2021-09-27T09:11:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:272CEB33641 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2009
A systematic review of quality of randomized controlled trials of glycyrrhizin acid to treat hepatitis in China Ming-Hua Zheng, Shi-Cheng Yu, Ke-Qing Shi, Xiao-Zhi Jin and Yong-Ping Chen Review To assess the quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) for variety of preparations made from Glycyrrhizin Acid (GA), an ingredient found in Chinese herb Glycyrrhiza that is widely used in the treatment of hepatitis in clinical practice in China. From electronic searches of PubMed, CNKI, TCMDS, CBMdisc and Chongqing VIP database, we identified 93 reported RCTs between 1991 and 2007 that GA was the subject of the trial. The quality of each trial was assessed using the number of Consolidated Standards for Reporting of Trials (CONSORT) checklist items included, the frequency of allocation concealment and a 5-point quality assessment instrument (Jadad scale). 72.22% (26/36) of the CONSORT checklist items was included in the RCTs. Only 3 (3.22%) of 93 RCTs reported allocation concealment by sealed envelopes. 59 (63.44%) trials described baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of each group, but only 7 (7.52%) reported statistical results of baseline data. Although 77 (82.79%) trials described the number of participants in each group included in each analysis, none of the trials adopted intention-to-treat analysis. Information regarding adverse events was reported in 36 (38.70%) of the RCTs. The quantity of RCTs increased from 1 in 1993 to 15 in 2007, but the average points assessed by CONSORT in each yeardidnrsquo;t elevate. At the same time, the overall quality of the trials was low as assessed by the Jadad scale. Although the quantity of RCTs related to GA mainly against hepatitis increased in recent years, the methodological quality of these reports was low. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of GA being used in clinical practice need to be further confirmed by carefully designed clinical research. Key words: Traditional Chinese medicine, glycyrrhizin acid, randomized controlled trial, evaluation of quality. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/272CEB33641 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000003 en Copyright © 2009 Ming-Hua Zheng, Shi-Cheng Yu, Ke-Qing Shi, Xiao-Zhi Jin and Yong-Ping Chen
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:003940E3625 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2009
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: The promise of gene therapy coupled with traditional surgical resection, in a single individual Ali Mahmood, Martin Luchtefeld, Anthony Senagore and Allen Silbergleit Review Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are mesenchymal tumors arising from the interstitial cells of Cajal. Originally thought to be leiomyosarcomas, these tumors are traditionally resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Molecular studies have identified the gene mutations that cause these masses to proliferate. The KIT proto-oncogene and PDGFRA mutations have been successfully implicated as the insults leading to disease. We present a 54 year old male, whose tumor was very aggressive yet multi-modality therapy did show an excellent response. Discovered incidentally while he was undergoing a sigmoid colostomy for benign disease, the patient had evidence of metastatic GIST disease. We utilized radiology, pathology and immunohistochemistry to provide a definitive diagnosis. Radiology was extremely useful in identifying disease and possible metastases. Furthermore the use of PET scans, particularly PET/CT allows clinicians to monitor and tailor therapy. Successful management of GISTs involves medical and surgical therapy. Imatinib mesylate is a drug used to inhibit the production of the KIT proto-oncogene. Coupled with surgery, this combination holds promise in successful management and possible eradication of the disease. Key words: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor, PET scan, Imatinib, gene therapy, small bowel obstruction. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/003940E3625 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000013 en Copyright © 2009 Ali Mahmood, Martin Luchtefeld, Anthony Senagore and Allen Silbergleit
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:852DD1C3660 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2009
Physico-chemical reaction of the poisons in shakespeare’s tragedies Nada Marstijepovic, Ivana Hajdukovic and Igor Pejovic Review This paper provides the analysis of the definition of toxins from a medical aspect, as unpoisonous substance given in one dose and as a poisonous substance given in another dose. The aim of this paper is to, from physico-chemical aspect, make connection between toxins from medical aspect considered as a drug and Shakespearersquo;s plays. The Chinese Doctors appear to have safely andsuccessfully treated patients with cancer of the blood and bone marrow with a combination of arsenic and vitamin A, according to long-term study published in Hong Kong. With the same one with which the Friar poisoned the King Dona and then himself. So arsenic could be a poison and a remedy. In 18th century already arsenic compunds were used as a medicine. In 2000, American Ministry of Health approved the use of arsenic for treatment of the patients with cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Consideration of the toxins from the aspect of their toxic and curative properties is a very common multidisciplinary approach to the problem as an indissoluble link between the sciences. Key words: Poison, doze, Shakespeare, arsenic, drug. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/852DD1C3660 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000020 en Copyright © 2009 Nada Marstijepovic, Ivana Hajdukovic and Igor Pejovic
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:A773B8E3689 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2009
Histological signs of oligodendroglioma in the brain of rats fed with diet containing yaji: The complex Nigerian suya meat sauce A. O. Nwaopara, C. I. P. Anibeze and F. C. Akpuaka Full Length Research Paper Yaji is a complex mixture of groundnut cake powder, additives, spices and salt. The production and consumption of Yaji is not regulated despite the excitotoxic, apoptotic and tumourigenic potentials of some of its active principles. This has been the basis for several scientific investigations aimed at determining the effect of Yaji on different body organs. The present study on the brain is intended to determine its tumourigenic potentials. Eighteen weeks old white albino rats of an average weight of 170 g were used for this study. They were divided into eight groups (A - H) of three subgroups each. Subgroup 1, 2 and 3 represents experimental periods of 2, 4 and 6 weeks respectively. Group A rats served as control and were fed with normal feed (growers mash) only, while groups B - H served as the test groups and were fed with normal feed plus graded levels of Yaji(B, 10%; C, 20%; D, 30%; E, 40%; F, 50%; G, 60%; and H, 70%). At the end of the respective experimental periods, test group rats were sacrificed in order to harvest the brain tissues for tissue processing. We observed that the stained brain tissue micrographs from test group F3 (6 weeks; 50%) presented features that were histologically similar to those of oligodendroglioma and the incidence appears to be high dosage/duration dependent. This result implicates the active principles in Yajiand suggests that at high doses, Yaji is capable of inducing brain tissue damage as well as tumour formation. Key words: Suya, Yaji, additives, spices, oligodendroglioma. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/A773B8E3689 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000015 en Copyright © 2009 A. O. Nwaopara, C. I. P. Anibeze and F. C. Akpuaka
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:EDA68903732 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2009
Stress incontinence: Are we tackling the right enemy? Eric Kinoti Mutema Review A prospective study was done to look at the awareness of patients to the availability of treatment for stress incontinence and whether this would have altered their health seeking pattern. Stress incontinence is when urine leaks because there is a sudden extra pressure (#39;stress#39;) on the bladder. Questionnaires were distributed to all the patients admitted for continence surgery (n = 26). A second cohort included all patients attending the gynaecological outpatient clinic for any reason during a period of 2 months (n1 = 65) comprising of 2 groups A and B. After 1 month, a simple poster reminding patients with continence problems to discuss this with the doctor they were about to see. Group A was before and group B was after the implementation of the poster. In the pre-operative group, 26 patients completed the questionnaire. Of these 19 (73%) had been experiencing symptoms of involuntary urine leakage for more than 3 years. Majority of them had been referred for treatment following consultation with their doctor for an unrelated complaint. Only 42% (11) of the patients had seen the GP for the incontinence per se. More than 80% (22 patients) delayed in seeking treatment due to lack of awareness of treatment availability. With the introduction of the poster, there was an increase from 10 - 60% of patients informing the doctor of their incontinence complaints in the out patient clinic. Lack of awareness was found to be the main reason for delayed/failure to seek treatment for incontinence. Key words: Stress incontinence, medical taboo, lack of awareness, WHO initiative. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/EDA68903732 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000024 en Copyright © 2009 Eric Kinoti Mutema
