattern and the possible solution. Specifically, it identifies such variables as religious revivalism, which breeds religious chauvinism, intemperate religious preaching, often anchored on re or misinterpretation of history and religious creeds, elite manipulation, state failure, poverty, frustration and globalization as responsible for such transformation. As a way out, the study suggests recourse to African values of brotherliness, elite responsibilities, state action and proper interpretation and observance of religious injunctions. Key words: Ethnicity, discrimination, exclusion, changing pattern and conflict. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/DAFC15C40622 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000051 en Copyright © 2009 Azeez O. Olaniyan
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:C7B859D40615 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Globalization: The theory and practice of citizenship in Africa Nwaogu Kelechi Paul and Nwaogu Paul Oka Review Deeply articulated with the nation state, citizenship has acquired different connotations. This paper highlights how some of the major changes in our world such as globalization and the human rights regime affect the relationships between nation states and their citizens. It also show the extent these major global changes are actually affecting this most national of institutions. Key words: Globalization, citizenship, nation state, migration. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/C7B859D40615 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000057 en Copyright © 2009 Nwaogu Kelechi Paul and Nwaogu Paul Oka
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:8FE57FD40603 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Disciplinary regime, neo-liberal bio-power and alienation of national sovereignty in Cameroon: Political economy of the imprisoned body Alfred Ndi Review This study found out that Cameroonrsquo;s national sovereignty and prospects of development were alienated because globalization came to most African countries in the 1980s as a form of capitalist power with new norms that humanized disciplinary institutions in the country. It invaded all the vital sectors of the populationrsquo;s life and rendered the state apparatus deviant. This power system then enabled proponents of the free market in the west to deploy expansionist strategies of neoliberal capitalism such as structural adjustment programmes, deregulation, privatization, good governance, poverty eradication papers and so on. Global bio-power was thus crafted on claims of provision of social welfare and means of productivity of the people and their safety, as against state mechanisms of mutilation and surveillance of the body. It was more sensitive to the individualrsquo;s perspective, his human rights, rehabilitation and new knowledge systems of normalization. Global power decentralized and pluralized the sources of its institutional knowledge so that no single state authority could have autonomous and self-regulating authority. It co-operated with the Cameroonian subject instead of contesting his standpoint. It created new lsquo;scapes, which appeared to empower society while at the same time, they merely served to expand the legitimacy of neoliberal capitalism. The paper ends with three suggested strategic policies to contain the ill-effects of globalization. Key words: Disciplinary regime, globalization, bio-power, alienation of sovereignty, underdevelopment, neoliberal capitalism, body. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/8FE57FD40603 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000032 en Copyright © 2009 Alfred Ndi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:43E16C040597 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
Factors affecting voting behaviour and voting patterns in Zimbabwe’s 2008 harmonized elections Didmus Dewa Review Elections in Zimbabwe 2008 reflected a changing behaviour and pattern that has existed since her attainment of independence in 1980. History has it that the ruling ZANU PF has always had a sweet and easy victory over the opposition. The 2008 elections reflected a different picture. The 2008 elections were unique not only in as far as results are concerned but also in as far as the indirect and direct playersrsquo; contributions. The uniqueness was manifested in behaviour of the voters and the parties themselves. There were many political contesters and many offices up for grabs at once. These were the first elections that failed to produce an outright winner for the office of president and led for the first time to a runoff since independence. A number of questions have arisen as to the changes in voting patterns. The papers therefore seek to analyze the factors beneath the manifestation of the trend changes. The paper will round off by pontificating about the future of voting patterns in Zimbabwe. Key words: Elections, voting patterns and behaviour, Internal and external factors, free and fair elections. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/43E16C040597 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000045 en Copyright © 2009 Didmus Dewa
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:8D0C61B40589 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The crown of sciences: Can it be just a science? The journey of political science in the 20th century Nasr M. Arif Review Throughout history there was an agreement that the position of Political Science is at the peak of the hierarchy of social and human disciplines. In Aristotlersquo;s view, politics touches on all aspects of public life that the rulers should deal with. Therefore, Political Science, by nature, is different from all other fields of knowledge. The history of its development in the twentieth century is a manifestation of this thesis, or indeed a realistic embodiment of it. Starting from the second half of the nineteenth century until the 1970s, Political Science has sought to become just lsquo;a sciencersquo;, like other social and sometimes natural sciences. This study, however, seeks to develop a distinct approach for studying the evolution of Political Science in the twentieth century by employing three approaches: history of science, sociology of science, and epistemology of science. These approaches will be spun together to enhance our understanding of the emergence and development of Political Science, which can safely be divided into these three stages: the independence stage, the behaviorist stage, and the stage of revision, criticism and #39;post-isms#39;. Key words: American political science, behaviorism, empiricism, European political science, evolution of political discipline, history of political science, paradigm shifts, political science, post-behaviorism, post-modernism. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/8D0C61B40589 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000107 en Copyright © 2009 Nasr M. Arif
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:1CE313840586 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
