2024-04-19T11:35:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:62E46303232 2006-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Behaviour assessment in ontario mathematics classrooms Tess Miller, Dr. D. Klinger, Dr. L. Shulha Full Length Research Paper Curriculum reform in Ontario secondary schools proposed that the assessment of student achievement be separated into academic achievement and non-academic achievement or the behaviours that can influence academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to explore teachersrsquo; assessment practices of non-academic achievement in Ontariorsquo;s grade 9 Academic and Applied mathematics programs. A questionnaire was distributed to grade 9 mathematics teachers attending a provincial mathematics conference. Analysis revealed that teachers were not engaging in this area of assessment as much as they felt they should and that the assessment of homework, in particular, was still being incorporated into a studentrsquo;s academic score. Key words: Assessment, mathematics, learning skills, learning behaviors/behaviours Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/62E46303232 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000063 en Copyright © 2006 Tess Miller, Dr. D. Klinger, Dr. L. Shulha
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:B3AA9163241 2006-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Factors affecting gender differences in attitudes towards computers among students Dr. Timothy Teo Full Length Research Paper Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/B3AA9163241 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000161 en Copyright © 2006 Dr. Timothy Teo
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:90C06FD3249 2006-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Synthesis of human haemoglobin by plants ONYESOM, I. Short Communication Haemoglobin, Hb is the red, protein pigment in blood that transports oxygen round the body. Decreased quantity could lead to anaemia, and when the anaemic condition turns severe, blood transfusion becomes inevitable. However, the safety of human source has become questionable in recent times, and this has aroused the interest of scientists to search for alternative source(s). Interestingly, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil bone, gram-negative bacterium has been discovered to integrate a segment of its Ti plasmid into plant chromosome through wounds. Workers thus, exploited this natural genetic engineering process to transfer Hb gene into plants. Evidence suggests that initial trials recorded some measure of success. Although, the nascent technology is still being refined, when fully developed it would reduce the fear and risk associated with the human source of blood for transfusion. Key words: Haemoglobin, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Ti-plasmid, anaemia Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/90C06FD3249 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000318 en Copyright © 2006 ONYESOM, I.
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:0B193A53252 2006-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria: A case study of Enugu state Aiyeloja A.A and O.A Bello Full Length Research Paper Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in botanical and English languages as well as in the three major languages in Nigeria (Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa). The families of the species were also documented. Finally, the various uses of the species and the part(s) of the plant species used were highlighted. This will surely be of great assistance to researchers, herb sellers and the entire consumers in overcoming the long standing problems of communication and identification. Key words: Ethnobotanical potentials, Common herbs, Enugu State, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/0B193A53252 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000145 en Copyright © 2006 Aiyeloja A.A and O.A Bello
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:A568AB53260 2006-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Didacticism and educational outcomes Geraint Johnes Full Length Research Paper This note provides an analysis of the determinants of educational outcomes at age 16, and of subsequent pathways as school pupils transit toward the labour market. There is some evidence that examination results tend to be better where nondidactic teaching methods are used, but there is little evidence to suggest that teaching method has an independent effect on the decision to stay on in school. Suggestions are made for further research. Keywords: Education, JEL classification: J11 Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/A568AB53260 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000103 en Copyright © 2006 Geraint Johnes
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:09C76083276 2006-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Curriculum characteristics of time-compressed course in a U.S. higher education institution Eunsook Hyun, Mark Kretovics, and Alicia Crowe Full Length Research Paper The study explored characteristics of the curriculum practice of higher education faculty in the context of time-compressed (e.g., 5ndash;6 weeks) courses as compared with regular term (15ndash;16 weeks) courses. The researchers used open-ended questions on a web-based survey at a large doctoral-extensive university in a Midwestern state in the United States. A total of 569 faculty members were asked to respond to the survey; 151 faculty members completed and returned it. Of the completed surveys 147 data were usable, resulting in a response rate of 26.5%. Their curriculum concerns for time-compressed courses were driven primarily by their consideration of studentsrsquo; learning within the limited time between the classes. The most significant concern expressed by faculty entailed developing teaching approaches effective for the longer class sessions. Most of the curriculum concerns were rooted in the organizational aspects of the institution. Key words: Time-compressed course curriculum, curriculum aspects, external aspects, internal aspects, organizational aspects, curriculum elements, faculty perception. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/09C76083276 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000092 en Copyright © 2006 Eunsook Hyun, Mark Kretovics, and Alicia Crowe
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:61AF5013289 2006-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Is rape in the eye or in the mind of the offender? A survey of rape perception among Nigerian university stakeholders Elegbeleye, O. S. Full Length Research Paper The issue of the escalating incidents of rape in Nigerian higher institutions has, not unexpectedly, agitated the minds of both students and university workers on the one hand, and the general public, on the other. This development has forced the hands of the authorities in some of the Nigerian universities to give priority to finding a solution to the issue by out rightly legislating against it, while in others, series of codes of conduct expected to guide proper dressing, the abuse of which was considered chief among factors encouraging rape, were put in place. This study, therefore, focused on investigating what the people, particularly, those that populate the university environment, perceive of rape. The outcome of the study revealed among other things that rape is associated with a forceful attempt at having sexual intercourse with an unwilling female victim. For this reason, it was labeled a crime by participants. There was also a unanimous agreement by participants that rape incidents are rampant, in the last ten years on university campuses across Nigeria than was the case in previous years and that creating a dressing regime by introducing dressing code for, especially, female students would be an effective palliative measure for curbing rape incidents. Causative factors and what can be done to totally put a stop to rape incidents on university campuses were suggested by participants. Key words: Rape, Rape perception, Nigerian university stakeholders Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/61AF5013289 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000212 en Copyright © 2006 Elegbeleye, O. S.
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:CA92D8D3299 2006-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Non-timber forest products’ marketing in Nigeria. A case study of Osun state Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo and Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac Full Length Research Paper Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as Massularia acuminata and bush meat like Thryonomys swinderianus, representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local Government Areas were randomly selected, namely; Odo-otin, Boripe, Iwo, Irewole and Atakunmosa for the research purpose. A total of 300 questionnaires were administered, 150 questionnaires for each of the NTFPs. Each NTFPs was further subdivided to production, marketing and usage or consumption with 50 questionnaires for each unit. It was gathered from the result that M. acuminata tops the list of the well favoured chewing sticks. Other types of chewing sticks that rank high include fagara (Zanthophylum zanthoxonoides) and Ira (Rauwolfia vomitora). Bush meat is also cherished by people most especially in urban centres where it is regarded as a delicacy. Despite the preference of bush meat, the rate of consumption is still low relative to other animal protein sources. Apart from these two NTFPs, several others of economic, nutritional and medicinal importance exist. A list of some of them is made with their uses. NTFPs are grossly affected by seasonal changes and this in turns affect their availability and prices. In all, considering NTFPs in the light of economic gain alone will be parochial even though analysis for the marketing of the two NTFPs shows that they are viable business ventures. The values should extend beyond the economic gain to other values which are indispensable to the existence of man. A major but neglected aspect is the medicinal aspect of NTFPs. Key words: Forest products, NTFP, marketing, Nigeria Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/CA92D8D3299 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000241 en Copyright © 2006 Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo and Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:7BBC13E3292 2006-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Understanding of protein synthesis in a living cell Y. Mustapha and S. Muhammad Review The assembly of proteins takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell. There are three main steps. In initiation, far left, all the necessary parts of the process are brought together by a small molecule called a ribosome. During elongation, amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, are joined to one another in a long chain. The sequence in which the amino acids are added is determined by messenger, messenger ribonucleic acid RNA (mRNA), a transcribed copy of the cellrsquo;s deoxyribonucleic acid DNA. Termination, far right, takes place when the mRNA sequence contains one of several ldquo;stoprdquo; codons. At these, the ribosome-mRNA complex binds a release factor that causes release of the completed (protein) chain of amino acids. The released chain is called the primary structure of a protein. This paper outlines simple methods for students and teachers alike to help in understand the mechanism of protein synthesis in a living cell. Keywords: deoxyribonucleic acid DNA, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), amino acids codons Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/7BBC13E3292 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000392 en Copyright © 2006 Y. Mustapha and S. Muhammad
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:8CF92633310 2006-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
“Intercultural mediation”, the institution of learning and the process of educational ‘integration’ and assimilation: The case of Ethiopian Jews in Israel Girma Berhanu Full Length Research Paper The major premise of this paper concerns the existence of an intrinsic connection between the institutional culture of school and studentsrsquo; dispositions to learning. The data presented shows three things in particular. These are firstly, the strong mono-culture of the Israeli school, secondly, a virtual absence of knowledge, understanding and sensitivity on the part of these schools to how students from different cultural backgrounds learn and, thirdly, how the workings of the school environment impact on the academic development of minority children. My findings suggest that the teaching methods, the social climate of the school and patterns of school work, regarding cultural differences in Israel may have the same effect on academic progress for Ethiopian children as family (cultural) background, neighbourhood, peer environment and socio-economic status seem to have for the white urban poor in Western schools. The inequalities imposed on Ethiopian children by their home environment such as poor neighbourhood, ldquo;immobilisedrdquo; or ldquo;neutralisedrdquo; culture inadequately reconstituted by the new one, and interruption of cultural transmission to the young at home, are carried along to become the inequalities with which the children confront school life and, hence, future adult life. Key words: ldquo;Intercultural mediationrdquo;, the institution of learning and the process of educational lsquo;integrationrsquo; and assimilation. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/8CF92633310 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000061 en Copyright © 2006 Girma Berhanu
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:6516D193321 2006-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
University students’ perception of lecturer-student relationships: a comparative study of Public and Private Universities in Kenya Micah C. Chepchieng, Stephen N. Mbugua and Mary W. Kariuki Full Length Research Paper In a university setting, there is a great diversity in terms of socio-cultural, political, religious and racial backgrounds among students and lecturers. This diversity, with the presence of an appropriate lecturer-student relationship creates a campus environment that prepares students and lecturers to live and work amicably in a socio-culturally diverse society. It also equips them to respond to an increasing complex global environment. Besides, interpersonal relations in diversity make it possible for the generation, advancement and dissemination of knowledge, which is one of the key mission characteristics of university education in Kenya and elsewhere. Usually, a healthy relationship between the lecturers and students does influence studentsrsquo; academic, personal and social integration into higher education. This could be attributed to the fact that lecturers contact with students in and out of the classroom is very important in student motivation and involvement in all facets of life. Considering the significance bestowed upon lecture-student relationship, a study was done that involved 30 student leaders from both public and private universities in Kenya. Data was collected through University Student Leaders Interview Schedule (USLIS). The data was analysed to help unravel studentsrsquo; perception of interpersonal relations with their lecturers. Results revealed that, students in private universities seem to positively perceive lecturer- studentrsquo; relationship more than those in public universities. It also came out clearly that the large classes experienced in public universities had down side effect on the student-lecturer relationship. Thus enrollment in universities should be checked so that there is a low lecturer-student ratio. Key words: Influence, perceptions, attitude, campus environment, lecturer-student relationships, public university and private university Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/6516D193321 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000396 en Copyright © 2006 Micah C. Chepchieng, Stephen N. Mbugua and Mary W. Kariuki
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:6355B243345 2006-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
The dynamics of political competition and the future of democratization process in Cameroon: challenges and opportunities JOHN W FORJE, Fil dr. Full Length Research Paper The paper looks at the process of democratization in Cameroon and its failure to respond to the basic tenets of democracy that meets the aspirations of the people. It argues that though there have been some quasi moves following the collapse of the Soviet Union in trying to open the political space, this has been done to meet donors wish and not in the genuine interest of the people. Hence both internal forces have stifled the democratic process with the compliancy of the international community. It goes further to question whether there is hope for Cameroon and the rest of the continent to claim the 21st century. The focus is on examining the return of Cameroon to the democratic fold of nations following the collapse of the dominant one-party system. To what extent has the process of the newfound political pluralism been of potential reward to improving the quality of livelihood of the people and empowering them in the political process? In short, the paper looks at the process of political evolution and the reformation of the country#39;s institution to make democracy more participative and responsive to the needs of the people in respect of a number of inter-related issues that can improve the quality of the living standards of the vast majority of the population. It adopts a comparative analytical approach and argues that women need better representation in the decision-making machinery and political hierarchy of the government and party. The conclusion is that sustainable political development should build on the principles of inclusion. Keywords: Democratisation, participation, exclusion, inclusion, ethnic hegemony, political divide, marginalisation, dictatorship, liberalism, poverty, ruling class, competition, exploitation. Rigging Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/6355B243345 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000337 en Copyright © 2006 JOHN W FORJE, Fil dr.