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:27FE1CB3770 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2009
The effects of combined vitamin C and E in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat kidney Aysel Kukner, Neriman Colakoglu, Candan Ozogul, Mustafa Nazirogluand Tulin Firat Full Length Research Paper Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Vitamins C and E play important roles in the antioxidant defense system. It is likely that both vitamins act in a synergistic manner, with vitamin E primarily being oxidized to the tocopheroxyl radical and then reduced back to tocopherol by vitamin C. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of supplementation of vitamins C and E (VCE) on diabetic rat kidney. Adult female Wistar rats were used in the study. The animals were divided into three groups. Group I: the control group; Group II: diabetic group, streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) was administered group; Group III: diabetes+VCE group, received a diet containing a combination of ascorbic acid and di-alpha;-tocopheryl acetate per kg of feed. Rats were killed on day 21 and renal tissues were taken and fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution for electron microscopic examination. When compared with the control group, congestion of the glomerular capillaries, increased mesangial cells and distinct mesangium, shortened podocyte processes and disappearance of filtration slit pore of diabetic rat kidney were observed. In the group treated with VCE, glomerular changes were less distinct than the diabetic group. Lengths of the pedicles were similar to the control group. In conclusion, VCE reduced the changes in the glomerular structures due to diabetes. Key words: Diabetes, kidney, vitamin C, vitamin E, ultrastructure. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/27FE1CB3770 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000025 en Copyright © 2009 Aysel Kukner, Neriman Colakoglu, Candan Ozogul, Mustafa Nazirogluand Tulin Firat
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:3368D9D3816 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2010
Characteristics of chelation therapy among betathalassemia patients in the North of Morocco M. Agouzal, A. Quyou, K. Benchekroune and M. Khattab Full Length Research Paper The study aims to give a general idea about the experience of chelating drugs among beta-thalassemia patients in Morocco. It is a declarative survey. It was done in the therapy center of Morocco. Statistics were done in the laboratory of biological essays in Kenitra. All economic and pharmacological data were given by Novartis. Sample size was 108.78% of patients attending the service regularly take deferiprone as treatment while 8% of them combine deferiprone and deferoxamine. Most of the patients take treatments regularly. Chelators have reduced mortality. They have induced skin lightening for 26% of the patients in Rabat. Patients taking deferoxamine experienced injection site reactions. Most of adverse drug reactions (ADR) due to deferiprone were digestive. The main problem with chelators in Morocco is lack of accessibility to drugs, thatrsquo;s why the therapy center of Rabat has worked hard in collaboration with an Italian project to resolve the problem. Key words: Deferiprone, deferoxamine, prospective study, adverse effects, socio-economic level, behavior Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/3368D9D3816 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000004 en Copyright © 2010 M. Agouzal, A. Quyou, K. Benchekroune and M. Khattab
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:9A585423857 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2010
Does an acid load promote liver desaturases and increase serum lipids? Arne Torbjorn Hoslash;stmark, Marianne Sylvana Haug Lunde and Einar Eilertsen Full Length Research Paper Sugar sweetened and acid containing soft drinks may influence the serum lipids. We raised the question whether intake of acid beverages in general might influence serum and liver triglycerides, and hepatic desaturases, which govern triglyceride synthesis. Thirty male rats were divided into 6 groups and given the same food, but various beverages: sucrose-cola, cola light, phosphoric acid, acetic acid or water. Serum triglycerides and HDL, liver triglycerides and the fatty acid distribution in liver lipids were determined. Liver desaturase indexes were calculated; Delta9-desaturase by the palmitoleic to palmitic acid (and oleic to stearic acid) ratios, and Delta5-desaturase by the arachidonic to linoleic acid ratio. Correlation, ANOVA and Mann Whitney tests were used to study associations and differences. After 6 weeks the sugar-cola group had lower food intake, higher fluid intake and urinary acid excretion, higher hepatic desaturase indexes and serum triglycerides, and lower HDL than the other groups. The hepatic desaturase indexes correlated positively with each other (p lt; 0.01), with liver TG (p  0.01), and with 18 h urinary acid excretion (p lt; 0.01). Rats ingesting acid beverages seemed to respond with increased serum triglycerides and lowered HDL cholesterol concentration. Thus, soft drinks might increase the acid load, thereby possibly contributing to increased hepatic desaturase activities and lipoprotein formation. Key words: Colas, acid load, sucrose, fatty acids, desaturase indexes, liver, serum, rat. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/9A585423857 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000009 en Copyright © 2010 Arne Torbjorn Hoslash;stmark, Marianne Sylvana Haug Lunde and Einar Eilertsen
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:3EBD2623893 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2010
Comparison between clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent and haloperidol, a conventional agent used to treat schizophrenia Asiya Rehman Atif, Muhammad Jawed, Syed Muhammad Shahid, Shah Ali Ul Qader and Afsheen Aman Full Length Research Paper An observational and comparative study was conducted to compare the functional outcome between the patients treated with conventional antipsychotic agent haloperidol and atypical antipsychotic agent Clozapine (clozaril). A total of 32 patients were included in the study with established schizophrenia according to (DSM iv). The data was processed on SSPE 10th version. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of negative symptoms of schizophrenia and secondary outcome measure was to observe the superiority of the atypical drug Clozapine over conventional agent haloperidol regarding side effects. Patients were assessed at baseline, 2nd and 8th week, using four tools of assessment. For treatment group receiving haloperidol mean was 47.2 plusmn; 11.50 at 8th week and for Clozapine treatment group mean was 38.0 plusmn; 15.39. The P values for all the parameters in the Clozapine group were significant as compared to haloperidol. Key words: Clozapine, haloperidol, schizophrenia, dopamine receptors, antipsychotic agents. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/3EBD2623893 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000006 en Copyright © 2010 Asiya Rehman Atif, Muhammad Jawed, Syed Muhammad Shahid, Shah Ali Ul Qader and Afsheen Aman
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:58249423907 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2010
Febrile convulsion and emotional stress Gouml;khan Aydemir and Ercuuml;ment Bedir Full Length Research Paper Acute symptomatic convulsions triggered by the fever without the presence of the central nervous system infections or any electrolyte imbalance in the children aged between six months and six years, not having previously known neurological anomalies are called febrile convulsion (FC). In this study, the effect of the emotional stress factor on the febrile convulsion was investigated. In the study, 150 patients, newly diagnosed in the outpatientsrsquo; clinics of pediatrics at Aksaz Military Hospital and Ahu Hetman Hospital, were followed up and a questionnaire study was carried out with their parents to assess the emotional stress factor. Additionally, in a daycare center located in Marmaris town in Mugla province, 30 children aged between 2 - 5 years were chosen to establish a control group and all the children were observed from September 2006 to May 2009, to understand the effect of the emotional stress factor on FC. The needed consents were received from the authorities; and, it was warranted that the name of the daycare center would never been used in any way. The mean age of the children included in the study was 38 months. The rate of those having sleeping problems was 36%. The percentage of those attending a nursery or daycare center was 41.4%; those hospitalized before for any infection or disorder were in the percentage of 36%; the rate of the slowness of the psychomotor development denoted by the family was 36.7%. It was determined that 40% of the primary relatives of the children in the study had FC history and 36.7% of the children had FC history in the second-degree relatives. It was found that 60.7% (91) of the children had affection (high degree emotional dependency) for their mothers or fathers; that 36% (54) of the children had been away from their mothers or fathers for a long time for work or such reasons; and that 61.3% (92) of the children had a strong emotional nature by the description of their families. FCs occur by getting the genetic and environmental factors together. Among the environmental factors, there are subjective factors such as sleeplessness and emotional stress as well as the admitted factors e.g. age, fever, being preterm, hospitalization in the newborn period, attending a daycare center and tardiness in mental-motor development. FC events in the patients who had no environmental or genetic risk factors showed that the emotional stress was one of the prominent reasons and FC could occur after strong emotional traumas. Key words: Febrile convulsion, emotional stress. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/58249423907 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000011 en Copyright © 2010 Gouml;khan Aydemir and Ercuuml;ment Bedir