From no- party to multi-party competition: Analysing women’s candidature in Uganda’s 2006 national elections Josephine Ahikire and Aramanzan Madanda Review This article examines the question of womenrsquo;s candidature in Ugandarsquo;s multi-party elections in 2006. For 20 years since 1986, Uganda was governed under a no-party system known as Movement. Under this system electoral competition took place within a framework of individual merit where nomination was based on onersquo;s individual decision to stand for public office. Within this same period there was remarkable increase in womenrsquo;s political participation at levels with faster progress being made at the local government level than the national and executive. In the following article, derived from a study conducted in 10 districts just before the February 2006 general election held under a multi-party dispensation, we demonstrate that while multi-party politics has thrown up enormous opportunities for possible expansion of the womenrsquo;s political participation, it has also generated more challenges and complicated existing ones. At the same time the parties remain largely patriarchal menrsquo;s clubs. The bridge for womenrsquo;s political participation is still shaky. The article, however acknowledges that although the bridge is shaky, it is important that it exists at all. Key words: Women#39;s candidature, elections, transition, political parties. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/1CE313840586 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000052 en Copyright © 2009 Josephine Ahikire and Aramanzan Madanda
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:39B56CB40646 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
African Diaspora and control of HIV infection due to unsafe medical practices in Africa Ngoyi K. Zacharie Bukonda and Tumba Ghislain Disashi Full Length Research Paper Members of the African Diaspora have been portrayed as defectors, disloyal to their motherland. Such over generalized characterizations unfortunately risk clouding a complex reality and masking the positive involvement of a large number of Africans of the Diaspora in African affairs, particularly in the context of the HIV/AIDS crisis. One illustration of this involvement is a pilot project undertaken by US-based members of the African Diaspora in collaboration with one Congolese medical school. Implemented in the Eastern Kasai Province (Democratic Republic of the Congo), the pilot project focused on the training of health care professionals and on the deployment of quality improvement teams to effectively mitigate HIV infection which results from unsafe medical practices. Project aims, design, strategies, and accomplishments are described. Building on this case, arguments are presented to expand the concept of global learning to include capacity development projects, conceived and implemented by the African Diaspora. Key words: African diaspora, capacity development, control of HIV infection, global learning, health care workers. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/39B56CB40646 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000007 en Copyright © 2009 Ngoyi K. Zacharie Bukonda and Tumba Ghislain Disashi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:E1D4A7F40640 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2009
The Sudan’s dimensions: A country divided by ethnicity and religion Chuei D. Mareng Review The words ethnic group and religion have been greatly controversial in world politics and especially in the developing world. This has been evidenced in the world that the word ethnic group and religion have created civil unrests within many countries and not just on the African Continent. This means that the communities which based their lives on ethnic groups have a different view of the term than the non-ethnic group communities. This is due to the fact that ethnic group and religion are perceived to be a legitimate cause for the group struggles to gain power or to be recognized. Therefore, this article analyzes the significance of ethnic group and religion involvement in causing conflicts in Sudan. It should be noted that many people used the term ethnic group and religion to achieve their common interests when they deemed that these terms would draw more support within their groups when using ethnic group and religion as a bottom line of their gains in national or local politics. Key words: Sudanrsquo;s dimensions, case study analyses, Darfur- and Northern Sudanrsquo;s relationships, Southern- and Northern Sudanrsquo;s relationships, Sudanrsquo;s ethnic vs. religion relationships. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/E1D4A7F40640 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000133 en Copyright © 2009 Chuei D. Mareng
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:9936D0640653 2010-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Linking DDR and SSR in post conflict peace- building in Africa: An overview W. Andy Knight Full Length Research Paper This paper is an overview of the linkage between the processes of disarmament, demobilization, and rehabilitation (DDR) and Security Sector Reform (SSR). It makes the case for developing an integrated approach in trying to understand the complementary relationship between DDR and SSR by drawing on a number of peace building experiences on the African continent. The paper concludes with a number of recommendations for improving both DDR and SSR processes and argues that a properly structured and governed security sector is necessary for ensuring the success of post-conflict peace building and for making sure that countries that have undergone DDR programmes do not relapse into violent conflict. Key words: Demobilization, disarmament, rehabilitation, post conflict, peace-building, security sector reform, Africa, United Nations, African Union. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/9936D0640653 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000071 en Copyright © 2010 W. Andy Knight
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:81DABAC40641 2010-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
The effectiveness of decentralization policy in Ghana: A case study of Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrim (KEEA) and Abura –Asebu- Kwamankese (AAK) districts in Ghana Godwin Ramous Kwame Egbenya Full Length Research Paper This research aims at assessing the effectiveness of decentralization policies in Ghana with a case study conducted at Komendandash;Edinandash;Eguafondash;Abaim (KEEA) and Aburandash;Asebua-Kwamankese (AAK) districts in the Central Region of Ghana, the formulation and implementation of the policies and how they relate to the health, education and water sectors in the country. An interview guide was used to obtain answers from respondents numbering fifty-six. The population for the study comprised all stakeholders concerned with decentralization in the education, health and water sectors in the Central Region of Ghana. They included the Head, Policy Planning, Development partners, Co-ordination Unit - Ministry of Education, Director General - Ghana Education service, Deputy Director Administration, Ghana Health Service, Managing Director of the Community Water and Sanitation Unit. Frequencies, percentage, and tests of independence were used to analyze the data. From the study, majority of respondents were males who were 40 years and above with high educational background, reflecting malesrsquo; dominance over females in influential positions in the country. Some respondents had gone through secondary education or higher. In addition, most of them had been working in the communities and the Sectors for a long time. In sum, responses on the research questions indicate that the decentralization exercise in the two districts has been effective and secondly, the level of integration of the three sectors at the district level has been quite high and met the decentralization objectives. Key words: Effectiveness, integration, implementation, improvement, resources. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/81DABAC40641 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000110 en Copyright © 2010 Godwin Ramous Kwame Egbenya
