2020-08-15T15:20:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:F2373DB2382 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Model of Serbian spruce genetic diversity conservation applying MPBS method for adaptability improvement Mirjana Scaron;ijačić-Nikolić, Jelena Milovanović and Ida Katičić-Trupčević Short Communication Biodiversity loss causes are variable, interactive and rather anthropogenic. Genetic variability, between and within species, has multiple fundamental values. Forest ecosystem diversity has an important role in evolution, selection and improvement processes aiming at the satisfaction of human needs. Serbian spruce (Picea omorika Panč./Purkyne) is an endemic species of the Balkan Peninsula and a tertiary relic. The conservation of this endemic species is necessary not only its rarity and vulnerability, but also on the account of its valuable pioneer qualities. Taking into account qualities of Serbian spruce, the model of Serbian spruce genetic diversity conservation was designed by the application of multiple population breeding system (MPBS), conservation method in which the population with the function of genetic conservation was subdivided into subpopulations, each having an effective population size. The proposed model of conservation of the total Serbian spruce genetic diversity can become an adequate solution for the prevention of further narrowing and also of the extension of the narrow range of the species. Key words: Serbian spruce, adaptability improvement, multiple population breeding system, genetic diversity conservation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/F2373DB2382 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000095 en Copyright © 2009 Mirjana Scaron;ijačić-Nikolić, Jelena Milovanović and Ida Katičić-Trupčević
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:2219F5A2399 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
An assessment and impact of three invasive species in the Shivalik hills of Himachal Pradesh, India. K. S. Dogra, R. K. Kohli and S. K. Sood Full Length Research Paper The Shivalik hills in Northwestern Himalayan range of India have a rich floral diversity. Unfortunately during the last two decades there has been drastic reduction in the diversity of the natural vegetation. The available niches have been occupied by invasive exotic species that were either introduced or have entered accidently. It has resulted from a numbers of factors including increased inter and intra-continental links, import-export and climate change. These exotic species possess certain traits that provide them competitive advantage over the natives and thus aid in their fast spread in the alien environment. Even some of the plants introduced for beneficial purposes have acquired weedy habit. It has greatly altered the structure of the natural ecosystems and caused a dramatic shift in the diversity and dynamics of native flora. The situation has further aggravated due to lack of awareness, insufficient information on the species and its dimensions of the spread besides wide ecological amplitude. It was observed that the diversity, evenness and richness of the native species were drastically reduced in the forest invaded by the exotics. Key words: Northwestern Himalayan, Shivalik hills, invasive, diversity. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/2219F5A2399 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000010 en Copyright © 2009 K. S. Dogra, R. K. Kohli and S. K. Sood
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:DAAF3BB2435 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Wildlife habitat selection and sustainable resources management in a Neotropical wetland Arnaud Leacute;onard Jean Desbiez, Richard Ernest Bodmer and Sandra Aparecida Santos Full Length Research Paper The identification of key habitat types for wildlife is an essential step to plan and promote sustainable land management strategies. Private cattle ranches occupy most of the Brazilian Pantanal and the recent intensification in land use practices is thought to threaten wildlife. Using encounter rates from transects, landscape use and habitat selection of the community of medium to large-sized mammals was examined to identify key wildlife habitats. Overall landscapes that had a higher proportion of forested habitats were the most used by wildlife. Within the different landscapes, forested environments can be considered key habitats for most of the native mammals considered in this study. Unfortunately, theses are also the habitats most at risk by the recent changes in land use practices. Results from this study predict that current intensifications of ranching practices will be detrimental to wildlife. In addition to deforestation, other threats such as land degradation, fire, landscape alterations such as fencing and artificial water holes may also impact landscape and habitat quality. The key to conserving biodiversity in the Pantanal is preserving the natural habitat matrix that sustains the diversity of landscapes and to continue integrating cattle ranching into the natural processes that sustain a functioning ecosystem. Key words: Deforestation, floodplain, habitat selection, Neotropical mammals, Brazilian Pantanal. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/DAAF3BB2435 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000151 en Copyright © 2009 Arnaud Leacute;onard Jean Desbiez, Richard Ernest Bodmer and Sandra Aparecida Santos
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:BB1A0672690 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Floristic composition, structure and natural regeneration in a moist semi-deciduous forest following anthropogenic disturbances and plant invasion P. Addo-Fordjour, S. Obeng, A. K. Anning and M. G. Addo Full Length Research Paper The floristic composition, structure and natural regeneration were studied in three 50 x 50 m plot each in undisturbed, disturbed-invaded and disturbed forests (UF, DIF and DF respectively) of the Tinte Bepo forest reserve. A total of 108 plant species belonging to 37 families, 77 genera and 8 life forms were identified in all the forest blocks. Trees represented the most diverse life form. Celtis mildbraedii Engl. and Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Shum. were the overall dominant species in the forest reserve. Species richness of all life forms was highest in the UF followed by the DIF and DF. Plant species diversity was quantitatively higher in the UF (Hacute; = 3.6) compared to the DIF (Hacute; = 3.3) and DF (Hacute; = 2.9). Plant species densities also differed significantly (p = 0.000) among the forest types. Mean basal area, canopy cover and height were higher in the UF compared to the DF and DIF. There was a significant positive relationship between tree size and height in all the forest types studied. The distribution of trees in the lower and higher diameter classes was highest in the UF. Diversity of saplings was greatest in the DF (Hacute; = 2.72). Plant invasion impeded regeneration of native plant species in the DIF. The UF had a higher rate of converting saplings to adult trees. The Tinte Bepo forest reserve looks floristically rich and structurally complex in the face of human activities and plant invasion. Thus, there is the need for proper management intervention to curb these anthropogenic activities and plant invasion so as to protect the integrity of the forest. Key words: Floristic composition and structure, moist semi-deciduous forest, Tinte Bepo forest reserve, regeneration Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/BB1A0672690 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000059 en Copyright © 2009 P. Addo-Fordjour, S. Obeng, A. K. Anning and M. G. Addo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:AD786022754 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Plant species diversity in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.) plantations in the Western Guilan, Iran Hassan Poorbabaei and Gader Poorrahmati Full Length Research Paper The purpose of this study was to quantify plant species diversity in three plantations composed of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) (two stands) and Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) (one stand) species, located in western Guilan, Iran. Sampling procedure was systematic-random method, and with regard to the homogeneity of plantations 20 sampling plots were taken in each plantation and the surrounding natural forest. The size of sample plot was 20 20 m to survey woody species. The diameter of breast height of all trees was measured and individuals of shrubs and saplings were enumerated within the plot. In order to survey herbaceous layer, sampling plot area was determined using nested plot sampling at the center of the large plot and species/area curve was plotted in each forest. Coverage percent of herbaceous species was estimated using Domin criterion and type of herb species were identified. In addition, Crown cover percentage was visually estimated in each large sampling plot. Litter thickness was measured in four selected points of large plot corners. Several diversity indices and Jaccardrsquo;s similarity index were used for data analyses. Results indicated that basal area in Sugi plantation was the highest amongst the studied forests. The highest degree of similarity of woody species was found between P. teada 72 (that is planted in 1972 year) and P. taeda 91, and between Sugi and P. taeda 91 plantations. Moreover, the highest degree of similarity of herbaceous species was between P.teada72 and Sugi plantations. P. taeda 91 plantations showed the highest values of species diversity in woody and herbaceous layers, while P. teada 72 and Sugi plantations had the lowest diversity in woody and herbaceous layers, respectively. The highest and lowest values of litter thickness were found in the P. taeda 91 plantation and the nearby natural forest, respectively. Key words: Plant species diversity, Pinus taeda, Cryptomeria japonica, plantation, Guilan Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/AD786022754 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000108 en Copyright © 2009 Hassan Poorbabaei and Gader Poorrahmati
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:DF42E8C2777 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Factors shaping on-farm genetic resources of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in the centre of diversity, Ethiopia F. Mekbib, A. Bjoslash;rnstad, L. Sperling and G. Synnevaring;g Full Length Research Paper Ethiopia is cited as one of the centres of sorghum diversity. In order to assess the on-farm genetic resources management of sorghum various research methodologies were employed. These were focus group interviews with 360 farmers, key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents and semi-structured interviews with 250 farmers. Besides, diversity fair was done with over 1200 farmers. For quantifying on-farm diversity, direct on-farm monitoring and participation with 120 farmers were made. Quantification of varietal diversity per farm was counted by a participatory zigzag sampling in the diagonal direction of the plot with the farmer and all encountered varieties were counted. Soil samples were taken from 120 farms and were subjected to analyses of soil pH, P, available nitrogen, organic matter and exchangeable potassium. Altitude and other related climatic data were collected. The number of varieties conserved by farmers ranged from one to twenty per farm and this is affected by socio-economic and biophysical factors. The mean numbers of 8.3 and 6.3 varieties were grown by Oromo and Amhara farmers respectively. The minimum and maximum range did not vary for both ethnic groups. There was no significant difference in the number of varieties held by various wealth groups. With respect to farm size as explained by the quadratic model, it significantly accounted and predicted for the variation in the number of varieties. The role of soil pH, P, available nitrogen, organic matter, and exchangeable potassium on-farm genetic diversity is described. P was a positive limiting factor for varietal diversity. As to the effect of crop ecology, there were higher number of varieties in the intermediate altitudes than in the lowland and highland. Both the quadratic and linear equation expressed that distance from the house and town and showed non-significant relationship to the number of varieties planted per farm. Varietal mixture is one of the strategies used by the farmers for improved on-farm genetic diversity management. Farmersrsquo; underlying principles for conserving genetic diversity is described. Three models developed, namely; Bioecogeographic genetic diversity model, Farmer induced genetic diversity model and Farmer-cum-bioecogeographic genetic diversity model are explaining the processes shaping on-farm genetic diversity of sorghum in Ethiopia. Key words: Biophysical factors, farmer varieties, germplasm, genetic diversity, genetic diversity model, socio-economic factors, on-farm. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/DF42E8C2777 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000056 en Copyright © 2009 F. Mekbib, A. Bjoslash;rnstad, L. Sperling and G. Synnevaring;g
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:F775C6F2815 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Environmental quality in the park of Naples hills (Italy) before the opening of Chiaiano’s dump (Naples) Maria F. Caliendo, Lucilla Fusco, Silvana Grimaldi and E. Gabriele De Filippo Full Length Research Paper The metropolitan Park of Naples hills (Italy) was instituted by the regional law 17/2003 with the aim of the green arearsquo;s safeguard of the city hills. However, in consequence of the waste emergency in the Campanian region, the Italian government decided the opening of a dump in Chiaiano, a quarter located inside the Park. Through the utilization of the birds as bioindicators, we studied the environmental quality of the whole area, correlating the avifaunal indices to some landscape indices. The results show, generally, that the various areas of the park were constituted from a fragmented landscape and not many mature birds communities. The dump site, called Chiaiano wood, was not so different from other areas of the park because of a similar landscape, formed from old chestnut coppices alternated to cultivation and buildings. This is an important nesting site for some predators, as Falco peregrinus and Falco tinnunculus and of some Chiroptera. This is why the dump might cause the lost of rocky habitats in the Chiaiano wood with a remarkable impact on the ecosystem. Key words: Naples hills, birds, landscape, dump, destruction of rocky habitat. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/F775C6F2815 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000050 en Copyright © 2009 Maria F. Caliendo, Lucilla Fusco, Silvana Grimaldi and E. Gabriele De Filippo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:C75F8E72828 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Using nestedness and species-accumulation analyses to strengthen a conservation plan for littoral forest birds in south-eastern Madagascar James E. M. Watson, Alexander W. T. Watson, Joern Fischer, J. Carter Ingram and Robert J. Whittaker Full Length Research Paper The littoral forests of south-eastern Madagascar are among the most threatened ecosystems on the island. A conservation plan has been developed for the region due to a proposed mining venture. Here, we provide a novel methodology to assess if the planned conservation measures would effectively conserve the bird diversity inhabiting these forests. Bird community composition within 30 littoral forest fragments was quantified with each fragment characterized by measures of fragment area, isolation, and internal habitat complexity. A nestedness and cumulative speciesndash;area analysis was conducted to ascertain the contribution of forest fragments of different sizes in capturing the overall bird species richness. Datasets representing the overall and forest-dependent bird assemblages were found to be significantly nested. The pattern of nestedness appeared to be driven by fragment size. However, cumulative speciesndash;area analyses showed that the assemblages were imperfectly nested with ten species displaying idiosyncratic distribution patterns. When a modest conservation target was set (the occurrence of a bird species in three or more fragments), the proposed conservation plan would only protect approximately half the species found in the littoral forests. We show that protecting an additional four large patches would mean that the proportion of forest-birds captured in three or more patches would increase to 70%. Key words: Madagascar, conservation, littoral forest, mining, fragmentation, nestedness. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/C75F8E72828 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000147 en Copyright © 2009 James E. M. Watson, Alexander W. T. Watson, Joern Fischer, J. Carter Ingram and Robert J. Whittaker
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:06F72A02895 2009-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
In vitro callus initiation of a ‘threatened’ Nigerian leafy vegetable, Gnetum africanum (WILW) A. C. Iloh, N. R. Isu and D. D. Kuta Full Length Research Paper Gnetum africanum is a green leafy vegetable found in Nigeria, where it is a highly valued food source. Stocks of this plant in the wild are increasingly threatened by land transformation and harvesting methods are unsustainable. In vitro callus initiation of G. africanum has been developed. The surfaces of 3 to 4 day old leaf explants were sterilized before exposure to a range of different concentrations of plant growth regulators. In vitro callus initiation of explants in single concentrations of auxins (2,4D: 2-4-dichloroxyphenoxyacetic and pichloram) did not initiate callus after 3 months of culture. However, combinations of cytokines (BAP: 6-benzylaminopurine, and Kinetin) and auxins initiated callus. The highest percentage callus initiation response of 100% was observed in the combination of BAP (1.0 mg/l) + 2,4D (7 mg/l). There was a significant difference (Plt;0.05) in callus production of explants in response to different callus induction and initiation media. However, there was no significant difference (Pgt;0.05) between the degree of callus response and callus size to these different media. Key words: BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), callus initiation, Gnetum africanum, kinetin, 2,4D (2-4-dichloroxyphenoxyacetic), pichloram. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/06F72A02895 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000082 en Copyright © 2009 A. C. Iloh, N. R. Isu and D. D. Kuta
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:A9361222926 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
The response of a landscape species, white-lipped peccaries, to seasonal resource fluctuations in a tropical wetland, the Brazilian pantanal Alexine Keuroghlian, , Donald P. Eaton, and Arnaud L. J. Desbiez, Full Length Research Paper Local extinctions of white-lipped peccary, due to habitat fragmentation and hunting, have been reported throughout its vast geographical range. Recent studies have shown that their role as fruit predators and dispersers affects the biodiversity of certain forest habitats. Fruits may be reduced in deforested habitats, so documenting fruit availability and use is critical to peccary conservation efforts and forest biodiversity. Our 5 year research was based in the lower- middle Rio Negro, southern Pantanal of Brazil, a well-preserved region where cattle-related impacts are minimal. We have been investigating the habitat and feeding requirements of white-lipped, while surveying resource availability. Based on monthly fruit surveys in different habitats, we know that spatial and temporal variability of fruits is high. Marked periods of fruit scarcity occur during the year and gallery forest fruit counts were the highest. Habitat use trends indicated that there is a strong association between white-lipped peccaries and forested areas, especially gallery forest. White-lipped peccaries depended less on single dominant fruits, and their diets showed greater seasonal variation, i.e. they consumed a much greater diversity of fruits in the wet season. Fruit richness and quantity was higher during the wet season, (65 spp. - wet; 33 spp. - dry). The dry season could be considered a period of fruit scarcity in terms diversity and quantity. We expect these periods to affect peccary movements and range requirements. The non random use of habitats observed for white-lipped, illustrate the importance of habitat diversity, especially diversity of forest types and their associated fruiting species. Preventing further deforestation of an already naturally patchy habitat are priorities for conservation in the pantanal. Key words: Landscape species, pantanal, seasonal frugivory, white-lipped peccary, fruit scarcity, conservation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/A9361222926 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000140 en Copyright © 2009 Alexine Keuroghlian, , Donald P. Eaton, and Arnaud L. J. Desbiez,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:DD68F563002 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Forestry extension: Implications for forest protection O. M. Agbogidi and A. U. Ofuoku Review The 21st century is faced with the challenges of environmental conservation, population explosion, desertification, soil erosion, pollution, other environmental threats and increased use of science and technology. It would therefore, be vital to strengthen research and education in forest and environmental protection to equip the public and the rural inhabitants adequately for survival. This review up established that forestry extension has great implications for forest protection and conservation as the importance of the environment and forest ecosystem to human survival can never be underestimated. It is emphasized that existing and emerging scientific information about biodiversity need to be communicated and new concepts and technologies in conservation need to be conveyed if sustainable forest management and development is achievable and if the present heightened loss of genetic diversity must be curtailed. The challenges of forest extension workers as identified by this paper include lack of professional and managerial capacity, serious financial crisis due to overdependence on federal government, lack of public understanding and support and non inclusion of the women folk as most extension services are directed to men who are the heads of households. The paper concluded that the ways forward among other things are reinforcement of forestry extension services, restructuring of existing forestry professional levels and strengthening of missing linkages across institutions needed for forestry extension among others. Key words: Forest depletion, forestry extension, implications, forest protection, environmental conservation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/DD68F563002 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000064 en Copyright © 2009 O. M. Agbogidi and A. U. Ofuoku