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:A996D8E3925 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2010
Compartment syndrome Arcot Rekha Short Communication Compartment syndrome is a condition that trauma surgeons are familiar with. A high index of suspicion is needed among clinicians for early recognition and timely referral of this limb and life threatening condition. Key words: Compartment syndrome, fasciotomy, hyperbaric oxygen. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/A996D8E3925 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000008 en Copyright © 2010 Arcot Rekha
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:7A603443960 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2010
Osteopontin a new probable marker for atherosclerosis in obese women? G. Guuml;rsoy, S. Alagouml;z, Y. Acar, B. Demirba, H. Ccedil;etiner and Z. Kiliccedil; Full Length Research Paper Obesity is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation characterized by abnormal cytokine production and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, which may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It was emphasized that inflamation takes part in all stages and complications of atherosclerosis. Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein involved in various inflammatory processes, cell migration, and tissue remodeling. This study evaluated the role of OPN in female patients who have at least one risk factor for atherosclerosis such as obesity. The study included 45 morbidly obese normotensive female patients and 22 age and sex-matched control subjects. As well as making physical and antropometric examinations, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, post prandial plasma glucose and insulin, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein a, OPN levels were obtained in all female person. In this study we investigated atherosclerosis indirectly. Our obese group had significantly higher levels in glucose and lipid parameters as well as antropometric measures. Obese group also had significantly higher plasma OPN and C-reactive protein levels than the control group (p lt; 0.05). We also performed the correlation analysis of the groups and found positive correlations in OPN levels and body mass index, C-reactive protein, fasting insulin. In conclusion, our data may point toward a role of OPN in atherosclerosis and obesity. Key words: Osteopontin, atherosclerosis, obesity. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/7A603443960 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000019 en Copyright © 2010 G. Guuml;rsoy, S. Alagouml;z, Y. Acar, B. Demirba, H. Ccedil;etiner and Z. Kiliccedil;
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:DD676223947 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2010
Retrospective analysis of leptospirosis among children – clinico- microbiological and therapeutic aspects for the cases Nagarajan Prabhu, Danialas Joseph Pushpa Innocent and Chinnaswamy Periyasamy Review These case capsules provide a nice record of the identification of leptospirosis in Coimbatore among children in isolation, sensitive serological analysis and complete haematogram. Eight cases that were clinically suspected showing general body signs (jaundice, decreased urine output and arthralgia) were well studied in this investigation. As per this study, the cases had fever, puffiness, respiratory anguish and hemorrhagic diathesis as leading manifestations. Leptospirosis was suspected in view of the epidemic situation prevailing in the city by conducting a hospital based study on the presence of leptospiral infection among patients with signs/symptoms suggestive of leptospirosis during June 2007 to July 2008. As per this survey, we reported six positive cases among eight clinically suspected cases, of which five survived and one died. It is important to anticipate and recognize the suspected cases early in the course of leptospirosis so that the appropriate steps can be taken to prevent it and to treat it with appropriate antibiotics when it develops. Key words: Leptospirosis, children, microscopic agglutination test. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/DD676223947 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000023 en Copyright © 2010 Nagarajan Prabhu, Danialas Joseph Pushpa Innocent and Chinnaswamy Periyasamy
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:919818B3976 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2010
Effect of drug sample availability on physician prescribing behavior: A systematic review Rugmini Warrier, Michael S. Monaghan, Anna Maio, Kathryn Huggett and Eugene Rich Full Length Research Paper The purpose of this investigation was to systematically review and assess the influence of the pharmaceutical industry on physician prescribing. MEDLINE, PubMed and WebSPIRS were searched using the following terms: sample closet, drug samples, sample medications, sample medication utilization, sample dispensing, drug sample availability, drug industry, legislation drug samples, drug promotion, prescribing behaviour and advertising. Two researchers independently evaluated and abstracted each article and compiled descriptive data. Of the 334 potentially relevant articles screened using the key words, 96 studies were considered for evaluation by reviewers. Of these, 40 studies addressed effects of sample availability on physician prescribing behaviour. Access to drug samples influenced prescribing decisions in most of the studies. Physicians were more likely to prescribe heavily advertised drugs when they had access to samples. At the same time, there was a decrease in the prescribing of over-the-counter, generic, and inexpensive drugs. Availability of samples promoted prescribing habits inconsistent with practice guidelines and in conflict with teaching and formulary policies. The reliance on samples tended to prompt the question, ldquo;What samples do we have?rdquo; rather than, ldquo;Which drug is best for the patient?rdquo; Key words: Drug samples, pharmaceutical industry, prescribing behavior, systematic review. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/919818B3976 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000010 en Copyright © 2010 Rugmini Warrier, Michael S. Monaghan, Anna Maio, Kathryn Huggett and Eugene Rich
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:84097CC3987 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2010
The relationship between plasma omentin-1 levels and insulin resistance in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetıc women G. Guuml;rsoy, N. G. Krnap, O. Ebah, Y. Acar, B. Demirba, S. Akccedil;ayouml;z and A. Ouml;ztuuml;rk Full Length Research Paper In addition to its role in energy storage, adipose tissue produces several hormones and cytokines termed adipokines that have widespread effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Omentin-1 is a newly identified adipokine that is highly and selectively expressed in visceral adipose tissue relative to subcutaneous adipose tissue. In some recent studies, it was shown to be decreased in obese and in insulin resistant female patients. In this study, intending to increase their knowledge about omentin-1 and its relation with type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and obesity, they planned to point out the relationship between serum omentin-1 levels and insulin resistance in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. The study included 80 newly diagnosed female type 2 diabetic patients and 40 age matched female control subjects. Diabetic group had significantly lower plasma omentin-1 levels than the control group (p lt; 0.01). Both the diabetic and control groups who were insulin resistant had significantly lower omentin-1 levels (p lt; 0.009 and p lt; 0.05 respectively) than the groups who were not insulin resistant. Positive weak correlations were obtained between age, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and omentin-1 levels, and negative weak correlations between body mass index, fasting blood glucose, post prandial blood glucose, HbA1c, fasting insulin, model assessment insulin resistance index and omentin-1 levels. In conclusion, omentin-1 levels were significantly low in diabetic patients and as insulin resistance worsened omentin-1 decreased. The data may point toward a role of omentin-1 in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Key words: Omentin-1, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/84097CC3987 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000026 en Copyright © 2010 G. Guuml;rsoy, N. G. Krnap, O. Ebah, Y. Acar, B. Demirba, S. Akccedil;ayouml;z and A. Ouml;ztuuml;rk