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:9A41EE940633 2010-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Ecocentric and anthropocentric policies and crises in climate/environment, finance and economy: Implications of the emerging green policy of the Obama administration for Africa’s sustainable development Richard Ingwe, Joseph C. Ebegbulem and C. C. C. Ikeji Review Advanced economies responded to recent global financial meltdown and economic recession by implementing ldquo;greenrdquo; economic stimulus packages concentrating on environmentally-friendly and sustainable technologies. We examined this emerging paradigm against Sub-Saharan Africarsquo;s under-development (prolonged poverty, economic stagnation/decline, weak structures, processes, institutions and attitudes required for accelerating economic growth; practice of electoralism: power derivation through elections without democratic ingredients), exclusion of stakeholders including civil society from policy, thereby depriving society innovations and resources contributed by civil society elsewhere to socio-economic development. We used desk research and descriptive methods to analyze secondary data based on increasing civil society involvement in development processes under emerging paradigm of partnership, governance, climate change, global financial crisis. We showed that past actions: unbridled pursuit of anthropocentric policy that ignored ecocentric measures led to crises (environmental-climate degradation, and recently global financial meltdown and economic recession), thereby worsening existing challenges. We recommend that African nations adopt the emerging green policy thereby increasing their chances of benefiting from the assistance of Governments. The promotion of green development policy in Africa is of urgent need and imperative. Key words: ldquo;Greenrdquo; development policy, Africa, anthropocentrism, ecocentrism, climate change, economic growth. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/9A41EE940633 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000037 en Copyright © 2010 Richard Ingwe, Joseph C. Ebegbulem and C. C. C. Ikeji
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:AB5078E40670 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Zimbabwe sanctions: An analysis of the “Lingo” guiding the perceptions of the sanctioners and the sanctionees Heather Chingono Review This paper analyzes how the values premised in Zimbabwersquo;s colonial history and liberation struggle, ideological differences and partocracy have influenced the perspectives of the Zimbabwe and the Western governments respectively in understanding the causes that led to the imposition of sanctions on Zimbabwe. Furthermore, this article explores the nature of Zimbabwe sanctions by making comparative analysis of the perceptions of both the sanctioners and the sanctionees. Fundamental to this analysis is the diversity in jargon used in addressing the nature of sanctions. This paper concludes by proffering recommendations on how the parties involved can resolve this ldquo;war on lingordquo; to resolve Zimbabwersquo;s catastrophe. Key words: Comprehensive sanctions, targeted/smart sanctions, economic sanctions, restrictive measures, Zimbabwe, EU, US. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/AB5078E40670 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000151 en Copyright © 2010 Heather Chingono
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:C2253A840672 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Women’s participation and the political process in Nigeria: Problems and prospects Damilola Taiye Agbalajobi Review Nigerian women constitute about half of the population of the country and are known to play vital roles as mother, producer, time manager, community organizer and social and political activist. But despite the major roles they play and their population, the society has not given recognition to these and to the fact that they are discriminated against. This is due to some cultural stereotype, abuse of religion, traditional practices and patriarchal societal structures. Nigerian women have therefore over the years become target of violence of diverse form based on their positions in promoting transformative politics. The research methodology is termed qualitative research and with the use of secondary data gathered from university libraries, news print and journals. This paper will therefore examine the theoretical perspective of the discrimination and inequality suffered by women; secondly, access the current status of women in politics and the various efforts made by them for their political empowerment; thirdly, identify problems women face in their quest to participate in politics and lastly suggest possible measures for their political empowerment. Key words: Womenrsquo;s participation, political participation, political process, patriarchy. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/C2253A840672 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000149 en Copyright © 2010 Damilola Taiye Agbalajobi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:6CF25F040663 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Ethiopia’s invasion of Somalia in 2006: Motives and lessons learned Napoleon A. Bamfo Review Ethiopiarsquo;s invasion of Somalia in late 2006 may go down in history as one of the most daring if not imprudent strategic decision any African government has made on its neighbour. Ethiopiarsquo;s actions to invade Somalia gets more perplexing, considering it seemed unprovoked and should have been more circumspective given Ethiopiarsquo;s own history as a victim of unprovoked invasion by Italy and its myriad internal economic challenges. Even if Ethiopia#39;s goal of going into Somalia had been purely humanitarian, the nearly two decades of instability there and the history of irredentism and distrust between the two countries should have given Ethiopia pause to be prudent. Although not without precedent, it is still unusual for one African country to invade another country on the scale Ethiopia did and fight a war that was guaranteed to be bloody. Self-defense, which Ethiopia claims as reason for its military action, raises doubt and compels an examination of the real motives for its actions in Somalia. This study explores what these motives could have been. Using historical evidence and those from contemporary sources, the study catalogs the violence that followed the invasion and how Ethiopiarsquo;s action aggravated Somaliarsquo;s endemic social and political ills. Ethiopiarsquo;s actions in Somalia could not have accomplished their objectives given the fact Somalia has plunged deeper into anarchy since the invading troops left its soil. It has also been costly both to the invader and the invaded. Other African countries can learn an invaluable lesson from Ethiopiarsquo;s experience not to start an audacious incursion into foreign territory without an unimpeachable reason. Key words: Ogaden war, the Derg, Islamists, refugees, Horn of Africa, piracy, pan-Somalism. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/6CF25F040663 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000042 en Copyright © 2010 Napoleon A. Bamfo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:780F83040680 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