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:3D9B4663381 2006-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
The human capital convergence fallacy: a cross country empirical investigation D. Stamatakis and P.E. Petrakis Full Length Research Paper This article adapts a modification of Tamurarsquo;s theoretical proposition and conducts a cross-country empirical investigation in an attempt to evaluate convergence on two different human capital proxies; namely enrollment rates and per capita researchers. The analysis considers three country groups at significantly different development levels: Advanced, developed and less developed countries. The hypothesis of convergence is rejected when alternative, to enrollment rates, approximations to human capital are used, merely implying the existence of a ldquo;convergence traprdquo; for countries with significantly lower endowments of human capital. The results provide circumstantial evidence of within group convergence and between group divergences when enrollment in education is considered, but no convergence/divergence when research effort is considered. This last finding suggests the possibility of a ldquo;convergence traprdquo;, since initial human capital endowment could drive a process of worldwide polarization. Key words: Advanced (OECD-G7), developed (OECD), less developed (world), USA, Mexico, Mauritius, human capital, convergence, growth, cross country, development level. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/3D9B4663381 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000356 en Copyright © 2006 D. Stamatakis and P.E. Petrakis
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:65A4FC23385 2006-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System Dr. Mohammad Ja#;far Habibzadeh Full Length Research Paper The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual liberties against the arbitrary and unwarranted intrusion of the state. Thus, the criminal judge cannot call the individualsrsquo; acts crime and assign punishments for them or exert punishments that are not prescribed by the Legislator without any letter of law. If an act is morally rebutted or is socially against the public order, it is not regarded as crime and the Legislator is the only authority who can recognize some acts as crime and punish the actor. In Iranian legal system, before the Islamic Revolution and also after it, the Constitution and ordinary laws have explicitly emphasized the observance of the mentioned principle. When there is no text or in the case of the silence or lack of law, the criminal judge is bound to issue the verdict of innocence. In recent years, as a result of the great misunderstanding of the Art.167 of the Constitution, ordinary rules including s. 214 of the Criminal Procedure of Public and Revolutionary Courts Act 1999, and s. 8 of the Revolutionary and Public Courts Act 1994, allowed the criminal judge to refer to the Jurisprudence and religious decrees in order to assign the criminal titles and the related punishments, when there is no text or in the case of the silence or lack of law. This paper attempts to verify this legal base. It refers to the history of the discussion and the articles of the Constitution and the jural sources to indicate that itrsquo;s necessary to pay more attention to the aforementioned law and the legality principle, which in turn makes it possible to abolish or amend the contradictory laws. Keywords: The legality principle, The Constitution, Individual liberties Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/65A4FC23385 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000225 en Copyright © 2006 Dr. Mohammad Ja#;far Habibzadeh
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:475D3083412 2006-07-06T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
How does working memory work in the classroom? Tracy Packiam Alloway Full Length Research Paper Working memory plays a key role in supporting childrenrsquo;s learning over the school years, and beyond this into adulthood. It is proposed here that working memory is crucially required to store information while other material is being mentally manipulated during the classroom learning activities that form the foundations for the acquisition of complex skills and knowledge. A child with a poor working memory capacity will struggle and often fail in such activities, disrupting and delaying learning. The aim of this review is to present the case that working memory makes a vital contribution to classroom learning. Following a brief introduction to working memory and its assessment, links between working memory skills and scholastic progress is reviewed and illustrated. Next, the classroom behaviour of children with very poor working memory functions, and in particular their characteristic failures in learning activities, is described. Finally, the implications of this research for classroom practice is considered; this includes an intervention programme designed to improve learning outcomes for children with poor working memory function that is based on the theoretical analysis of working memory and learning advanced here. Key words: memory, learning, reading, mathematics, general learning difficulties Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/475D3083412 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000188 en Copyright © 2006 Tracy Packiam Alloway
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:4C957BB3432 2006-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Social Skills Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Literature Review from the American Perspective Kaili Chen Full Length Research Paper The main purpose of this paper is to review literature associated with social skills training for students with behavioral difficulties in both the general and special education settings. Research findings presented in this review were based on data collected from books, research papers, and reports published from the 1970s to 2004 in the United States of America. Key words: social skills training, emotional/behavioral disorders, interventions Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/4C957BB3432 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000294 en Copyright © 2006 Kaili Chen
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:56E99CD3421 2006-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Comments on John Willinsky’s Learning to Divide the World: Education at Empire’s End Tsung Juang Wang Review John Willinskyrsquo;s view that imperialism and its legacy remain the driving force that divides the world into ldquo;superiorrdquo; and ldquo;inferiorrdquo; cultures fails to take into account other forces that also encourage peoples of different cultures to emphasize the differences between themselves. He is correct in noting that imperialism led to much injustice and inequality in the world, but he is insufficiently attentive to some of what can only be considered to be positive outcomes as well. The real strength of Willinskyrsquo;s analysis lies in his view that education must be reformed to account for and temper the tendency of different peoples to develop affinities with those most like themselves and to be suspicious of contact with those perceived to be outsiders. Key words: Civilization, Colonialism, Dividing the World, Education, Imperialism, Multiculturalism. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/56E99CD3421 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000072 en Copyright © 2006 Tsung Juang Wang
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:1AF65FA3341 2006-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Political governance and conflict management: why developing polities and the poor need a stronger state structure? John W. Forje, Fil dr Review Political governance and quality management are often contested concepts, meaning different things to different people; and often their meanings have shifted historically. The collapse of the governance system behind the iron curtain countries triggered an avalanche in international politics and instituted new governance and management system to fit within the evolving political dispensation of the 21st century. Even in the post-cold war era, the political sociology of the greater part of the continent began to acquire a mournful guise of repetitive failure. The reality, as the facts show, is one where the nature of society has failed to meet the requirements of the democratic and parliamentary models by which the New-States are supposed to function. We must appreciate that 50 years in the life of a nation is a short period. We should not expect Africa to accomplish within this relatively short period what took the currently democratic states to achieve. Even within this defeatist or pessimistic view, there is a reality of optimism of progress though slow that points towards increasing democratisation and eventual public participation in governance, as well as important modes for integration into global systems of information, technology, knowledge and commerce, bode well for the acceleration of African development in the 21st century. The demand for drastic changes in the state system within this short period may be asking too much. After all, what the old democracies exhibit today took them thousands of years to accomplish. Taking just a couple of examples, women in Switzerland received their rights to vote not long ago. Comparatively, African States have made tremendous strides in this area. Rwanda, a decade after the genocide, has the highest number in the world of women representation in parliament. This does not mean that the plight of women in Africa is resolved. Women are still marginalized in spite of them commanding almost 52 percent of the population on the continent. No one is advocating the adoption of a Rostow ldquo;stages of developmentrdquo; approach for Africa. The strides made so far by Africa are due to advances in science and technology, which enable the continent to move forward more rapidly than the West did. Africans are equally contributing to advances in science and technology ndash;the Internet for example, which is an African invention. This paper addresses pertinent issues ndash;governance and consolidating the democratic process - and why the people need a stronger involvement. Power belongs to the people. Democracy belongs to the people. The State must create the enabling and levelling playground for civil society to be an integral part of the governance process. The conceptual frame builds on system thinking approach and conflict management maintaining that participation, partnership and responsibility sharing provides the best way for building a Strong State capable of meeting its obligations to the people. Proactive strategies policy measures are advanced as the way forward to reconstructing and reconstituting a viable State that is first and foremost peopleoriented, that is inclusive and with an open governance system that creates choices and possibilities for its citizens. Key words: Democracy, consolidation, civil society, partnership, participation, responsibility sharing, conflict management/prevention, media, choices, inclusion and social justice. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/1AF65FA3341 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000258 en Copyright © 2006 John W. Forje, Fil dr
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:D7D3E913326 2006-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Teaching Dissent and Persuasion Kathleen M. Carson, Brian Hodgen, and Rainer E. Glaser Review Teaching philosophy should be based on the desired outcome of the teaching. In the case of science education, the guiding principle for a teaching philosophy should start with the desire to help students understand and use science, regardless of their major or profession. To effectively teach students how to understand science, one must include both the content and the process. Peer review is an integral part of the process of science, however it is generally lacking from science education. One must have something for the students to review in order to implement the process education, and Chemistry Is in the News offers such a project in the news portfolios. In-class peer review is useful and common in other disciplines, but there is much to be gained by going outside the walls of the institution. Inter-class, in particular interstate and international, compels faculty and students to use Information and Communication Technologies, exposes students to a diverse student body, and provides an opportunity to engage in faculty development via collaboration on instruction. Key words: Science Communication, Scientific Literacy, Peer Review, Science Teaching Philosophy, Collaborative Learning, Computer-Assisted Instruction Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/D7D3E913326 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000327 en Copyright © 2006 Kathleen M. Carson, Brian Hodgen, and Rainer E. Glaser
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:672450C3517 2006-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
The Relationship between the Need for Cognition, Metacognition, and Intellectual Task Performance Savia A. Coutinho Short Communication This study examined the relationship between the need for cognition, defined as the tendency to engage in effortful cognitive activity, and metacognition which is onersquo;s thinking about thinking and how these variables relate to intellectual task performance. Participants completed measures of need for cognition, metacognition, and problem-solved GRE analytical items. There was a significant correlation between the need for cognition and metacognition. However, only the need for cognition was a significant predictor of intellectual task performance. Key Words: cognition, metacognition, GRE analytical item Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/672450C3517 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000373 en Copyright © 2006 Savia A. Coutinho
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:53F1A5C3474 2006-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
False teeth still a public health problem among children in Kanungu district - South Western Uganda 2006 SEBUDDE STEPHEN Full Length Research Paper False teeth among children are a Public Health problem which has not received adequate attention in Uganda. This study was therefore developed as a community-based descriptive cross-sectional carried out in Kanungu District using qualitative methods of data collection among caregivers of children, Community Owned Resource Persons and Service providers . The objectives of the study were to examine family knowledge on false teeth, paying special attention to the age bracket which is perceived to be commonly affected by false teeth, signs and symptoms and identifying management practices as well as preventive measures of false teeth within this community. False teeth are a common problem among children mainly affecting children of two years old with no sex differences. It is believed to be caused by witchcraft and at times it comes on its own. This disease causes diarrhea, Acute Respiratory infection (ARI), fever and loss of appetite, restlessness and vomiting which are also believed to be key signs and symptoms for the disease. It seems there are no home remedies for the treatment of false teeth. ldquo;Oral/dental surgeryrdquo; was identified as the common form of treatment of ldquo;false teeth and rubbing of teeth. The safety of the instruments used during surgery and their sterility plus the procedures used during surgery was not known to the participants. The side effects on the health of the child were identified which ranged from severe bleeding, distortion of dentition, to non- eruption of teeth. Preventive measures like the use of local herbs were identified. In conclusion, False teeth are still a community Oral Health problem among children which needs emergency action especially in this era of AIDS/HIV. Key Words: False teeth, Peadiatric Oral surgery, Dangers and risks Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/53F1A5C3474 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000165 en Copyright © 2006 SEBUDDE STEPHEN
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:449D7123467 2006-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
An investigation of the effectiveness of the school-based workshops approach to staff development in secondary schools in Botswana P P Monyatsi Full Length Research Paper The development of staff in any organization in order to attain quality results is a sine qua non. The human resource of any organization, including schools and colleges is central to its effectiveness. What matters is the model that is used to enable the development of staff, in this case the development of teachers in secondary schools. This article argues that the school-based workshops as a component of staff development in the schools is the most effective due to several reasons, among them, the contextuality of the approach, its needs-driven nature, and the collaboration and teamwork that are its hallmark. Apart from the above, the study highlights some advantages that accrue such as being cost-effective and time saving and not being disruptive to the teaching and learning processes. The study combines both the qualitative and quantitative approaches to research. Key words: staff development; school-based staff development; Botswana; school-focused Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/449D7123467 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000046 en Copyright © 2006 P P Monyatsi
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:59164BE3615 2006-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Dynamics of internet usage: A case of students of the Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO) Nigeria Chinwe V. Anunobi Full Length Research Paper The survey was conducted in the Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO), Nigeria with a view to identifying the rate and purpose of Internet use by students in other to be well positioned to provide effective Internet services to them. Questionnaire was randomly distributed to 1200 students in their hostels out of which 67.66% was returned. The results were collated and analyzed using tables, frequency and percentages. The work revealed that majority of the students in the University use the Internet for academic purposes in spite of the location of the facility. Students in the management and agricultural sciences use the Internet more than those of engineering and sciences. The distance of the Internet center to the studentsrsquo; residence determines the time spent and the frequency of the visit to the center. Recommendations are made based on the findings. Key Word: Internet use, students Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/59164BE3615 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000108 en Copyright © 2006 Chinwe V. Anunobi
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:57D39343602 2006-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Crossing traditional boundaries: How do practitioners and university faculty describe their experience with educational research literature? Abebayehu A. Tekleselassie Full Length Research Paper For many years, university based educational research has been blamed for being dominated by positivistic research tradition at the near exclusion of field based ethnographic work. Several findings have also portrayed this domination among the major explanations for practitionersrsquo; lack of interest in educational research literature. With the recent popularity of qualitative work in the educational research parlance, the question however remains whether a paradigm shift from positivistic research tradition to ethnographic and field based approach brings the interest among practitioners to turn to research literature. On the basis of data from both practitioners and researchers, this study argues that while most ethnographic studies ldquo;approximaterdquo; the ldquo;narrativerdquo; experiences of public school teachers much better than quantitative works, the available ethnographic studies either suffer from the same norm that distances the university based positivistic researchers from practitioners or fall in the traps of institutional and organizational factors that have remained so resilient in bridging the gap between the world of research and practice in education. Key words: Educational Research; Perceptions about Research; Research Utilization; Practitioner Knowledge; Narrative Experience Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/57D39343602 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000090 en Copyright © 2006 Abebayehu A. Tekleselassie
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:D66B5103510 2006-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Students’ Attitudes toward Campus Environment: A Comparative study of Public and Private Universities in Kenya Micah C. Chepchieng, Joel K. Kiboss, Aggrey Sindabi, Mary. W. Kariuki and Stephen, N. Mbugua Full Length Research Paper One of the serious problems facing education in Kenyarsquo;s public universities has been a persistent student disturbance. Private universities on the other hand, seem to have established a reputation of having minimal incidence of student disturbances. As such private universities are known to have had a good record of student conduct. This may be attributed to the attitudes that students hold towards their Campus environment. Attitudes are acquired and influenced by the social, academic, psychological and physical aspects of an environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Campus environments on studentsrsquo; attitude toward them. The study employed the Causal-comparative study design. Quantitative data was collected through a Studentsrsquo; Attitude Questionnaire that was administered to 352 randomly selected second and third year full-time students enrolled in three public and three private universities in Kenya. T-tests were used to test the significance and determine whether to reject or accept the study hypotheses. Results indicated significant differences in attitudes toward Campus environment between students enrolled in Public and those enrolled in Private universities. This helped to shed light on the understanding of the student behaviours witnessed in Kenyarsquo;s universities. However, the effects of gender did not seem to exert any influence on studentsrsquo; attitudes toward campus environment. The study recommended that Managers of public universities need to critically investigate on the social, academic, psychological and physical aspects of their institutions that seem to negatively affect their students attitudes toward campus environment. Key Words: Students#39; attitudes, Campus environment, Private university, Public university, student disturbances. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/D66B5103510 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000311 en Copyright © 2006 Micah C. Chepchieng, Joel K. Kiboss, Aggrey Sindabi, Mary. W. Kariuki and Stephen, N. Mbugua