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:7FDF26F3035 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Access and benefit sharing from biological resources and associated traditional knowledge in the HKH region - protecting community interests Krishna Prasad Oli Review After the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) came into force in 1993, access to genetic resources, fair and equitable sharing of benefits from the use of biological resources and traditional knowledge become an important agenda. All the Himalayan countries are party to CBD and are in different stages of developing access to genetic resources and benefit sharing (ABS) policies and laws. There are ongoing debates on the need for institutional mechanisms to regulate the ABS agreements, defining ownership of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge. In the region, local communities have retained traditional knowledge in managing their biological resources. Getting benefits from such traditional knowledge and genetic resources is new to the region. In the globalised context this has became even more complex as communities seek to assert their rights over their traditional knowledge which can be used when accessed outside as base line knowledge for future innovations. Some legal arrangements for protecting the community rights over biological resources and associated TK are emerging, in practice however, it is not clear on how local indigenous communities will benefits from bioprospecting. This article analyses on the key issues and debates on emerging Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) mechanisms in the Himalayan countries and examines their efforts towards protecting rights over biological resources and associated traditional knowledge. It also assesses, the potential challenges and the fate of ABS regime for the future in the region. Key words: Access and Benefit Sharing, traditional knowledge, ownership, genetic resources, bioprospecting, traditional institutions. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/7FDF26F3035 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000008 en Copyright © 2009 Krishna Prasad Oli
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:33C7B963055 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
The effect of terracing on rainwater harvesting, regeneration and growth of Juniperusus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher on the Sarawat mountains in south western Saudi Arabia H. A. El Atta and I. M. Aref Full Length Research Paper The present study was conducted in two forests in Abha (Capital of Asir Region) and two forests in Al Namas (130 km north of Abha), south western Saudi Arabia (Asir region) with the objective of investigation of the effect of terraces on rainwater harvesting and growth of Juniperusus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher. Study plots were established in four forests, two of which contained maintained terraces and the other two have abandoned and damaged terraces. The results showed that maintained terraces served as important means for rainwater harvesting, whereas abandoning of terraces resulted in increased soil loss, surface runoff, bulk density and reduced infiltration rates. Significant correlations and regression between soil loss, total runoff, soil bulk density and infiltration rate were provided. DBH, total height, basal area, volume, number of trees, crown coverage and regeneration/ha of J. procera were significantly (p lt; 0.0001) higher in forests with maintained terraces compared with abandoned terraces. In conclusion, maintained terraces improved rainwater harvesting and growth performance of J. procera, whereas abandoning and damage of terraces produced more soil loss, increased surface runoff and bulk density, reduced infiltration and less growth of Juniperus which was characterized by extremely poor regeneration. Key words: Juniperusus procera, terracing, rainwater harvesting, soil erosion, surface runoff. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/33C7B963055 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000134 en Copyright © 2009 H. A. El Atta and I. M. Aref
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:00793663101 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Invasive alien species in Northern Bangladesh: Identification, inventory and impacts A. Akter and M.I. Zuberi Full Length Research Paper Identification, inventory and impact assessment of Invasive Alien Species (IAS) in different land use types in five districts of Bangladesh was made. In this extensive survey of more than 100 transects, a total of 21 most abundant species of herbaceous weeds have been recorded. From these, seven invasive alien species, Ageratum conyzoides, Eichhornia crassipes, Eupatorium odoratum, (Chromolaema odorata.) Ipomoea carnea, Lantana camara, Mikania micrantha and Parthenium hysterophorus have been identified. These invasive alien species belonged to four families. A very significant impact of these invasive alien species was detected on the number of species in different land use types (road side, low land, fallow land, homestead and railway track). The presence of alien species always reduced the number of associated species, in most cases significantly so. The existence of phenotypic variation in the morphological and reproductive characters of the invasive alien species from the different sites indicates their ability to invade and adapt to new habitats. Key words: Invasive alien species, Bangladesh, weeds. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/00793663101 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000087 en Copyright © 2009 A. Akter and M.I. Zuberi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:792D3E73124 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Impact of Ageratum conyzoides L. on the diversity and composition of vegetation in the Shivalik hills of Himachal Pradesh (Northwestern Himalaya), India Kuldip S. Dogra, Ravinder K. Kohli and Sarvesh K. Sood and Praveen K. Dobhal Full Length Research Paper The flora of the Shivalik hills of Himachal Pradesh, India is under threat due to the rapid invasion of invasive species. Invasive species means an alien species, which becomes established in natural or semi-natural ecosystems and threatens native biological diversity. In their new regimes they show diverse life forms, habit, morphology, reproductive biology, grow fast, have the ability to grow under different habitats, produce enormous number of very small, light weight seeds that and can - survive in soil for years helping long distance dispersal and spread. They can out-compete native species, reduce wildlife habitat potential, alter natural ecosystem processes and limit overall biodiversity. Ageratum conyzoides is one such widely adaptive weed from sub-tropical America that has entered in the Shivalik hills of Hamrpur district of Himachal Pradesh. It has grown as monocultures, in grasslands, forests, agricultural, plantations and horticultural fields in Himachal Pradesh. Hence, it was decided to evaluate the impact of A. conyzoides on the diversity and floristic compositions of native species. It was found that as compared to control, in the Ageratum invaded area; the average number of plant species has reduced by 32.10%; the a diversity has reduced by 41.21% and the dry biomass of plants has also reduced significantly. It was concluded that invasion of A. conyzoides is drastically affecting the productivity and diversity of the invaded areas in Shivalik hills of Hamirpur district. Key words: Invasive species, biological diversity, shivalik hills. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/792D3E73124 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000077 en Copyright © 2009 Kuldip S. Dogra, Ravinder K. Kohli and Sarvesh K. Sood and Praveen K. Dobhal
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:D06827F8912 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Present status of Ramsar sites in Nepal Gandhiv Kafle and Isidro T Savillo Full Length Research Paper Wetlands cover significant area in Nepal. However, these wetlands are highly under pressure from adverse anthropogenic and natural factors, keeping associated biodiversity under threat. Few wetland inventories have been carried out in Nepal, so the total coverage of wetlands in Nepal is yet to be explored. Nine wetland sites of Nepal are included in Ramsar List till 2009. This article provides a review of updated status of Ramsar sites in Nepal. Key words: Nepal, Ramsar sites, status, wetlands. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/D06827F8912 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000114 en Copyright © 2009 Gandhiv Kafle and Isidro T Savillo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:19A0FFC8927 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Tamarinds' (Tamarindus indica L.) niche tree species diversity characterisation reveals conservation needs and strategies P. Nyadoi , P. Okori, J. B. L. Okullo , J. Obua, K. Burg, Magogo Nasoro, Haji Saleh, A. B. Temu and R. Jamnadass Full Length Research Paper Recently, farmers in East Africa and some other African countries, with technical and research support from government, FAO and World Agroforestry Centre, prioritized tamarind conservation and product development to support livelihood diversification. Just like for most tropical trees; because of past low priority and research neglect, no conservation strategies were yet in place for tamarind. Knowledge on tamarind basic biology, including its niche-tree species diversity required to guide identification of appropriate holistic-economic-ecologically sound conservation strategies was lacking. The goal of this study was to generate East Africa tamarind-niche-tree species diversity knowledge. Specific objectives were to (1) determine tree species which grow in the same niche with tamarind on-farm and in wild (woodlands and riverbank) habitats and (2) assess species diversity in those niches. We therefore hypothesized similarity of species and diversity indices in tamarind-niches among habitats within and among countries in East Africa. The result show regional similarity of species but with significant variation of diversity indices among different habitats within and among similar habitats among countries; Shannon Wiener diversity index H is highest on-farm and poorest in riverbanks (P lt; 0.05). Evidently, farmer commitment to conservation of tamarind and its niche-tree species on-farm would cause sustainability and mitigate for poor diversity in wild habitats. However, diversity restoration in the wild habitats regionally and in all habitats in Uganda would be needed to ensure persistence and connectivity of species essential for long term conservation. Habitat type and country unique diversity indices observed also imply that localised habitat specific and not regional diversity restoration strategies will be applicable for tamarind-niche tree species conservation in East Africa. Wild habitat tree species diversity could be improved among others by enrichment planting with area specific-suitable tree species. Suitable tree species for conservation with tamarind in different habitats within and among countries are documented in this paper. Key words: Conservation, tree species, tamarind niches, biodiversity hot spots, appraisal Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/19A0FFC8927 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000133 en Copyright © 2009 P. Nyadoi , P. Okori, J. B. L. Okullo , J. Obua, K. Burg, Magogo Nasoro, Haji Saleh, A. B. Temu and R. Jamnadass
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:8BC2E2D8942 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Modeling habitat suitability for Grey Crowned-cranes (Balearica regulorum gibbericeps) throughout Uganda Jared A. Stabach, Nadine Laporte and William Olupot Full Length Research Paper Grey Crowned-cranes occur throughout the mixed wetland-grassland habitats of Eastern and Southern Africa. Due primarily to loss of habitat, however, the species is in swift decline over much of its historic range. We present a prediction of habitat suitability throughout Uganda using a Maxent modeling approach, combining presence-only field data collected over the last few decades (1970 - 2006) with remote sensing and climate derived variables. We ran six feature type models, with the Auto feature type model having the best fit to the data (AUC = 0.912). Our results provide detailed information regarding the characteristics of habitats used and highlight specific areas of high habitat suitability for the species. While wetlands were certainly important in the prediction (9.2% contribution), other variables (namely temperature seasonality) were more important within the model (19.5%). Areas of high habitat suitability (defined as gt; 0.6 probability of presence) accounted for only a small amount of the total area throughout the country (5.8 - 6.9%), and were mainly found in the Southwestern corner of the country and along the Albert Nile River. These data provide a statistical basis for extrapolating into areas that have not been surveyed and provide valuable information for the future conservation of the species. Key words: Balearica regulorum gibbericeps, East Africa, Grey Crowned-crane, habitat suitability, maxent, modeling, Uganda. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/8BC2E2D8942 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000096 en Copyright © 2009 Jared A. Stabach, Nadine Laporte and William Olupot
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:30001898971 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Mapping the extend of seagrass meadows of Gulf of mannar biosphere reserve, india using IRS ID satellite imagery Ramaswamy Umamaheswari, Sundararajan Ramachandran and Elavumkudi P. Nobi Full Length Research Paper Gulf of mannar marine biosphere reserve is the first of its kind in India and also in south east Asia. It extends from Rameswaram in the north to Tuticorin in the south. GOM is having a chain of 21 islands running almost parallel to the mainland. These areas are endowed with a combination of ecosystems including mangroves, seagrasses and coral reefs. Remote sensing techniques offer a wide range of possibilities in the study of various ocean related parameters. During the present survey, the occurrence of 12 seagrass species in the islands was verified and is mapped using satellite imagery. The study reported a total of 85.5 sqkm area covered by seagrass beds in Gulf of mannar (GOM) based on IRS- 1D 1998 satellite data and there is a need for the continuous monitoring of the seagrass resources because of its importance to the marine environment. Key words: Gulf of mannar, remote sensing, seagrass, mapping, IRS-ID. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/30001898971 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000091 en Copyright © 2009 Ramaswamy Umamaheswari, Sundararajan Ramachandran and Elavumkudi P. Nobi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:29B41129002 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Correlation of molluscan diversity with physico-chemical characteristics of water of Ramsagar reservoir, India R. K. Garg, R. J. Rao and D. N. Saksena Full Length Research Paper Molluscan diversity, seasonal variations and their correlation with the physico-chemical characteristics of Ramsagar reservoir has been done during March, 2003 to April, 2005. A total of 13 species of molluscs were recorded in the reservoir. Out of which Melania (Plotia) scabra, M. scabra var elegans, Melania striatella and Faunus ater belong to family Melaniidae, Vivipara dissimilis to family Viviparidae, Zootecus chion and Opeas gracile to family Subulinidae, Planorbis (Indoplanorbis) exustus, Anisus (Gyraulus) convexiusculus to family Planorbidae, Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) acuminata, L. luteola, L. pinguis to family Lymneidae and Lamellidens corrianus to family Unionidae. The dominant class, Gastropoda was represented by 12 species, which were observed throughout the year. Amongst the Gastropoda Vivipara dissimilis was most dominant species in the reservoir. The density of Gastropods ranged from 48 (monsoon) org/m2 to 251 org/m2 (summer). Class Pelecypoda, represented by only a single (Lamellidens corrianus), had its minimum population (3 org/m2) in monsoon and maximum population (22 org/m2) in summer. The physico-chemical characteristics of water suggest that the Ramsagar reservoir is a mesotrophic water body (Garg et al., 2008). The values of coefficient of correlation (r) indicate that there is a moderate positive correlation between the gastropods and electrical conductivity, pH, total alkalinity, phosphates, sodium and potassium, while the pelecypods are positively correlated with electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, chlorides, calcium, nitrate-nitrogen, phosphates and potassium. A moderate negative correlation exists between molluscs population with free carbon dioxide in water. Key words: Molluscan diversity, correlation coefficient, Ramsagar reservoir, water quality. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/29B41129002 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000033 en Copyright © 2009 R. K. Garg, R. J. Rao and D. N. Saksena
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:8BD21F28990 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Population structure and abundance of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich) Hochst subsp. birrea in two contrasting land-use systems in Benin Gerard N. Gouwakinnou, Valentin Kindomihou, Achille E. Assogbadjo and Brice Sinsin Full Length Research Paper The importance of indigenous fruit tree species for people living around protected areas is widely acknowledged. There is then a need to assess their conservation status in the current context of increasing human population and pressure around reserves. We investigated the population structure of Sclerocarya birrea, a multiple-use tree species in two land use systems in Northern Benin. Adult density was about nine times higher in the protected area (p lt; 0.001) compared to agroforestry systems (agro-systems). Seedling occurrence was similar in both land use type even though seed germination was best favoured in agro-systems. Saplings and adults with 5 - 20 cm dbh were almost absent in agro-systems. The mean diameter in agroforestry systems was about twice higher than in the protected area. Although a log-linear analysis showed a difference in the size class distributions between land use types (p lt; 0.0001), they were all positively skewed. Greenrsquo;s index showed a clumped distribution in the protected area (0.48) compared to agro-systems (0.05). Population structure variation could mainly be explained by agricultural pressure. Saplings conservation is required in agro-systems to ensure sustainable use. Key words: Population structure, Sclerocarya birrea, land use, agroforestry systems, protected area. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/8BD21F28990 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000112 en Copyright © 2009 Gerard N. Gouwakinnou, Valentin Kindomihou, Achille E. Assogbadjo and Brice Sinsin
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:4E5D1048997 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Agricultural biodiversity for food and nutrient security: The Kenyan perspective Ekesa Beatrice Nakhauka Review Agricultural biodiversity is the first link in the food chain, developed and safeguarded by indigenous people throughout the world and it makes an essential contribution to feeding the world. Kenya has an estimated 35,000 known animal, plant and micro-organism species. Ancient Kenyans participated in farming, hunting and gathering to acquire a variety of foods and they also utilized insects as sources of food. Due to population growth, urbanization, deforestation, pollution and intensive agriculture based on a few crops, species that now sustain humanity are very few. Local species that are not only numerous, fulfilling a variety of needs and adapted to different conditions, but also genetically variable, are being abandoned and lost forever. Changes in agricultural biodiversity have had negative impact on dietary diversity, nutrition and health. This paper first focuses on Kenyarsquo;s ancient agricultural biodiversity, efforts by the government and other agencies to conserve it and its loss over time. The paper goes on to discuss the prevalence of food insecurity and malnutrition levels among rural households in Kenya. Lastly, recommendations that would help enhance agricultural biodiversity and food security to improve the nutrition status of Kenyans have been given. Key words: Agricultural biodiversity, loss, conservation, hunger, Kenya. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/4E5D1048997 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000009 en Copyright © 2009 Ekesa Beatrice Nakhauka