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:2A274C04378 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2011
Multiple soft tissue recurrences in a case of central giant cell granuloma - true ‘tumor’ behaviour? Devi Charan Shetty, Aadithya B, Harish Chandra Rai, Anurag Singh, Ajay Kumar and Adesh Manchanda Case Report Giant cell granulomas (GCGs) of the jaws are lesions that arise either peripherally in periodontal ligament, mucoperiosteum, or centrally in the bone. Histologically, both peripheral and central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) are characterized by the presence of numerous multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) in a prominent fibrous stroma. CGCG are further categorized into aggressive and non aggressive variant. The present case highlights the perplexity in diagnosing CGCGs which are aggressive in nature due to its close proximity with respect to pathology, behaviour and prognosis from giant cell tumors (GCT). The recurrent nature of the present case and the extensive destruction caused in the hard and soft tissues convinces us the need of exploring the possibilities of the so called true lsquo;tumorsrsquo; (giant cell tumors) having a definitive presence in the jaws. Key words: Giant cell granulomas, fibrous stroma. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/2A274C04378 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000018 en Copyright © 2011 Devi Charan Shetty, Aadithya B, Harish Chandra Rai, Anurag Singh, Ajay Kumar and Adesh Manchanda
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:7C51CE34394 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2011
A narrative insight to maturity-onset diabetes of the young Attiya Kanwal, Sahar Fazal , Muhammad Ismail, and Nighat Naureen Full Length Research Paper The pandemic of metabolic disorders is accelerating in the urbanized world posing huge burden to health and economy. The key pioneer to most of the metabolic disorders is insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus commonly known as Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Both of these forms of diabetes are polygenic and multifactorial. A newly discovered form of diabetes is Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). MODY is monogenic form of diabetes inherited as autosomal dominant anarchy. This piece of writing presents a concise portrayal to MODY. In this article this new form of diabetes is introduced, its different subtypes and clinical characteristics are discussed. Key words: T1DM; type 1 diabetes mellitus, T2DM; type 2 diabetes mellitus, MODY; maturity onset diabetes of the young. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/7C51CE34394 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000002 en Copyright © 2011 Attiya Kanwal, Sahar Fazal , Muhammad Ismail, and Nighat Naureen
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:016DC474413 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2011
Clinicoepidemiological study in Sudanese patients: Prevalence and effect of eradicative triple therapy on extra digestive Helicobacter pylori skin manifestations, EdHpSm Bashir A. H. H., Yousif S. M. and Mahmoud M. O. A. Full Length Research Paper Helicobacter pylori are gram-negative; microaerophilic spiral rod-shaped bacteria and they lead to gastritis, duodenal or gastric ulcer and even in rare cases to gastric carcinoma or Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Based on a number of reports, a possible relationship of H. pylori infection to a variety of different dermatosis has been suggested, including urticaria, rosacea, acne-rosacea, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, Sjouml;grenrsquo;s syndrome, Schouml;nlein-Henoch purpura, and Sweetrsquo;s syndrome. This study is intended to identify the prevalence of extra digestive (extra gastric) H. pylori skin manifestations, and to observe the influence of H. pylori eradication through triple therapy on the clinical evolution of patients#39; skin conditions. A clinical descriptive study of 149 patients with skin manifestations and immunologically detected H. pylori by rapid test, in association with gastric, chest, joints and nasal symptoms were considered as study population. H. pylori (Hp) triple therapy have been given to all positive cases as first, second and relapse modality in 12 weeks duration treatment, 4 weeks interval each with no any added other type of treatment allowed. The study revealed that: 20.5% of the skin cases examined (3723) were considered extradigestive H. pylori skin manifestation (746). Most of the skin manifestations cases were females (67.1%), and approximately 60.4% of EdHpSm were at the age group 14 to 45 yr- old. Most of the patients with EdHpSm are of Northern Sudanese origin (87.2%), the Southerners, the Easterners and the Westerners showed lower percentages, that is, 1.3, 3.4 and 8.1%, respectively. EdHpSm is common among professional. Hay fever and gingival disease were among the most commonly associated diseases where they represented ca. 27.7 and 12.2%, respectively. Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria, CIU represent a higher prevalence (20.6%), where: Polymorphous Light Eruption (PLE) alone represented 12.7%, and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, PCO was 11.6%. Vitiligo 2.6% among the least presented cases. Consequently, it was concluded that: all cases of EdHpSm responded to triple therapy; 60.0% are of good response and 37.0% are dramatically responded to triple therapy, while 2.0% poorly responded to therapy. H. pyloriinfection found to have an important role in the etiology of chronic idiopathic urticaria, Urticarial vasculitis, and Atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases. Patients received antimicrobial triple therapy, found to respond dramatically in (37%). Key words: Immunologically, lymphoma, lymphoid, Helicobacter pylori. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/016DC474413 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000005 en Copyright © 2011 Bashir A. H. H., Yousif S. M. and Mahmoud M. O. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:317CBBE4428 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2011
Comparison of split renal function measured by 99mTc-DTPA, 99mTc-MAG3 and 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphies in paediatric age groups Zeki Dostbil, Necmettin Pembeguuml;l, Mehmet Kuuml;ccedil;uuml;kouml;ner, Yaar Bozkurt, Ahmet Ali Sancaktutar, Ismail Yildiz and Guuml;ven Tekba Full Length Research Paper Currently, in calculation of total and split renal functions (SRF), radionuclide methods are routinely used. We aimed to investigate whether any difference exists betweenSRF values obtained by 99mTc-MAG3, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphies. Retrospectively, 38 patients were included in this study. In Group 1, both 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphies were performed. In Group 2, 99mTc-MAG3 and 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphies were performed. SRF were calculated by each method and statistically compared with each other. There was no statistically significant difference between SRF values obtained from 99mTc-DTPA,99mTc-MAG3, and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphies in 1st and 2nd Group. 99mTc-DTPA,99mTc-MAG3, and 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphies give similar SRF measures which may allow use of either of these techniques for calculating the SRF. Key words: Kidney split renal function, 99mTc-DTPA, 99mTc-MAG3, 99mTc-DMSA. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/317CBBE4428 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000007 en Copyright © 2011 Zeki Dostbil, Necmettin Pembeguuml;l, Mehmet Kuuml;ccedil;uuml;kouml;ner, Yaar Bozkurt, Ahmet Ali Sancaktutar, Ismail Yildiz and Guuml;ven Tekba
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:BF0E5C74447 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2011
Procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP) and its correlation with severity in early sepsis Fernando Rogelio Espinosa Loacute;pez, Abraham Emilio Reyes Jimeacute;nez, Germaacute;n Carrasco Tobon, Jesuacute;s Duarte Mote, and Octavio Novoa Fariacute;as Full Length Research Paper Sepsis is a common cause of death, and represents a potentially life threatening disorder. Biochemical markers useful to initiate early antimicrobial treatment are being studied. Procalcitonin (PCT) and C reactive protein (CRP) have been proposed as markers for this purpose. To establish the level of PCT and CRP in early sepsis and its correlation with the APACHE II scale, levels of PCT and CRP were taken from 39 patients with sepsis criteria. They were correlated with the severity scale of APACHE II. Cultures were taken prior to antimicrobial usage to corroborate the bacterial origin in patients who were admitted to the Internal Medicine Service of the North Central Hospital of Petroacute;leos Mexicanos. Descriptive statistics were performed (mean and standard deviation for numerical values and percentages) for nominal values. Pearson correlation and relative risk tests were performed to determine correlations. 39 patients in total; 20 with positive cultures and 19 with negative; patients with positive cultures showed PCT levels above 0.5 ng/ml; negatives below this number. The mean for CRP was 128 mg/ml. Correlation of mortality/APACHE II r = 0.707 p = 0.01; PCT/APACHE II r = 0.523 p = 0.001. For cultures: CRP/culture r = 0.575 p = 0.0001, PCT/culture r =0.448 p = 0.004. Relative risk (RR): PCT gt; than 2 ng/dl and cultures RR= 4. The relative risk PCT gt;2 mg/dl and death RR= 3.3. Cultures and CRPgt;128 RR= 2.4; death and CRP gt; 128 mg/dl RR= 2. PCT and CRP values are useful markers to determine early gravity of an infectious illness; PCT is useful to demonstrate early form of bacterial processes. Key words: Procalcitonin, C reactive protein, interleukin-1 B, tumoral necrosis factor, interleukin 6, Interleukin 1. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/BF0E5C74447 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000022 en Copyright © 2011 Fernando Rogelio Espinosa Loacute;pez, Abraham Emilio Reyes Jimeacute;nez, Germaacute;n Carrasco Tobon, Jesuacute;s Duarte Mote, and Octavio Novoa Fariacute;as
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:EF3F1D84455 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2011
The study of association between bacterial vaginosis and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at Xiangya Hospital (Changsha-Hunan, China) Mamoudou Camara Yuhong Hang and Yao Ruojin Full Length Research Paper This study was to explore the relationship between bacterial vaginosis and cervical dysplasia. Vaginal discharge gram stain, liquid-based thinlayer cystoFast test (TCT), human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16, 18 test, colposcopy and directed biopsy were performed among 46 patients with cervical dysplasia served as investigate group and 100 patients with cervicitis served as control group. There was statistically significant increase in the incidence of bacterial vaginosis among cervical dysplasia group (52.18%) compared with control group (10.0%) (Plt;0.05). Their human papilloma virus (HPV) 16, 18 positive rates were 60.9 and 3% respectively (Plt;0.05). Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16, 18 and bacterial vaginosis co-infection incidence were 41.3 and 0% respectively (Plt; 0.05). Both human papilloma virus (HPV 16, 18) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) negative results were 28.3 and 87.0% (Plt;0.05). Logistic regression test indicated that human papilloma virus (HPV) 16, 18 and bacterial vaginosis were independent risk factors for cervical dysplasia. Bacterial vaginosis facilitates the infection of HPV type 16, 18 and thus enhances development and progression of cervical dysplasia. Key words: Bacterial vaginosis (BV), Human papilloma virus types 16, 18 (HPV 16, 18), cervical dysplasia (CIN). Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/EF3F1D84455 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000027 en Copyright © 2011 Mamoudou Camara Yuhong Hang and Yao Ruojin
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:D88734A4466 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2011
In vitro- and in vivo- experimental models for balanced activity of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes in normal and malignant cells Iskra Ventseslavova Sainova, Ilina Vavrek, Velichka Pavlova, Ivan Iliev, Lilija Yossifova, Elena Gardeva, Elena Nikolova, Teodora Daneva, Roberto Nitsch and Anna Nitsch Full Length Research Paper Gene transfer in laboratory-cultivated mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) was made by appropriate recombinant DNA-constructs. Electrophorhetic profiles of genetic material from wild type (WT) on oncogene Dcn1 and ldquo;knock-downrdquo; (KD) on it inbred lines of experimental mice differed not only on it, but also on the tumor-suppressor gene HACE1 between both categories of laboratory rodents. The results obtained were compared with previous data, received from malignant rat insulinoma RIN-5F cells, transfected by recombinant gene constructs with inserted copy of secretagogin gene, by their in vitro-co-cultivation with malignant cell precursors, derived from populations of non-transfected laboratory-cultivated mESCs in the presence of doxyciclin, probably by activation of tumor-suppressor genes ofSTAT-family. These data were confirmed by the differences noticed in the degree of myeloid differentiation of derived precursor cells in their in vitro-co-cultivation with containing additional copy of secretagogin gene Rin-5F malignant rat insulinoma cells, in comparison with the results, obtained in their laboratory co-cultivation with non-treated human cervical carcinoma Hela cells, as well as with derived normal mESCs, containing additional copy of the oncogeneDcn1 as a result of their transfection with recombinant DNA-constructs. On the other hand, the derived normal cells with inserted additional copy of oncogene indicated safety, immunogenity, and they also indicated preserved normal cell characteristics. Key words: Oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes, myeloid cell precursors, recombinant gene constructs, cell transfection. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/D88734A4466 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000016 en Copyright © 2011 Iskra Ventseslavova Sainova, Ilina Vavrek, Velichka Pavlova, Ivan Iliev, Lilija Yossifova, Elena Gardeva, Elena Nikolova, Teodora Daneva, Roberto Nitsch and Anna Nitsch
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:6963A174491 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2011
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) associated with Helicobacter pylori infection Bashir A. H. H, Lamyaa A. M and Al Hassan A. M Full Length Research Paper Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is defined as a clonal proliferation of Langerhans phenotypic-like cells. Letterer-Siwe disease is the most common and serious of these entities, affecting mainly infants up to two years of age. We report an interesting, previously misdiagnosed and relapsing case of adult skin limited to LCH in a 25 years old female patient presented with well defined erythematous, dry scaly plaques in the face, trunk and extremities for 10 years duration, and then remains stable over the time. The case is diagnosed and confirmed histopathologically, considered to be the second case of LCH and first case as adult Letterer Siwe been reported in Sudan. Key words: Immunology, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphoid, Helicobacter pylori. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/6963A174491 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000017 en Copyright © 2011 Bashir A. H. H, Lamyaa A. M and Al Hassan A. M
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:05A39F14506 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2011
A case report on scabies in a goat Nwoha R. I. O. Case Report In Texas, sarcoptes scabies is a reportable disease especially in Angora goats and in sheep in the USA. The prevalence of mange mite infestation in some African countries has also been recorded including in Nigeria which was estimated at 11 to 33%. The meat of West African dwarf goat (WADG) is a special delicacy in Nigeria especially in the eastern part and scabies is one of the major damaging skin diseases which favours loss in production. Therefore the relevance of this report of a generalised case of Sarcoptes scabies var caprie in goat presented at the Veterinary Clinic, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike with a view to review new trends in the management and treatment of the condition. Key words: Sarcoptes scabies var caprae, goats, ivermectin. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/05A39F14506 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000001 en Copyright © 2011 Nwoha R. I. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:BA53ADB4516 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2011
Genital tuberculosis with predominant involvement of cervix: A case report Savita Rani Singhal, Pooja Chaudhry and Smiti Nanda Short Communication Tuberculosis of the cervix is a rare form of genital tuberculosis. The symptmatology does not have any particular specific features; but the macroscopic appearance may be of cancer at first impression. A biopsy followed by histology differentiates between the two. A 19 year old married female being investigated for primary amenorrhea with history of contact bleeding had an exophytic growth on cervix, which turned out to be cervical tuberculosis. In a young patient with suspicious cervical lesion and history of contact bleeding a benign pathology like cervical tuberculosis should be kept in mind The incidence of cervical involvement in genital tuberculosis is extremely low. The outlook is good with full recovery if the treatment is carried out properly and promptly. Key words: Contact bleeding, cervical cancer, histopathology, cervical tuberculosis. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/BA53ADB4516 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000014 en Copyright © 2011 Savita Rani Singhal, Pooja Chaudhry and Smiti Nanda