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:A0E21393498 2006-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Gender differences in achievement in calculating reacting masses from chemical equations among secondary school students in Makurdi Metropols JOEL O. Eriba, SESUGH ANDE Full Length Research Paper Over the years there exists gender inequality in science achievement among senior secondary school students the world over. It is observed that the males score higher than the females in science and science- related examinations. This has created a big psychological alienation or depression in the minds of female students towards science and science- related subjects. This paper attempted to find out if sex differences exist in calculating reacting masses from a set of chemical equations among secondary school students in Makurdi metropolis. A Calculation Achievement Test (CAT) was administered to thirty students randomly selected from Government secondary school, North-Bank, Makurdi. The t-test statistic for independent samples was used to analyse the data obtained. The study established that boys performed better than girls on the achievement test. Recommendations to address the gender disparity in studentsrsquo; performance in chemistry were made. These include: teaming up of chemistry and mathematics teachers to ensure integrative learning, transfer and application of knowledge among the females by giving them more attention/time during classes. Key Words: Gender, Achievement, Reacting Masses and Chemical equation Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/A0E21393498 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000172 en Copyright © 2006 JOEL O. Eriba, SESUGH ANDE
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:E2A21EF3489 2006-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Learning Traditions and Teachers Role: The Indian Perspective Seema Dogra and Anjali Gulati Review In this paper, the authors discuss about the Indian learning traditions and the role played by teachers in imparting education. They discuss the efforts played by government in enhancing education, Non-Governmental Organizations(NGOs) contribution in spreading literacy, various learning traditions from past to present such as Gurukula, Kautilya, participative learning. Further, they highlighted the educational technologies used like EDUNET, E-campus and EDUSAT in various schools giving the example of Delhi Public School (DPS) and open learning trends of India. Furthermore, they discussed the role of a teacher in Indian tradition and in modern education with the examples of Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University and Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur. The paper concludes with the remarks of the authors in which they suggest to reframe the educational policy, emphasize on enhancing professional education in government institutions and universities and development of industry-academia partnership. Key Words: learning tradition, edunet, edusat, India Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/E2A21EF3489 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000223 en Copyright © 2006 Seema Dogra and Anjali Gulati
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:81064EC3591 2006-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
An Assessment of the Policies And Programmes of Zimbabwe in addressing the HIV/Aids Epidemic in the Education Sector Symphorosa Rembe Full Length Research Paper his study assessed the policies, strategic plans and structures that have been put in place in Zimbabwe to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the education sector. It also examined the comprehensiveness of projects and programmes currently being implemented by the government in collaboration with partner organisations and NGOs. The findings show that the epidemic has had a very adverse impact on the education sector. They also reveal that policies and strategies put in place in this sector have sound and clear aims and objectives particularly in preventing and mitigating the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Zimbabwe has reduced the prevalence of HIV/AIDS from over 30 per cent to less than 25 per cent. However, there are a number of challenges in the implementation of HIV/AIDS projects and programmes which include, among others: lack of capacity in terms of skills, human and financial resources, lack of proper monitoring and follow up partly due to inadequate staff and transport. Moreover, the prevailing political climate in Zimbabwe has led to some donors withholding funding which is essential for the implementation of current and future programmes to combat the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the education sector. Key Words: policies and strategic plans, programmes and projects, assessment, prevalence, prevention, mitigating impact, implementation, funding, Education Sector, Zimbabwe Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/81064EC3591 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000034 en Copyright © 2006 Symphorosa Rembe
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:EA9DAF13586 2006-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Personality and self-assessed intelligence: Can gender and personality distort self-assessed intelligence? Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic and Adrian Furnham Full Length Research Paper This paper examines the extent to which self-assessed intelligence (SAI) may be a function of personality traits, gender, and ldquo;actualrdquo; intellectual ability (as measured through psychometric g) in a sample of 188 (119 female) UK university students. Participants completed three cognitive ability tests and the ldquo;Big Fiverdquo; personality inventory after estimating their own multiple intelligences. Psychometric g (extracted from the three ability test scores) was a significant predictor of SAI (extracted from self-assessed multiple intelligences), accounting for 10% of the variance. When personality was added to the regression model, the percentage of variance explained increased to 22%, whilst gender accounted for an additional 7% (total = 29%). Emotional Stability (rather than Neuroticism) and Extraversion (rather than Introversion) were associated with higher SAI. Theoretical implications with regard to the taxonomic position of SAI, and practical implications with regard to educational and occupational assessment and performance are discussed. Keywords: self-assessed intelligence, personality traits, psychometric intelligence, gender Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/EA9DAF13586 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000252 en Copyright © 2006 Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic and Adrian Furnham
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:FF05CCA3572 2006-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Relation between science teachers’ assessment tools and students’ cognitive development Tuncay Ouml;ZSEVGECcedil; and Salih Ccedil;EPN Full Length Research Paper In order to determine studentsrsquo; achievement, science teachers have to develop their own assessment tools. This study attempts to find out the relationship between the teachersrsquo; assessment tools and studentsrsquo; cognitive development according to the teachersrsquo; teaching experiences. Six open-ended survey questions were developed and delivered to 59 middle school science teachers. It was clear that the majority of science teachers used only written and oral assessment tools. Regardless of teaching experiences, almost all the samples do not have detailed knowledge on studentsrsquo; cognitive development and its relation to asking questions. Keywords: Cognitive development, science teacher, assessment tools, exam questions, middle school, formal operational level Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/FF05CCA3572 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000274 en Copyright © 2006 Tuncay Ouml;ZSEVGECcedil; and Salih Ccedil;EPN
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:D01B5E13564 2006-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Reviewing the link between Creativity and Madness: A Postmodern Perspective Caroline Koh Full Length Research Paper Researchers on creativity and psychology have long been fascinated with the high incidence of psychotic behavior amongst geniuses and individuals of exceptional creativity. The aims of this paper are first, to review the existing findings for a better insight into the socio-contextual factors underpinning the mad genius conundrum, and secondly, to discuss how the development of postmodern thoughts and beliefs have influenced our perception and understanding of the emotional fabric of highly creative, though mentally-ill individuals. While one cannot ignore the substantial body of evidence in support of the relationship between genius and madness, it is likely that many of the factors inducing psychosis in geniuses are no different from those achieving the same effects in ordinary people. Furthermore, the unique features of post-modern times may have contributed to erasing the fine line between creativity and insanity, in ways that would not have been possible a century earlier. Keywords: Creativity, genius, madness, mental illness, psychotic behavior, postmodernism Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/D01B5E13564 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000283 en Copyright © 2006 Caroline Koh
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:67F323D3556 2006-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Against didacticism: A psychologist’s view Michael J. Hogan Review Quality thinking and quality teaching are desirable but difficult to achieve. Although lectures are necessary to teach information, one cannot rely on them to promote critical and constructive thinking skills. Nevertheless, didacticism remains the dominant teaching strategy in secondary education and in university, perhaps because it is viewed as the most efficient way of imparting large quantities of information. In this comment, research and theory in psychology are used to argue the case that the development of critical and constructive thinking skills necessarily involves the cultivation of dialectic, flexible attitudes toward thinking and teaching in context. Keywords: Critical Thinking; Constructive Thinking; Quality Thinking; Dialogue; Imitation; Learning Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/67F323D3556 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000030 en Copyright © 2006 Michael J. Hogan
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:E201FC53542 2006-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
A review of parliamentary privilege with an approach to Iranian legal system Mohammad Jarsquo;far Habibzadeh and Seyed Doraid mousavi Modjab Review The necessity of immunity of parliament and its Members has led to determine and assure particular privilege in the Constitutions or ordinary laws in the great majority of countries. This legal institution is to provide freedom of speech and to maintain the independence of representatives in the exercise of their duties without undue interference or fear. To define and justify the necessity of it, different theories like quot;the prestige of representatives#39; legal personalityquot; and quot;doctrine of necessityquot; have been introduced. The legal support, which observes the parliamentary privilege, can be generally studied in two categories with distinct descriptions and effects; first, demonstrates the benefits and utilization of privilege by the representatives before their statements, opinions and the votes cast in the exercise of their functions, which is idiomatically quot;the principle of non liabilityquot;. Second, it supports the Members of Parliament (MPs) before legal prosecution, arrest, imprisonment and the rest judicial measures, unless by the permission and allowance of the respective Parliament, because of irrelevant exercises and extralegal parliamentary acts and prevents the possibility of immediate prosecution of MPs because of the attributed crimes. This kind of immunity, which practically is the logical trailer of the non - liability principle of representatives before their parliamentary duties, is named quot;the principle of inviolabilityquot;. The stand of every country in relation to the various forms of parliamentary privilege is a little bit different. In certain countries, one of these two forms is accepted and in other countries both of them are accepted to guarantee the whole immunity of MPs. The first approach is called solo and the second one is called integrative, respectively. In Iran, the first approach depended on the nonliability of representatives because of their statements, has been accepted in Article 86 of Constitution. The accuracy of this acceptance from the dynamic Fiqh#39;s (Jurisprudence) point of view is approvable and the expediencies and accidental necessities require going along with the rest of countries, which accepted the principle of parliamentary privilege. Keywords: Parliamentary Privilege, Constitutions and Ordinary Laws, Representatives#39; Prestige of Legal Personality, Doctrine of Necessity, Principle of Non liability and Principle of Inviolability Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/E201FC53542 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000010 en Copyright © 2006 Mohammad Jarsquo;far Habibzadeh and Seyed Doraid mousavi Modjab
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:14739BD3531 2006-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Creating electronic access to newspaper information in Nigeria: The information aid network (IFAnet) experience Christopher O. Ola and Reuben.A. Ojo Commentary This paper highlights the value of newspaper information and the methods adopted in organizing, preserving and disseminating it. The paper dwells on the traditional ways of managing newspaper resources and the need to device a new medium of accessing the information contents of the resource. It enumerates the steps taken in conserving newspaper information and building access descriptors for retrieval from the massive information contained in numerous newspapers churned out daily, weekly or periodically. An NGO, (IFAnet), concerned with managing information and using newspapers as one of its major resources has been used as the case study. Key Words: Electronic access, indexing, Information Aid Network, information communications technology, newspaper information, Nigeria Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/14739BD3531 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000087 en Copyright © 2006 Christopher O. Ola and Reuben.A. Ojo
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:C4A568D3676 2006-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Academic Achievements of Children in Immigrant Families Wen-Jui Han Full Length Research Paper Utilizing data on approximately 16,000 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort and a rich set of mediating factors on 16 immigrant groups, this paper examined the associations between childrenrsquo;s immigrant generation status and their academic performance. The changes in academic achievements during kindergarten and first-grade were also examined to explore the varying learning paces exhibited by children from different countries of origin. Results indicate that, compared to third and later generation non-Hispanic white children, children of Latin American regions tended to have lower reading and math scores, while children of Asian regions tended to have higher reading and math scores. In addition, although children of immigrants may have either higher (e.g., children from East Asia) or lower scores (e.g., children from Mexico) by first-grade compared to third and later generation non-Hispanic white children, the former generally learned skills at faster paces, thus widening (e.g., for children from East Asia) or narrowing (e.g., for children from Mexico) academic achievement gaps. Child and family characteristics accounted for a large share of the differences in childrenrsquo;s academic achievements. Home, school, and neighborhood environments may also matter but to a lesser extent. Research implications are discussed. Keywords: academic achievements; immigrants; immigrant generation status; neighborhood characteristics; school environments. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/C4A568D3676 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000019 en Copyright © 2006 Wen-Jui Han
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:102B4143664 2006-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Teaching in Higher Education: A personal account seen through a perspective of “otherness” at a Swedish University Girma Berhanu Full Length Research Paper This study is based on personal experiences. It adopts an auto ethnographic approach and action research perspective in an attempt to describe and reflect on my experience as a teacher in a University where I have worked for just over a year; the study also examines factors that have helped me in my role as a teacher to effect change in my praxis. The paper also addresses the challenges facing higher education teachers in general (with particular reference to a teacher with a foreign background) in a western university setting. Although the study does not arrive at any specific conclusions, which was not the intention either, the reflective account and recognition of the problem revolving around the teaching process and the day to day interaction with students as well as the staff, is of paramount importance in its own right. I begin with my personal life in connection with teaching and learning. I have focused on my own feelings, thoughts and emotions, and have used what I call systematic sociological introspection and emotional recall to try to understand an experience I have lived through and I am currently experiencing at a Swedish university. It is a reflective approach to the issue of improving teaching: What does it take to improve teaching while enduring the feeling of ldquo;othernessrdquo;? How does one evaluate and arrange for the improvement of teaching in order to bring about student learning? For me this personal narrative is about moral work and ethical practice. As the problems of teachers are shared with other teachers elsewhere or in the same school, my reflexivity and personal narrative may benefit others in a similar situation. Our lives are particular but they also are typical and generalizable, since we all participate in a limited number of cultures and institutions. Some readers may well identify with this situation or know others who do. Key Words: Teaching in higher education, ldquo;Othernessrdquo;, reflexivity and personal narrative, auto-ethnography, personal account and action research Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/102B4143664 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000328 en Copyright © 2006 Girma Berhanu
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:10FEB2C3655 2006-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Improving Data Driven Decision Making through Assessment Literacy for Respondents Naomi Jeffery Petersen, Randall S. Davies and Bruce Spitzer Full Length Research Paper This study examined the use of a college course evaluation instrument in an effort to better understand and improve the assessment data derived from the instrument. The purpose of the analysis was to examine the dimensionality and reliability of the instrument but, more importantly, to understand what the data really tells us and whether assessment literacy would improve data usability. Analysis of the results suggests that the instrument tended to produce internally consistent data. However, the instrument measured predominately one aspect of course quality. In addition, based on results of the assessment literacy exercise, respondents seem to use very different criterion for rating; the constructs being measured generally did not match what was intended; and the questions being asked did not always match the scale being used. As a result the usefulness of any data interpretation and subsequent decisions was deemed suspect. The results of this study also suggest that simple assessment literacy interventions by themselves do not seem to drastically change the ability of raters to score items reliably. A much more comprehensive effort would be needed to produce results that would be beneficial for long term, data-driven decision making. Key Words: Assessment Literacy, Course Evaluation, Data-Driven Decisions Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/10FEB2C3655 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000196 en Copyright © 2006 Naomi Jeffery Petersen, Randall S. Davies and Bruce Spitzer