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:20E8E3F9031 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
In vitro embryogenesis and marker guided analysis of podophyllum hexandrum: An endangered medicinal plant Phalisteen Sultan, A. S. Shawl, A. Sheikh Fayaz and P. W. Ramteke Full Length Research Paper For in vitro embryogenesis, excised embryos germinate within a week of inoculation on Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of Plant growth regulators, BA (1.0 - 4.0 mg/l) and IAA (0.5 - 2.0 mg/l). Basal medium with BA concentration (0.5 mg/l) and IAA (1.0 mg/l) showed better results than other combinations and was therefore adopted for further studies. The combination of MS + BA (0.5 mg/l + IAA 1.0 mg/l) supplemented with activated charcoal (0.5 - 1.0%) result in optimum growth ofPodophyllum hexandrum plantlets. Comparative chemotaxonomic studies were done to investigate the phylogenetic relationship of different accessions within the Podophyllum species. Chemical profiles demonstrated that all Podophyllum hexandrum accessions collected from different geographical regions are chemically diverse. Chemotaxonomic data showed that chemical characters of the investigated species were able to generate essentially the same relationship as revealed by RAPD analysis. The study has revealed that maximum amount of the podophyllotoxin (5.97%) and podophyllotoxin b-D glycoside (5.72%) was present in the Podophyllum population collected from Keller (Shopian) and Khilanmarg (Gulmarg) area of Jammu and Kashmir, respectively. Key words: Podophyllum, podophyllotoxin, quantitative, metabolite, chemotaxonomic. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/20E8E3F9031 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000083 en Copyright © 2009 Phalisteen Sultan, A. S. Shawl, A. Sheikh Fayaz and P. W. Ramteke
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:A97DD4E9093 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Germplasm conservation of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) by encapsulation of in vitro derived nodal segments M. Kumara Swamy, S. Balasubramanya and M. Anuradha Full Length Research Paper Encapsulation of in vitro derived nodal segments of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) was done successfully by employing sodium alginate gel. Among various concentrations of sodium alginate tried to optimize the strength of the bead, 4% sodium alginate produced firm beads and showed the highest percentage of shoot emergence (73.3%). The best storage temperature was found to be 25deg;C. The encapsulated beads retained regeneration potentiality up to 6 months and later gradually declined. Browning and loss of regeneration was more after 9 months. Various growth regulating factors (6- benzyl adenine, kinetin, coconut water and tomato juice) at different concentrations were tested for their conversion frequency of encapsulated buds. Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with 2.22 M/l 6- benzyl adenine showed the highest conversion percentage (91.1%) followed by, 10% coconut water (85.4%). Plants retrieved from the encapsulated buds were rooted on half strength Murashige and Skoog basal medium and acclimatized successfully in the soil. This technology can be adopted for ex situ germplasm conservation of elite plants of patchouli. Key words: Conversion frequency, germplasm conservation, growth regulators, encapsulated buds, patchouli. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/A97DD4E9093 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000068 en Copyright © 2009 M. Kumara Swamy, S. Balasubramanya and M. Anuradha
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:9BF59C29111 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Ecology and conservation needs of nymphalid butterflies in disturbed tropical forest of eastern Himalayan biodiversity hotspot, Assam, India Malabika Kakati Saikia, J. Kalita and P. K. Saikia Full Length Research Paper We examine the hypothesis, whether the diversity of Nymphalid butterflies in primary forest is related to vegetation structure and canopy openness and that this relationship differs between butterfly taxa in relation to phylogenetic differences in light and shade preferences. The study also examines whether the increasing diversity of butterflies in degraded tropical forest is associated with the loss of species with restricted geographical distribution. Present study has considered eight habitat parameters for habitat data collections and the t-test using equal variance, spearman rank correlation and multiple regressions were used for statistical analyses. Species diversity was analyzed using Margalefrsquo;s D indices that indicate both the species richness and abundance. Bootstrap method was used to compare the diversity among samples. PCA was carried out to examine the relationship between vegetation structure and species diversity in primary and degraded forest. The relationship between vegetation factor scores and species diversity at each sampling station in primary and degraded forest was analyzed using stepwise multiple regression. Results indicates that the butterflies species sampled in closed canopy forest had more restricted geographical distribution than those being sampled in disturbed forest. The species with greater light preference had significantly wider geographical distribution, whereas, the species with greater shade preferences had significantly narrower geographical distributions. The stepwise analysis of multiple regressions between the diversity indices of shade groups of butterflies and vegetation density (PRIN1) of closed forest shows a significant positive relationship, but the relationship was negative when similar analysis was performed between species diversity indices of light preferred Nymphalid groups and vegetation density. Results indicate that the greater numbers of closed canopy forest butterflies are sensitive to changes in moisture availability and humidity. Thus, changes in canopy cover and light penetration, through microclimatic effects on adult and larval survival, does have an impact on butterfly distributions. While, the species richness and diversity are higher in forest gaps, the conservation value of close canopy forest lies more in the presence of species with restricted ranges. Owing to loss of heterogeneous vegetation in degraded forest, the dense canopy cover and transparent ground cover has been reduced and thus declination of forest butterflies species. Study has clearly indicated the strong and significant relationship between the species of narrow range of geographical distribution and species shade preference. The restricted ranges species are affected due to forest degradation. Thus, clearly bringing into light, that increasing diversity in degraded forest is associated with the loss of species with restricted geographical distribution. Out of seven gap preferred shade group of butterflies, two have wide geographical distribution and the other five have medium range distribution. Thus, there is a strong phylogenetic relationship between the genera of light preferred shade loving group of butterflies and the butterflies of light loving group and the genera of shade preferred light loving group of butterflies and the butterflies of shade loving group. Key words: Ecology, closed canopy forests, conservation, degraded forests, endemic species, geographic distribution range, light and shade groups, nymphalid butterflies, phylogeny, tropical forests. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/9BF59C29111 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000048 en Copyright © 2009 Malabika Kakati Saikia, J. Kalita and P. K. Saikia
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:50569C59127 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2009
Insect biodiversity in Kuwait Wasmia Al-Houty Full Length Research Paper Natural causes, together with the deliberate destruction of the environment with the objective of forcing political, military and means of civilization have resulted in great deterioration of the environment. The insect fauna of Kuwait has suffered from such destructions, resulting in some becoming extinct, while others are threatened with extinction from Kuwait desert, however, others still flourishing. This contribution records the status of the entomo-fauna in Kuwait prior to the Gulf War (from 1980 - 1990), and after the Gulf War (from 1992 - 2008), including the effects of new modern dwellings and severe draught. During the first period 474 species of insects were recorded from Kuwait (356 genera, 109 families, 19 orders) but the numbers of species increased to 492 (273 genera, 116 families, 19 orders) during the second period. The differences are caused by disappearance and re-appearance. This study wills discus the reasons for increase, disappearance and reappearance of insects in the desert ecosystem of Kuwait. Key words: Kuwait, insects, Gulf War, human activities, extinction, threatened with extinction, flourish. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/50569C59127 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000084 en Copyright © 2009 Wasmia Al-Houty
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:50FA4FA12055 2010-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Pollination: A threatened vital biodiversity service to humans and the environment Gordian C. Obute Review Pollination is one major biodiversity service that cannot be adequately quantified economically yet the variety of approaches nature has engaged to accomplish it is hardly appreciated. In this review, the types and agents of pollination, faunal and floral architectural and behavioural adaptations and special rare cases of pollination syndromes are highlighted. Anthropogenic roles that have resulted of threats to pollination and pollinators were identified as habitat fragmentation and loss, deforestation, desertification, industrial and infrastructural development. These eventually impinge on the unique ecological and economic services that pollination renders to sustain life on planet earth. Key words: Pollination, biodiversity, floral architecture, faunal behaviour. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/50FA4FA12055 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000109 en Copyright © 2010 Gordian C. Obute
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:AD866F012063 2010-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Vegetational diversity along an altitudinal range in Garhwal Himalaya Jagdish Chandra, Vardan Singh Rawat, Y. S. Rawat and Jeet Ram Full Length Research Paper Four forest habitats varying in different vegetation were studied along an altitudinal range of 1900-2200 m called low elevation forests. These forests were close to human habitation with high disturbance. A total of 209 plant species were recorded out of which 29 were trees, 50 shrubs, 102 herbs, 11 climbers, 7 epiphytes, 4 pteridophytes, 3 bryophytes and 3 parasites. Maximum tree species were recorded on moist site (22) and minimum on ridge site (12). Maximum shrub species were present both on stream bank and dry site (31 at each site). Maximum herb and climber species were present on dry and moist site (62 and 8) respectively. Species relationship between the sites indicates that 11 trees, 20 shrubs, 41 herbs, 4 climbers, 2 pteridophytes, 1 bryophyte and 2 parasites were common in stream bank and dry site. The mean tree, shrub and herb species richness was maximum on stream bank (6.3 plusmn; 0.2), moist (6.1 plusmn; 0.3) and dry (10.3 plusmn; 0.4) and minimum on ridge site (4.6 plusmn; 0.3), (5.5 plusmn; 0.4), (7.6 plusmn; 0.5) respectively. Comparison similarity between the sites revealed maximum similarity among stream bank and moist sites (70%) for trees and minimum between ridge and moist site (32.43%) for herbs. The high similarity index between moist and stream bank site may be due to similar environmental conditions on both the sites. Key words: Species richness, study sites, vegetation, Garhwal Himalaya. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/AD866F012063 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000150 en Copyright © 2010 Jagdish Chandra, Vardan Singh Rawat, Y. S. Rawat and Jeet Ram
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:E8C49F312076 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Land reclamation efforts in Haller Park, Mombasa Stanford M. Siachoono Review Land reclamation of derelict landscapes, until in recent times, was a rare experience, especially in developing countries. This has however changed with the adoption of environmental policies and legislative frameworks in most countries in the world. This drive was mainly inspired by the conservation strategies developed and promoted by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). This article is a presentation of the findings and observations that led to successful land reclamation by the cement factory. Steps taken for this reclamation effort were of prime interest to the author and were retraced resulting in this position paper. A comparative approach is used, given the conventional methods that most projects of this nature employ. Most of the environmental and land degradation are caused by profit motivated industries who do nothing or very little to repair the damage caused in the course of their work. The Haller Park at the Bamburi Cement factory in Mombasa, Kenya is a rare success of land reclamation in Africa. The common approach in land reclamation in the past 20 years has been through the use of economic valuation techniques such as the contingent valuation method (CVM) to put a value on public goods such as land. This technique is done through the employment questionnaires that solicit for the willingness to pay (WTP) or the willingness to accept (WTA) from the affected respondents. This technique may be used together with a travel cost method (TCM) that is an indirect method that attempts to find the price for an environmental good. In this case no such method was used, but the result is a big success perhaps owing largely to workable strategies by the cement factory. The steps taken, using selected plant species, to reclaim the derelict landscape, resulting from excavation for limestone required for the cement factory are traced to give the perfect park for tourists, both local and foreign. Key words: CVM ndash; contingent valuation method, TCM- travel cost method, WTP- willingness to pay, WTA- willingness to accept. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/E8C49F312076 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000088 en Copyright © 2010 Stanford M. Siachoono
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:5422C6A12085 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Sighting of Eurasian griffon, Gyps fulvus and conservation of vultures in North Madhya Pradesh, India S. R. Taigor Full Length Research Paper Vultures, naturersquo;s most efficient scavengers, are on the verge of extinction. Nine species of vultures were recorded from the Indian sub-continent, of which, five belong to the genusGyps while the others are monotypic. Historically, and until recently, the White-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis, Long-billed vulture Gyps indicus and Slender-billed Gyps tenuirostris vultures were by far the most populous species in India. Over the last decade, however, there has been a drastic crash in the populations of these vultures over most parts of the country. Eurasian Griffon was recorded for the first time on 21 February, 2008 in Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh. Study carried out from March, 2003 - December, 2008 has claimed, sightings and nesting sites of vultures in (Sheopur, Morena Datia, Gwalior and Tikamgarh district) north Madhya Pradesh, India were recorded. Key words: Vulture, Gyps spp., Kuno, sanctuary, scavenger. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/5422C6A12085 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000124 en Copyright © 2010 S. R. Taigor
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:EF2EF4712103 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Propagation studies in Farsetia aegyptia Turra Majda Khalil Suleiman, Narayana Ramachandra Bhat, Mehdi Saleh Abdal, Sameeha Zaman, Sheena Jacob and Rini Rachel Thomas Short Communication Native plants are key components of the global biological diversity, and are highly adapted to the local environmental and climatic conditions. As Kuwaitrsquo;s native plants are threatened in their natural habitat and have begun to disappear at an alarming rate, their use in landscape projects will help in conserving biodiversity and heritage. Farsetia aegyptia Turra. is a grey green, exceedingly rare woody perennial with potential to adapt to urban landscape conditions. In this study, efforts were made to standardize the techniques for mass propagation of F. aegyptia. Results indicated that pre-treating F. aegyptia seeds with 1000 ppm (78%), 750 ppm (77%), and 500 ppm (76%) GA3 was effective in enhancing the germination, compared to the control (49%). Key words: Urban landscape, greenery development, bio-diversity, conservation of native plants, Farsetia aegyptia. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/EF2EF4712103 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000116 en Copyright © 2010 Majda Khalil Suleiman, Narayana Ramachandra Bhat, Mehdi Saleh Abdal, Sameeha Zaman, Sheena Jacob and Rini Rachel Thomas
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:BA8B9D912111 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
A checklist of desmids of Lekki lagoon, Nigeria Taofikat Abosede Adesalu and Dike Ikegwu Nwankwo Full Length Research Paper This paper presents a pioneer investigation of the desmids of Lekki lagoon, located in Epe Local Government area of Lagos State. Samples were collected monthly for two years (June, 2003 - May, 2005) using standard plankton net of 55 m mesh size. Seventy three taxa were observed, the genera Closterium (16), Gonatozygon (5), Penium (2),Cosmarium (8), Desmidium (3), Docidium (2), Hyalotheca (2), Pleurotaenium (2),Spondylosium (4) and Staurastrum (29). Thirty-three of these taxa have not been documented for Nigeria as compared with other relevant work while they all represented the first list for the Lekki lagoon. Key words: Tropical lagoon, freshwater, desmids, checklist, diversity. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/BA8B9D912111 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000003 en Copyright © 2010 Taofikat Abosede Adesalu and Dike Ikegwu Nwankwo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:0C3024012121 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Biodiversity and conservation of plant genetic resources in the Field Genebank of the National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Ibadan, Nigeria Temitope Israel Borokini, Anthony Ugochukwu Okere, Alexander Olusesan Giwa, B. O. Daramola and Wasiu Tiwalade Odofin Full Length Research Paper This study was conducted to determine the biodiversity of the plant collections at the National Field Genebank at the National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (NACGRAB), with the view of evaluating the conservation strategy of the ex situconservation of recalciterant crops in the genebank for effective conservation and sustainable utilization. The results reveal that three hundred and sixty-one plants were identified in the field gene bank, spread across ninety-six plant families. The studies further show that the family Caesalpiniaceae has the highest number (20) of represented plant species; followed by Euphorbiaceae and Rubiaceae, each having nineteen representative plant species each. The location of the National Field Genebank at NACGRAB in Ibadan, on the latitude 7deg; 22rsquo; North of the equator and longitude 3deg; 50rsquo; East of the Greenwich Meridian, was found to have a positive effect on the adaptability of the plants collected from various different ecological and geographical zones of the country, since it was observed that Ibadan has a somewhat transitory climate between the moist tropical forests and the dry savanna regions of the country, both extreme zones being the natural habitats of some of the plant germplasms in the Field Genebank. The advantage of ex situ live collections overin situ conservation in terms of protection of the collections in Nigeria was also stressed. The need to establish more ex situ live collections in the different climatic zones of the Country to facilitate more conservation activities is also emphasized. Some of the endangered and endemic plant species yet to be collected and conserved are enumerated, so as to receive attention from conservation scientists in Nigeria. Key words: Biodiversity, conservation, NACGRAB, Ibadan. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/0C3024012121 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000015 en Copyright © 2010 Temitope Israel Borokini, Anthony Ugochukwu Okere, Alexander Olusesan Giwa, B. O. Daramola and Wasiu Tiwalade Odofin