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:7D5D2254536 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2011
Potential clinical applications of dental stem cells Veleska-Stevkovska Daniela, Peeva-Petreska Marija, Evrosimovska Biljana, Apostolova Gordana and Veleski Dragoljub Review Complex human tissues harbor stem cells and/or precursor cells, which are responsible for tissue development or regeneration. Recently, dental tissues such as periodontal ligament (PDL), dental papilla or dental follicle have been identified as easily accessible sources of undifferentiated cells. Dental precursor cells are attractive for usage in regenerative dentistry, like for example regeneration of the dental pulp (biopulp), gingiva and periodontium, regeneration of osseous defects and complete reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint. Dental stem cells are widely used in the regenerative medicine, also. Diabetes, diseases of the bone, cartilage, fibrous tissue, muscular and adipose tissue, the neurological diseases and the spinal cord injures are all included in the future cell-based therapies with dental stem cells. Key words: Stem cells, dental pulp, cultivation, tissue engineering, clinical applications. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/7D5D2254536 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000021 en Copyright © 2011 Veleska-Stevkovska Daniela, Peeva-Petreska Marija, Evrosimovska Biljana, Apostolova Gordana and Veleski Dragoljub
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:1A8172D4546 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2011
Flotrac/VigileoTM validation trials: Are there reliable conclusions? Enrico Giustiniano, Emanuela Morenghi, Nadia Ruggieri, Francesco Pellegrino,Jana Balazova, Cristina Dominoni and Gian Luca Marinelli Full Length Research Paper We reviewed the comparative trials of the Flotrac/VigileoTM versus the thermodilution method, published in the last decade. The results about the agreement between the two methods measuring cardiac output are contrasting. We also noticed that almost the whole pertinent literature include studies conducted without a correct statistical design, particularly about the sample size. For this reason, we consider that results of the published studies do not permit any conclusion about the agreement between pulse contour analysis for cardiac output measurement and thermodilution method. Key words: Pulse contour wave, cardiac output, haemodynamics. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/1A8172D4546 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO.9000012 en Copyright © 2011 Enrico Giustiniano, Emanuela Morenghi, Nadia Ruggieri, Francesco Pellegrino,Jana Balazova, Cristina Dominoni and Gian Luca Marinelli
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:447EF854580 2012-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2012
A case of surgically treated hemorrhagic herpes encephalitis complicated by a sigmoid sinus vein thrombosis Or Cohen-Inbar and Menashe Zaaroor Case Report A temporal massive hemorrhagic necrosis is an uncommon but known complication of herpes encephalitis. Cerebral vein or sinus thrombosis is a very rare complication of herpes encephalitis. Due to its rarity, this complication can go under-diagnosed, resulting at times in grave neurological deficits for the patient. The concurrent existence of both complications is even less common and difficult to diagnose. This also complicates the medical management of the patient due to contradicting considerations. We report a case of a twenty years old female, admitted with herpes encephalitis. The clinical course was complicated by a right temporal lobe massive hemorrhagic necrosis and a late sigmoid sinus vein thrombosis. Intravenous heparin, administered for the thrombosis resulted in further deterioration with evidence of increased hemorrhagic mass lesions, elevated intracranial pressure, uncal herniation and a right quot;blown pupilquot;. The patient underwent a decompressive craniectomy with dural fenestrations. The patients quickly recovered, regained consciousness and was weaned off respirator. Anticoagulant therapy was reinstituted within 48 h of surgery with no further complications. We advocate a high index of suspicion (clinical and radiological) for both hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications in herpes encephalitis patients, and a judicious use of anticoagulation. A multidisciplinary team approach and an early neurosurgical consult in such patients should be the routine. Key words: Temporal, hemorrhagic necrosis, herpes encephalitis, cerebral vein thrombosis, sinus thrombosis. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/447EF854580 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO11.028 en Copyright © 2012 Or Cohen-Inbar and Menashe Zaaroor
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:1720EAD4592 2012-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2012
Can mechanical thrombectomy replace angioplasty for the treatment of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)? Report of a case Mehmet Cansel, Julide Yamur, Ferhat Eyyupkoca, Hakan Tasolar, Nusret Ackgoz and Necip Ermis Case Report We are reporting the case of a 64-year-old woman with acute inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction with right ventricular infarction. She underwent primary angiography which revealed total occlusion of distal right coronary artery (RCA) by thrombus. Three runs of aspiration were performed and the thrombus was aspirated from RCA without additional ballooning or stenting. Postaspiration angiography revealed normal TIMI-3 flow down with the resolution of the thrombus and a residual noncritical trombus was seen also. She was started on glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa inhibitor tirofiban for 48 h. A new angiography performed on the 4th post-intervention day and TIMI-3 flow down was seen in RCA with complete disappearance of the residual thrombus. Key words: Intracoronary thrombus, acute myocardial infarction, thrombus aspiration. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/1720EAD4592 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO11.029 en Copyright © 2012 Mehmet Cansel, Julide Yamur, Ferhat Eyyupkoca, Hakan Tasolar, Nusret Ackgoz and Necip Ermis
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:29335324608 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2013
The surgical and adjuvant therapy options for thyroid malignancies infiltrating great vessels of the neck: A review of the literature Norman Oneil Machado Case Report Appropriate surgical and adjuvant therapies for involvement of great vessels in thyroid malignancies have rarely been reported in literature. In this study, we aim to present our experience and provide a review literature of these devastating tumors that requires multidisciplinary intervention during the whole process of management. Among the 118 patients with thyroid malignancies that were presented to us, there were only 2 patients with infiltration of the internal jugular vein. One of these patients underwent segmental resection of internal jugular vein with total thyroidectomy while the other patient had extensive infiltration of internal jugular vein that an extensive radical metastatic lymph nodes resection was not feasible. A review of the English literature since 1930 revealed an additional 42 cases of internal jugular vein infiltration with or without neck and mediastinal vessel involvements. We have analyzed the surgical and adjuvant therapies that were carried out in all these patients and searched for the parameters including; type of surgical and adjuvant therapies, rate of survival, duration of survival (months), follow-up period and mortality. Twenty six of the 42 patients (62%) underwent internal jugular vein resection along with thyroidectomy; 13 patients (31%), thrombectomy of tumour thrombus and 7 (17%), reconstruction of the vessel after resection; 5 venous and 2 arterial. Survival among patients who did not undergo resection was for a mean period of 3.9 months and following resection was 26 months (range 4 months to 6 years). Aggressive resection may result in long term survival in some of these patients and may prolong life in others. Surgical approach to patients with thyroid malignancies infiltrating the great vessels may involve thrombectomy or may require resection of the vein and occasionally artery with or without reconstruction. Patients who underwent resection and adjuvant therapy were found to have better survival rate. Key words: Thyroidectomy, internal jugular vein resection, neck vein obstruction, thyroid malignancy, running title- thyroid malignancy infiltrating jugular vein. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/29335324608 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO11.030 en Copyright © 2013 Norman Oneil Machado
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:117776D4614 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2013