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:32CDD0F3648 2006-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Sustainability of Farm Credit delivery by Cooperatives and NGOs in Edo and Delta states, Nigeria G.O. ALUFOHAI Full Length Research Paper The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their involvement in farm credit delivery. A well structured questionnaire was used to obtain the primary data from the 100 organizations selected from a comprehensive list from the Ministry of Commerce and Industry as well as Corporate Affairs Commission. Both descriptive and quantitative statistics as well as financial analysis were employed in analyzing the data. The results showed low capital formation rate of 0.1815 and 0.123 for cooperatives and NGOs respectively. Cooperatives had zero SDI, having no subsidies throughout the period while NGOs had an SDI of 0.7642 which is considered too high for them to sustain the credit delivery function on the withdrawal of subsidies. Though with low loan volumes, the study showed cooperatives more likely to sustain the credit delivery function than the NGOs, but they may need to improve their capital formation rate. Key Words: Sustainability, Farm credit delivery, Cooperatives, NGOs, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/32CDD0F3648 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000317 en Copyright © 2006 G.O. ALUFOHAI
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:CA965813638 2006-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Job satisfaction and burnout among Greek early educators: A comparison between public and private sector employees Nikolaos Tsigilis, Evridiki Zachopoulou and Vasilios Grammatikopoulos Full Length Research Paper The purpose of the present study was to examine perceived levels of burnout and job satisfaction of Greek early educators, across public and private sector. One hundred and seventy eight childhood educators participated in the study. 108 were working in the public sector, 67 in private sector, whereas three did not respond. Participants were administered the Employees Satisfaction Inventory (ESI, Koustelios and Bagiatis, 1997) and the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslachrsquo;s Burnout Inventory (MBI, Maslach and Jackson, 1986). Results showed that early educators experienced moderate levels of emotional exhaustion. Public sector early educators were more satisfied from the job itself and their immediate supervisor than their counterparts in the private sector. Regression analysis showed that job satisfaction facets which contributed to early educatorsrsquo; burnout varied as a function of their workplace. In particular, satisfaction from the nature of the job and working conditions negatively contributed to the prediction of public sector early educatorsrsquo; emotional exhaustion levels. On the other hand, increased levels of satisfaction from the nature of the job and immediate supervisor were associated with reduced private sector early educatorsrsquo; emotional exhaustion levels. Key words: job satisfaction, burnout, emotional exhaustion, early educators, Greece Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/CA965813638 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000214 en Copyright © 2006 Nikolaos Tsigilis, Evridiki Zachopoulou and Vasilios Grammatikopoulos
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:59D385D3705 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Ensuring quality during monitoring of the learning environment of government primary schools achieved through the UEI-PDP for teachers and head teachers Fehmida Goderya-Shaikh, Margaret Madden and Ismail Saad Review A positive change in the learning environment in schools is visible through ongoing professional development of teachers and administrators. Monitoring the professional development program and providing support to teachers and administrators to transfer their learnings into the school environment ensures some measures of quality. Quality issues led to the launching of the Professional Development Program (PDP) for Primary School Teachers (PSTs) of Sindh by the United Educational Initiative (UEI), a consortium of five Governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations, working under the supervision of Education Sector Reform Assistance (ESRA). Implementation of the UEI-PDP in four districts of Sindh, is ensured by a team of professionals in each district. Recognising that capacity building of district education employees would improve the educational system in the country, 130 Master Trainers were selected, on merit, from the District Education Office for the training of 17,000 teachers and 3000 Head teachers/administrators over a period of two years. This paper developed the design of a Monitoring Process for a Professional Development Program for Primary School Teachers and Administrators. Data was collected through Pre/Post-observations, Interviews, Questionnaires and Reports. Such tools make it possible for the monitoring teams to observe, to inquire further, and, along with the Managers, Master Trainers and School Support Team, seek to explain the progress of the program and take corrective action where indicated. Both formative evaluations as well as summative evaluation techniques are utilized for evaluating the program. The monitoring process that assisted in formative evaluations is described. In order to assist in summative evaluation, data collected through the monitoring process was further developed to categorize the schools where teachers and head teachers are trained. It is hoped that the categorization of the schools may lead to further improvements in those schools which fall in the group for need improvement. It may also initiate further research as to reasons behind why some schools are in the good category and why others fall in the average category. Key Words: Quality, monitoring, positive change, professional development. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/59D385D3705 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000139 en Copyright © 2006 Fehmida Goderya-Shaikh, Margaret Madden and Ismail Saad
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:A127D9E3698 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Focusing crimes of honour through drama Girma Berhanu and Dennis Beach Review This paper has been developed on the basis of research conducted in two projects. A special emphasis is however given to one of the projects concerning an evaluation of a drama pedagogical project. The evaluation is specifically aimed at the efficiency, intensity and depth of the educational drama input in mediating cultural messages from the play, The hat is Yours played by a professional Theatre group. The play was shown to all students of a junior high school during the autumn term of 2002. Data were gathered from 16 students (7 girls and 9 boys), 6 teachers, 5 performers, the director of the play and the playwright. Classroom observations were conducted during post play/performance sessions held at the specified school in classroom settings with all in all 60 students. The findings suggest that both the play and the project were viewed positively. All the students interviewed loved the performance and appreciated the efforts to instil drama as a discipline and broaden understandings of lsquo;cultural messagesrsquo; through imaginative learning and perspective taking and from the studentsrsquo; responses and active engagement in the sessions it may be safely inferred that some form of emotional and intellectual processes are being triggered, sparked by the unique nature of the play itself. However, the pedagogical reconstructions of the play in classroom sessions also offer moments for reflection and the studentsrsquo; voices are unanimously supportive of the educational drama efforts in the classroom. There were mixed opinions among the professional actors/actresses about moralising dramatic scenes and solving problems in a manner believed to be lsquo;rightrsquo; by one group of people or lsquo;civilisation. This is a thorny issue that should be debated further as should the number of issues that the play purposely left unsolved. We are also of the opinion that the effort should be further nurtured and extended to actively engage the whole school community on a regular basis. Our observation of several schools in Gouml;teborg where the majority of the students are minority pupils and socially disadvantaged children testifies to the fact that these groups of students may genuinely benefit from drama not only as a form of aesthetic expression but also as a medium to interest them in other subjects. Key words: Honour crimes (murder), drama pedagogy, alienation, segregation, intercultural mediation Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/A127D9E3698 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000167 en Copyright © 2006 Girma Berhanu and Dennis Beach
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:F2AF19B3708 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Using action research to develop deep learning outcomes within a preservice teacher education context Christopher Gordon, Ray Debus, Jane Dillon, xMichael Arthur-Kelly Full Length Research Paper This paper describe one aspect of a recent study that investigated the impact and dimensions of several teaching and learning approaches utilised in tertiary institutions. The study aimed to reduce reliance on surface learning techniques and improve deep learning processes amongst a cohort of undergraduate students studying in a Bachelor of Education (Early Childhood) at a regional university in NSW, Australia. The quantitative results of the study have been reported elsewhere and this paper details the whole of course interventions and results of the action research component. Keywords: Action research, deep learning, preservice teacher education Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/F2AF19B3708 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000400 en Copyright © 2006 Christopher Gordon, Ray Debus, Jane Dillon, xMichael Arthur-Kelly
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:1959C6B3718 2006-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2006
Attitude of students and parents towards the teaching of sex education in secondary schools in Cross Rivers State DR. OGUNJIMI, L.O. Short Communication This paper has been developed on the basis of research conducted in two projects. A special emphasis is however given to one of the projects concerning an evaluation of a drama pedagogical project. The evaluation is specifically aimed at the efficiency, intensity and depth of the educational drama input in mediating cultural messages from the play, The hat is Yours played by a professional Theatre group. The play was shown to all students of a junior high school during the autumn term of 2002. Data were gathered from 16 students (7 girls and 9 boys), 6 teachers, 5 performers, the director of the play and the playwright. Classroom observations were conducted during post play/performance sessions held at the specified school in classroom settings with all in all 60 students. The findings suggest that both the play and the project were viewed positively. All the students interviewed loved the performance and appreciated the efforts to instil drama as a discipline and broaden understandings of lsquo;cultural messagesrsquo; through imaginative learning and perspective taking and from the studentsrsquo; responses and active engagement in the sessions it may be safely inferred that some form of emotional and intellectual processes are being triggered, sparked by the unique nature of the play itself. However, the pedagogical reconstructions of the play in classroom sessions also offer moments for reflection and the studentsrsquo; voices are unanimously supportive of the educational drama efforts in the classroom. There were mixed opinions among the professional actors/actresses about moralising dramatic scenes and solving problems in a manner believed to be lsquo;rightrsquo; by one group of people or lsquo;civilisation. This is a thorny issue that should be debated further as should the number of issues that the play purposely left unsolved. We are also of the opinion that the effort should be further nurtured and extended to actively engage the whole school community on a regular basis. Our observation of several schools in Gouml;teborg where the majority of the students are minority pupils and socially disadvantaged children testifies to the fact that these groups of students may genuinely benefit from drama not only as a form of aesthetic expression but also as a medium to interest them in other subjects. Key words: Honour crimes (murder), drama pedagogy, alienation, segregation, intercultural mediation. Academic Journals 2006 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/1959C6B3718 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000058 en Copyright © 2006 DR. OGUNJIMI, L.O.
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:0A4AD6E3182 2007-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Social work education and police in Papua New Guinea Betty Lovai Review The contribution of social work education to the professional capacity development of police officers commenced in 1974 when the Diploma in Police Studies was introduced at the University of Papua New Guinea under the Social Work Programme. In 2001, a study was conducted to assess the impact of social work education on police officers. The study focused only on those police officers that were still employed by the Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary. The information was collected through interview surveys using a structured questionnaire. This paper presents and discusses the respondentsrsquo; perception of how social work education is valued by the Department of Police. Key words: Commissioner, commissioned and non commissioned officers, demotion, graduates, Police Act 1998, Police officers, Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/0A4AD6E3182 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000295 en Copyright © 2007 Betty Lovai
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:E8A9D4D3179 2007-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
An examination of the relationship of gender, marital status, and prior educational attainment and learner autonomy M. G. Derrick, A. P. Rovai, M. Ponton, G. J. Confessore and P. B. Carr Review The development of a conceptual model that provides a theoretical framework for understanding the conative factors of desire, resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in autonomous learning considered the related variables of gender, education level, age, and marital status. The relevance of these demographic variables is based on prior research in the area of self-directed learning that suggested additional consideration in the development of autonomous learning. The Learner Autonomy Profile (LAP), currently used to assess an individualrsquo;s level of personal autonomy, continues to accrue data on the identified demographic variables. This purpose of this paper is to present the finding of an analysis of the demographic data with the factors of autonomous learning (LAP scores) and discuss the implications for future research in adult learning theory. Key words: Autonomous learning, adult learning, self-directed learning. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/E8A9D4D3179 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000039 en Copyright © 2007 M. G. Derrick, A. P. Rovai, M. Ponton, G. J. Confessore and P. B. Carr
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:C8DFC773186 2007-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Difficulty and discriminating indices of three-multiple choice tests using the confidence scoring procedure M. S. Omirin Full Length Research Paper The study investigated the comparison of the difficulty and discrimination incides of three multiple choice tests using the confidence scoring procedure (CSP). The study was also set to determine whether or not the difficulty and discrimination indices would be improved, if the tests were scored by the confidence scoring procedure. Two null hypotheses were generated and tested at 0.05 significance level. The population consisted of all SS2 Secondary School Students in Gbonyin local government of Ekiti State in Nigeria. A sample 450 students was selected using the purposive and proportional sampling techniques. Questionnaires containing 50-items achievement test in mathematics (in three formats) were constructed and administered on the students. The three multiple-choice tests were mixed and the testees did not know that they were answering different forms of the same test. The test scripts were scored using the confidence scoring method. Data were analyzed using the student t-tests and ANOVA. The result revealed that the contribution of blind guessing to testees was not directly related to the discrimination and difficulty indices of the three multiple-choice tests used. The confidence scoring procedure improved significantly the difficulty index of multiple-choice tests but did not significantly improve the discrimination index of three-index test used. The result showed that confidence scoring procedure reward partial knowledge of testees on the multiple-choice tests. It was recommended that confidence-scoring procedure should be encouraged for scoring multiple-choice tests, it discourages guessing. Key words: Are difficulty; discriminatin; mulitple; confidence; scoring; testees and alternative. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/C8DFC773186 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000104 en Copyright © 2007 M. S. Omirin
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:C73A8063247 2007-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Gender issue in the Performance of Students Admitted through UME and Pre-degree into the Nigerian Universities M.S. Omirin Short Communication This study examined the gander issue in the performance of students admitted through UME and pre-degree into the Nigerian Universities. Ex-post facto design of descriptive research was adopted for the study. A proforma was used to collect data from a sample of two hundred and fifty students from the faculties of Science in the Nigerian Universities. Purposive, stratified and proportional sampling techniques were employed in the selection of the sample. Data collected were analyzed using student t-test. Four null hypotheses were generated and tested at 0.05 level of significant. Results of the study revealed that there is no significant difference between the academic performance of male and female students in the Nigerian Universities. Based on the findings, it was recommended that both male and female students should be given equal chances of admission in the UME and Pre-Degree programmes. Key words: Gender, pre-degree, performance, competitive, imbalance. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/C73A8063247 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000174 en Copyright © 2007 M.S. Omirin
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:402C04C3204 2007-02-27T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Effectiveness of Early Childhood Education Programme in Preparing Pre-school Children in their Social-Emotional Competencies at the Entry to Primary One Mary W. Kariuki, Micah C. Chepchieng, Stephen N. Mbugua and Owen N. Ngumi Full Length Research Paper The foundation of an individualrsquo;s optimum or less than optimum development is laid down during the early years of life, particularly during the age between birth and six years. This age covers pre-school education. This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of Early Childhood Education programme in preparing Pre-school children in their social-emotional competencies at primary one entry. Simple random sampling was used to pick on three provinces: Rift Valley, Central and Eastern and then three districts, Nakuru, Nyeri and Embu. Proportionate sampling was used to select sample schools which were then picked using random numbers. The total number of subjects for the study was 378 (240 pre-school teachers, 120 Pre-school Managers 18 Pre-school Trainers). Questionnaires, focus group discussion and document analysis were used for data collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive analysis showed that majority of teachers felt that the Pre-school children were not as prepared in social ndash;emotional skills as they were in academic skills. Analysis of variance results indicate significant variations in the perceptions of the pre-school staff on social-emotional importance (F=5.078 plt;0.05),Social-emotional preparedness (F=6.175 plt;0.05) and academic preparedness (F=7.250 plt;0.05). The pre-school staff unanimously agreed that academic skills were important for pre-school children at primary one entry. It was recommended that readiness instruments for primary one entry should include both academic and socialndash;emotional competencies. Key words: Social-emotional skills, Academic, Skills, Competencies, Preparedness, Pre-school, Education and Early Childhood. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/402C04C3204 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000126 en Copyright © 2007 Mary W. Kariuki, Micah C. Chepchieng, Stephen N. Mbugua and Owen N. Ngumi