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:58341F012131 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Estimation of blue sheep population parameters in the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, Nepal Achyut Aryal, Sven Gastaur, Steffen Menzel, Til Bahadur Chhetri and Jack B. Hopkins Full Length Research Paper Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) are the main prey species of snow leopards (Uncia uncia)and are a highly coveted species in Nepal. Currently, the conservation of blue sheep in Nepal is a national concern because it is not clear if populations were affected by the Maoist insurgency beginning in 1996. For this study, we estimated population parameters for blue sheep in the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve and compared these estimates to studies conducted pre-insurgency. We found that the number (206 sheep) and density (1.8 sheep/km) of sheep in the Barse and Phagune Blocks (study area) have not changed since 1993 and 1976, respectively. A mean of 7 animals/herd from 29 herds were classified by sex. The mean sex ratio was higher for 2006 and 2008 counts (4.82 males/female, SD = 2.52) than pre-insurgency counts (0.82 males/female, SD = 0.06) however there was no significant difference between sex ratios. The proportion of ewes in the population was lower than a 2006 count, but similar to pre-insurgency counts.Population age structure was less variable in 2008 than previous counts. More young rams and fewer ewes were counted since 2006, which may have been due to misclassification of females and/or less poaching pressure on young males. Recent hunting pressure by insurgents may have reduced ewe population numbers, and as a result, lambs numbers. Key words: Blue sheep, Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, herd size, population density, population size, Pseudois nayaur, sex ratio. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/58341F012131 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000052 en Copyright © 2010 Achyut Aryal, Sven Gastaur, Steffen Menzel, Til Bahadur Chhetri and Jack B. Hopkins
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:F6A53AA12146 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Desert oases as genetic refugia of heritage crops: Persistence of forgotten fruits in the Mission orchards of Baja California, Mexico Gary Paul Nabhan, Jesus Garcia, Rafael Routson, Kanin Routson and Micheline Carintilde;o-Olvera Full Length Research Paper The first introductions of agricultural crops to desert oases of Baja California, Mexico were initiated by Jesuit missionaries between 1697 and 1768 and historic records from these Jesuits provided a detailed benchmark by which temporal changes in agro-biodiversity can be measured. Longitudinal studies at the agricultural oases on the Baja California peninsula of Mexico can help determine whether such isolated ldquo;islandsrdquo; of cultivation function as refugia or de facto reserves for in situ conservation of eighteen perennial species introduced by Jesuits. We compared survivorship of these historically introduced perennials at nine oases and determined that at least fifteen of the original eighteen Mission-era introductions of perennial species persist at these Baja California oases and one additional species persists on the peninsula outside of its original historic context. Despite this level of overall persistence, no species is cultivated in all nine oases. The archipelago of cultivated oases in Baja California should be considered as an aggregate worthy of conservation investments, rather than assuming that any single oasis is sufficient to maintain all historic varieties in the future. We use an analysis of the ldquo;forgotten fruitsrdquo; of Baja Californiarsquo;s missions and ranchos to propose that the theory of island biogeography may be applicable to conservation planning for agro-biodiversity, as it has been for wild biodiversity nested in isolated habitats. Key words: Agro-biodiversity; in situ conservation, desert oases, heritage foods, heirloom fruits, Mexico, island biogeography, genetic erosion, Baja California. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/F6A53AA12146 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000035 en Copyright © 2010 Gary Paul Nabhan, Jesus Garcia, Rafael Routson, Kanin Routson and Micheline Carintilde;o-Olvera
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:15CDF7212154 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Occurrence of endosymbiont Richelia intracellularis (Cyanophyta) within the diatom Rhizosolenia hebetata in the Northern Arabian Sea K. B. Padmakumar, N. R. Menon and V. N. Sanjeevan Full Length Research Paper The presence of diazotrophic cyanobacterium Richelia intracellularis Schmidt as an endosymbiont of Rhizosolenia hebetata was observed in the phytoplankton samples collected from the Northern Arabian Sea during the fag end of winter monsoon (February - March). R. hebetata formed 80% Rhizosolenia population and 60% of this species harboured endosymbiotic cyanobacterium R. intracellularis. This is an indication that Richelia-Rhizosolenia interaction could have a significant influence on nutrient and energy budgets of the Northern Arabian Sea. Key words: Rhizosolenia, diatom, Richelia intracellularis, cyanobacteria, Northern Arabian Sea. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/15CDF7212154 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000100 en Copyright © 2010 K. B. Padmakumar, N. R. Menon and V. N. Sanjeevan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:C09D5E912167 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Patterns of diversity, abundance and habitat associations of butterfly communities in heterogeneous landscapes of the department of atomic energy (DAE) campus at Kalpakkam, South India T. Ramesh, K. Jahir Hussain, M. Selvanayagam, K. K. Satpathy and M. V. R. Prasad Full Length Research Paper The diversity of butterflies inhabiting the department of atomic energy campus at Kalpakkam was recorded through a modified line transect methodology by setting a permanent line transect of 300 m and recoding all species of butterflies observed within a five meter distance around the observer. Five habitats within the campus viz., Garden, Scrub jungle, Riparian woods, Sandy area and Casuarina plantation (Monoculture) were evaluated for analysis of the association of the butterfly species with the habitat. A total of 1908 individuals representing 55 species were observed across the five habitat types. Out of these, members belonging to the family Nymphalidae was the most common with 20 species being recorded accounting for 36.3% of total species and 53.6% of total number of individuals collected. The maximum diversity and abundance was observed in the scrub jungle and garden area; these two habitats sharing 29 species among themselves. The species accumulation curve and rarefaction curves computed indicated the likelihood of encountering more number of species in the campus had inventory been more rigorous and extended. The butterfly species viz.,Danaus chrysippus, Castalius rosimon, Tirumala septentrionis, Ariadne merione, Appears libythea and Cepora nerissa preferred scrub jungle and garden habitats than the other habitats. The species profile of butterfly communities associated with different habitat and the importance of avian predation in the campus were also discussed in detail. Key words: Butterfly, species composition, habitat association, DAE campus. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/C09D5E912167 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000103 en Copyright © 2010 T. Ramesh, K. Jahir Hussain, M. Selvanayagam, K. K. Satpathy and M. V. R. Prasad
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:F151F4C12175 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Copepoda and Branchiopoda from Tunisian temporary waters Souad Turki and Brahim Turki Full Length Research Paper Copepoda and Branchiopoda from Tunisian temporary waters were collected from 92 sampling stations along five distinct areas, namely the Northern, the Medjerda, the Cap Bon-Miliane, the Central and the Southern basins during the wet season (October to March) throughout the period 1994 - 1997. The aim of the present survey is to update and increase the knowledge on species diversity and richness in Tunisian temporary waters. The community comprised of 32 Copepoda, 32 Cladocera, 7 Anostraca, 2 Notostraca and 2 Spinicaudata. The recorded fauna has two origins ; Ethiopian and Palaearctic. Several taxa have a strictly Mediterranean range, but among the cladocerans and cyclopoids, cosmopolitan species were also collected. The highest cladoceran species richness was recorded in central Tunisian basin (27 species). Copepods were well diversified in the Medjerda basin (18 species). Anostraca, Notostraca and Spinicaudata exhibited restricted occurrence to Central and Cap Bon-Miliane basins. Cladoceran species dominated the community in the Oued Bouguel basin. The study confirms the existence of 8 newly recorded species in these specific ecosystems. Key words: Copepoda, Branchiopoda, temporary waters, richness, diversity, Tunisia. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/F151F4C12175 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000031 en Copyright © 2010 Souad Turki and Brahim Turki
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:1F5A8D212247 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Biodiversity conservation in community forests of Nepal: Rhetoric and reality Uttam Babu Shrestha, Bharat Babu Shrestha and Sujata Shrestha Review Community forests management in Nepal has been exemplified as one of the most successful programs for participatory resource management. The success of community forestry is described in terms of restoring degraded land and habitats, conserving biodiversity, increasing supply of forest products, empowering women and disadvantaged groups, generating rural incomes, and developing human resources. However, the contribution of existing community forest management practices to biodiversity conservation in the form of enhancing species diversity and ecosystem functioning is questionable. We reviewed the role of community forest management practices to biodiversity conservation based on published materials and our own observations. Practices such as seedling plantation; controlling wildlife hunting, forest fire and grazing; regulating forest encroachment; protecting soil erosion prone area and water resource area assist biodiversity conservation, paradoxically other practices such as species selection; removal of unwanted species during silvicultural activities; leaf litter collection; elite dominance in decision making; and traditional knowledge depletion have detrimental impact on biological diversity and ecosystem function of community managed forest. Key words: Ecosystem function, knowledge gap, silvicultural practices, socioeconomy heterogeneity, species preference. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/1F5A8D212247 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000016 en Copyright © 2010 Uttam Babu Shrestha, Bharat Babu Shrestha and Sujata Shrestha
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:49B40C512250 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Enrichment planting of an understory palm: Effect of micro-environmental factors on seedling establishment, growth, and survival Hayley A. Kilroy, and David L. Gorchov Full Length Research Paper Although extraction of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) is considered an ecologically sustainable source of income, NTFP populations are vulnerable to depletion. The community of Alta Cima in the El Cielo Biosphere Reserve in Tamaulipas, Mexico, has conducted enrichment plantings of Chamaedorea radicalis, an important NTFP in northeastern Mexico, in forest areas near the village to supplement wild populations and increase the sustainability of harvesting. To gain an understanding of planting methods that will maximize the value of enrichment plantings, we assessed microsite environmental conditions to determine which factors aid establishment, growth, and survival of seedlings. We assessed two methods of seed planting. In 2006 and 2007, we measured seedlings in areas planted with seeds and seedling transplants in 2003 and measured several micro-environmental parameters. Sites with fewer overhead foliage layers had higher seedling establishment, growth, and one-year survival (seedling transplants only). Seedlings located at farther distances from saplings or trees had longer leaves (seedlings planted as seed) or a greater number of leaves (seedling transplants). Seedling transplants had higher survival to four years, but the labor costs of planting seedling transplants were five times greater per surviving seedling. These results suggest that the best management practice of C. radicalis enrichment plantings is direct seeding in areas with high light availability. Key words: Chamaedorea radicalis, enrichment planting, non-timber forest products, El cielo Biosphere Reserve, Tamaulipas. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/49B40C512250 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000049 en Copyright © 2010 Hayley A. Kilroy, and David L. Gorchov
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:77A018312254 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Variation of turbulent mixing parameters at the Egyptian Mediterranean coast S. H. Sharaf El Din, F. M. Eid, N. N. Saad, K. A. Alam El Din, M. El Sharkawy Full Length Research Paper The analysis of the turbulent mixing structure is accomplished by the dynamical computations of the mixing parameters represented by: buoyancy frequency (N), viscous dissipation (epsilon;), turbulent kinetic energy (E), Richardson number (Ri), Reynolds stress, diffusive salt flux (DSF), diffusive heat flux (DHF). In general the computations show that, the water column becomes more stable and less stratified at the deeper layers. Also, the dynamical processes of vertical turbulent mixing are stronger in the surface layers. Key words: Mediterranean sea, turbulence mixing. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/77A018312254 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000148 en Copyright © 2010 S. H. Sharaf El Din, F. M. Eid, N. N. Saad, K. A. Alam El Din, M. El Sharkawy
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:C7FC5DC12259 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Haematological studies of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to diesel and drilling fluid in Lagos, Nigeria Saliu Joseph Kayode and Salami Adekunle Shamusideen Full Length Research Paper Haematological changes in Oreochromis niloticus after exposure to diesel (23.4 mg/L) and drilling fluid (492 mg/L) for 28 days was investigated. The blood parameters of O. niloticusrevealed a significant decrease in haemoglobin only in fish exposed to drilling fluid and mean cellular volume (MCV), in both diesel and drilling fluid. Blood parameters of the fish such as mean cellular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cellular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) increased significantly in both treatments. Significant increase in thrombocytes was also observed although only in fishes exposed to diesel. Diesel and drilling fluid evoked significant changes in the haematological parameters of O. niloticus, a fish that has great potentials in the culture fishery of Nigeria. Key words: Haematology, Oreochromis niloticus, diesel, drilling fluid, Nigeria, Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/C7FC5DC12259 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000071 en Copyright © 2010 Saliu Joseph Kayode and Salami Adekunle Shamusideen
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:8CFEAD112612 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Earthworm resources in the Gangetic Plain of Uttar Pradesh, India Deepshikha Verma, Shachi Bharti and Shweta Full Length Research Paper Based on an extensive survey of Gangetic Plain of Uttar Pradesh during August ndash; October 2008, the communication reports first-hand information on 11 taxa of earthworms belonging to 6 genera and 2 families, that were commonly found in the study area. This constitutes 26.3% of total Indian earthworm fauna. Of these, 4 taxa are exotic with extra Indian origin. The information on their scientific names, family, distribution, locality and voucher specimen no.(s), habitat, soil texture etc are given for each species enumerated in the text. The study contributes first-hand material on earthworm fauna of the study area, thus for neglecting and likely to add more native species to the existing ones which are very specific for vermicomposting process. Key words: Biodiversity, earthworm, agro-climatic zones, Gangetic Plain, India. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/8CFEAD112612 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000045 en Copyright © 2010 Deepshikha Verma, Shachi Bharti and Shweta
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:41A342812625 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Mass multiplication of Celastrus paniculatus willd: An important medicinal plant under in vitro conditions via nodal segments Devi Lal and Narender Singh Full Length Research Paper A rapid clonal propagation system has been developed for Celastrus paniculatus(Celastraceae) an important medicinal plant under in vitro conditions. Nodal explants from mature plant of this species were collected and cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg l-1) of cytokinins (BAP and Kn) and auxins (IAA, NAA and 2, 4-D) alone and in various combinations under controlled condition of 16 h of photoperiod and 8 h dark period at a temperature of 25 plusmn; 2deg;C. The maximum number of shoots (8.9 plusmn; 0.5) along with hundred per cent bud break was recorded in the MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mgl-1 BAP. Most of the combinations of cytokinins with IAA induced the formation of less number of shoots. The in vitro regenerated shoots were excised aseptically and implanted on full and half strength MS medium without or with growth regulators (IAA, NAA and IBA) at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mgl-1 for rooting. MS half strength medium supplemented with 0.5 mgl-1 NAA proved best with hundred per cent rooting. The regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in pots containing sterilized soil and sand mixture (3:1). The plantlets were then transferred to the field conditions. Seventy per cent of the regenerants survived well. Key words: Micropropagation, nodal segments, multiple shoots, Celastrus paniculatus. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/41A342812625 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000092 en Copyright © 2010 Devi Lal and Narender Singh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:9291CC812636 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Impact of nomadic grazing on medicinal plants diversity in Miandam, Swat-Pakistan (Preliminary results) Hassan Sher, Ashiq Ahmad, Mohammad Eleyemeni, Syed Fazl-i-Hadi and Hazrat Sher Full Length Research Paper The coniferous forest play vital role to support the livelihood of rural poor and provides goodecological services for the maintenance of ecosystem. In this context the present study was initiated with the aim to evaluate the impact of nomadic grazing on the plant diversity, with special focus on medicinal flora. Comparisons were made between two sites; one protected from grazing for about seven years, the other being exposed to continuous nomadic grazing. Results of the survey showed that nomadic grazing poses serious threat to the occurrence and the distribution of medicinal flora. The area protected from nomadic grazing showed better vegetation cover and medicinal plant diversity. In August 2007, 33 medicinal plant species were found in the unprotected site, while 78 species were recorded in the protected site. It was also found that the medicinal plants diversity had decreased in the former site by about 90%. Moreover, two species Paeonia emodi andPodophyllum emodi had completely disappeared from the nomadically-grazed area. It was also observed that overgrazing had negative impact on the natural regeneration of conifers: 66 saplings were counted per ha in the grazed area compared to 840 saplings observed in the protected area. The study also observed that the availability of economically and therapeutically important plant species is decreasing and the number of rare and threatened species among the medicinal plants is increasing in the area. Further study is, therefore, required to quantify the availability of species and to suggest suitable method for their production and conservation. Key words: Nomadic grazing, plant diversity, protected area, unprotected area. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/9291CC812636 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000080 en Copyright © 2010 Hassan Sher, Ashiq Ahmad, Mohammad Eleyemeni, Syed Fazl-i-Hadi and Hazrat Sher
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:1C699BC12658 2010-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Evaluation of the impact of Lantana camara L. invasion, on four major woody shrubs, along Nayar river of Pauri Garhwal, in Uttarakhand Himalaya Parveen Kumar Dobhal, Ravinder Kumar Kohli and Daizy Rani Batish Full Length Research Paper Situated in North-Western Himalayas, owing to large variations in the altitude and climatic zones, Pauri Garhwal possesses a rich diversity of flora and fauna. Composition and structure of vegetation of the Garhwal region is being modified due to the invasion ofLantana camara L. Its rapid spreading, entangling nature of canopy of many individuals of a population and allelopathic nature pose serious threat to native forest flora. Beside its natural tendency to invade, the area having sub-tropical climate integrates suitably to its luxurious growth. Z. mauritiana Lam., M. koenigii (L.) Spreng, J. adhatoda L. and C. opacaStapf ex Haines are four native shrub species found abundantly along Nayar river of Garhwal Himalaya. In this study, impact of L. camara invasion on these four major native shrubs was determined. Further, effort was made to correlate it with plant morphology and nutrient status of soil. Although, L. camara upsets importance value indices (IVI) of all four shrubs, its impact on M. koenigii and J. adhatoda was relatively more alarming, later was found to have morphologically weak structure and meager distribution in L. camara invaded localities of study area. It appeared that in comparison to other shrubs, owing to their morphology these two shrubs were subjected to greater competition against L. camara.The decrease in population of these major shrub species will have crucial effect on associated species and consequently on whole ecosystem. Key words: Competition, Himalaya, invasive, Lantana, shrub. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/1C699BC12658 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000055 en Copyright © 2010 Parveen Kumar Dobhal, Ravinder Kumar Kohli and Daizy Rani Batish