The effects of leadership strategies on underdevelopment in sub-Saharan Africa: A comparative perspective Mathieu Petithomme Review This article looks at the impact of leadership strategies on underdevelopment in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in a comparative perspective. Using survey data from the World Bank, the Afrobarometer and the freedom house index, it refutes the conventional developmental argument, demonstrating that the effect of economic growth on poverty reduction is more balanced than usually recognized. It also shows that even though SSA experienced rapid democratization changes in the early 1990s, democratic standards have stagnated globally since then, forging patterns of unfinished transitions. The empirical analysis illustrates the poor perceived record of African politicians and a clear gap between the general support and the current satisfaction with democracy in SSA. Finally, the paper points out that change in democratization are positively related with changes in lived poverty, underlining that democratic leadership is even more important in tackling underdevelopment than economic growth in itself. Key words: Leadership, underdevelopment, economic growth, democratization, Sub-Saharan Africa. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/780F83040680 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000111 en Copyright © 2010 Mathieu Petithomme
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:C4C3C1C40685 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
China’s foray into Africa: Ideational underpinnings and geoeconomic interests Chaldeans Mensah Full Length Research Paper Chinarsquo;s new foreign policy stance in Africa is a marked departure from its previous emphasis on purely ideational principles designed to strengthen its standing as a supporter of the Third World. The ideational affinity with Africa has not changed in Chinarsquo;s foreign policy discourse, but the new emphasis is on an aggressive pursuit of its geoeconomic and geopolitical interests on the continent, marked by an acquisitive impulse for Africarsquo;s natural resources and a concerted effort to offer political support to its allies in Africa to secure those resources in an uncertain post bipolar international system. This paper explores the transformation of Chinarsquo;s African policy, ideationally, from the Bandung principles to the Beijing Consensus, while noting the geoeconomic and geopolitical motivations behind Chinarsquo;s engagement with Africa as it cements its position as an emerging global power. The paper concludes that despite the presumed coincidence of interests and ideational affinity that formed the basis of pre-Deng China-Africa relations, Chinarsquo;s new geoeconomic and geopolitical engagement represents a major pathway for the continent, but serious steps must be taken to harness the relationship to ensure that it fulfils Africarsquo;s desire to pursue a sustainable development agenda that moves it away from overdependence on commodity exports and marginality in the global economy. A version of this paper was presented in July 2008 at the Second Global Studies Conference in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Key words: Beijing consensus, geoeconomics, geopolitics, hard power, natural resources, soft power, South-South cooperation. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/C4C3C1C40685 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000022 en Copyright © 2010 Chaldeans Mensah
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:BFF6FC940693 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Multiparty politics dynamics in Uganda Kakuba Sultan Juma Full Length Research Paper In liberal democracy, it is obvious political parties play a critical role in deepening democratic process. Besides, providing veritable avenue for popular participation, they are celebrated mechanism for political mobilization, guiding policy formulation, implementation and much more significant guards against dictatorship. In Uganda, there is evidence that political parties have not been adequately institutionalized. This can be seen in a manner in which they have process in the country. The efforts of political parties to woo supporters in the hope of making a mark at various levels of government, overheats the polity. This been attempting to foster democratic governance in the past and how their current revival to practice multiparty politics fails to strengthen democratic paper advances the position of political parties in furthering democracy in Uganda. It suggests that the current activities of political parties are ill equipped in broadening democratic dividends. Key words: Political parties, democracy and governance. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/BFF6FC940693 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000073 en Copyright © 2010 Kakuba Sultan Juma
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:5F5BE7D40715 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Political culture as a source of political instability: The case of Lesotho Zibani Maundeni Full Length Research Paper This article considers Lesothorsquo;s political history and culture, a political history characterised by rebellious chiefs who had rejected Christianity and who were heavily armed and fought numerous wars against their black and white neighbours. Its argument is that the statersquo;s dysfunctionality in small Lesotho is a result of a political culture and history of armed resistance, producing rebellious political elites who feuded between themselves, against the colonial establishment and against the postcolonial government. It was also a political culture that rejected Christianity, accepted old leaders to die in office and encouraged factionalism. The political parties that emerged from such a political culture were traditionally oriented, radical, dominated by old leaders and were factionalised. Such a society was not easily open to renewal through fresh leaders and borrowed ideas. The article suggests that Lesotho need to come to terms with its political history and to come up with a cultural re-orientation away from traditionalism, rebellion and factionalism. Key words: Lesotho, Christianity, cultural re-orientation, traditionalism. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/5F5BE7D40715 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000078 en Copyright © 2010 Zibani Maundeni