Pattern of trauma related to walnut harvesting and suggested preventive measures Mudassir M. Wani, Rajandeep Bali, Iqbal Saleem Mir, Nisar Hamadani and Mubashir Wani Full Length Research Paper Falls from trees and other tree related injuries are one of the most common causes of trauma in parts of rural Kashmir, particularly, during the harvest season. A one year review of all admissions for trauma, due to falling from trees, to the Accident and Emergency Department of Government Medical College Srinagar was carried out. The study revealed that walnut trees are the most commonly involved trees in such cases. It was the 4th most common cause of trauma related admissions during harvest season. There was only one female admitted with such trauma out of 106 patients. Forearm fractures were the most common injuries overall. Head and chest trauma were the commonest causes of death. There are many strategies for preventing such injuries; the most important being to stop small boys from climbing tall trees and also the more frequent use of grafted walnut trees. Such falls are a serious occupational hazard for many subsistence farmers. Key words: Injury, trees, fall, walnut tree. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/117776D4614 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO11.031 en Copyright © 2013 Mudassir M. Wani, Rajandeep Bali, Iqbal Saleem Mir, Nisar Hamadani and Mubashir Wani
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:0DD54874660 2013-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2013
Measles complications in a Nigerian hospital setting Onoja, A. B., Adeniji, A. J. and Faneye, A. Full Length Research Paper In spite of active measles vaccination efforts in 2005 in southern Nigeria, re-emergence continues to occur. This study was carried out to ascertain the incidence of measles, severity, mortality and its complications, in order to enhance treatment and reduce under-five child mortality. Secondary data from the records in the measles ward of Oni Memorial Childrenrsquo;s Hospital, Ibadan was used. The period under investigation was 2005 to 2008, following the catch-up and follow-up measles vaccination exercise. Four hundred children between the ages of 5 months and 14 years were clinically diagnosed with measles from 2005 to 2008, of which 124 (31%) had complications. Among those with complications, 70 (56.5%) mortalities were observed, and as the children approached 14 years of age, incidence of measles reduced to 0%. Measles is still a major childhood problem in the southern part of Nigeria, even as the burden is more in northern Nigeria. This will invariably hamper global measles mortality reduction initiatives and the attainment of the fourth millennium development goal of reduction of under-five child mortality by 2015, hence the need for a coordinated and strategic mass vaccination effort to target unimmunized children. Key words: Measles in children, complications, clinical diagnosis, mortality, mass vaccination. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/0DD54874660 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO12.008 en Copyright © 2013 Onoja, A. B., Adeniji, A. J. and Faneye, A.
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:DD5C3364650 2013-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2013
Recent trends in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis Vikrant Sudan, Amit K. Jaiswal and Daya Shanker Review Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widely prevalent cyst forming apicomplexan parasite present worldwide. Felines serve as definitive hosts, while all non-feline vertebrates including humans, act as intermediate hosts of the parasite. There are several serological tests available for the detection of T. gondii antibodies such as the dye test (DT), indirect haemagglutination test (IHA), complement fixation test (CFT), modified agglutination test (MAT), latex agglutination test (LAT), indirect immunofluorescent test (IFAT) and direct agglutination test (DAT). The dye test once considered as gold standard is seldom used nowadays, owing to potent hazardous effects because of involvement of live tachyzoites. Of late, enzyme linked immune sorbent assays (ELISA) have gained a lot of utility in diagnosing toxoplasmosis. Other than serological tests, bioassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assays and histopathologies are also used. The various tests used for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, along with various molecules being employed, coupled with their advantages and limitations, are described and discussed in detail in the present review. Key words: Toxoplasma gondii, diagnosis, enzyme linked immune sorbent assays (ELISA), molecular techniques, polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/DD5C3364650 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO11.022 en Copyright © 2013 Vikrant Sudan, Amit K. Jaiswal and Daya Shanker
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:718AAC64686 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2013
An ancient mystery ‘unearthed’! Anuj Mishra, Mohamed Hamadto, Mohamed Azzabi and Ehtuish F. Ehtuish Case Report A 29-year-old female had presented to surgical out patientrsquo;s department complaining of lump in the anterior abdominal wall. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid degenerated tumor in the anterior abdominal wall. It was surgically excised and histopathology confirmed it to be lsquo;ancientrsquo; schwannoma. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of an abdominal wall ancient schwannoma in the medical literature. Key words: Schwannoma, abdominal wall, magnetic resonance imaging. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/718AAC64686 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO10.023 en Copyright © 2013 Anuj Mishra, Mohamed Hamadto, Mohamed Azzabi and Ehtuish F. Ehtuish
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:87F02C14706 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2013
Desmoid tumours: The aggressive fibromatosis Arcot Rekha Review Desmoid tumours are benign tumours that have a tendency to be locally invasive. We present a desmoid tumour of the lower abdominal wall in a 30 year old female patient, discussed the treatment options and reviewed literature of this uncommon lesion. Key words: Desmoid, abdominal wall, benign tumour. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/87F02C14706 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO10.027 en Copyright © 2013 Arcot Rekha
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:E48B7E944718 2014-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2014
Factor VIII genetic mutations and protein alterations in hemophilia A: A review Nuzhat Jahan Faridi, Praveen Kumar, Nuzhat Husain and Mohammad Imran Review Hemophilia A represents a severe most common inherited hemorrhagic disorder caused by heterogeneous mutations, which lead to dysfunctional factor VIII protein. Besides the inversion 22 and intron 1 inversion, the mutations may describe 627 missense and 142 nonsense unique mutations. Changes in the protein sequence induce structural or functional impairment. This study aimed to review mutation in different domains and discuss molecular modeling approach to assess the effects of amino acid substitutions on the topology of FVIII protein domains. A comprehensive literature search was done to analyze the mutations and structural alterations reported in the Hemophilia A gene. Further, our experience in small mutation analyzed with structural alterations was added to the review. Mutation types were used at the hemophilia A mutation, structure, test and resource site (HAMSTeRS). Half of the point mutation in the FVIII gene was found in domain A which includes Glu321Lys, Tyr346Cys, Val357Gly, Thr770Ser, Thr751Ser etc. Exon 14 represents about one half of the coding region and encodes for the FVIII B domain. Several recurrent mutations have been found at 2147, 2150, 2159, 2163 {C1} and 2209, 2300, 2307 (C2) amino-acid positions. Different domains play an important role in the function of FVIII as each contains specific binding active site during the clotting cascade. The review brings forth the functional alterations occurring because of causative mutations in hemophilia A gene. Key words: Hemophilia a, FVIII gene, mutations, protein modeling. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/E48B7E944718 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO11.015 en Copyright © 2014 Nuzhat Jahan Faridi, Praveen Kumar, Nuzhat Husain and Mohammad Imran
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:388202456910 2016-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2016
Impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention of sulphadoxine–pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine on molecular markers resistance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria: A review in West Africa Hamma Maiga Review The study discuss the potential impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) on the cases of malaria, anaemia and molecular markers resistance Plasmodium falciparum malaria; and also review the mechanism of action and the effect on immunity of SMC. SMC using an efficacious drug is likely to substantially reduce cases of clinical malaria in high transmission settings. However, an increase of molecular markers could hamper rolling out SMC as a national policy. Key words: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention impact, malaria molecular markers, review. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/388202456910 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO15.0098 en Copyright © 2016 Hamma Maiga
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:1D8006E59710 2016-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2016