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:E008A7512679 2010-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Conservation of Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco (River mangrove, Khalsi): A new approach of vegetative propagation through hypocotylar juvenile stem cuttings Basak Uday Chand and Mahapatra Ajay Kumar Full Length Research Paper Clonal propagation method through induction of adventitious rooting in hypocotyl-plus-stem (HpS) and juvenile-stem (JS) cuttings was reported in Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco (khalsi), mangrove plant of coastal Orissa, India. The induction of adventitious roots is an essential process in vegetative propagation. Adventitious rooting in above cuttings was induced by exogenous application of root promoting substances (RPS) viz. IBA and NAA in four combinations under mist house conditions. Significant increase in rooting response (76.70%) and root number (4.48 per cutting) were recorded in the HpS cuttings treated with IBA 1.0 mg/l + NAA 5.0 mg/l (T2). However, the JS cuttings under same treatment (T2) showed maximum root length (4.30 cm per cutting). Though, untreated HpS cuttings responded to induction of rooting (16.70 %), JS cuttings failed to produce any adventitious root without RPS. Anatomically, all the treated cuttings responded to rooting process by forming lsquo;root primordiarsquo; after 10 days of treatment in HpS and 20 days in case of JS cuttings. The lsquo;root emergencersquo; took place after 30 days of treatment in HpS and 40 days in case of JS cuttings. Biochemically, prompt and significantly highest adventitious rooting capability (in terms of percent rooting and mean root number per cutting) of HpS cuttings might be due to presence of higher level of indigenous storage carbohydrate (starch and soluble sugar) and soluble protein in the rooting zone as compared to JS stem cuttings. The present study, thus, highlights a viable process of adventitious root formation by analyzing anatomical and biochemical evidences which may open a new avenue for mass production of planting materials through clonal propagation using cryptoviviparous hypocotyls of Aegiceras corniculatum, a naturally depleted but economically important mangrove plant of Orissa, India. Key words: Adventitious rooting, carbohydrate, protein, root primordia, root promoting substances. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/E008A7512679 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000028 en Copyright © 2010 Basak Uday Chand and Mahapatra Ajay Kumar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:8A8697612696 2010-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Quantitative analysis of R&D output on plantation crops in India P. Senthilkumaran, A. Amudhavalli and G. Govindasamy Full Length Research Paper The study examines Indiarsquo;s performance in Plantation Crops literature published during 1998 - 2007. The study was undertaken using Horticultural Science Database. The plantation crops are high value commercial crops of greater economic importance and play a vital role in our Indian economy. India enjoys the pride of leading in the production of plantation crops throughout the world. Hence, the Ramp;D activity is assumed to be very high on this subject. The major plantation crops are coconut, arecanut, rubber, tea, coffee, oil palm, cashew and cocoa. Amongst these categories, quantum of publications on lsquo;coconutrsquo; is found to be the largest followed by tea in India. This paper investigates the most prolific authors, primary institutions and key journals in major plantation crops are identified and critically examined for its features. Key words: Plantation crops, quantitative analysis, scientometics, Ramp;D output. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/8A8697612696 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000119 en Copyright © 2010 P. Senthilkumaran, A. Amudhavalli and G. Govindasamy
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:41BDB3F12711 2010-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Mechanisms for sustainable use of biodiversity in and beyond natural ecosystems: A study on conservation and commercial production of P. africana in Uganda Ben B. Mugula, Bauke J. de Vries and Susan W. Bingi Full Length Research Paper The increasing demand for Prunus africana resources is an opportunity for its conservation and commercial use to support livelihoods in Africa. The objective for this study was to investigate major steps to advance production of P. africana for long-term commercial use in Uganda. Specific objectives were to explore potential production schemes, setbacks in production and strategies to advance it. The study was done by review of literature, documents and interviews with experts. Results indicated agroforestry and large plantations to be useful schemes for production. Identified setbacks are: low trade in P. africana, unknown returns from production, competing land uses, long growth period, limited market assurance and information. The lack of a resource assessment forP. africana in forests contributes to its low trade which undermines related economic benefits for national development and incentives to commercial production. We propose that a national Quantitative resource assessment of P. africana in forests is one of the crucial steps that should be undertaken to carefully organise and advance sustainable trade to provide rational incentives for commercial production. Subsequently, production should be localised in suitable sites and producers be organised into cooperatives. Further research to improve returns from commercial production of P. africana is needed. Key words: Prunus africana, sustainable use, biotrade, certification, agroforestry, natural resource management. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/41BDB3F12711 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000094 en Copyright © 2010 Ben B. Mugula, Bauke J. de Vries and Susan W. Bingi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:575E6F512726 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
The institution of taboo and the local resource management and conservation surrounding sacred natural sites in Uttarakhand, Central Himalaya Chandra Singh Negi Full Length Research Paper Social taboos exist in invariably all cultures throughout the world, and represent a class of informal institutions, where traditional, religiously governed norms or taboo system define the human behaviour. These taboos remain the prime factor guiding their conduct towards the exploitation of the natural resources. However, the singular role played by these informal systems of taboo in conservation of biodiversity has not been given its due importance. The present paper attempts to render forth the salient aspect of conservation borne out of the taboo system in practice surrounding the sacred natural sites, principally the sacred forests, in the state of Uttarakhand, Central Himalaya. The study brings forth the fact that although the potential of traditional natural resources management for biodiversity conservation vis a vis the institution of taboo within the state remains enormous, the sustainability of these practices however is seriously threatened. In fact, the dilution of the traditional beliefs and associated taboos, principally borne out of the western type education, along with social and economic factors, underpinning traditional natural resources management practices were found to be the greatest threat to the sustainability of these practices. There is thus an urgent need to investigate local perceptions of forest space and landscape, biodiversity conservation and traditional beliefs, and their significance for natural resources management, towards understanding the changing values of local people in relation to traditional protected areas, such as sacred forests. Key words: Conservation, culture, informal institutions, sacred forests, social taboos, traditional knowledge-based systems. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/575E6F512726 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000138 en Copyright © 2010 Chandra Singh Negi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:63A16E312737 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
The hydrochemistry and macrobenthic fauna characteristics of an urban draining creek Clement A. Edokpayi, Aveez O. Olowoporoku and Roland E. Uwadiae Full Length Research Paper Lagos lagoon is the largest of the eight lagoons that make up the lagoon systems of Nigeria and probably the most exposed to anthropogenic influence. The pollution status of the Lagos lagoon is generally attributed to the direct discharge of waste (domestic and industrial) and the contribution from rivers, creeks and drainage canals that empty into the Lagoon at different points. The paucity of information on the pollution status of water bodies that feeds the Lagos lagoon informed this present study. Investigation into the hydrochemistry and benthic macrofauna of Ogbe creek that drains through the main land of Lagos and empty into the Lagos lagoon was carried out. Fortnightly, sample collections between March and August 2002 at three stations along a 2 km stretch of the creek within the University of Lagos were used for the study. The hydrogen ion concentration ranged from 5.4 to 9.4. The electrical conductivity, salinity, alkalinity, nitrate, phosphate, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand ranged between 3.65 plusmn; 3.07 to 3.96 plusmn; 3,22 S cm-1; 0.51 plusmn; 0.64 and 1.01 plusmn; 0.96 permil;; 33.3 plusmn; 23.2 and 60 plusmn; 32.79 mgl-1; 4.12 plusmn; 0.17 and 7.46 plusmn; 1.02 mgl-1; 1.93 plusmn; 0.53 and 3.65 plusmn; 1.02 mgl-1; 2.83 plusmn; 1.42 and 4.65 plusmn; 0.59 mgl-1 and 7.96 plusmn; 1.99 and 8.13 plusmn; 1.61 mgl-1, respectively. The high BOD5, nitrates and phosphates values are indicative of a perturbed environment. A total of 246 organisms belonging to 16 benthic taxa, 13 genera, 12 families, 8 orders and 4 phyla were collected during the study period. Chironomid larvae and the Naidid worms were the most abundant groups. They accounted for 25.61 and 22.76%, respectively, of the total macrobenthic count. The low number of taxa and numerical abundance of pollution indicator macrobenthos in the study area reflected a perturbed creek. Key words: Hydrochemistry, benthos, university of Lagos, Ogbe creek, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/63A16E312737 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000136 en Copyright © 2010 Clement A. Edokpayi, Aveez O. Olowoporoku and Roland E. Uwadiae
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:93B2D9F12753 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Evaluating headstarting as a management tool: Post-release success of green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in Costa Rica Ricardo A. Escobar, Edsart Besier and William K. Hayes Full Length Research Paper Headstarting has become a popular tool employed by wildlife managers to help animal species, specifically those lacking or providing minimal parental care-offset extinction. However, many researchers challenge the conservation value of headstarting and urge proponents to monitor headstarted individuals following release into the wild to evaluate the success of headstart programs. As part of an experimental headstarting program managed by the Iguana Verde Foundation in Costa Rica, we conducted a 1.5-month radiotelemetry study of 11 headstarted 2 year old green iguanas (Iguana iguana) following their release into the wild at the Gandoca-Manzanillo Wildlife Refuge. Headstarted iguanas were compared to their wild counterparts (two radiotelemetered and 18 opportunistically-encountered) with respect to changes in growth, arboreal microhabitat use, social aggregation, activity ranges and movements. Male and female headstarted iguanas exhibited similar behaviours and headstarted iguanas were similar to wild iguanas for most variables measured. Thus, the headstarted green iguanas were clearly capable of short-term (1.5-month) survival in the wild and their apparently normal behaviours reflected the suitable conditions under which they were raised. The results provide insight into the ecology of green iguanas and will help guide headstarting and reintroduction programs for iguanas at this location and endangered iguanas elsewhere. Key words: Captive-breeding, conservation, headstarting, home range, lizard, radiotelemetry, reptilian, spatial use. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/93B2D9F12753 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000053 en Copyright © 2010 Ricardo A. Escobar, Edsart Besier and William K. Hayes
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:C6FCB4712761 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Biogeographic variation in Thecamoebian (Testate amoeba) assemblages in lakes within various vegetation zones of Alberta, Canada Lisa A. Neville, David G. Christie, Francine M. G. McCarthy and Michael D. MacKinnon Full Length Research Paper Thecamoebians (Testate amoebae) have proven to be valuable proxies commonly used in environmental and paleoenvironmental studies. A better understanding of their geographic distribution and environmental parameters influencing this distribution is required for further thecamoebian research. Thecamoebians were analyzed from twelve lakes spanning five drainage basins and four vegetation zones, representing a variety of environmental and limnological parameters in Alberta, Canada. Species diversity is low throughout the study sites, ranging from 1.35 to 2.17, with various strains of Difflugia oblonga, Centropyxis constricta and Centropyxis aculeata dominating the fauna. Climate, as reflected in the vegetation zones, appears to be an influencing factor on species and strain distributions. Low-diversity assemblages strongly dominated by C. aculeata and C. constricta,characterize lakes in the rocky mountain region. Slightly, more diverse assemblages dominated by D. oblonga and Cucurbitella tricuspis characterize lakes in the grassland region. The highest Thecamoebian diversity was found in both the Boreal Forest and Parkland zones. The Boreal Forest is dominated by D. oblonga together with C. constricta,C. tricuspis and C. aculeata, while the Boreal Parkland is dominated by D. oblonga along with C. constricta and C. aculeata. Key words: Thecamoebians, Testate amoebae, Biogeographic, Alberta Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/C6FCB4712761 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000018 en Copyright © 2010 Lisa A. Neville, David G. Christie, Francine M. G. McCarthy and Michael D. MacKinnon
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:84E091912779 2010-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Conservation threats of cotton pygmy-goose in Assam, India S. Upadhyaya, and P. K. Saikia Full Length Research Paper The cotton pygmy-goose (CPG) Nettapus coromandelianus coromandelianus Gmelin is an environmental indicator species among the anatids. Its population is going to be more or less vulnerable when threatened from the chance events such as severe weather, diseases and other natural as well as anthropogenic factors. The present study was conducted to have a detailed look over the factors responsible for the population decline in certain wetlands in Assam, India, from June 2006 to January 2009. Various factors have been recognized to have effects over the CPG population and are categorized as biological, social, natural, political and perceptual factors. The most affecting forces are found to be the social factors which have both direct and indirect effects. Of the direct threats, it was observed that 88.4% of the hunting cases were done for consumption, 3 for fun, 8.2 for selling and 0.4 for associated economic loss. Economic hardship has led to felling of nesting trees in 37.2% of the cases, while about 48.1% of the people use these as their source of income. About 13% exploit them for fuel and about 1.7 percent of them who cut the nesting trees for construction purposes are the major indirect threats for Cotton Pygmy-goose conservation. A compelling rational and effective strategy for the least concern species will require an increasing recognition that most of the contemporary extinction problems are associated with socio-economic and political forces. Key words: Anthropogenic, biological, cotton pygmy-goose, Nettapus coromandelianusgmelin, natural, perceptual, political, social. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/84E091912779 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000030 en Copyright © 2010 S. Upadhyaya, and P. K. Saikia
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:FDF78D512794 2010-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Land use pattern and fauna composition in the relics of Maba forest, Ogun State, Nigeria G. A. Lameed Full Length Research Paper The study of land use pattern and fauna composition in the relics of Maba forest as the permanent site of the Redeemersrsquo; University (RUNrsquo;s) was carried out to determine distribution and abundance of the wildlife species within the niche level and effect that such developmental pattern will have on the general ecological balance of the area. The study entailed complete ground truithing of the entire ecosystem, which is 500 ha square in area and stand to be one of the remaining natural forests in the southwestern part of the country that is rich in biodiversity the method adopted for wildlife diversity study is analytical habitat associations (AHS), aimed at species habitat studies and to discover which part of the habitat is preferentially used by specific species of animal. Other information was obtained through structured questionnaire from 150 inhabitants at the sites. The study revealed that forest ecosystem at Maba can be classified into five according to their physiognomy and utilization rate. These are riparian forest (18.5%) plantation (12.5%), secondary forest (16.5%), farm fallow (25.5%) and arable farm land (27.0%). The sample representative of the physiognomy in all the ten transect showed that the herbaceous vegetation (grassland) has the highest mean percentage (31.8%) while others according to descending order are as follows: woodland (27.7%), bare ground (16.2%), canopy cover (15.8%) and the ground cover (10.5%). Mona monkey (Cercopithecus Mona) has the highest relative mean population (2.8) while species like baboon (Papio anubis), puff adder (Bitis arietans) and scorpion have relative mean population of 0.2 each. However the relative mean composition of all fauna species by the representative habitats indicated that riparian forest (11.5) has the highest, while the least was recorded in secondary forest (0.30). Bird species with the highest mean composition is village weaver (13.6) while the least is king fisher (0.2). However the mean composition of birds with the different habitat showed that forest plantation has the highest (4.8) and the least mean bird composition was in farm fallow (0.47). The common species hunted by inhabitants are grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) (15.0%), birds (10.0%), squirrel (Xerus erythropus) (15.0%) and monkeys (Cercopithedae spp.) (8.0%). It can therefore be concluded that certain habitats (riparian and plantation forest) supported higher diversities of species because they contain several species of relatively high conservation concerned species (Mona monkey, baboon, monitor lizard and several avifauna). Such ecological significance species would be adversely affected during the land use pattern for institutional purpose. Key words: Maba forest, habitat, species, eco-development, Redeemerrsquo;s University. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/FDF78D512794 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000089 en Copyright © 2010 G. A. Lameed