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:1D796793195 2007-02-27T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Prior Presentation of Behavioural Objectives and Students’ Achievement in Biology Umoren G and Aniashi Sylvester Ogong Full Length Research Paper This study investigated the effect of providing students with the objectives of a lesson before the lesson delivery on their achievement at the end of the lesson. Two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The quasi-experimental pretest-posttest-control group design was used, with a total of 4 groups. All four groups were taught the same lessons using the same materials and methods. Three of the groups were shown objectives at various time intervals before the lesson, while 4th group was taught without prior knowledge of behaviour objectives. The test instruments (Biology Achievement Test) consisted of 50 multiple choice objective- reference questions, that was administered before the commencement of the teaching as pretest and after completion of the teaching as post-test. The data collected was analyzed by Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and the Schefersquo;s Pairwise comparison. The results indicated a significant effect at 0.05 alpha levels. The implications are discussed and recommendations made. Key Words: Kindly provide: Prior Presentation, Behavioural Objectives, And, Studentsrsquo; Achievement in Biology Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/1D796793195 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000267 en Copyright © 2007 Umoren G and Aniashi Sylvester Ogong
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:CF54E593191 2007-02-27T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Developing Functional Literate Citizens In South Western Nigeria Clement Olusegun Olaniran Kolawole and Tunji A. Adepoju Review This paper examines strategies of developing functional literate citizens in Western Nigeria because it is believed that the problems of unemployment in the area are caused by the non-functional literacy programmes that have been on for long. The aim of the study is to promote the teaching of functional literacy to adults and those who are out of the formal school system so that they can effectively tackle their unemployment situation and then solve their socio-economic problems. Key words: Functional literacy, basic literacy, unemployment, literacy development, western region and gainful employment. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/CF54E593191 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000100 en Copyright © 2007 Clement Olusegun Olaniran Kolawole and Tunji A. Adepoju
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:D7D08153269 2007-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
How Teachers Develop Their Professional Knowledge in English Study Group in Taiwan Yi-Ching Huang Full Length Research Paper The purpose of this qualitative research was to understand the perceptions of Taiwanese teachers of the effects of a study group on their professional growth in the workplace. This case study employed the following data collection techniques: (1) informal observations and interviews, (2) focus group interview, (3) semi-structured individual interviews and (4) documents and records. The site selected for this study was the National Chia-Yi Girlsrsquo; Senior High School in Chia-Yi City in Taiwan. The participants in this study included eight members of the English Teachers Club. Although the focus of this club was offering opportunities for members to practice and improve their English, it functioned as a teacher study group. Specifically, the reported benefits of this professional development activity included: learning English as a foreign language, gaining ideas for improving classroom English instruction, sharing teaching experiences, stimulating positive dispositions to learning, and fostering intellectual development. These benefits, I argue, helped participants to develop content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, fostering ofcontinuing learning, and cognitive/intellectual and theoretical development. The experiences of the teacher study group at Chia-Yi Girlsrsquo; Senior High School revealed some of the successes and problems that the teachers experienced as their involvement in a study group evolved. Key words: Professional development, study group, content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/D7D08153269 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000189 en Copyright © 2007 Yi-Ching Huang
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:C6090663285 2007-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Gender issue in the Performance of Students Admitted through UME and Pre-degree into the Nigerian Universities M.S. Omirin Short Communication This study examined the gander issue in the performance of students admitted through UME and pre-degree into the Nigerian Universities. Ex-post facto design of descriptive research was adopted for the study. A proforma was used to collect data from a sample of two hundred and fifty students from the faculties of Science in the Nigerian Universities. Purposive, stratified and proportional sampling techniques were employed in the selection of the sample. Data collected were analyzed using student t-test. Four null hypotheses were generated and tested at 0.05 level of significant. Results of the study revealed that there is no significant difference between the academic performance of male and female students in the Nigerian Universities. Based on the findings, it was recommended that both male and female students should be given equal chances of admission in the UME and Pre-Degree programmes. Key words: Gender, pre-degree, performance, competitive, imbalance. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/C6090663285 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000175 en Copyright © 2007 M.S. Omirin
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:6F031933304 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Children And Poverty In South Africa: The Right To Social Security Pierre Du Plessis and Lloyd Conley Full Length Research Paper Poverty is one of the major threats to the realization of childrenrsquo;s rights worldwide and in South Africa. Currently, 66% of South African children live in severe poverty. This places all other rights at risk; the rights guaranteed by the South African Constitution and by the UN Convention. Poverty and inequality in South Africa continue to worsen. These are particularly vulnerable groups of children, such as those infected and affected by HIV/ Aids, those living on the streets, children of farm workers and illegal immigrants. These children face discrimination, isolation and extreme hardship. The article wants to investigate the situation in South Africa and what the outcome is on the right to social security of the child. Keywords: Poverty, rights, social security, HIV/AIDS, street children, Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/6F031933304 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000070 en Copyright © 2007 Pierre Du Plessis and Lloyd Conley
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:C3DE0B73315 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Learning Social Studies Through Mastery Approach Adeyemi B.A Full Length Research Paper This study examined learning Social Studies by investigating the effectiveness of mastery approach on studentsrsquo; performance in Social Studies of two groups of students drawn from Osun State College of Education, Ila-Orangun and University of Uyo, Ila-Orangun Study Centre which consisted of 200 level Social Studies students and 200 level degree Social Studies students. A unit of course peculiar to both NCE and Degree Students in Social Studies was taught. SOS 221 titled; Issues and Problems of National Development for NCE Students and SSE 225 titled; Issues and Problems of Modern Society was broken down and presented sequentially to learners at different levels; the difficulty of the learning task varied according to the level of learners involved. In all 60 students, 30 from each level were involved. The research design was the posttest only control group design, which allows research to be conducted without any pretest. Results showed a clear-cut conclusion on the effectiveness of mastery learning approach on studentsrsquo; performance as students in the two categories performed better in Social Studies compared with conven-tional approach to learning. This result was found to be significant at the 0.05 level. Some deductions were made on the results and the need for further research work is advocated. Key words: Learning, mastery approach, conventional approach, social studies. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/C3DE0B73315 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000222 en Copyright © 2007 Adeyemi B.A
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:4C0DB433325 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Examination of Teaching – Learning Process in Swimming Applying Chaffers’ System of Interaction Categories Melinda Biacute;roacute;sup;, Edit N. Biroacute;neacute;sup;, Balaacute;zs Fuuml;gedisup;, Laacute;szloacute; Reacute;veacute;sz and Beacute;la Szaboacute;sup; Laacute;szloacute; Honfi Full Length Research Paper The focus of this research is to examine the role of student-teacher interaction during swimming lessons. Forty-nine (49) elementary school PE teachers, swimming trainers and instructors (28 females, 21 males) consented to participate in this study. A total of seventy-seven (77) swimming lessons were videotaped and coded with the Cheffersrsquo; Adaptation of Flanders Interaction Analysis System (CAFIAS). Altogether 177.434 tri-seconds were observed. In the lessons teacherrsquo;s observation were most prevalent (31, 11%), teacherrsquo;s explanation (19, 29%) and organization (13, 52%) seemed also notable. Students spend most of the swimming lessons with motor-related activities (77%). It is important to state that teachers who teach swimming develop a high level of non-verbal activity. From the analyses of the data, it can conclude that in this special area of teaching, the teacher ndash; student interactions and communications that evolve are content specific and so different from those evolving in classrooms or PE lessons. Key words: Interaction types, teacher effectiveness, field analysis; physical education; swimming instruction. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/4C0DB433325 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000155 en Copyright © 2007 Melinda Biacute;roacute;sup;, Edit N. Biroacute;neacute;sup;, Balaacute;zs Fuuml;gedisup;, Laacute;szloacute; Reacute;veacute;sz and Beacute;la Szaboacute;sup; Laacute;szloacute; Honfi
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:ED6ACB53340 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Primary Teacher’s Perceptions of Classroom Assessment Practices as Means of Providing Quality Primary/basic Education by Botswana and Nigeria H. J. Nenty, O. O. Adedoyin, John N. Odili and T. E. Major Full Length Research Paper More than any other of its aspects, assessment plays a central role in determining the quality of education. Quality of primary/basic education (QoE) can be viewed as the extent to which the process of education at the primary education level maximizes desirable outcomes in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor behaviour of the learners. Given human resources demand for development in the society some cognitive skills are more desirable than others. Hence education, to meet the skill demand of the society must ensure the development of such desirable skills among learners. Since teachers are the key executors in the processes of ensuring the development of these skills, their perception as to the level to which each of such skills differ in enhancing quality of primary/basic education, and the level to which current assessment practices ensure the development of each of these skills are important in any attempt to contribute solution to the problem of quality in basic education in Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which primary school teachers in Botswana and Nigeria perceive the six levels of Bloomrsquo;s cognitive behaviour as being different in the extent to which they enhance quality in basic education and the level to which their current classroom assessment practices involve items that measure each of these levels of cognitive behaviour. Survey data from 191 primary school teachers from Gaborone district in Botswana, and 300 similar teachers from Delta State in Nigeria were analysed using repeated measure ANOVA to test related hypotheses. The main finding was that there is a significant discrepancy between the level to which, in the perception of the teachers, each of Bloomrsquo;s level of cognitive behaviour enhances quality of education and the level to which their classroom assessment practices are able to provide for the development of such behaviour among learners. The results were discussed and recommendations made on how to enhance quality in primary/basic education through classroom assessment practices. Key words: Primary/basic education, assessment, quality of education, Bloom taxonomy of human cognitive behaviour Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/ED6ACB53340 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000264 en Copyright © 2007 H. J. Nenty, O. O. Adedoyin, John N. Odili and T. E. Major
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:2F7C3113358 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
A science–technology–society paradigm and Cross River State secondary school students’ scientific literacy: problem solving and decision making Grace Umoren Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Science-Technology-Society (STS) curriculum on studentsrsquo; scientific literacy, problem solving and decision making. Four hundred and eighty (480) Senior Secondary two science and non-science students were randomly selected from intact classes in six secondary schools in Calabar Municipality of Cross River State. The experimental and control groups each comprised 120 science and 120 non science majors randomly assigned to them. The experimental group was exposed to researcher designed and validated Curriculum in ScienceTechnology-Society (COSTS) for 24 weeks at 2 h per week. The control group followed the normal existing science curriculum. A quasi experimental factorial design was used to identify the effect of COSTS if any scientific literacy, problem solving and decision making ability in coping with socioscientific issues. The Test on Science-Technology-Society (TOSTS) was administered to both experimental and control groups. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using covariance and the result emerged that students taught using the COSTS performed significantly better in scientific literacy, problem solving, and decision making than students who were not exposed to COSTS materials. This study highlights the need for an alternative science curriculum that will make students to be scientifically literate, problem solvers, and rational decision makers in a society riddled with science and technological problems. Key words: Curriculum, scientific literacy, problem solving and decision making. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/2F7C3113358 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000011 en Copyright © 2007 Grace Umoren
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:70010063363 2007-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Intelligence Quotient As A Predictor Of Creativity Among Some Nigerian Secondary School Students Olatoye, R.A and Oyundoyin, J.O. Full Length Research Paper This study investigated how Intelligence Quotient predicts general level of creativity and different components of creativity; fluency, originality, flexibility and creativity motivation among secondary school students in Oyo State. A total of four hundred and sixty (460) students were randomly selected from twenty (20) secondary schools in the state to participate in the study. Two instruments were used to collect data. They are: Slossonrsquo;s Intelligence Test (SIT) and Ibadan Creative Assessment Scale (ICAS). Data was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Intelligence Quotient (I.Q) accounted for 8% of variance in creativity (R2 = 0.80). This percentage is statistically significant. Also, I.Q significantly predicts each of the four components of creativity. It was then suggested that the level of I.Q should be considered in selecting students for tasks that involve creativity. Key words: Intelligence Quotient, creativity, fluency, originality, flexibility, motivation Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/70010063363 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000204 en Copyright © 2007 Olatoye, R.A and Oyundoyin, J.O.
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:57823003371 2007-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
The incidence and management of conflicts in secular and non-secular tertiary institutions in South West Nigeria Joseph Babatola Ayodele and Joseph Olukayode Adewumi Full Length Research Paper This paper compared the incidence and management of conflicts in secular and non-secular tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The sample of this study was made of sixty staff, and two hundred and forty students randomly selected each from two secular and two non-secular tertiary institutions in south western Nigeria. A validated questionnaire was designed and administered to collect data on the occurrence of conflict and conflict management strategies. Data collected were analyzed using frequency counts and percentage. In addition, t-test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation statistics were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that conflict is common to both secular and non-secular tertiary institutions. The study however revealed that the level of occurrence of conflict is low in the two types of institutions. It was also revealed that there is no significant difference in the conflict management strategies adopted by authorities of both secular and non-secular tertiary institutions. In addition, the study revealed that the conflict management strategies adopted by authorities of both secular and non-secular tertiary institutions are significantly related to their effectiveness. Based on the findings, it was recommended that authorities need to give prompt attention to addressing causes of conflicts. The use of dialogue in resolving conflicts should be embraced. In addition, all stakeholders in tertiary institutions are encouraged to employ religious exercises for divine intervention to reduce the emergence of conflict or for resolving existing conflicts. Key words: Conflict, occurrence of conflict, conflict management, secular tertiary institutions, non-secular tertiary institutions. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/57823003371 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000360 en Copyright © 2007 Joseph Babatola Ayodele and Joseph Olukayode Adewumi
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:D6A30C63375 2007-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Academic staff research productivity: a study of Universities in South-South Zone of Nigeria Bassey Usang, Akuegwu Basil, Udida Lucy and Udey Franca .U. Full Length Research Paper This study examined academic staff research productivity in Universities in South-South zone of Nigeria. Ex post facto design was adopted for this study. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide this study. The sample size comprised of 480 academic staff drawn from a population of 3120. Data collection was carried out using a researcher ndash; constructed instrument called Academic Staff Research Productivity Inventory (A.S.R.P.I.), which was validated and pilot tested. The data obtained were treated statistically using Independent t-test and contingency Chi-square (X2) analyses. Results indicated that male and female academic staff differed significantly in their research productivity; married and single academic staff differed significantly in their research productivity and there is a significant influence of areas of specialization on academic staff research productivity. It was recommended that academic staff in universities should be encouraged to carry out research work irrespective of their gender, marital status and areas of specialization. Key words: Academic staff, research productivity, South South zone, Nigerian Universities. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/D6A30C63375 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000022 en Copyright © 2007 Bassey Usang, Akuegwu Basil, Udida Lucy and Udey Franca .U.
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:CC71F353377 2007-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
The use of management information systems (MIS) in decision making in the South-West Nigerian Universities Ajayi, I. A. and Omirin, Fadekemi F. Full Length Research Paper This study investigated the use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in decision-making on long-term planning, short-term planning and budgeting in the South-West Nigerian Universities. The study used the descriptive research design of the survey type. Data were collected from a sample of 600 subjects consisting of 400 academic staff holding administrative staff positions and 200 senior administrative staff heading units using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, means, standard deviation and t-test statistics. The three hypotheses generated were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that MIS was not adequately used in decision making process on long-term planning, short-term planning and budgeting. There was no significant difference between Federal and State universities in terms of the use of MIS for decision making on both long and short term planning. There was significant difference in the use of MIS for decision making on budgeting between Federal and State universities in favour of the Federal universities. It was recommended that the MIS units should be adequately financed and maintained to ensure a free flow of information and adequate use of MIS in decision-making on short-term and long-term planning as well as budgeting. Key words: The use, Management Information Systems (MIS), decision making, South-West Nigerian Universities Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/CC71F353377 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000380 en Copyright © 2007 Ajayi, I. A. and Omirin, Fadekemi F.