Breast cancer awareness, attitude and screening practices in Nigeria: A systematic review Ojewusi Ayoola A., Obembe Taiwo, Arulogun Oyedunni S. and Olugbayela Tunde Full Length Research Paper Previous research on the breast cancer awareness, attitude and screening practices has produced divergent results. This systematic review aimed to summarise evidence and to compare all existing evidence on the awareness of breast cancer, attitude and screening practices among women in the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Overall, 40 articles were included in the nal analysis. The search was limited to articles published in English between 2001 and 2014 were included in review. Majority of the respondents in this review were aware of breast cancer as a disease entity. Electronic media and television (TV) were the leading sources of information on breast cancer in Nigeria, while use of leaflets and internet were unpopular in this regard. The results of the study showed deficiency in screening practices even among those who were aware of the screening methods. Breast self-examination (BSE) was the most common breast screening practice among respondents followed by clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. The reasons provided for non-performance were fear of finding a lump and lack of awareness among others. Development of effective educational resources aimed at reducing barriers to breast screening practices and early detection to provoke change and to impact on social norms. Also, campaigns that couple information with other services are more likely to bring sustained changes in behaviour. Key words: Breast cancer, awareness, attitude, screening practices. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/1D8006E59710 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO16.0101 en Copyright © 2016 Ojewusi Ayoola A., Obembe Taiwo, Arulogun Oyedunni S. and Olugbayela Tunde
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:A2B926F63389 2017-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2017
Methods for monitoring artemisinin-based combination therapies efficacy Souleymane Dama, Abdoulaye A. Djimde and Ogobara K. Doumbo Full Length Research Paper Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin and its derivatives is spreading in South-East Asia, and there is growing concern that this may reach other endemic countries. Methods used to assess P. falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are multiple and often divergent. This paper is a review of online accessible research publications from the past 20 years on ACTs, ranging from in vivo, in vitro/ex-vivo, molecular markers and pharmacokinetics studies. We highlight the procedures of the four main methods used for ACTs efficacy testing and provide a summary of published data. This review indicates that the most used method for ACT efficacy testing is the in vivo 28 days follow-up with molecular correction; the most widely used and reliable in vitro and ex-vivo method for artemisinin phenotyping is the ring stage survival assay from 0 to 3 h ring (RSA0-3h), and the main molecular marker of P. falciparum resistance to artemisinins are mutations on P. falciparum Kelch 13 propeller domain. Day 7 pharmacokinetics could help to predict resistance to artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Findings from this review support that the combination of in vivo, in vitro/ex-vivo, molecular markers of drug resistance and day 7 PK levels of the partner drugs may be required for the optimal surveillance of artemisinin-based combination therapy efficacy in the field. Key words: Malaria, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), monitoring, drug resistance, review. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/A2B926F63389 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO16.0110 en Copyright © 2017 Souleymane Dama, Abdoulaye A. Djimde and Ogobara K. Doumbo
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:75C3D2B65583 2017-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2017
Platelet-mediated clumping adhesion phenotypes of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes: A review Frank G Onyambu, Stephen B Tanui, Dominic S. O. Alwala, Kiptanui Chebii and Bethwel K. Kigen Review Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. In general, malaria is easily treated but in a subset of cases it develops to severe disease. Severe malaria has a high rate of mortality even with the best available care. This creates the need for intensive research to fully characterise the pathogenesis of the disease in order to create future novel therapies. One of the hallmarks of malaria infections is its ability to adhere to specific sites in the body leading to severe disease syndromes such as cerebral malaria and pregnancy associated malaria. In this review, the platelet-mediated clumping adhesion phenotypes of malaria-infected erythrocytes were discussed in the context of infected erythrocyte adhesion phenotypes such as cytoadhesion and rosetting. Platelet-mediated clumping refers to a phenomenon of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes whereby they agglutinate to form large aggregates held together by activated platelets. This unique phenotype is important because it has been associated with severe malaria in both children and adults in diverse geographical and transmission settings. The precise mechanisms by which platelet-mediated clumping occurs are yet to be precisely described. The platelet receptors implicated in this phenotype include CD36, P-Selectin and gC1qR. The parasite derived ligands that mediate this phenotype are yet to be described. Key words: Malaria, platelets, platelet-mediated clumping, infections. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/75C3D2B65583 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO2015.0097 en Copyright © 2017 Frank G Onyambu, Stephen B Tanui, Dominic S. O. Alwala, Kiptanui Chebii and Bethwel K. Kigen
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:7FB549163609 2020-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2020
Multiple primary malignancies: Vigilance is paramount in identification Pradeep Balineni, Rekha Arcot, Sandeep Pathivada and Bharath Narayanasami Full Length Research Paper Ever since it was first described by Billroth, there is an increasing incidence of multiple primary malignancies cases, due to increase in the survival rate of cancer patients and improvement of diagnostic tools. Incidence of second malignancies in cancer patients is 10 to 20%. A total of 10 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included. All the 10 patientsrsquo; case sheets were pursued, and the biochemical, radiological and histopathological reports were analyzed. Results revealed that out of the 10 patients, five were synchronous and the other five were metachronous with a median age of 59 years. Four male patients and six female patients are included. The most common malignancy sites were the stomach and breast, and the mean time interval between both the metachronous tumors is 7.2 years. Thus, a strong clinical suspicion is needed for detecting the multiple primary malignancies, anda treatment plan should be formulated individually for every case. Key words: Neoplasm, multiple primary, synchronous neoplasm, metachronous neoplasm, therapeutics. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/7FB549163609 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO2019.0119 en Copyright © 2020 Pradeep Balineni, Rekha Arcot, Sandeep Pathivada and Bharath Narayanasami
oai:academicjournals.org:CRO:713CD3166052 2021-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals CRO CRO:2021
Biomedical engineering in Nigeria: The genesis, present and the future Bamigboye, A. A. and Bello, K. A. Review Inadequate biomedical engineering (BME) training, the gross deficit in the maintenance of biomedical facilities, mismanagement of resources allocated to the hospital biomedical unit by the management coupled with poor maintenance culture, are some of the factors that can aggravate the already high mortality rate, short life expectancy, poor economic growth, and low quality of life index in Africa, South of Sahara, and in Nigeria in particular. This synopsis serves to review the practice of biomedical engineering in Nigeria and also identify relevant factors that palpably influence BME development in Nigeria. Wide gamut of literature survey was carried out with the view to trace the activities of BME from the origin of BME in Nigeria till date. The result shows that the slow rate of BME development in Nigeria could be traced to relatively low allocation in the National budget on health, mismanagement, ignorance of recent advanced technology with poor or lack of personnel and is found to affect technological development of biomedical engineering. This study would serve as a guide to Nigerian government and other relevant stakeholders as a matter of urgency to declare a state of emergency in the health sector and particularly in the field of BME by collaborating with international professional bodies. Key words: Biomedical engineering, biomedical development, healthcare operations, low budget allocation, medical treatment. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/CRO/article-abstract/713CD3166052 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/CRO2019.0120 en Copyright © 2021 Bamigboye, A. A. and Bello, K. A.