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:DBD715816483 2010-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Assessment of crop raiding situation by elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in farms around Kakum conservation area, Ghana Kweku Ansah Monney, Kwaku Brako Dakwa and Edward Debrah Wiafe Full Length Research Paper The study assessed the crop raiding situation around Kakum conservation area (KCA). This was done through analysis of data collected on elephant damage to crops from crop-raiding report forms completed for all raids, which occurred from January to December, 2007 at KCA. It was observed that cases of crop damage by elephants covered a total agricultural land area of about 2.3 ha and this involved 35 farms, which belonged to 30 farmers of seven communities around the Reserve. Cash crops like cocoa and orange and also subsistence food crops such as cassava, plantain and tomato were raided fiercely in both dry and rainy seasons. It appeared that the elephants engaged in spite raid in which situation the crop raided was not consumed. The study further revealed that the number of raids increased with the size of the farm and with the proximity to the park boundary and that the elephants mostly targeted mature crops. From the results of the study it was recommended that owners of farms around the reserve should be supported to use the available deterrent methods such as chili fences to prevent future damages. Also, farmers should be advised to plant trees that are undesirable to the elephants close to the boundary to act as buffer. A buffer zone of at least 100 m from the Park boundary should be considered. Key words: Kakum conservation area, crop raiding, elephants, human-elephant conflict, cash crops, subsistence food crops, spite raid. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/DBD715816483 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000012 en Copyright © 2010 Kweku Ansah Monney, Kwaku Brako Dakwa and Edward Debrah Wiafe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:7A2965B16517 2010-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Prioritization of watershed habitat for neotropical migratory birds Kerri Schoenberg and Timothy O. Randhir Full Length Research Paper The decline in habitat for neotropical migratory (NM) bird species has become a major conservation issue. A regional prioritization of potential habitat is needed, particularly to identify areas that could maximize conservation benefits. This study identifies and evaluates habitats that support NM birds in the Connecticut River Watershed (CRW) using a landscape-based assessment. Habitat potential for the 25 high priority bird species throughout the CRW was evaluated using a spatial analysis. Generalist species are found throughout the entire watershed because of their ability to use a variety of habitats. Regional priority areas show western Massachusetts as a hot spot for interior species. The edge/early succession species of birds are sparsely scattered throughout the watershed with the highest densities occurring in the southern part of the watershed in western Massachusetts and the northern part of Connecticut. Priority habitats tend to congregate along the riparian corridors of the river. The regional prioritization identifies the riparian corridor at the border of Massachusetts and Connecticut as the area of highest species richness for edge/early succession species. The second densest occurrence of priority habitat is in the southern part of the watershed in southern Massachusetts and northern Connecticut. The southern half of the watershed in the more heavily developed sections of Massachusetts and Connecticut may provide significant potential habitat for our priority edge/early succession species. Conservation policies could be targeted toward regional clusters with maximum potential habitat. Key words: GIS, habitat mapping, neotropical birds, migration, kernel density. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/7A2965B16517 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000115 en Copyright © 2010 Kerri Schoenberg and Timothy O. Randhir
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:CBC13FE16541 2010-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Bushmeat hunting in Serengeti, Tanzania: An important economic activity to local people Iddi M. Mfunda and Eivin Roslash;skaft Full Length Research Paper Unsustainable use of natural resources poses threats to conservation and livelihoods. High-levels of bushmeat hunting threaten wildlife populations and extinction of some species. This paper gives an overview of bushmeat hunting in Serengeti, Tanzania. The data on hunting was collected through interviewing 477 households in 10 villages surrounding Serengeti National Park. Our research indicates that bushmeat hunting was taking place in Serengeti and is an important economic activity in Western Serengeti. The hunting preferences differ between Western and Eastern where the latter preferred small and the former, medium-big sized wildlife. The majority depends on bushmeat as a source of protein and a few relied on it for protein and income. In Western Serengeti hunting was taking place inside the national park and game reserves and in occasions within villages. In Eastern Serengeti, hunting took place within villages. Immigration of people, ethnicity, and number of livestock were cited to influence bushmeat hunting. We suggest strengthening and widening the coverage of community based conservation outreach programs; opening doors for sustainable use; and widening the scope of benefit sharing to address household livelihoods. Strengthening law enforcement and redefining the Serengeti ecosystem are essential actions for conserving wildlife within and outside protected area networks. Key words: Bushmeat hunting, conservation, game reserves, local people, Serengeti National Park, sustainable use, Tanzania. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/CBC13FE16541 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000020 en Copyright © 2010 Iddi M. Mfunda and Eivin Roslash;skaft
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:185BBF316637 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Under-story indigenous woody species diversity in hardwood and coniferous tree plantations at Berenjestanak lowland forest in the North of Iran Aboulghasem Yousefi, Hamid Jalilvand, Mohammadreza Pourmajidian and Kambiz Espahbodi Full Length Research Paper Plantations can help speed up secondary forest succession by improving soil conditions, attracting seed-dispersal agents and providing shadow necessary for under-story growth, in the present research, the naturally under-story regenerated native woody species diversity was studied in four tree plantations 22 years of age and it covers 42 ha, composed of Pinus brutia [1] , Populus nigra L., Acer velutinum Boiss and Fraaxinus excelsior L. species, which is located in the South of town of Ghaemshahr in Berenjestanak lowland forest in the North of Iran, where there was remnant natural forest in each site, three plots 20 times; 20 m are selected and one plot also implemented as the witness in natural forests around. Species-Area Curve was used for determining plots area. The number of woody plants (trees and shrubs) were enumerated and identified in each plot, and diameter and height of generated species were measured up to 1.3 m height. In order to analyse of biodiversity was applied heterogeneity Indicators of Shannon Wiener, Simpson, Brillouin, MacArthurrsquo;s N1 and Hillrsquo;s N2 as well as evenness by using Simpson, Smith and Wilsons, Camargos and modified Nee indices. Results of this study illustrate that about nines trees and shrubs species belonging to eights families were observed in study sites naturally that the highest and lowest number of woody species was nine and five in the F. excelsior L. and A. velutinum Boiss plantation, respectively. In all study sites, the highest and lowest value of heterogeneity indices is related to MacArthurrsquo;s N1 and Simpson, respectively. The highest value of evenness indices in P. brutia, P. nigraL. and A. velutinum Boiss plantations belonged to the Simpson#39;s Index and in F. excelsiorL. plantation and natural forest is related to Camargos index. The lowest value of evenness in all study areas was Modified Nee index. Results demonstrate that significant differences were observed in indices of heterogeneity (P = 0.0009) and evenness (P lt; 0.0001) amongst the planted areas and natural forest. Moreover, the highest value of heterogeneity and evenness were found in P. nigra L. (2.556) and A. velutinum Boiss (0.612) and the lowest values of these indices were in the nearby natural forest (1.818) and F. excelsior L.(0.257), respectively. There were no significant difference in species heterogeneity between F. excelsior L. and P. brutia as well as between F. excelsior L. plantations and natural forest at P = 0.05. Overall, species heterogeneity and evenness in the plantations was more than the surrounding natural forest. These results indicated that hardwood and coniferous tree plantations at this region not only reduce biodiversity (species heterogeneity and evenness), but also it has increased regeneration of woody species in all the plantations than the natural forest around. This could be effective tools in rehabilitating degraded lowland forest in the North of Iran. Key words: Plantation, woody species diversity, heterogeneity indices, evenness indices, Mazandaran. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/185BBF316637 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000143 en Copyright © 2010 Aboulghasem Yousefi, Hamid Jalilvand, Mohammadreza Pourmajidian and Kambiz Espahbodi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:38728DE16657 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Heritability of pre-weaning growth performance traits in Mengali sheep in (Balochistan) Pakistan Muhammad Masood Tariq, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa, Ferhat Abbas, Abdul Waheed, Farhat Abbas Bokhari and Majed Rafiq Full Length Research Paper Genetic parameters were estimated for weights at birth (BW), 30 days (MW), 120 days weaning weight (WW), and pre-weaning average daily gain (PRADG) of four flocks of Mengali sheep maintained at the Experimental Station CASVAB, Quetta, (ESC), Mastung, Noshki and Quetta over a period of 5 years from 2005 to 2009. Records on 2750 lambs descended from 581 ewes and 56 rams were included in the analysis. Variance components were estimated fitting animal model using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure. Genetic parameters were computed by pos-processing of the variance components. The heritability estimates for BW, MW, WW, and PRADG were 0.39 plusmn; 0.06; 0.125 plusmn; 0.02; 0.177 plusmn; 0.03 and 0.23 plusmn; 0.05, respectively. BW was highly heritable while other growth traits were found moderately heritable, showing larger proportional of environmental variances. In general, heritability estimates were moderate in early growth traits of Mengali sheep. Hence it was suggested that improvement can be achieved by mass selection. Key words: Genetic parameters, Mengali sheep, heritability estimates. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/38728DE16657 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000073 en Copyright © 2010 Muhammad Masood Tariq, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa, Ferhat Abbas, Abdul Waheed, Farhat Abbas Bokhari and Majed Rafiq
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:9092E7116692 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Zooplankton abundance in the Massa Lagoon, Southern Morocco: Impact of environmental variables H. Badsi, H. Oulad Ali, M. Loudiki, M. El Hafa, R. Chakli and A. Aamiri Full Length Research Paper The biological reserve of Massa, situated in the National Park of Souss Massa, certified Ramsar has a global interest in birdlife. The functioning of the lagoon is affected by the problems of eutrophication, declining water levels, lack of communication with the sea. This work represents a first contribution to the study of the plankton community living in the lagoon of this reserve in connection with the physical chemistry of water. The analysis of the physico-chemical and biological state shows a very advanced eutrophic water of the lagoon, characterized by high levels of orthophosphate and chlorophyll a. The structure of zooplankton populations is characterized by the dominance of species of eutrophic environments and tolerates changes in salinity. Key words: Reserve of Massa, eutrophication, zooplankton, lagoon, physico-chemical. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/9092E7116692 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000152 en Copyright © 2010 H. Badsi, H. Oulad Ali, M. Loudiki, M. El Hafa, R. Chakli and A. Aamiri
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:8C7B54B16718 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Forest invasion by alien plant species: The case of neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) in Southern Togo Raoufou Radji, Koku Klu and Kouami Kokou Full Length Research Paper Several forms of degradation reduce the size and the ecological value of forest ecosystems such as the introduction of alien species. In other to study the level of the exotic plant species Azadirachta indica invasion in forest fragments of Southern Togo, data collection was carried out in thirteen forests where 65 rectangular plots of 500 m2 were set up to record the plant species diversity and other 52 plots of 625 m2 to count the tree and to measure their height and diameter. The data analysis was carried out by determining the relative density, the relative dominance and the relative frequency of the plants species. The results show that 414 plant species including 19 identified as alien have been identified in the forest fragments. They are divided into 15 families with an invasion rate of 4.58% and a frequency of 53.85% for A. indica. These data reveal the importance of the invasion phenomenon of the local forest flora, especially inside the juvenile population. Key words: Forest fragments, Southern Togo, alien species, invasion, Azadirachta indica. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/8C7B54B16718 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000063 en Copyright © 2010 Raoufou Radji, Koku Klu and Kouami Kokou
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:BB97AC116739 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Comparative study of herb layer diversity in lower Dachigam National Park, Kashmir Himalaya, India S. A. Shameem, P. Soni and G. A. Bhat Full Length Research Paper The present study was conducted at two different ecosystems that is, site I (pastureland) and site II (forest) in the lower Dachigam National Park of Kashmir, Himalaya. The pasture site is located outside the National Park and is under grazing whereas forest site is located inside the National Park and is protected. The study was done on seasonal basis and the average results revealed comparatively more or equal values of diversity (Hprime;) for both sites (site I = 2.435 and site II = 2.395) while dominance index showed higher value at site I (average = 0.147). The richness index (average = 3.842) and equability index (average = 0.90) both showed higher value at site II. Seasonal trend of Shannon diversity (site I = 3.03, site II = 2.87), richness index (site I = 3.70, site II = 5.83) and evenness or equability index (0.94, site I and II) depicted highest value during summer season whereas lowest variation in Shannon diversity and richness index was observed in winter season at both sites. However, dominance index was recorded lowest in summer season at both sites (site I = 0.06 and site II = 0.07) hence inversely related to diversity (Hprime;). The frequently occurred dominant species during prominent seasons based on importance value (IV) wereCynodon dactylon, Salvia moorcroftiana and Thymus serphyllum at site I and Fragaria nubicola, Galinsoga parviflora, Stipa sibirica and Viola indica at site II. The abundance to frequency ratio (A/F) indicated most of the species performed contagious pattern of distribution. Key words: Biodiversity, community structure, seasons, species, grazing. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/BB97AC116739 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000026 en Copyright © 2010 S. A. Shameem, P. Soni and G. A. Bhat
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:161D3F716763 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Human attitudes towards conservation of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Bangladesh A. H. M. Raihan Sarker and Eivin Roslash;skaft, Full Length Research Paper An assessment of human attitudes, particularly towards Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), is necessary in formulating appropriate policies for conserving such wildlife. The aim of this study is to test the extent of how the experience people have of wild elephants influences their perceptions of, and attitudes towards, them, and to identify factors influencing their attitudes towards the conservation of elephants in the wild. This study was carried out in four protected areas (PAs) in Bangladesh through in-depth interviews of men (N = 193) and women (N = 195). The majority of the respondents said that wild elephants caused anxiousness. The most important factors influencing the attitudes of people towards conservation regimes for wild elephants were the distances of the people that lived from the park boundary. Forest villagers residing in northern Bangladesh (70.5%) were more likely to support the conservation of wild elephants in their nearest PA through eco-tourism than those residing in south-eastern parts of the country (43.1%). This was due to a lack of natural resources in the forests and an unemployment crisis in the northern part. The introduction of environmental studies into primary and secondary schools, and the promotion of public participation in planning, decision-making and management of PAs, has been an important aspect for the sustainability of elephant conservation in Bangladesh. Key words: Bangladesh, Asian elephant, attitude. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/161D3F716763 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000074 en Copyright © 2010 A. H. M. Raihan Sarker and Eivin Roslash;skaft,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:EB747C016826 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Spatio-temporal distribution of drosophilids: A study at Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore, Karnataka, India B. P. Harini and D. S. Pranesh Sujaymeendra Full Length Research Paper Though studies associated with the geographic distribution of Drosophilidae in India have taken rapid strides in last few years, only a cursory survey has been undertaken in certain areas, whereas a vast area of the Indian subcontinent still awaits exploration. In view of this, an attempt has been made to record the Drosophilid fauna of Jnanabharathi habitat, which is a completely virgin field, to explore with a view to furnish a spatio-temporal distribution pattern of Drosophilid species. The present study has revealed that species diversity has enriched in undisturbed region where human habitat is poor. On the other hand, the diversity and distribution of the Drosophilids have been affected enormously where human habitat is frequently sensed. In addition to this seasonally related environmental factors have a direct or indirect effect on the population density and distribution pattern of Drosophila in space and time. Key words: Drosophila fauna, biodiversity, distribution pattern, spatial, temperature. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/EB747C016826 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000126 en Copyright © 2010 B. P. Harini and D. S. Pranesh Sujaymeendra
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:679E80A16866 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
The study on the authenticity of the wild South China tiger on an hunter’s photos Li-Yuan Liu Full Length Research Paper The wild South China tigers, with no authenticated sighting more than 25 years, are generally considered functionally extinct. A hunter has published a set of photographs of aSouth China tiger that he claims were taken in the Daba mountain of China on October 3rd, 2007. Subsequently, a month later (but claimed a six-year-old product by its manufacturer),a tiger picture poster appeared in the public domain. The result has been a controversyover the authenticity of photographs; the tiger photos being widely believed to be copied from the tiger picture poster. However, upon analysis of all the photos, it is concluded that the tiger in the photos is a 3-dimensional, animate object, suggestive of a living tiger have been photographed from the mountain. Comparing the poster tiger with the photo tiger, it appears that the poster tiger is an artificial monster that had been copied and modified from the photo tiger. As good news, the wild South China tiger have not been extinct. Key words: Wild South China tiger, photo-tiger, poster-tiger, authenticity. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/679E80A16866 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000141 en Copyright © 2010 Li-Yuan Liu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:415746A16922 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Brahmaputra River islands as potential corridors for dispersing tigers: A case study from Assam, India Jimmy Borah, M. Firoz Ahmed and Pranjit Kumar Sarma Full Length Research Paper We present the first scientific study on Brahmaputra River Islands as potential corridors for the tigers and other animals to move across the region in Assam, India. The study was carried out from February to April 2009, with a goal to ensure connectivity and long term conservation of meta-population of tigers in the Brahmaputra Valley in central Assam landscape of India. We did sign surveys and line transects to determine the carnivore and herbivore presence in the area. A total of 52 islands were sampled, out of which 11 islands showed tiger presence while almost all the islands showed ungulate presence. Positive relationship was seen between livestock presence and tiger sign. The study through its activities has been able to identify the islands and river banks that are being used by tigers to move within and from one island to another or to nearby protected area in the landscape, particularly the four closely place parks, viz. Kaziranga, Orang, Laokhowa and Burhachapori and the meta-populations within them. We suggest measures to save the landscape from encroachment and denudation. The entire landscape needs improvised conservation and management strategies for long term survival of the threatened species like tigers. Key words: Anthropogenic pressures, Burhachapori, Kaziranga, Laokhowa, line transect, meta-population, occupancy survey, Orang, Panthera Tigris Tigris, Riverine landscape, royal Bengal tiger, sign survey Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/415746A16922 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000019 en Copyright © 2010 Jimmy Borah, M. Firoz Ahmed and Pranjit Kumar Sarma