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:9DB52A940705 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Challenges of technology mediated approach to counselling in the National Open University of Nigeria Fidel O. Okopi Full Length Research Paper The main thrust of this paper is to identify impediments militating against the provision of quality guidance and counselling services through technologically mediated approach in the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN). The current trend all over the world points on how transformation of counselling from mechanical phases to digital phases, which will enhances quick and quality service delivery. NOUN as University has 63 professionally qualified counselling psychologists with minimum qualification of Masterrsquo;s degree, and also it is the largest single employer of counsellors in Nigeria. Also, the Student Counsellors in NOUN have the obligation of providing support services to distance learners from the first enquiry through to graduation. This paper discussed the concept of open and distance education as it applies to Nigeria, the mission statement of NOUN, the learner support services, guidance and counselling services in NOUN, information and communication technology in education, advantages of using computer and internet facility for counselling an open and distance education, counselling services from first enquiry through graduation of studying in ODE that could be offered through the internet, challenges of guidance service delivery in NOUN made incisive recommendations on how to improve technology mediated guidance service delivery. Key words: Internet, challenges, technology, counselling, distance education. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/9DB52A940705 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000019 en Copyright © 2010 Fidel O. Okopi
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:B9BFBA240725 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Ghanaian opinions on democracy, inter-communal violence and conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa Idris Sharif Full Length Research Paper This survey research explores and presents the opinions of people in Ghana on several key areas: democracy and inter-communal violence, conflict in sub-Saharan Africa, Kenyan electoral violence during December 2007/February 2008 and salient issues and problems in Ghana. The study drawing on 407 participants reveal the following: A preference for representative democracy, agreement that there is no perfect electoral system, economic inequality which leads to higher levels of armed conflict, voting irregularities and exploitation of ethnic-tribal sentiments which is a factor in election violence, discrimination and perceptions of superiority which is problematic and ethnic-tribal allegiances that are strong in Ghana. Key words: Ghana, opinion survey, democracy, electoral violence, ethnicity, inter-communal violence and conflict. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/B9BFBA240725 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000054 en Copyright © 2010 Idris Sharif
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:1E8C61440721 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
U.S. development diplomacy in Africa: From Bill Clinton to George W. Bush Adewale Banjo Full Length Research Paper By means of descriptive approach and content-analysis of documentary sources collected from two U.S embassies in Africa (Lagos and Pretoria), the article examines the U.S development diplomacy in Africa during the Clinton years and the early directions of George W. Bushrsquo;s policy toward Africa. The article is broadly divided into three sections. The first part deals with introduction, motivation and methodology. This section also attempts a concise historical overview of U.S policy toward Africa, from Truman to J. F Kennedy and to George Bush. The second section outlines the several development imperatives apparent in the US official thinking about Africa at the beginning of the Clinton administration. The section specifically focuses on basic provisions of the Clintonrsquo;s AGOA policy and to what extent Africans/Africanists were agog with AGOA. Within this context, the article also enumerates the reservations of Africans/Africanists about AGOA. The third section describes the early indications [or lack of it] of the direction of George W. Bush Africa policy before 9/11 terrorist attack on the U.S. The study concludes by identifying key development issues that have been side-stepped by the paradigm of 9/11 and how the war on terror have scuttled the gathering momentum on the anticipated transition from Clinton to Bush pro-development diplomacy in Africa. Key words: United States, Africa, diplomacy, foreign policy, development, post cold war, AGOA, 9/11, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/1E8C61440721 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000137 en Copyright © 2010 Adewale Banjo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:C6D7C0340709 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Foreign aid, the Third World’s debt crisis and the implication for economic development: The Nigerian experience Funso Aluko and Dare Arowolo Full Length Research Paper The nature of interdependence of nations necessitates granting of aid to needy countries. Theorists, however, vary in their approaches of the factors that contributed to the development of the underdevelopment of the Third World. While the bourgeois scholars argued that the underdevelopment and dependency situation of the Third World was due to the internal contradictions of this group of countries arising from bad leadership, mismanagement of national resources and elevation of personal aggrandisement and primordial interests over and above national interest, the neo-Marxian scholars, on the other hand, submitted and insisted that what propelled the development of the developed countries also facilitated, in the same measure, the underdevelopment of the underdeveloped countries. These are: colonialism, slave trade and unequal exchange. The interest of this paper, therefore, is to look at the two sides of the coin using dependency theory to scientifically analyse the arguments put forth by both schools of thought. It also looks at leitmotif of foreign loan and its implication on the economies of the Third World Countries (TWCs). Key words: Bourgeois, colonialism, dependency, exchange, interdependence, leadership, underdevelopment. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/C6D7C0340709 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000050 en Copyright © 2010 Funso Aluko and Dare Arowolo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:8274B9A40789 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Satisfaction with democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Assessing the effects of system performance Michael Guldbrandtsen and Svend-Erik Skaaning Full Length Research Paper This paper examines the relationship between system performance and satisfaction with democracy in sub-Saharan African countries. On the basis of comparable survey data from the third round of Afrobarometer from 2005, we have assessed a number of economic and political performance indicators. In doing this, we employ an elaborate theoretical framework and multilevel analysis. The results show that system performance is indeed related to levels of satisfaction with democracy. Both micro-level and macro-level, economic and political variables are important in relation to the differences in the African citizensrsquo; satisfaction with democracy. More particularly, the macro-level variables economic growth and respect for the rule of law are positively associated with satisfaction with democracy. On the micro-level, the citizensrsquo; positive evaluations of their own as well as the national economic situation increases satisfaction, while unequal treatment under the law and, first and foremost, poor election quality show negative effects. Thus, even under economic hardship, satisfaction with democracy may persist if the citizens think that fundamental democratic principles are respected. On the other hand, dissatisfaction is likely to take root if the citizens think that those principles are not respected. Key words: Afrobarometer, satisfaction with democracy, system performance, multilevel analysis. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/8274B9A40789 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000094 en Copyright © 2010 Michael Guldbrandtsen and Svend-Erik Skaaning