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:8EE89FB3436 2007-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Lifecycle assessment of biofuel production from wood pyrolysis technology S. V. Manyele Full Length Research Paper Due to a stronger dependency on biomass for energy, there is a need for improved technologies in biomass-to-energy conversion in Tanzania. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pyrolysis technology used for conversion of wood and wood waste to liquid biofuel. In particular, a survey of environmental impacts of the process is presented. The LCA covered the steps from feedstock collection and supply, the facility itself and the end-use of the product with emphasis on different geographic, temporal, technical and environmental scenarios. The assessment was conducted starting from process synthesis, establishment of LCA parameters, and product parameters. The importance of the biofuel project is the economic growth, reduced national dependency on petroleum fuels and change in the standard of lining in the rural areas of Tanzania were critically analyzed. The study shows that biofuel has little negative impacts to human health and the environment during its life cycle. The impacts of the project on air quality, land use sustainability and on forestry and agriculture were analyzed and control strategies were recommended for offsetting the negative impacts. The biofuel have excellent performance in the combustion facilities, with lower emission levels below standard limits compared to petroleum fuels. Key words: Biofuel, life cycle assessment; geographical/temporal scenarios, sensitivity analysis, land use sustainability, air quality. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/8EE89FB3436 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000227 en Copyright © 2007 S. V. Manyele
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:65C2A553417 2007-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Explanation and critique of the principles of postmodern moral education Seyed Mahdi Sajjadi Full Length Research Paper Moral education is an important and complicated issue facing the educational institutions, specifically in religious societies in the modern world .The existing flaws and shortcomings in moral education arise in the first place, from the lack of a precise definition for the concepts, processes, content, aims, principles and foundations of moral education and in the second place, is affected by changes and transformations that might induce in the elements enumerated above. In the modern world, be it in religious or irreligious societies, post-modern teachings, principles and foundations are in the process of development and spreading, bringing about contradictions with the specific religious teachings of a society. As a result, ambiguity in principles of moral education is one of the problems of moral education. This paper provides an explanation and critique of the principles of moral education from the post-modern point of view. Key words: Moral education, moral principles, post-modernism, meta-narratives, critique. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/65C2A553417 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000158 en Copyright © 2007 Seyed Mahdi Sajjadi
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:3D267463403 2007-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Effects of project, inquiry and lecture- demonstration teaching methods on senior secondary students’ achievement in separation of mixtures practical test Agboola Omowunmi Sola and Oloyede Ezekiel Ojo Full Length Research Paper This study assessed and compared the relative effectiveness of three methods for teaching and conducting experiments in separation of mixtures in chemistry. A pre-test, postndash;test experimental design with a control group was used. Two hundred and thirty three randomly selected Senior Secondary School I (SSS I) chemistry students were drawn from four Local Governments Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. The research instruments developed were a twenty-five item supply/select response questions used for the pre-test and post-test tagged Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT). Students were divided into three experimental and one control groups. Students in the three experimental groups were subjected to treatment using project, inquiry or lecture-demonstration method respectively while students in the control group were taught using the traditional method of teaching. The pre-test was administered to students in all the four groups before teaching commenced and after the teaching and the experiment, a post-test was then administered. The data was analyzed using t-test analysis, one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe postndash;hoc analysis. The results of ANOVA of the difference in the scores of the post-test of the project, inquiry, lecture-demonstration methods and control group showed a significant difference between the groups (Fc= 327.258 gt; Ft = 2.60 at thorn; lt; 0.05, df = (3,229)). Students taught with project method performed better in the Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) than the students taught with lecture-demonstration method (tc = 5.60 gt; tt = 1.64 at thorn; lt; 0.05, df = 127), while those students taught with the lecture-demonstration method performed better than those taught with inquiry method (tc = 6.39 gt; tt = 1.64 at thorn;lt;0.05, df = 122). Students taught with project method performed better than students taught with inquiry method (tc = 9.22 gt; tt = 1.64 at thorn; lt; 0.05, df = 133). The study concluded that the project method enhanced better performance in Chemistry practical better than either inquiry or lecture-demonstration method. Key words: Lecture-demonstration, inquiry, project, chemistry practical, chemistry, chemistry achievement test, separation of mixtures. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/3D267463403 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000133 en Copyright © 2007 Agboola Omowunmi Sola and Oloyede Ezekiel Ojo
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:61CD9FF3393 2007-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Policy, philosophy and pedagogical initiative to HIV/AIDS education in the Nigerian secondary school’s social studies curriculum O. E. Ojedokun, L. M. Oyewusi and S. A. Oluwatosin Review This paper attempts a review of the Nigerian National Policy on Education, in the context of the overall philosophy of the Nigerian national life as reflected in the objectives of Social Studies ndash; a subject in the Nigerian Junior Secondary Social Studies curriculum. Its main objective is to make justification for the teaching of the subject-matter of HIV/AIDS as an emerging national problem in the school, and to provide some paradigm by which its learning content could be taught, using Social Studies as a carrier subject. The paper thus reviews policy provisions and philosophical background to Social Studies teaching, and provides some guidelines by which curriculum developers could design relevant content-valid curricula; and also provides a possible guide to classroom teachers in planning and implementing teaching plans. It also suggests some ideas that are likely to guide and facilitate the development of textbooks that may integrate the learning content of HIV/AIDS within the Social Studies curriculum. Key words: Policy, philosophy, pedagogical initiative, HIV/AIDSrsquo; education, Nigerian Secondary School, Social Studies. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/61CD9FF3393 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000257 en Copyright © 2007 O. E. Ojedokun, L. M. Oyewusi and S. A. Oluwatosin
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:AEECCAF3576 2007-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Students’ anxiety towards the learning of Chemistry in some Nigerian secondary schools S. A. Jegede Full Length Research Paper The study was designed to find out studentsrsquo; anxiety towards the learning of chemistry, identify the factors that cause the anxiety, examine the disposition of sex towards the learning of chemistry and suggest ways to increase their taste towards the learning of the subject. Data for the study was obtained by administering a questionnaire to 300 respondents involved in the study. The data obtained were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and stanine test. The findings of the study revealed that the students, whether male or female, urban or rural based, show great anxiety towards the learning of chemistry and that the anxiety is higher in female and rural based students than male and urban based students. The cause of studentsrsquo; anxiety as revealed by the study include: wide coverage of the syllabus, low awareness of career opportunities, their teacher and his teaching methods and lack of teaching aids / laboratory. Key words: Anxiety, learning, performance, disposition, perception, prospect. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/AEECCAF3576 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000310 en Copyright © 2007 S. A. Jegede
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:9150B443547 2007-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Pedagogical practices: the case of multi-class teaching in Fiji primary school Govinda I Lingam Full Length Research Paper Multi-class teaching is a common phenomenon in small schools not only in Fiji, but also in many countries. The aim of the present study was to determine the teaching styles adopted by teachers in the context of multi-class teaching. A qualitative case study research design was adopted. This included a school with multi-class teaching as the norm. Data for the study was gathered by means of non-participant observation and interviews from the population of teachers in the case study school. A purposive sampling technique was employed for the purpose of the study. Analysis of the feedback obtained show that the teachers in the case study school generally carried out the teaching/learning process using transmissive approaches. A number of factors have influenced these teachers to take this position, such as lack of professional preparation and limited resources for teaching and learning. The findings have implications for the delivery of basic education in rural schools where multi-class teaching is the norm and it is suggested that some in-depth training is needed to equip future teachers to cope with multi-class teaching. Key words: Multi-class, basic education, pedagogical practices, rural education, Fiji. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/9150B443547 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000248 en Copyright © 2007 Govinda I Lingam
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:39952153535 2007-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Collaboration and communication as effective strategies for parent involvement in public schools Raj Mestry and Bennie Grobler Full Length Research Paper In South African educational literature and educational research, the influence of the home and family environment on school achievement has not received the attention it deserves. The study under review shows that parents who play an active role in the homework and study programmes of their children contribute to their good performance in schools. Although the South African Schools Act creates expectations for parents to be active partners in school governance, our research shows that they are not all participating meaningfully in their childrenrsquo;s education. This is evident in the low attendance at many parentsrsquo; meetings, their lack of involvement in fundraising projects and the lack of interest shown by many in their childrenrsquo;s schoolwork and homework. This article examines two factors, namely collaboration and communication, as effective strategies for active parental involvement in schools. A quantitative research was used to determine the perceptions of teachers regarding aspects of parental involvement in school governance that were considered essential. The findings revealed, amongst others, that collaboration and communication determined the parentsrsquo; commitment to the education of their children and the role they play in school governance. The research affirms the view that input from the parent community was crucial in both co-curricular and extra-curricular programmes of the school. Key words: Collaboration, communication, parent involvement, cooperative governance, school governance. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/39952153535 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000071 en Copyright © 2007 Raj Mestry and Bennie Grobler
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:7966CF73512 2007-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Relationships between ICT competence and attitude among some Nigerian tertiary institution lecturers Philip Olu Jegede, Odusola Olutoyin Dibu-Ojerinde and Matthew Olugbenga Ilori Full Length Research Paper The study investigates the relationship between ICT competence and attitude as well as attitudinal constructs of teachers. Four hundred and sixty seven teachers randomly selected from 10 institutions (5 universities and 5 colleges of education) participated in the study. Information bordering on ICT competence and attitude of the teachers were collected employing two research instruments. The resulting data were analyzed using multiple regressions. Findings revealed that attitude bears significant relationship with and also predicts competence .It was further obtained that two of the five attitude constructs predict competence. It was observed that as teachers perceived computers to be useful in their pedagogical enterprise, the interests become aroused which in turn help their computer skills. Key words: Computer attitude, Competence, Relationships. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/7966CF73512 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000276 en Copyright © 2007 Philip Olu Jegede, Odusola Olutoyin Dibu-Ojerinde and Matthew Olugbenga Ilori
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:EC377823498 2007-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Perception of teachers’ knowledge, attitude and teaching skills as predictor of academic performance in Nigerian secondary schools A. A Adediwura and Bada Tayo Full Length Research Paper The study investigated the relationship/effect of studentsrsquo; perception of teachersrsquo; knowledge of subject matter, attitude to work and teaching skills on studentsrsquo; academic performance. The population consisted of senior secondary three (SS.III) students in the South West Nigeria senior secondary schools. The study sample consisted of 1600 purposively selected SSS III students from 15 selected secondary schools. A questionnaire with four sections was developed and administered on the subjects. It is a test battery with section A containing the demographic data and the remaining three sections containing twenty items each. The instrument has a test-retest reliability of 0.64 over a period of two weeks (n = 40, r = 0.64, rho; = lt; .05) an internal consistency (K - R20) reliability of 0.72 (rho; lt; .05) and a Cronbach coefficient alpha 0.70. The collected data were analyzed using simple percentages, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and chi-square statistics to test the three hypotheses generated in the study. The result show that studentsrsquo; perception of teachersrsquo; knowledge of subject matter, attitude to work and teaching skills has a significant relationship on studentsrsquo; academic performance. Key words: Perception, Teachers#39; knowledge, attitude and teaching skills, Predictors of academic performance. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/EC377823498 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000250 en Copyright © 2007 A. A Adediwura and Bada Tayo
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:5FAD1FB3473 2007-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
The issue of poverty in the provision of quality education in Kenyan secondary schools Ndiku J. Mualuko Review Poverty which can be defined in terms of extreme, moderate and relative poverty is a threat to existence of humanity in modern times especially in the developing world. Worst hit are countries in Sub -Saharan Africa. The millennium development agenda set to reduce poverty by a half by the year 2015.This expresses the global commitment in ensuring that the living standards of mankind. In Kenya the wish to alleviate poverty has been articulated since independence through various sessional papers, commissions, taskforces and development plans. Several proposals have been made in these documents on how to reduce poverty. However, the challenges of poverty still abound in Kenya. These challenges threaten provision of social services among majority of Kenyans who total about 56%. One of the basic social services which is highly threatened is the provision of quality education. This paper articulates the issue of poverty in provision of quality education. Causes, characteristics, and effects of poverty in Kenya are discussed. Indictors of quality education are discussed along with the governmentrsquo;s efforts to reduce poverty and realize provision of education to most of the deserving citizens. Conclusions are drawn from the discussions and recommendation made on how best to address the affects of poverty in the provision of quality education. Key words: Poverty, education, quality education, access. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/5FAD1FB3473 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000364 en Copyright © 2007 Ndiku J. Mualuko
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:32C59AF3457 2007-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Phytoremediation: an environmentally sound technology for pollution prevention, control and remediation in developing countries Erakhrumen, Andrew Agbontalor Review The problem of environmental pollution has assumed an unprecedented proportion in many parts of the world especially in Nigeria and its Niger-Delta region in particular. This region is bedeviled with this problem perhaps owing to interplay of demographic and socio-economic forces coupled with the various activities that revolve round the exploration for and exploitation of large deposit of crude oil discovered there. Many methods and processes of preventing, removing and or correcting the negative effects of pollutants released into the environments exist but their application in this country for this purpose has either been poorly implemented or not at all, a situation that is worsening owing probably to claims of lack of virile regulatory bodies and overwhelming dependence of government on crude oil for income. Studies have shown that the livelihood of local inhabitants largely depend on renewable natural resources which is environment dependent, thus, it is imperative that the environment should be sustainably managed in order to continue serving this function through comparatively cheaper means, one of which phytoremediation is. The objective of this review is to discuss phytoremediation studies using in-situ techniques and their potentials as a remediation technique that utilizes the age-long inherent abilities of living plants to remove pollutants from the environment but which is yet to become a commercially available technology in many parts of the world including Nigeria. Key words: Phytoremediation, environmental pollution, crude oil exploration, Niger-Delta, developing countries. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/32C59AF3457 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000255 en Copyright © 2007 Erakhrumen, Andrew Agbontalor
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:BBC0C0A3603 2007-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
The right to education: are we facing the challenges? Pierre du Plessis, Lloyd Conley and Coert Loock Review The Constitution provides the ground rules to create obligations on the state and to transform the education system by introducing human rights in line with the best developed democracies. This article is not about state-compelled school attendance, but rather the observe: the right to attend school. So while the right to attend school is part of the answer, it is far from the whole answer to the question of the right to education. Is it in the best interest of the child if there are still many corrupt practices in the public school sector? Whose rights are we talking about- those of the child or his or her parents? The mere fact that enforcement mechanisms is not an effective tool of measuring the exercise of the right in education. The article first sets out the constitutional framework in South Africa so far as it bears on the right to education, including whether a constitutional right to education can be implied by the Bill of Rights. It will then probes the extent to which provincial school acts and regulations, and provincial human rights, provide a general right to education. Key words: Human rights, basic education, equity, redress Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/BBC0C0A3603 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000374 en Copyright © 2007 Pierre du Plessis, Lloyd Conley and Coert Loock
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:2283EED3620 2007-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Equity in the distribution of HELB loans in Kenya in relation to students characteristics: an empirical analysis Stephen O. Odebero, Joseph N. Bosire, Anthony K Sang, Fredrick B. J. Ngala and Moses W. Ngware Full Length Research Paper Public funding of higher education in Kenya has gone through various stages all buffeted by myriad equity challenges. This prompted the government of Kenya (GoK) to create the Higher Education Loans Board (HELB), through an Act of parliament in the year 1995. GoK guidelines on loan provision to university students emphasise that deserving cases must get support to finance their education depending on their level of need. However, stakeholders have always expressed concern over the manner in which loans are awarded and recovered. These concerns are attributable to the challenges facing HELB loan administration. This study sought to determine the level of equity in the distribution of HELB loans in relation to studentsrsquo; characteristics. The study used correlational design to determine HELB loan disbursements. The population included all the HELB loan recipients in public and private chartered universities in Kenya who were admitted in the 2000/2001 academic year. Purposive sampling technique was employed in order to select one public rural and one public urban university. Similarly, a private rural and a private urban university were purposively selected. Simple random sampling technique was used to get 626 loan recipients. In order to include non-loan recipients in the sample size, snowball sampling technique was used to get 147 non-recipients. Hypotheses were tested using t-tests and ANOVA at alpha; 0.05 level of significance. Results reveal that no statistically significant difference existed between HELB loan disbursements and the studentsrsquo; characteristics such as gender and location of university. However, the relationship was significant for studentsrsquo; socio-economic status and programme of study. To enhance fairness in HELB loan disbursements, the study recommends the development of a proper means testing tool that can effectively discriminate students according to their level of need. It also recommends the incorporation in the means testing tool a criteria that considers the cost of the programme, the location of the university and the studentsrsquo; gender. Key words: Equity, finance, higher education, university, means testing, Kenya. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/2283EED3620 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000142 en Copyright © 2007 Stephen O. Odebero, Joseph N. Bosire, Anthony K Sang, Fredrick B. J. Ngala and Moses W. Ngware