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:0BCE74116985 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Ecological and numerical analyses of plant communities of the most conserved protected area in North-Togo Folega Fousseni, Zhao Xiuhai, Zhang Chunyu, Wala Kperkouma and Akpagana Koffi Full Length Research Paper The 36 statements obtained from sampling investigation in Galangashi protected areas (Northern Togo) were subjected to floristic processing and several multivariate analyses to study the overall plant diversity, to determine the distribution of life form and phytogeographic type; to identify and describe the main plant communitiesrsquo; and the ligneous structure of these plant communities. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and hierarchical clustering was used for ordination and classification of samples to determine the plant groupings. The plant community was defined by indicator value such as fidelity and abundance. The results showed that four plant communities were discriminated from 36 statements. The statements were well distributed in the factorial plan form by axe 1 and 3 of DCA. The plant communities were distributed along the moisture gradient in the DCA ordination. The Sudano-Zambesian species followed by Sudanian species were the phytogeographic types most found. Moreover, micro-phanerophytes were the most represented life form. The diversity indices in both plant communities are well significant and indicate a good distribution of species in the area. In overall, the vegetation condition of the protected area is somehow disturbed while most of the plant communities are stable. These results confirmed the assertion that Galangashi ecosystem still presents a typology of less disturbed area. Key words: Diversity, DCA, Galangashi, phytogeographiy, plant community Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/0BCE74116985 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000046 en Copyright © 2010 Folega Fousseni, Zhao Xiuhai, Zhang Chunyu, Wala Kperkouma and Akpagana Koffi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:691730E17004 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Upper Nyong valley forest in Cameroon: Ethnobotanical uses and implications for biodiversity conservation T. Jiofack, N. Guedje, I. Ayissi, C. Fokunang, L. Usongo and B. A. Nkongmeneck Full Length Research Paper The Upper Nyong valley belongs to the forest ecological area of Cameroon. Local people living around use drastically natural resources to enhance their livelihoods. According to the Cameroon forest law, more than 30% of natural area must be transformed into park and reserves. In the process of transformation, ecological studies can be conducted to evaluate potential resources available. This paper highlighted some results of a floristic survey conducted in the Upper Nyong valley through the Cameroon wildlife conservation project (CWCS), in order to evaluate the ecological and ethnobotanical uses of forest products and derived resources. The methodology used was based on linear transects and quadrats. As a result, 352 useful plants were inventoried and categorized into medicinal, food, traditional furniture, threatened and industrial plants. As implications and relevance to management, this study would help in the implementation of protected forest network coupled with the decentralization of forest resources. This could be the most sustained alternative for the conservation of this heritance from generation to generation. The immediate impact of this work is to stimulate governmental process for the implementation of this part of Cameroon valley into reserve. To achieve this goal, it is important to improve local peoplersquo;s livelihoods and sustainable management of these natural resources by making up community forest. Key words: Floristic survey, local livelihoods, Upper Nyong valley, Cameroon forest law, forest product, protected forest network and forest decentralization, in situ and ex situconservation, international union for nature conservation (IUCN) red data list, useful plants. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/691730E17004 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000144 en Copyright © 2010 T. Jiofack, N. Guedje, I. Ayissi, C. Fokunang, L. Usongo and B. A. Nkongmeneck
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:3EF3B7941287 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
International day of biodiversity - Albania Abdulla Diku Report Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/3EF3B7941287 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000085 en Copyright © 2010 Abdulla Diku
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:DFFEDAD17052 2010-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Present distribution status and conservation threats of Indian Gharial in Assam, India B. P. Saikia, B. J. Saud, M. Kakati Saikia and P. K. Saikia Full Length Research Paper Preliminary survey of wild Gharial (Gavialis gengeticus) population was done in Assam from 2004 through 2007. The study revealed the presence of wild Gharial in Assam on certain ecological pockets in different locations of Brahmaputra river and its tributary of which few sites were previously not documented viz., Urpod beel in Goalpara district, Jinjiram River in Lakhipur district and Beki river in Barpeta district etc. The existing Gharial population has faced tremendous conservation threats owing to extensive hunting pressure. In Urpod beel, three adult Gharials were seen, of which one was captured by the local people. Gharial was completely extirpated from most of the previously known sites of Assam. But, there is a conservation scope for this critically endangered species in some potential live sites and as well as relocate the species in some earlier potential sites. To unearth the detailed existing distribution localities, intensive field investigation is urgently required in Assam. Key words: Re-sightings, new sighting, threats, prospects habitat, wetland, tectonic lake Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/DFFEDAD17052 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000113 en Copyright © 2010 B. P. Saikia, B. J. Saud, M. Kakati Saikia and P. K. Saikia
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:F1799C517079 2010-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Seed germination and viability of Salsola imbricata Forssk S. Zaman, S. Padmesh and H. Tawfiq Full Length Research Paper Salsola imbricata is a halophytic shrub widely distributed in the coastal and inland regions of Kuwait. The effect of light, temperature, salinity, storage temperature and water potential on germination was conducted in the laboratory experiments. S. imbricata seeds germinated well under wide range of temperatures and in both light and dark conditions; the higher the salinity, the lower the percentage of germination. Ungerminated seeds when transferred to distilled water recovered completely. In the water potential experiment, maximum germination was obtained in distilled water (99%) and decreasing water potential inhibited seed germination, less than 15% of the seeds germinated at -2.4 MPa. Seeds stored at -18 and 4deg;C for 24 months had 80 ndash; 100% germination rate compared with 0% for those stored at ambient temperature and at 50deg;C. Based on this result, it is concluded that S. imbricata seeds could establish in wide range of environmental conditions. However the water stress may reduce the establishment of seedlings in the natural population. The seeds are short lived and should be stored at lower temperatures (-18 and 4deg;C) to maintain viability. Key words: Halophyte, viability, salinity, storability, water stress. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/F1799C517079 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000123 en Copyright © 2010 S. Zaman, S. Padmesh and H. Tawfiq
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:22223AD17097 2010-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Comparative analyses of stakeholders’ perceptions of participatory forest management success in Benin Djogbeacute;nou C. Paul, Glegrave;legrave; Kakaiuml; Romain and Sinsin Brice Full Length Research Paper The Participatory Management Designs (PMD) of forest reserves under various ecological, economic and socio-cultural contexts in Benin were assessed using a multicriteria analysis. The three main criteria used for selecting the targeted forests were: (i) natural forest stand, (ii) ongoing participatory management designs and (iii) experience of local people of the forest in its joint management. Using these criteria, the management designs of nine forest reserves were assessed. This was done on the basis of nine secondary criteria whose indicators were submitted for approval by the stakeholders involved in the implementation of the designs. For each criterion, the sampling distribution of the performance scores was empirically established using the language Matlab. This technique helped to estimate the theoretical threshold value beyond which a participatory management design could be considered as successful for each criterion. Results revealed no significant difference in scores between all the criteria considered in the study. However, with the threshold being equal to 60, the forest reserves of Peacute;neacute;ssoulou, Monts-Kouffeacute; and Wari-Maro had the best management designs scores ranging from 88 to 99 considering their overall performance. Two other forest reserves fell in the worse management designs. Key words: Participatory approach, management design, indicator, performance, forests, Benin. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/22223AD17097 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000024 en Copyright © 2010 Djogbeacute;nou C. Paul, Glegrave;legrave; Kakaiuml; Romain and Sinsin Brice
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:A86396617120 2010-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
The use of ISSR and RAPD markers for detecting DNA polymorphism, genotype identification and genetic diversity among Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. cultivars Sandhya Goswami and Vivek Tripathi Full Length Research Paper Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae and commonly known as pointed gourd. It is perennial, dioecious and cross pollinated vegetable crop, widely cultivated in eastern Uttar Pradesh of India. 22 cultivars of male and female of T. dioicafrom various agro-climatic regions of India have been fingerprinted by RAPD and ISSR markers utilizing 37, 15 primers respectively. To understand genetic relationships among these cultivars, Jaccardrsquo;s similarity coefficient and UPGMA clustering algorithm were applied to the two marker data sets. The percentage of polymorphism range for RAPD is from 89 to 45% while for ISSR is from 88 to 100%, the UPGMA dendogram obtained from the cluster analysis of RAPD and ISSR data gave similar clustering pattern, with Jaccards similarity coefficient ranging from 0.23 to 0.93. This study showed that RAPD and ISSR markers could provide a practical and efficient tool in quality control of the T. dioica. The present report is, therefore, a step to protect the plant breeders rights by making use of reliable and modern DNA technologies. Key words: Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., RAPD, ISSR, genetic diversity. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/A86396617120 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000142 en Copyright © 2010 Sandhya Goswami and Vivek Tripathi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:DDA222A17140 2010-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
Food and feeding habits and reproduction in Frillfin goby, Bathygobius soporator (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1837) in the Badagry Creek, Lagos, Nigeria O. Lawson Emmanuel and E. Thomas Ajibola Full Length Research Paper A study was conducted in Badagry Creek in Lagos, Nigeria on food and feeding habits and reproduction of Frillfin goby (Bathygobius soporator). Data collected from the study intend to serve as a baseline for carrying out further study on the fishes and fisheries of this water body. B. soporator is one of the numerous and diverse fishes of the family Gobiidae which share certain similarities in their life histories. Gobies are among the most successful fishes. They are resident intertidal species which could be found in pools, rocky pools, lagoons, creeks and estuaries. Specimens were collected from the Badagry Creek via Oto-Awori Fish Jetty between January, 2008 and January, 2009. Foods and feeding habits and reproduction were studied in this creek. Seven groups of food items were encountered in the stomachs of the fish, viz; Crustaceans, Pisces, Insects, Detritus, Bivalves, unidentified food materials and Gastropods. The most eaten of these were the crustaceans contributing 34% by number and 38.30% by frequency of occurrence. The presence of other fish species in the stomachs explained the piscivorous habit while the unidentified food materials demonstrate its herbivorous character. Its predatory and carnivorous tendency was exhibited by the presence of insects, bivalves, crustaceans, and gastropods. Presence of sand grains was an indicator of its benthic nature. The specimens were classified as either male or female. Four hundred and seventy and five specimens representing 98.95 and 1.05% of total catch were classified as males and females, respectively giving 1 (male): 0.01 (female) sex ratio. This is significantly different (Pgt;0.05) from the expected or theoretical one male:one female ratio and not in conformity with sex ratios that were reported for some fishes in the adjacent Ologe, Lagos, Lekki and Epe lagoons which favoured more females. The Gonadosomatic index (GSI) of this species varied from 0.00 to 2.89%, meaning less than 2.89% of the fishrsquo;s body mass was converted to gonads for reproduction. The pre-spawning and spawning stages of this species contributed 86.75 and 13.25% of the specimens, respectively. Post spawning stages were absent. Key words: Gonadosomatic index, spawning, Ologe, Badagry, Lekki, Epe. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/DDA222A17140 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000061 en Copyright © 2010 O. Lawson Emmanuel and E. Thomas Ajibola
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:4BFF62617159 2010-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2010
A numerical study of turbulent mixing parameters at the Nile Delta, north of the Egyptian Coast S. H. Sharaf El Din , F. M. Eid, N. N. Saad, K. A. Alam El Din and M. El Sharkawy Full Length Research Paper A study was conducted in Badagry Creek in Lagos, Nigeria on food and feeding habits and reproduction of Frillfin goby (Bathygobius soporator). Data collected from the study intend to serve as a baseline for carrying out further study on the fishes and fisheries of this water body. B. soporator is one of the numerous and diverse fishes of the family Gobiidae which share certain similarities in their life histories. Gobies are among the most successful fishes. They are resident intertidal species which could be found in pools, rocky pools, lagoons, creeks and estuaries. Specimens were collected from the Badagry Creek via Oto-Awori Fish Jetty between January, 2008 and January, 2009. Foods and feeding habits and reproduction were studied in this creek. Seven groups of food items were encountered in the stomachs of the fish, viz; Crustaceans, Pisces, Insects, Detritus, Bivalves, unidentified food materials and Gastropods. The most eaten of these were the crustaceans contributing 34% by number and 38.30% by frequency of occurrence. The presence of other fish species in the stomachs explained the piscivorous habit while the unidentified food materials demonstrate its herbivorous character. Its predatory and carnivorous tendency was exhibited by the presence of insects, bivalves, crustaceans, and gastropods. Presence of sand grains was an indicator of its benthic nature. The specimens were classified as either male or female. Four hundred and seventy and five specimens representing 98.95 and 1.05% of total catch were classified as males and females, respectively giving 1 (male): 0.01 (female) sex ratio. This is significantly different (Pgt;0.05) from the expected or theoretical one male:one female ratio and not in conformity with sex ratios that were reported for some fishes in the adjacent Ologe, Lagos, Lekki and Epe lagoons which favoured more females. The Gonadosomatic index (GSI) of this species varied from 0.00 to 2.89%, meaning less than 2.89% of the fishrsquo;s body mass was converted to gonads for reproduction. The pre-spawning and spawning stages of this species contributed 86.75 and 13.25% of the specimens, respectively. Post spawning stages were absent. Key words: Gonadosomatic index, spawning, Ologe, Badagry, Lekki, Epe. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/4BFF62617159 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000006 en Copyright © 2010 S. H. Sharaf El Din , F. M. Eid, N. N. Saad, K. A. Alam El Din and M. El Sharkawy
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:7A1D16E17192 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Ownership structure of protected areas influences the patterns of seed removal by mammals Martiacute;nez-Saacute;nchez Joseacute; Luis and Christian Kampichler, Full Length Research Paper In Mexico, nature reserves vary greatly in the size of the property, administration, financial budget and measures to protect against land use change and illegal hunting. We compared two private and two public reserves and observed an influence between the ownership structure and the patterns of removal of large and small seeds from the forest floor by medium-sized mammals and rodents. We hypothesized that removal of all seeds, of large seeds only, and the removal of seeds by the medium-sized mammals would be higher in the private than in the public reserves as a consequence of better conserved populations in the private reserves. We also expected a direct effect of seed removal on seed germination. Medium-sized mammals removed more large-seeds in the private than in the public reserves, whereas removal of small seeds by rodents was lower in the private than in the public reserves, indicating an absence of larger-sized mammals in the latter. Seed germination was higher in control plots where seed removal was prevented by excluding all mammals. We conclude that patterns on seed removal by mammals in reserves can be strongly influenced by the type of ownership and hence the extent of their conservation. Key words: Animal conservation, land-property, medium-sized mammals, protected areas, rodents, seed predation. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/7A1D16E17192 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000101 en Copyright © 2011 Martiacute;nez-Saacute;nchez Joseacute; Luis and Christian Kampichler,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:221710317227 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Genetic diversity and disease response of rust in bread wheat collected from Waziristan Agency, Pakistan Mohammad Nisar Naeem Khan , Nausheen, Zakia Ahmad and Abdul Ghafoor Full Length Research Paper In the present study, thirty indigenous landraces exclusively collected from Waziristan Agency, Khyber Pakhtunkwa, Pakistan along with 14 cultivars were investigated for genetic diversity and resistance to fungal diseases. The germplasm was evaluated for morphological traits, response to rust and smut, and seed protein markers. A low level of allelic variation was observed for morphological trait, while the agronomic traits exhibited higher level of coefficient of variation. In the present study, six lines (MIRALI (ECDOCK) NWA, MIRALI NWA-1, MIRALI NWA-2, BANNU PROPER-1 and FR-BANNU DOMEL) were highly resistant to rust disease. The SDS-PAGE was carried out to assess the genetic diversity and selection of elite genotypes based on proteomic homology of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin (Glu-A1) using Jaccardrsquo;s similarity coefficient. Almost 16% genetic diversity (low level) was observed in HMW glutenin protein and the germplasm was grouped into five clusters. The cluster 5 sorted resistant lines, while the others were inter-spread, although few of these were grouped on the basis of collection sites. The genotype from Chakdara-2 of Cluster 1 was unique due to the presence of all the polypeptides of HMW glutenin protein. Based on HMW glutenin, the resistant line fromBannu Proper-1 and FR-Bannu Domel were similar to the improved line RAJ andBAKHTAWAR-92. On the basis of this initial investigation it is suggested to investigate this germplasm for their adaptability and for molecular markers to employ this unique germplasm in modern wheat cultivars. Key words: Diversity in Glu-A1 loci, novel immune lines, Pakistani wheat, Puccinia triticina, SDS-PAGE. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/221710317227 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000067 en Copyright © 2011 Mohammad Nisar Naeem Khan , Nausheen, Zakia Ahmad and Abdul Ghafoor
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:D3D9D9017245 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