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:2A4DFFD40791 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Social capital, indigeneity and identity politics: The Jos crisis in perspective Chris C. Ojukwu and C. A. Onifade Full Length Research Paper The thrust of the paper is to critically examine how the concept of social capital can be a useful tool in the building and advancement of peace, community trust, cooperation and access to justice in conflict-torn environments like Nigeria; that is, social capital to serve as a mechanism to mediate and/or moderate the inter and intra-communal conflicts and enhance the capacity of the Nigerian state to pursue and promote non-repressive and accommodative policies of inter-intra ethnic equity and reciprocity. Key words: Conflicts, indigeneity, identity politics, citizenship, social capital. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/2A4DFFD40791 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000096 en Copyright © 2010 Chris C. Ojukwu and C. A. Onifade
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:C1B2C5F40793 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
The dialectics of reform: The theory and methodological praxis of reform Okechukwu Basil C. Nwankwo Full Length Research Paper From a purely theoretical perspective, this article explored the concept of reform which is usually taken for granted. It built a typology of the concept in terms of content, context, scope, cause, strategies, actors, outcome, etc. with the simple objective of providing a suitable conceptual framework for evaluating social, economic and political reforms in an operationally useful manner. Using this typology, the article explored the dynamics of the reform processes with special attention on developing parts of the world. Noting that reform is basically a process and using the theory of dialectics, the article posited that every reform outcome, is a temporary antecedent and argued that the duration of the ldquo;cease-firerdquo; before the resumption of hostilities between the societal forces and the nature of the renewed ldquo;hostilitiesrdquo; is dependent on the relative extent to which the constitutive elements and conditions for successful reform are available in any given context. It x-rayed these constitutive elements and conditions. Narrowing down on the structural elasticity of democracy, the article concluded that reform of whatever type and democratisation cannot be separated, and that, reforms within democratic regimes are more successful. Key words: Third world, reform, democracy, dialectics. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/C1B2C5F40793 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000109 en Copyright © 2010 Okechukwu Basil C. Nwankwo
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:7124C2540798 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Political parties and the prospects of democratic consolidation in Nigeria: 1999 - 2006 O. Robert Dode Full Length Research Paper The existence of vibrant political parties is a sine qua non for democratic consolidation in any polity. In Nigeriarsquo;s First and Second Republics, political parties were regionally based, and their activities led to the collapse of those experiments. This paper explores an important aspect of Nigeriarsquo;s Fourth Republic politics, which is about the role of the PDP (Peoples Democratic Party) in general and President Olusegun Obasanjo in facilitating the consolidation of democracy in the country in particular. The study posits that there is a direct relationship between the character and conduct of a countryrsquo;s political parties and the degree of democratic consolidation in that country. The paper argues that seven years into this lsquo;democraticrsquo; dispensation, Nigeria has not scored high when placed in the same matrix with countries that are heading towards stable democracy. In attempting a discourse of this issue, the democratic theory propounded by Joseph Schumpeter was adopted as the theoretical framework of the study. From this, some research questions were posed that state: is democratic competition fully at play in Nigeriarsquo;s Fourth Republic? Are opposition parties alive to their political responsibilities in the country? It was argued that the opposition parties in Nigeria which ought to serve as alternative parties from which the electorate should choose if they so decide, have been strategically weakened through the overt and covert strategies of the ruling PDP and the lack of total commitment on the part of politicians to the national course. The paper further argues that more than 90% of the political parties in Nigeria are fragile entities, hence, have only developed shallow roots in the society, and concludes on the note that Nigerian political parties have failed in their democratic responsibilities of aggregating social interests, representing specific constituencies, and serving as intermediaries between state and society. Key words: Democracy, consolidation, political parties, military dictatorship, cross-carpet. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/7124C2540798 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000082 en Copyright © 2010 O. Robert Dode
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:4EB06A640814 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Contextualizing "Muridiyyah" within the American muslim community: Perspectives on the past, present and future Mbaye Lo and Aman Nadhiri Full Length Research Paper This paper examines the presence of the West African Sufi order, known as the Muridiyyah, within the broader context of muslims in America. The advent of the Murids in the American muslim community has not been the object of much research. This paper draws on the historical experience of the American muslim community in order to situate the Muridiyyah within these temporal and spatial parameters. Based on analyzing commonalities and differences, as well as changes and continuity in this formative experience, the paper will illustrate possible challenges to the ongoing globalization of the muridiyyah order. Key words: Muridiyyah, muslims in the US, American muslim community, African diaspora, Senegalese communities, Africans in the US, Dayira, Marabouts, Tuba, Murids, Seikh Amadou Bamba, Daara Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/4EB06A640814 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000025 en Copyright © 2010 Mbaye Lo and Aman Nadhiri