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:9B59F333627 2007-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Seed aid for food security? Some lessons from Zimbabwe’s agricultural recovery programme Richard Foti, Violet Muringai and Zira Mavunganidze Full Length Research Paper Does agricultural input aid always lead to favourable food security outcomes? This paper describes Zimbabwersquo;s agricultural recovery program for the 2003/2004 farming season and draws some lessons that can be used in the designing and implementation of future programs. Input aid was found to be most beneficial if it is packaged together with other backup services such as training in soil fertility and water management, development of lucrative markets, and provision of basic infrastructure. Complementarity among the components of the input package itself was also found to affect the productivity of the inputs. Poor targeting of inputs both to areas and to farmers was found to affect the effectiveness of input aid in promoting food security. The study concluded that donor organisations should work closely with the recipient communities in the design and implementation of input aid programs. Key words: Seed aid, Drought, Non-Governmental Organizations, Poor Communities. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/9B59F333627 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000290 en Copyright © 2007 Richard Foti, Violet Muringai and Zira Mavunganidze
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:E58E2B33729 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Strategic improvement of mathematical problem- solving performance of secondary school students using procedural and conceptual learning strategies Adeleke M. A Full Length Research Paper The paper examined the possibility of finding out if improvements in studentsrsquo; problem solving performance in simultaneous linear equation will be recorded with the use of procedural and conceptual learning strategies and in addition to find out which of the strategies will be more effective. The study adopted a pretest, post test control group design. A total of 166 science students drawn from four schools in four local government Areas in Osun state of south-western Nigeria were involved in the study. The students were in Senior Secondary Class Two. These students were assigned to four groups of Conceptual Learning Strategy (CLS), Procedural Learning Strategy (PLS) and Conventional Method (CM) while the fourth group was not taught at all. The first two groups were the experimental groups and the control groups were the last two groups. Treatment was administered for a period of eight weeks. A mathematical achievement test was used as pretest and posttest after validation and was found to have reliability coefficient of 0.76 and item difficulty level ranging between 0.42 and 0.46. Three mathematics teachers who were university graduates were engaged to administer the treatment. The study recorded a significant difference between the problem-solving performance of students in the CLS group and those in the CM group (X1=30.71, X2 = 15.66, df =78, t = 16.56, plt;0.05).Significant difference in performance was also recorded between PLS group and CM group (X1 = 24.07, X2 = 15.66, df =80, t = 10.95, plt;0.05). Likewise performance of students in CLS group and those in PLS group differed significantly (X1=30.71, X2 = 24.07, df = 84, t = 7.98, plt; 0.05). The study therefore concluded that both CLS and PLS were effective in enhancing students problem-solving performance and that conceptual learning strategy was more effective. Key words: Procedural Learning Strategy,conceptual learning strategy, mathematimatical problem-solving performance. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/E58E2B33729 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000304 en Copyright © 2007 Adeleke M. A
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:457207A3663 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
What if indigenous knowledge contradicts accepted scientific findings? - the hidden agenda: respect, caring and passion towards aboriginal research in the context of applying western academic rules Norbert Witt Review The statement in the title, what if Indigenous Knowledge contradicts accepted scientific findings (Fowler, 2000), is an expression of the dilemma people who research Indigenous Knowledge think they find themselves in when they are confronted with different interpretations of what it means to be human, or, as I may summarize it, with different cultural interpretations of human existence. I sense a certain amount of fear in this statement, which, indeed, suggests an Indigenous interpretation that threatens the accepted scientific worldview. The question is, of course, who the accepting entity is and what the acceptance is measured on. The statement was made by an academic (PhD) executive of a diamond company who, responsible for inclusion of Indigenous Knowledge in the environmental assessment the company had to do before starting the mine, suspects contradictory interpretations on land use by the Indigenous people who occupy the land that should be developed by the company he represents. With this statement, he sets the stage for an analysis of research data on Indigenous Knowledge the company collected in order to follow recommendations of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (1996) that would dismiss the validity of the very subject, Indigenous Knowledge, that is to be integrated in environmental assessment done on Indigenous lands. His use of the term accepted scientific findings is unfortunate as he tries to recruit the academic community for reinforcing his view on the suspected contradictions of Indigenous Knowledge to scientific knowledge. He juxtaposes accepted, academic or scientific knowledge production to Indigenous, supposedly nonscientific knowledge, and in the process creates an image of a united academy which keeps Indigenous Knowledge out rather than integrating it, ignoring a development within the academy, carried by Indigenous scholars, which is opening paths to integrate Indigenous knowledge, although, admittedly, this does not happen without a challenge of the status quo. Looking into knowledge production anywhere we will find that the basis is observation, no matter where knowledge is produced. What is then the problem with acknowledging knowledge from others? One hint is given by Parsons (2005) who quotes on Thornhill (www.kronia.com) that ldquo;you have to observe what nature actually does, not what you think it should dordquo;, a statement that refers to assumptions (hypotheses) that influence both the researchersrsquo; observation and the analysis of it. I have to clarify here that he is referring to an academic establishment which, rather than trying to find new insights, tries to protect accepted paradigms. In this context any different interpretation of the observed facts would pose a threat, and the very presence of Indigenous Knowledge might be seen as such. In this context, the rules of research and acceptance of knowledge production become a control mechanism that, rather than expanding knowledge, only allows a point of view that protects the Status Quo, preventing knowledge from real growth. In this way, the acceptance of knowledge researched according to those rules will be measured not on the basis of the philosophy of the people who hold this knowledge but on the degree of whiteness, meaning its closeness to the protected and privileged, western academic knowledge. I see Fowlerrsquo;s (2000) statement within this context. What I will discuss are examples that show how the company uses academic research analysis to create a context which keeps Indigenous Knowledge out of the academic realm. Of course, the driving factor might be to validate the economic agenda of the company and devalue Indigenous concerns of destruction of their environment, source of Indigenous economy and, ultimately, their way of life. As legal interpretations were also used in order to justify such views on Indigenous Knowledge, I will discuss those interpretations, using some rulings by 226 Educ. Res. Rev. Canadian courts that contradict them. In the end, I will discuss the academic context, showing that, while there is a struggle by Indigenous scholars to integrate Indigenous worldviews, the doors for acceptance of Indigenous Knowledge are not as closed as the statement in the title of this paper might suggest. I will, however, also point out that there is a tendency to protect a Status Quo of scientific knowledge produced in the academy and that Indigenous Knowledge has not yet been completely accepted, and as long as control of knowledge production and interpretation of knowledge according to its degree of academic whiteness remains in the hands of the privileged, Indigenous people in the academy will have to struggle to have Indigenous Knowledge accepted. My examples refer to research of Indigenous Knowledge in the Omushkegowuk (Swampy Cree) community of Attawapiskat in Northern Ontario, Canada set up and supervised by the diamond company. My interest in this issue stems from my status of, albeit being non-Aboriginal, being a member of the community by marriage, being involved in community matters with all my in-law relatives living in that community. Having such personal connection to the people I also witness that due to the mistrust in the validity of their knowledge, Indigenous people still have a hard time trusting the claim of their colonizers to have moved beyond colonialism. Key words: Indigenous research, Research in Indigenous communities, ways of Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/457207A3663 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000411 en Copyright © 2007 Norbert Witt
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:B14CD343686 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
In search of remedy to secondary school dropout pandemic in Kenya: role of the principal Achoka, J. S. K Review As a nation, Kenya hopes to achieve Education for All (EFA) by the year 2015. This is an uphill task given the various challenges in the education sector. The year 2015 is also significant globally because it is the target year for the fulfillment of the eight-millennium goals. Kenya looks forward to have her people achieve the millennium goals together with other people worldwide. The pivotal hinge for these important target goals is education levels of the people involved and look forward to benefit from the fruits of EFA, millennium goals and industrialization. For such matters therefore, Kenya is trying her best to have her people educated. The secondary school segment in the education cycle of a Kenyan is important for three major reasons: a) It de-links one from elementary (primary) learning. b) It provides a chance for one to complete the cycle for basic education. c) It anchors as the springboard to either tertiary or higher learning. However, pandemic secondary school dropout in Kenya is alarming. For instance, in a period of ten years, 1992 - 2002, every secondary school cohort suffered not less than ten percent school dropout e.g. the highest dropout rate for the girls was fifty percent in the 1997/2000 cohort. The average dropout and completion rates for girls in the period under consideration were twenty percent and eighty percent respectively. For the boys they were fourteen percent and eightyseven percent respectively. Some of the reasons that lead to the pandemic secondary school dropouts have been elucidated in this paper. They include poverty, early pregnancies/marriages, HIV/AIDS, drugabuse and low-self esteem. Importantly, every secondary school dropout in Kenya signifies unfulfilled objective, goal, and aim for the individual as well as for the community at large. Emerging from this fact is perhaps a crucial question, where do the individuals who dropout of the learning cycle without basic education go? Alternatively, what do these persons do wherever they go? The most critical issue in this conundrum is perhaps the role of secondary school principals. In their endeavor to check dropout rates and concurrently enhance retention rates, they ought to change their managerial approaches to suit this twenty-first century that is apparently full of challenges to secondary school retention of students. In this article, the author discusses some of the approaches secondary school principals (managers) may use to alleviate dropout rates in Kenya. There is hope. Keywords: Pandemic, Retention, Dropout, Remedy and Role Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/B14CD343686 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000198 en Copyright © 2007 Achoka, J. S. K
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:4B71C753711 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Effects of test format, self concept and anxiety on item response changing behaviour E. R. I. Afolabi Short Communication The study examined the effects of item format, self-concept and anxiety on response changing behaviour. Four hundred undergraduate students who offered a counseling psychology course in a Nigerian university participated in the study. Studentsrsquo; answers in multiple ndash; choice and true ndash; false formats of an achievement test were observed for response changes. Results indicated that more changes were made in true-false than in multiple-choice test items, and students having moderate trait anxiety made significantly more changes than those having low or high trait anxiety. Academic and general self concept was not found to have significant influence on response changing behaviour. Key words: Test format, Self-concept, Trait anxiety, State anxiety, Response changing, test scores. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/4B71C753711 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000135 en Copyright © 2007 E. R. I. Afolabi
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:89639A33699 2007-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Diversity and complexity in the classroom: valuing racial and cultural diversity Pierre du Plessis and Tom Bisschoff Review From a diversity perspective, all students should receive an education that continuously affirms human diversity ndash; one that embraces the history and culture of all racial groups and that teaches people of colour to take change of their own destinies. With regards to teaching, a diversity perspective assumes that teachers will hold high expectations for all students and that they will challenge these students who are trapped in the cycle of poverty and despair to rise above it. Individual teachers in individual classrooms play an important role in providing equity of opportunity to learn and in ameliorating racism, but more comprehensive conceptions of diversity education capture the schoolrsquo;s crucial role as well. This article wants to address diversity in the classroom and how racial and cultural diversity are valued and what can be done to improve it. Key words: Diversity, learning styles, academic culture, collaborative learning. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/89639A33699 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000105 en Copyright © 2007 Pierre du Plessis and Tom Bisschoff
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:92C62DD3750 2007-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
The practice of community education in Nigeria Akande, J. O. Review This article focuses on the problems and prospects of Community Education in Nigeria. It examines the concept of non-formal community education as vital to individual and community development. It posits that, the formal provision of education cannot solve the problems of a rapidly changing society. Hence, education has to be redefined in the context of community to make it responsive to the yearning for better living conditions in the community. The work takes a rear-view mirror of the indigenous community education as a recipe for development and submits that if integrated with formal education indigenous community education can facilitate group and community betterment. Against this premise, suggests some measures that can foster community education for all-round development in Nigeria. Key words: Community education; community development; non-formal education; poverty reduction; participation Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/92C62DD3750 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000368 en Copyright © 2007 Akande, J. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:FC0AD6C3758 2007-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
The professional vocational educator C. S. Oni Full Length Research Paper This is a non-empirical research paper. The paper basically examines who a professional vocational educator really is in the academic and industrial world. In pursuance of this goal, the author first examined the term ldquo;professionalismrdquo; and proceeded to discuss the roles of a professional vocational educator both in the private and public organizations. Relevant review of literature was used in the explanation of some concepts in the paper. The paper goes further to itemize ways in which a vocational educator can contribute meaningfully to technological development focusing on ldquo;resource developmentrdquo; as well as technical skill acquisition. The paper concludes with some suggested recommendations for future professional vocational educators and how such recommendations can be effectively utilized. Key words: Professional, educator, manpower, development. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/FC0AD6C3758 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000370 en Copyright © 2007 C. S. Oni
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:C3B80523774 2007-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Access to basic education in Kenya: inherent concerns Achoka, J. S. K., Stephen O. Odebero, Julius K. Maiyo and Ndiku J. Mualuko Full Length Research Paper Basic education being the minimum education that every Kenyan must have for progressive existence in society is a crucial factor. That is why Kenya subscribes to the international protocol that established Education for All (EFA) in Jomtien, Thailand 1990 and the world education forum in Dakar, Senegal, 2000. Since then, the Kenya Government in her Education Sector Strategic Plan and Sessional paper No. 1 of 2005 has articulated how to attain goals for education. For instance early childhood education which tries to ensure development of the whole personality of the childrsquo;s physical, mental, and socio-emotional attributes faces challenges such as lack of access to early childhood education mostly caused by poverty, regional and gender disparities, policy framework, and HIV/AIDS among others. At primary school level where children stay longest in the schooling years and they develop more motor skill, further cognitive skills along with higher socialization than the early childhood education level, has children failing to access education due to poverty, gender imbalances, regional imbalances among other concerns. Secondary education which creates a human resource base higher than the primary education along with training youth for further education and the world of work registers restriction to many children due to concerns of poverty, gender imbalances, insecurity regional disparity among others. This article articulates in detail the above concerns discussing their manifestations in Kenya. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations made on how to improve access to basic education in Kenya. Among the recommendations are: To make basic education free and compulsory, improve provision of health services, intensify fight against demeaning cultures, give special attention to children with disabilities, avail employment opportunities to the youth, assure security to all in conflict prone zones and tighten bursary disbursement procedures. Key words: Basic education, access. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/C3B80523774 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000024 en Copyright © 2007 Achoka, J. S. K., Stephen O. Odebero, Julius K. Maiyo and Ndiku J. Mualuko
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:7B5CB9C3792 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Coping: a critical mediating factor of stress among athletes in West African Universities Olufemi Adegbola Adegbesan Review This study examined coping, which is regarded as a critical mediating factor of stress among athletes in some West African universities using the ways of coping in sport sub-scales of problem focused coping; seeking social support general emotionality, increased effort and resolve, detachment, denial, wishful thinking and emphasising the positive. The descriptive survey research design was used in this study. A 4-pointlikert type questionnaire of ways of coping with sport with reliability coefficient of r = .87 was used to collect data from 587 participants selected for the study. Their mean age was 24.04 plusmn; 3.62SD. The t-test analysis revealed a significant difference (Plt;.05) on the variables of problem focus coping and increased effort and resolved ways of coping when the athletes were compared by sex. While the analysis of variance also revealed a significant difference (Plt;.05) in the categorisation of the athletesrsquo; sports into three independent criterion variables on all the coping factors. While thecorrelational analysis revealed significant relationship Plt;.05 among the variables, with the exception of the relationship between the coping variables of detachment andemphasising the positive. The ways of coping techniques was found to be moreutilised by athletes from the Anglophone universities when compared with their francophone counterparts. Also, the male athletes of both Anglophone and Francophone countries made use of the coping techniques more than their female counterparts. However, since the major factor in regulating the stressfulness of competition is on the individual athletersquo;s ability to cope, coping techniques as a means of adjusting the effects of stress will assist to improve performance in sporting situations. Key words: Coping, athletes, stress, sport groups, West African Universities. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/7B5CB9C3792 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000084 en Copyright © 2007 Olufemi Adegbola Adegbesan
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:DD97AA63814 2007-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Educational problems associated with abdominal ultrasonography for pediatricians in Japan Ko Ichihashi , and Mariko Momoi Full Length Research Paper In this study, we examined how pediatricians use abdominal ultrasonography and the educational problems associated with this technique for pediatricians in Japan. A simple questionnaire was distributed at the 2004 prefectural meetings of the Ibaraki and Tochigi chapters of the Japan Pediatric Society. Of the pediatricians who replied to the questionnaire, 38, 47 and 14% reported using abdominal ultrasonography often, sometimes, and never, respectively. Forty-two percent of those who use abdominal ultrasonography perform the procedure themselves; the rates were high among respondents in their thirties and forties, and the rates were highest in private practice and lowest in university hospitals and childrenrsquo;s hospitals. Intussusception, fatty liver, and hydronephrosis can be diagnosed by the pediatricians themselves, while diagnoses of appendicitis and diseases of the reproductive system are difficult. Fifty-eight percent of the pediatricians who do not perform abdominal ultrasonography themselves had no chance to learn how to use the technique. The pediatricians wish to learn abdominal ultrasound from publications, seminars, and guidance by specialists. New trials of publications and seminars are currently ongoing and the development of a system to facilitate learning from specialists is needed. Key words: Education, pediatrician, ultrasonography. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/DD97AA63814 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000115 en Copyright © 2007 Ko Ichihashi , and Mariko Momoi