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:3DCD61A40803 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Who's who: Transnational corporations and nation states interface over the theoretical shift into their relationship Mia Mahmudur Rahim Review The complex relationships that occur between countries, market and private actors have been simplified in theoretical approaches such as realism, neo-liberalism and globalization. However, their relationship is not a zero-sum game but one of lsquo;complex governancersquo; where all actors have to be considered to understand the changes in the international system. Key words: Trans-national corporation, countries, realism, neo-liberalism, private regime, relationship, global governance. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/3DCD61A40803 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000146 en Copyright © 2010 Mia Mahmudur Rahim
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:0AAAF4240805 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Democracy and good governance: Nigeria’s dilemma Ilufoye Sarafa Ogundiya Full Length Research Paper Despite its enormous resources and huge potentialities, Nigeria remains grossly undeveloped. Consequently, political instability, abject poverty, acute youth unemployment, heightened crime rate, poor health prospects and widespread malnourishment have been the main features of Nigeriarsquo;s political economy. The development tragedy in Nigeria fits into the trends of political instability for which Africa has become infamous for in the past three decades. This further lends credence to the arguments by some students of African politics that governance is one of the major problems in Africa. This paper argues that the problem of development in Nigeria is a problem of governance; when defined in term of the proper, fair and equitable allocation of resources for the achievement of the end or purposes of the state, which is the promotion of the common good. The paper submits that for good governance to be feasible in Nigeria, sound anti-corruption policies devoid of mere speeches must be put in place. Furthermore, the paper recommends a functional legislature, a viable and independent judiciary, and the attitudinal transformation on the part of the political elite, the absence of which good governance and development will continue to be a mirage. Key words: Corruption, instability, underdevelopment, democracy, good governance. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/0AAAF4240805 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000028 en Copyright © 2010 Ilufoye Sarafa Ogundiya
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:90DA1B040806 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Rural-urban migration of young persons from selected conflict ridden communities in Rivers State: A sociological approach Eze Wosu and A. Kinikanwo Anele Full Length Research Paper Migration could be voluntary or involuntary. The paper examines the involuntary movement of young persons or child labour (youth) from conflict communities of Ogbogoro, Ogbakiri, Rumuekpe and Rumuolumeni, in Rivers State. The techniques deplored are the interview and focus group discussion (FGD) methods in collecting data. The theoretical framework is hinged on the Marxist political economy theory. Its focus is on the sustenance of young persons and children (child) livelihood in the urban centre or cities. Our argument is that the influx of young persons (youth) from these communities to the urban centre as livelihood or survival mechanism constitutes the myriads of nefarious activities in the urban centre, in the absence of state or government control. Conversely, it is posited that the increase in communal conflict in these rural communities generates a tremendous population upsurge to the urban city. This will give rise to all kinds of survival or livelihood strategies. Key words: Rural-urban, migration, conflict, young persons. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/90DA1B040806 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000093 en Copyright © 2010 Eze Wosu and A. Kinikanwo Anele
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:F24357340813 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
The performance of the Malawi Congress Party in general elections: The role of sectionalism of a regional and ethnic nature Collins Greenwell Matchaya Full Length Research Paper In this article, an attempt has been made to explain the performance of the Malawi Congress Party (MCP) in the general elections by focusing mainly on the 2009 presidential and parliamentary elections in which the MCP lost overwhelmingly. Specifically, the role of sectionalism of a regional and ethnic nature on the MCPrsquo;s national level performance was examined. Different kinds of data from the Malawi electoral commission and news media are used in the analysis. Descriptive statistics are used to summarise the effects of different factors on the partyrsquo;s share of votes. It is found that a complex combination of factors such as district and regional sizes, education level of voters as proxied by district and regional level data, party level policies and organisation, incumbency, campaign expenditure, individual leaders personal characters and past legacy, party conduct in parliament among others, may explain the MCPrsquo;s 2009 defeat. The findings may be considered as broad guidelines along which efforts to reinvigorate the party may be galvanised. Key words: Democracy consolidation, Malawi Congress Party, general elections. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/F24357340813 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000121 en Copyright © 2010 Collins Greenwell Matchaya
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:9DDD33640816 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
U. S. foreign policymaking toward Ethiopia and Somalia (1974 - 1980) Ioannis Mantzikos Full Length Research Paper The US policy in the Horn of Africa during the 1970rsquo;s was marked by the constraints posed by the international environment. The twin pillar policy formulated by the Nixon and Kissinger administration and later by the Ford administration was continued in its basic purposes by the Carter administration*. However, Carterrsquo;s policy major shift in 1979 ndash; 1980 was not marked by the Soviet support for Ethiopia or the Somali abrogation of the treaty with the Soviets. The U.S. policy making apparatus tended to misunderstand indigenous political changes in the Middle East and particularly in Iran**. In addition, human rights proved a failed attempt to devise an alternative strategy for rallying domestic support and to cope with international community. Key words: Human rights, cold war, Ogaden, bureaucracy. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/9DDD33640816 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000136 en Copyright © 2010 Ioannis Mantzikos
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:7B8DE8240809 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