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:EAE1EEF3939 2007-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Emerging trends in management education in international business schools Faisal Manzoor Arain and Syed Awais Ahmad Tipu Full Length Research Paper The management education plays an essential role in todayrsquo;s dynamic business environment. The rapid trend of globalization and technological changes have made difficult for organizations to survive in the competitive world. As a result the importance of management education has been increased many folds. Business executives need to update their skills due to sudden changes in the external environment. Due to the increasingly complex nature of organizations and businesses, there is a need that the business schools impart relevant, current, and cutting edge knowledge to the students. This research attempts to compare the course offerings in 8 international business schools. A total of 946 courses were reviewed in order to identify the common courses. The research also identifies some of the emerging areas in the business and management education. A comparison of the core courses along with the areas of concentrations/majors is also presented. Given the significance of management education which is essential for todayrsquo;s organizations, the business as well as engineering schools should play pivotal role in equipping our future managers with the emerging trends of management skills to face the challenges of dynamic business world. This research will help the business schools particularly in the developing world to understand the emerging trends in management education and update their MBA curricula to come at par with the international standards of business education. This paper sets the foundation for future research focusing on improving management curricula for business schools in developing countries based on the international trends in business education. Key words: MBA, business, management, education, international, developing countries Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/EAE1EEF3939 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000136 en Copyright © 2007 Faisal Manzoor Arain and Syed Awais Ahmad Tipu
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:2CC98B43922 2007-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Statistical relationship between the performance of students in shorthand and typing: case study of Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria Eddy, E. N and Akpan, E. E Full Length Research Paper Comparative study of the relationship between the performance of students in shorthand and typing was conducted by statistical analysis of results of 84 students of secretarial studies in Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic. The analysis shows that there was no significant difference between the performances of students in typing and shorthand (t = 0.38333, n = 84,  = 0.05). Correlation between the two set of results was positive and significant (r = 0.54480, n = 84, =0.05). Effect size of d = 1.3 was obtained. The performance of students in typing has been found to be related to the performance of students in shorthand. Key words: Studentrsquo;s performance, shorthand and typing, statistical relationship. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/2CC98B43922 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000301 en Copyright © 2007 Eddy, E. N and Akpan, E. E
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:47079F63882 2007-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Upper mantle velocity structure in the NW Himalaya: Hindu Kush to Garhwal region from travel time studies of deep Hindu Kush earthquakes Sushil Kumar, R. Chander and K. N. Khattri Review The 22 Hindu Kush earthquakes had focal depths in the range of 50 to 245 km approximately. The 154 P travel time readings obtained from them were interpreted using a computer program based on least squared inversion and written specifically for the purpose. The upper mantle P-wave velocity along the north-west Himalaya obtained from this study has a value of 8.1 km/s. It appear to persist up to a depth of about 100 km below that level, it appears to increase to 8.35 km/s. The upper mantle P-wave velocity is found to be comparable to that obtained along a DSS profile in Kashmir. However, it is lower by 0.35 km/s from the value estimated by Ni and Barazangi in 1982 Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/47079F63882 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000397 en Copyright © 2007 Sushil Kumar, R. Chander and K. N. Khattri
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:72561CA3850 2007-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Information and communication technology as synergy for sourcing distance education: the feasibility in Cameroon education system Anja, Simon Ngwo Review The concept of distance education or learning is not new but welcoming in Cameroon especially with the advances in information and communication technology as the synergy for sourcing it. Information as the lifeblood of organisations is knowledge, intelligence or education while information technology is essentially the computerised or electronic technology as opposed to communication, which is thought of in terms of: media or skills of and organisation of communications. Both information and communication technology however, facilitate the feasibility of distance education or learning. This paper, therefore aims at prying (examining): the win on distance education, the role of information and communication technology as synergy for sourcing distance learning; the modes of delivering the curricula, which include: the face-to-face contact; electronic-print media; library and Internet, and the implications for Cameroon/education. Finally this paper ends up with conclusion and some recommendations made: that if not all the modes, the print media should be used to facilitate distance education or learning in Cameroon. Key words: Information, communication technology synergy, distance education learning, implications and Cameroon. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/72561CA3850 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000202 en Copyright © 2007 Anja, Simon Ngwo
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:3598B463906 2007-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2007
Equity in the distribution of bursary to secondary school students in Busia district, Kenya Stephen O. Odebero Anthony K. SangJoseph N. Bosire and Lucas A. Othuon Full Length Research Paper This study sought to find out the opinion of the head teachers on equity of the established criteria in bursary support for the needy. It was done in the Districtrsquo;s 27 secondary schools with the total student enrolment of 5780. All the 190 students (3.3% of the total enrolment) who had received bursaries from 1999 - 2002 in the district were included in the study. Another saturated sample of 27 head teachers was included in the study. Data was collected using questionnaires, in-depth interview schedules and document analysis. The study used Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients to measure equity in bursary distribution. Findings show that bursary allocations in the district were inequitably distributed for all the years studied. It further reveals that the bursary award criteria were largely not effective in identifying and benefiting the most needy students. It recommended that there is need to review the criteria for the selection of the students with financial need. The study further recommends mounting of workshops and seminars for stakeholders to educate those in charge of disbursements on key items within the disbursement process so as to eliminate ambiguities in the criteria. Key words: Access to secondary school education, equity, bursary, Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient. Academic Journals 2007 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/3598B463906 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000141 en Copyright © 2007 Stephen O. Odebero Anthony K. SangJoseph N. Bosire and Lucas A. Othuon
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:7635ED73190 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2008
Effects of competitive and cooperative learning strategies on academic performance of Nigerian students in mathematics E. B. Kolawole Full Length Research Paper This study investigated the effects of the cooperative and competitive learning on academic performance of students in mathematics in order to find out which one of them is the more effective learning strategy. The sample of the study was 400 Senior Secondary Schools III, Mathematics students made up of 240 boys and 160 girls randomly selected from four out of five States in South West Nigeria. Quasi experimental design was adopted for the study. Two instruments were used namely Mathematics Pre-Test Achievement Test (PTAT) and Post-Test Achievement Test (PAT) to collect data. The data collected in this study were subjected to Z-test analysis at alpha; = 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that cooperative learning strategy is more effective than competitive learning strategy and that boys performed significantly better than girls in both learning strategies. Based on the findings, cooperative learning strategy should be introduced in our secondary schools in Nigeria. Key words: Mathematics, Senior Secondary Schools, Nigeria Cooperative, Competitive, Learning strategies and performance. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/7635ED73190 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000128 en Copyright © 2008 E. B. Kolawole
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:4431D713194 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2008
The crisis of student discipline in Botswana schools: an impact of culturally conflicting disciplinary strategies K. G. Garegae Full Length Research Paper Although student discipline had existed since the beginning of mankind, the disciplinary methods employed have changed over the years, giving rise to culturally irrelevant disciplinary strategies. This study explored teachersrsquo; views about approaches to discipline experienced in Botswana schools in terms of policy and practice. In particular, the study sought for information on teachersrsquo; day-to-day experiences and their views with regard to the implementation of student discipline regulations. Twenty teachers, who have been in the field for at least eight years, were interviewed once. Interview proceedings were recorded and later transcribed verbatim. The study showed that teachers feel disempowered by schoolsrsquo; discipline regulations, and that students take advantage of such regulations to undermine teachersrsquo; authority. Based on the premise that discipline approaches are culturally conceptualized and negotiated, the paper argues that student discipline has grown into an epidemic in Botswana schools because culturally inappropriate approaches are employed. Recommendations as to how the problem could be curbed are discussed and suggestions for further studies are made. Key words: student, discipline and regulations. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/4431D713194 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000333 en Copyright © 2008 K. G. Garegae
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:06D7D7C3189 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2008
Interaction and survival analysis of graduation data Justin R. Chimka and Lauren Holloway Lowe Full Length Research Paper This is the second in a series of articles describing ongoing research that involves studying engineering college student graduation using Cox proportional hazards models. The first article, called quot;Proportional hazards models of graduation,quot; was based on main effects models of graduation controlling for descriptors such as in-state residence, hometown population, and student major. This second article attends to first-order interaction terms between pairs of previously considered main effects. Survival analysis of graduation data here suggests significance of standardized math scores, and English and Science ACT scores, under certain circumstances that might not have been discovered without the examination of interaction. Key words: Graduation, proportional hazards, retention, survival analysis. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/06D7D7C3189 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000205 en Copyright © 2008 Justin R. Chimka and Lauren Holloway Lowe
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:008DA403193 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2008
Examining US college students’ attitudes towards science: Learning from non-science majors Melissa Cook, and Thalia M. Mulvihill Full Length Research Paper This study examined college studentsrsquo; attitudes towards science in a course designed with Science Education for New Civic Engagement and Responsibilities (SENCER) ideals. SENCER uses socially engaging issues to teach basic science to non-science majors. A combination of methods was used to measure changes in attitudes (confidence and interest) and scientific literacy after completing this SENCER course. While a pre/posttest showed a significant increase in knowledge about biological concepts, the study revealed no significant change in confidence or interest in science in general as measured by the SENCER Student Assessment of Learning Gains (SALG) survey. However, a second instrument, the Biology Attitude Scale, demonstrated a significant increase in positive attitudes towards biology in particular. The case study data (including a content analysis of online reflective questions and semi-structured interviews) revealed that studentsrsquo; confidence in science remained the same during the semester even though their interest may have increased. This suggests that an increase in both variables (confidence and interest) simultaneously may not be needed in order to increase scientific literacy. These results have implications for college science teachers designing courses for non-science majors. Keywords: Science education, non-science majors, scientific literacy, interdisciplinary courses. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/008DA403193 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000157 en Copyright © 2008 Melissa Cook, and Thalia M. Mulvihill
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:A67AFF13178 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2008
Addressing urban high-poverty school teacher attrition by addressing urban high-poverty school teacher retention: why effective teachers persevere Sueanne E. McKinney, Robert Q. Berry, Daniel L. Dickerson and Gloria Campbell-Whately Review Recruiting and retaining quality teachers specific for high-poverty schools in urban areas is a national concern, especially in light of the ldquo;No Child Left Behindrdquo; federal legislation. The educational realities, detrimental effects of poverty, and human despair that often depress low-income communities can prove to be quite overpowering for many teachers new to the profession and significantly contribute to high levels of teacher absenteeism, attrition rates, and teacher shortages. Examining this issue through a new lens, that being through the eyes of effective urban high-poverty school educators, has the potential to spark spirited conversations and debates among policy makers and educators alike so that significant polices and efforts can be developed and implemented. Therefore, the intent of this study was to develop a profile of high-quality educators who remain in urban high-poverty schools within a large metropolitan school district, and identify the indicators that influence them to remain. The results indicated that teachers who are African American, older, and more experienced define the profile of teachers most likely to remain beyond the first three years in this demanding setting. Additionally, these teachers reported that they remain because they believe they are well suited for teaching in high-poverty schools. Unless more attention is given to teacher retention, and why some educators are successful and persevere in even the most hard-to-staff schools, teacher attrition will continue to be a national concern. Key words: Urban teaching, teacher retention, teacher recruitment. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/A67AFF13178 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000026 en Copyright © 2008 Sueanne E. McKinney, Robert Q. Berry, Daniel L. Dickerson and Gloria Campbell-Whately
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:092E6A73180 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2008
Using new technologies in creating excitement in biology laboratory activities Nkadi Onyegegbu Review The rapid growth of biological knowledge is placing it prominence among the sciences. For this reason, biologists are realizing that their responsibilities have changed, as new technological devices are redefining biology. With new trend in information technologies, the biology teacher has to ensure that s/he is current in the content matter, method and technological devices. How sure and ready is the Nigerian secondary school biology teacher with the new technological devices in the laborartory activities? Biology teachersrsquo; indifference towards laboratory activities has remained a problem as most of them still use lecture style that has not changed in decades. It is not difficult to break away from this pattern and present activities with new technological devices to students in a manner that excites and sustains their interests. This will not only help them in changing the ambience in the lab, but also expand their talent pool, provide opportunities to enhance the educational value of the activity, and stimulate the desire to learn. The main focus of this paper is on the new technological devices that can be used by the biology teacher during laboratory activities. The paper also highlights the strengths in using these technological devices in some selected topics in biology. Challenges faced by biology teachers and students are also discussed. Key words: Technologies, creativity, biology Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/092E6A73180 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000404 en Copyright © 2008 Nkadi Onyegegbu
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:66A09DA3181 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2008
Concurrent high school-university studies as a route to higher education Moshe Barak Full Length Research Paper This research examined a program of concurrent high school-university studies aimed at promoting students living in underprivileged areas to continue on to higher education. High school students attended university once a week for learning enrichment or participating in full academic courses. Data were collected through interviews and documented meetings with students and their parents, university lecturers, and school staff. The high-achieving students were primarily interested in learning advanced topics in the exact sciences; formal rewards such as raising their probability of being accepted to the university after graduating from high school or credit for future studies at the university were of second priority. The low-achieving students perceived the program as being a window of opportunity to higher education; they truly enjoyed the courses that were anchored in their life contexts, for example, Medicine, Law, and Economics. The most successful courses were those that consisted of class activities, group work or projects, rather than the delivery of content by the teacher. Two principal factors influence the success of a concurrent high school-university studies program: close cooperation between the school and the university in designing courses that match the needs of students from a wide spectrum of scholastic achievements; and close supervision by the school of the students studying at the university and the provision of adequate support in case of difficulties. Keywords: Access to higher education, high school-university cooperation. Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/66A09DA3181 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000078 en Copyright © 2008 Moshe Barak
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:8994B9B3188 2008-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2008
Developing a knowledge exchange tool for school-based health policies and programs Lynn Planinac, Scott T. Leatherdale, Steve R. Manske and Meghan Arbour Full Length Research Paper Youth smoking and physical inactivity are significant public health issues, with implications for both health and education stakeholders, as school-based policies and programs have the potential to reach a broad population of youth to address these issues. Knowledge exchange tools designed around comprehensive school-level data collection systems allow for dissemination of evidence into such policies and programs. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the process of developing knowledge exchange feedback reports for school-based health policies and programs, using the School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation System (SHAPES) data collection system. SHAPES-Ontario is a project that utilized the SHAPES research platform to collect student-level behavioural data and school-level policy and programs data on tobacco and physical activity in 81 secondary schools across Ontario, Canada. Methods used to develop the feedback reports involved categorizing and scoring survey response options based on extensive research evidence and expert feedback. Feedback report scores were aggregated into overall grades and presented in a short and long version of a feedback report for school administrators. These reports present prime examples of how to use the principles of knowledge exchange in developing a tool to bridge the gap between research and practice. Keywords: Secondary schools, health policies, tobacco, smoking, physical activity Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/8994B9B3188 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000099 en Copyright © 2008 Lynn Planinac, Scott T. Leatherdale, Steve R. Manske and Meghan Arbour
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:F2FBEE03201 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2008
Empowering out of school youth through non- formal education in Kenya Ndiku Judah Mualuko Full Length Research Paper Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/F2FBEE03201 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000137 en Copyright © 2008 Ndiku Judah Mualuko
oai:academicjournals.org:ERR:D7B36D63206 2008-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals ERR ERR:2008
Student perceptions of group-based competitive exercises in the chemistry classroom Kevin C. Cannon, Tina Mody and Maureen P. Breen Full Length Research Paper Academic Journals 2008 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/D7B36D63206 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000306 en Copyright © 2008 Kevin C. Cannon, Tina Mody and Maureen P. Breen