The role of opposition in Nigerian politics Wahab O. Egbewole and Muhtar A. Etudaiye Full Length Research Paper In a political and truly democratic endeavour, the foundational basis for balance leads to the horizontal separation of powers rather than any vertical formulation of any kind of corruption of this pragmatic ethos. Central to this balance in government is that of the expression of opposition on a parallel political level. This paper delves into the nature, both legal and philosophical, of opposition in politics generally and in Nigeria, in particular. This is written in a period of genuine befuddlement in Nigeria in view of the present muffling of opposition. The paper concludes that the role of opposition is sacrosanct as it is essential to the smooth running of any representative democracy. It has helped in galvanizing the citizenry to partake in governmentrsquo;s activities; define issues in the psyche of the ruler and the ruled; present political candidates whose candidature are founded more on issues and less on sex, tribe or religion; accept the responsibility of governance on an agenda that is rate-based. Government must therefore, at all levels strive to open the channels of expression and encourage individuality of opinions as this helps in opening up debates for the polity, leading to better thought-out policies. Key words: Nigeria, role, opposition, politics. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/7B8DE8240809 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000129 en Copyright © 2010 Wahab O. Egbewole and Muhtar A. Etudaiye
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:28AA76B40822 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
The impact of good governance on development and poverty in Africa: Botswana - a relatively successful African initiative David Sebudubudu Full Length Research Paper Botswana was one of the poorest countries in Africa when it obtained independence in 1966. Owing to the desolation that prevailed at the time, Botswana was considered a hopeless case. This article seeks to show case how good governance impacted on development and poverty in Botswana. Botswana is one of the few African countries that have remained intact since independence, despite the challenges it faced, and at the same time was able to realize development and in turn reduced poverty by African standards. The paper argues that good governance in Botswana facilitated development and impacted positively on poverty and stability, to this extent, this has been a responsive democracy. The paper provides statistical evidence to support this claim. Key words: Governance, poverty, development. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/28AA76B40822 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000112 en Copyright © 2010 David Sebudubudu
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:A0A74A640824 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
Autocrats’ modes of exit, rents and crisis in Africa Abel Escribagrave;-Folch Full Length Research Paper Studies analyzing dictatorsrsquo; duration in power do not generally distinguish the way through which rulers are booted out. In consequence, a destabilizing effect is attributed to some variables without specifying and testing the mechanisms through which this effect may operate. In this paper, we argue that lsquo;regularrsquo; leadership changes stem from the incumbentrsquo;s incapacity to thwart elite defection and opposition groups coordination through the use of patronage, whereas, lsquo;irregularrsquo; changes are mainly brought about by economic collapse and the widespread of poverty. We also analyze the patterns behind the steady institutionalization of African politics. Data from all African countries between 1946 (or the year of independence) and 2000 permit us to put such general hypotheses under scrutiny and confirm them using multinomial logistic duration regressions. It is also shown that foreign pressure, aid conditionality and domestic opposition have been the major determinants of institutionalization of African dictatorships, making, thus, possible the decrease in the number of irregular ousters. Key words: Regular leadership changes, irregular changes, Africa, institutionalization. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/A0A74A640824 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000013 en Copyright © 2010 Abel Escribagrave;-Folch
oai:academicjournals.org:AJPSIR:AFF59EB40823 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals AJPSIR AJPSIR:2010
A survey of MPs’ opinions about the challenges of blending executive and legislative functions of government under Ghana’s 1992 Constitution E. Kojo Sakyi Full Length Research Paper Since the inauguration of the fourth republican constitution in 1993, concerns have been raised about the effect of article 78 (1) on executive-legislature relations, the legislaturersquo;s oversight role and the workings of the legislature and the performance of legislators. The aim of this study was to examine legislatorsrsquo; perceptions about the impact and implications of article 78 (1) on the work of legislators and the legislature, data for the study was collected in 2008 through semi-structured interviews conducted with twenty purposively selected minority and majority legislators of the fourth parliament under the fourth republic. The findings revealed that article 78.1 affects the work of legislators significantly. MPs reported that, the practice of appointing majority of executive ministers from the legislature has resulted in a reduction of time and energy legislatorsrsquo; devote to parliamentary work. Also, legislator-ministers are either late or absent to the house as well as special parliamentary committee meetings. Majority of MPs reported that article 78.1 has not only rendered legislative oversight ineffectual, it has also made the legislature vulnerable to executive control and manipulation in several ways. MPs identified: (i) the absence of office space (ii) inadequate secretarial services and related ICT support services (iii) undue pressure from constituents for projects (iv) lack of logistical resources (v) weak technical support from parliamentary service workforce and (vi) the absence of competent research staffers as some of challenges of been a legislator in Ghana. The conclusions which emerged from the study are that, article 78(1) has not only subverted the powers and autonomy of the Ghanaian legislature, it has rendered its control over executive arbitrariness and excesses ineffectual. It has also rendered the principle of separation of powers useless and impracticable, plunging Ghanarsquo;s parliamentary development and democratic governance into a quagmire. Given the diversity of opinions on the matter, MPs suggested that Ghanaians would have to remain open to all shades of policy and reform proposals and critically examine all available options before proceeding with any amendment of the 1992 constitution. Further empirical studies would have to be conducted into the effects of the article and many other provisos on the legislature and Ghanarsquo;s democratic advancement in general. Key words: Constitution, article 78 (1), legislature, legislator, Ghana. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJPSIR/article-abstract/AFF59EB40823 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPSIR.9000004 en Copyright © 2010 E. Kojo Sakyi