A survey of habitat invetorization and habitat potentiality for sustenance of Gharial in Sone (Gavialis gangeticus) Gharial Sanctuary R. K. Sharma, Hari Singh and Niladri Dasgupta Full Length Research Paper The present study was carried out to find out the diversity of Gharial and potential habitat for its survival. A total of 161 km area in the Sanctuary was studied and data related with population of Gharial, habitat features, river profile, human activities and threats were collected. The Sone River apparently supports a few viable populations of Gharial. The population of Gharial shows 40% reduction since 1996 to 2010 in Sone Gharial Sanctuary. Much of the river was found sub-optimal for sustenance of viable population of Gharial for low flow conditions due to construction of Dam at upstream region. The other stretches have potentiality as good habitat for Gharial as some of them are presently used by the species for nesting. Some recommendations have been suggested on the basis of the observations to maintain those habitats for propagation, release and management of the species to raise the present population to a stabilized and viable one. Key words: Gharial, population, habitat features, conservation, threats. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/D3D9D9017245 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000007 en Copyright © 2011 R. K. Sharma, Hari Singh and Niladri Dasgupta
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:3460E4F17262 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
The influence of sterilizing compounds on the yield of viable explants of Rhododendron L. (Ericaceae) Elena Kutas and Lyubov Ogorodnik Full Length Research Paper Results are presented on the influence of sterilizing compounds upon the yield of viable explants of Rhododendron in sterilized culture. Yield of viable explants is dependent upon type of sterilizing compound, the type of specie the plant belongs and the type of explant. Results show, that 0.1% solution of silver nitrate is the most effective compound for sterilization of seeds of 8 Rhododendron species (sterilization for 5 min) and 0.1% solution of sublimate and diacid (sterilization for 8 min) are most effective for sterilization of buds of 4 Rhododendron species. Key words: Sterilizing compounds, seeds, buds, Rhododendrons. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/3460E4F17262 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000137 en Copyright © 2011 Elena Kutas and Lyubov Ogorodnik
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:13F99AC17362 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Conservation status of the critically endangered and endangered species in the Nandiar Khuwar catchment District Battagram, Pakistan Faiz Ul Haq Review This paper communicates the vascular plant diversity and problems associated with the conservation of flora of Nandiar Khuwar, District Battagram-Pakistan. Floristically, the area is placed in the Western Himalayan Province. It is located on the western edge of Himalaya, dominated by Sino-Japanese vegetation. A total of 37 taxa were reported which includes 14 critically endangered and 23 endangered species. The information was collected from 270 people including 220 male and 50 female. Major threats to the flora are loss of habitat, unplanned collection, deforestation, over grazing, erosion, attack of pathogens and effect of introduced taxa. Measures for the conservation of plant resources of Nandiar Khuwar catchment are suggested. Key words: Pakistan, Nandiar Khuwar, Battagram, conservation. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/13F99AC17362 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000029 en Copyright © 2011 Faiz Ul Haq
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:1D12A5717367 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Diversity of lichens in Kollihills of Tamil Nadu, India Shyam Kumar R., , Thajuddin N. and Upreti D. K. Full Length Research Paper An enumeration of 48 species belonging to 23 genera and 12 families of lichens from Kollihills, Namakkal District of Tamil Nadu is provided. Species of the lichen generaHeterodermia, Parmotrema and Pertusaria dominates the area. Key words: Lichens, Kollihills, Easternghats, India. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/1D12A5717367 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000040 en Copyright © 2011 Shyam Kumar R., , Thajuddin N. and Upreti D. K.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:8311ECA17373 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Plant domestication and its contributions to in situ conservation of genetic resources in Benin Vodouhegrave; R., A. Dansi, H. T. Avohou, B. Kpegrave;ki and F. Azihou Full Length Research Paper All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages (Aglamidjodji, Banon, Batia, Gbeacute;deacute; and Korontiegrave;re) selected in five ethnic groups of the two contrasting agroecological zones (arid and humid) of southern and northern Benin, to investigate the local communitiesrsquo; motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs while those in dry area prefer trees. The Gourmantcheacute; people in Batia domesticate plants mostly for their fruits, while the ethnic groups Mahi (Aglamidjodji), the Nago-Fegrave; (Banon), the Nago-Tchabegrave; (Gbeacute;deacute;) and the Ditamari / Lamba (Konrontiegrave;re) domesticate plants mainly for their leaves. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents), medicinal use (40% of respondents), income generation (20% of respondents) and cultural reasons (5% of respondents). 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed (size, number of crops practiced, total area available, total area cultivated, total area occupied by the major crops, number of food shortages experienced during the last ten years) and to the head of the household interviewed (age, education level, number of wives, age of the first wife, number of the social groups to which he belongs) affect farmersrsquo; decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees. Key words: Domestication, plant species, gender influence, motivation, in situconservation. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/8311ECA17373 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000107 en Copyright © 2011 Vodouhegrave; R., A. Dansi, H. T. Avohou, B. Kpegrave;ki and F. Azihou
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:D71A7B217377 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Identification of mitochondrial cytochrome B haplotypes by single strand conformation polymorphism in Phlebotomus chabaudi Croset, Abonnenc and Rioux, 1970 (Diptera, Psychodidae) Boudabous Raja, Haouas N., Bdira S., Amor S., Khayech F. , Babba H. and Azaiez R. Full Length Research Paper Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was used to recognize the presence of P. (Paraphlebotomus) chabaudi Croset, Abonnenc and Rioux, 1970 haplotypes of Tunisianspecimens; these were verified subsequently by sequencing the polymerase chain reaction products. The designed primers amplified a 545 pb fragment including the 3rsquo; end of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b). The sensitivity of SSCP was demonstrated by (1) the detection of single nucleotide differences in SSCP variants, and (2) no sequence variation in specimens with the same SSCP mobility. The application of SSCP technique provided a valuable addition to available population genetic tools: It increased the efficiency of detection of variability in the cyt b gene and decreased the time required for screening large numbers of specimens to detect nucleotide variation. Key words: Phlebotominae, Central east Tunisia, Paraphlebotomus chabaudi, identification,haplotypes SSCP. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/D71A7B217377 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000076 en Copyright © 2011 Boudabous Raja, Haouas N., Bdira S., Amor S., Khayech F. , Babba H. and Azaiez R.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:F6E415517390 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Impact of land use types on population structure and extent of bark and foliage harvest of Afzelia africana and Pterocarpus erinaceus in Eastern Burkina Faso Blandine Marie Ivette Nacoulma, Salifou Traoreacute;, Karen Hahn and Adjima Thiombiano Full Length Research Paper In the West African Sudanian regions, people depend on natural products, especially on highly valued species as source of income, fuel wood, food, medicine, fodder for livestock etc. However, land-use management coupled with unsustainable uses of highly valued trees might jeopardize the long-term viability of some speciesrsquo; populations. Thus, we compared the population structures of two trees, Afzelia africana and Pterocarpus erinaceus and the extent of bark and foliage harvesting within two contrasting land-use types using a random stratified design with 45 replication plots for each species. For both species, population structures were stable in the protected area whereas they showed a declining structure in the agroforestry parklands with lower densities of seedlings and adults as well as a total lack of saplings and young mature trees. In addition, both specieswere over-exploited. More individuals of A. africana and P. erinaceus were harvested with a weak to severe intensity in the parklands, while only few individuals were harvested in the protected area, with a higher proportion of weak to medium intensity. To ensure conservation of these highly valued species, participatory introduction of juveniles and sensitization for seedling protection are required in the agroforestry parklands. Key words: Population structure, W National Park, agroforestry parklands, pruning, debarking, West Africa Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/F6E415517390 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000079 en Copyright © 2011 Blandine Marie Ivette Nacoulma, Salifou Traoreacute;, Karen Hahn and Adjima Thiombiano
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:BB3967817396 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Evaluation of agromorphological variability of Argan tree under different environmental conditions in Morocco: Implication for selection Naima Ait Aabd, Fatima El Ayadi, Fouad Msanda and Abdelhamid El mousadik Full Length Research Paper In order to identify promising wild argan trees (Argania spinisa L. Skeels), with high oil content and facilitated of crushing seeds, as a part of domestication and breeding programs, seventy five candidate plus trees were chosen from different eco-geographical regions in the southwest of Morocco. Based on several biometric characters describing trees and their fruits, uni and multivariate analysis of eighteen quantitative traits were done. Results showed significant differences (Plt;0.01, GLM) between trees of the same provenances and among it for all morphological fruit traits, except the tree traits. Considerable variability was found in oil production ranged from 39.19% to 57.92%. Thus, Ao, Hd, La and Bi provenances exhibited high performance yield and appeared to be the best adapted to drought conditions, contrary to Al provenance. Based on the variance components method, high broad-sense heritability was recorded for oil content (93.28%), indicating the additive gene action. Correlation analysis revealed that fruit weight, seed weight, almond weight, seed length, seed width and AW-90S are highly and positively correlated with oil content. Hence, almond weight and the number of almond per seed are positively correlated to AW/SW ratio. However, there was no correlation between crushing seed trait and oil content. In addition, promising trees which have a clear superiority relating to the oil production and the facility of crushing seed, were identified and made a first pre-selected for the oil yield improvement for further studies. Key words: Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels, provenance, oil content, crushing seed, pre-selection. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/BB3967817396 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000054 en Copyright © 2011 Naima Ait Aabd, Fatima El Ayadi, Fouad Msanda and Abdelhamid El mousadik
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:5BA07E217404 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Biochemical studies on Plantago major L. and Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Mohamed, I. Kobeasy, Osama, M. Abdel-Fatah, Samiha M. Abd El-Salam and Zahrat El-Ola M. Mohamed Full Length Research Paper Plantago major (seeds and leaves) and Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (guar beans( were analyzed for general chemical components including, fatty acids and amino acids. Guar beans had high contents of proteins, fats and total hydrolysable carbohydrates. Plantagoleaves high percentage of linolenic acid was characterized by 56.19%. While, P. majorseeds and Guar beans had high percentages of linoleic acid (25.41 and 48.99%, respectively). Essential and non essential amino acids were present in all samples andGuar beans had high amounts of glutamic, arginine, aspartic and leucine. Total phenols, total flavonoids and tannin content were the highest in Plantago leaves. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic, hot and cold water extracts of Plantago leaves and seeds and guar beans were evaluated. Plantago leaves extracts exhibited higher antioxidant activity than plantagoseeds and guar beans extracts. The ethanolic, hot and cold extracts of plant induced anticancer activity with various degrees. Ethanolic extract of P. major leaves possessed the greatest effect on tumor cell growth (Dead 74%) followed by hot water extract of P.major leaves (Dead 54.6%). Key words: Plantago major, Guar beans, flavonoids, phenolic compounds antioxidant activity, antileukemia Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/5BA07E217404 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000014 en Copyright © 2011 Mohamed, I. Kobeasy, Osama, M. Abdel-Fatah, Samiha M. Abd El-Salam and Zahrat El-Ola M. Mohamed
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:508121117415 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Generic relationship among Cassia L., Senna Mill. and Chamaecrista Moench using RAPD markers Vivek Tripathi and Sandhya Goswami Full Length Research Paper Generic relationships were examined among twenty-four species belonging to genusCassia L., Senna Mill. and Chamaecrista Moench using RAPD marker. Total 80 primers were initially screened, 514 amplification products obtained with 38 informative primers, of which 514 were polymorphic. A vary high degree of polymorphism (100%) was observed among them. UPGMA cluster analysis of genetic similarity indices grouped all the species into three major clusters. Cluster I included four species of Cassia L., Cluster II included eighteen species of Senna Mill. and Cluster III included two species of C. Moench. Highest similarity (0.9%) was observed between Cassia fistula L. and Cassia fistula with nodded filaments and least (0.001%) between Cassia fistula L. and Senna splendida. The Polymorphic information contents (PIC) of the twenty-four species with RAPD marker varied from 0.08 to 0.49 with an average of 0.005. The result confirms the statement of Irwin and Barneby, they divided the genus Cassia L. into three subgenera; Cassia L.,Senna Mill. and C. Moench on the basis of morphological characters. The results obtained from the present study support the previous taxonomic classification of the genus CassiaL. and showed large diversity among the species of three newly created genera. Our results suggested that RAPD marker is a sensitive, precise and efficient tool for genomic analysis of Cassia L. that may be useful in future studies by assigning new unclassified germplasm to specific taxonomic groups and reclassify previously classified species and genera. Key words: Cassia, Senna, Chamaecrista, genetic relationship, RAPD. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/508121117415 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000066 en Copyright © 2011 Vivek Tripathi and Sandhya Goswami
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:354129217428 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Multivariate analysis of Harpagophytum DC. ex Meisn (Pedaliaceae) based on fruit characters Mbaki Muzila , M. P. Setshogo and S. W. Mpoloka Full Length Research Paper Harpagophytum is bitypic and native to Southern Africa. Its two species areHarpagophytum procumbens and H. zeyheri. H. procumbens is medicinal. A reliable method of identifying the species is through its fruit. However, distinguishing between H. procumbens and H. zeyheri can be difficult because of the various morphotypes. Hence, possibilities of introgression are hypothesized. The objective of this study was to test for interspecific introgression between the two species. Diagnostic characters of the fruit were subjected to multivariate analysis. Discriminant function analysis was used to identify and classify the 21 specimen types. Cluster analysis was used to test for possible appurtenance of individual fruit specimens to either the parental species (H. procumbensor H. zeyheri) or to the hybrid (H. procumbens X H. zeyheri). The study inferred the existence of hybridisation (introgression) between the two species. The hybrids can be characterised by fruit length, fruit width, arm width, arm length, and the number of seed rows. In the hybrids, the number of seed rows per loculus comes in various combinations (for example 3,3 and 3,2). And this was found to be quite important in identifying the hybrids. However, it was difficult to determine the direction of gene flow, thus, we recommend molecular analysis of the hybrids. Key words: Harpagophytum, fruit, introgression, multivariate. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/354129217428 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000097 en Copyright © 2011 Mbaki Muzila , M. P. Setshogo and S. W. Mpoloka
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:30F57E417457 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Perception of people towards lions and other wildlife killing humans, around Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania Nyahongo J. W. and Roslash;skaft E., Full Length Research Paper Conflicts between humans and wild animals play an important role in shaping conservation paradigm and perception of local people towards different species of wildlife. The most common problem presented by wildlife to humans includes crop damage, attacking and killing human, spreading of diseases and destruction of water sources. In Tanzania, attacks of humans by large carnivores especially lions is a growing problem although it is limited to some few areas like Ruvuma, Mtwara, Lindi and Singida regions. The current study was conducted between September and November 2008 in villages located along Songea-Masasi highway. Structured and semi-structured questionnaires were administered to respondents. Majority (70.8%) of respondents claimed that wildlife populations were decreasing. More than 70% of respondents claimed to know at least one person that was killed by wild animals. The more killing occurred in the field at night mostly during the rain season. The lions killed 48 individuals in the past five years followed by elephants (16 people), crocodiles (9 people), buffalos (7 people), while hippos and snakes killed five individuals each. Most respondents believe that the lions that attack and kill people are not real animals but are ghost that are created by witch doctors for revenge purpose. Poverty, low level of education plus low density of prey species elucidate the socio-cultural norms and values that substantiate the man eating lions in the area. Establishment of income generating projects, that is, formation of wildlife management areas together with environmental education are important socio-economic activities that would reduce human-wildlife conflict. Key words: Wild animals, socio-cultural norms, values, Tanzania. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/30F57E417457 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000104 en Copyright © 2011 Nyahongo J. W. and Roslash;skaft E.,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:A23B70417566 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Pests of Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) and their natural enemies in Tamil Nadu, India K. Vanitha, P. Karuppuchamy and P. Sivasubramanian Full Length Research Paper Investigations were made from April 2004 to March 2005 in Coimbatore and Theni districts of Tamil Nadu to record the pest status of vanilla and their natural enemies. A total of seven arthropods, seven gastropods and two invertebrates were recorded as pests of vanilla. Out of 60 farms surveyed, only nine had the incidence of pest attack. Among the pests, white grubs and Giant African Snail were found to cause considerable damage to the vanilla plants, while others were not at economic levels. Among the natural enemies, parasitoids like Euplectrus sp.,Glyptapanteles sp., Aprostocetus sp., Chelonus sp., and Uropoda mites were found to be associated with the pests of vanilla. Key words: Vanilla, pests, gastropods, natural enemies Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/A23B70417566 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000105 en Copyright © 2011 K. Vanitha, P. Karuppuchamy and P. Sivasubramanian
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:F03E24C17580 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Hydrobiological parameters, population density and distribution pattern in the gastropod Nerita (dostia) crepidularia Lamarck, 1822, from mangroves of Vellar estuary, Southeast India Chendur Palpandi Full Length Research Paper In the present study, the seasonal variation in physic-chemical parameters, population density and distribution pattern of Nerita crepidularia in the mangroves of Vellar estuary, Tamil Nadu was studied for a period of one year (January to December). The physico-chemical parameters such as temperature (atmospheric and water), pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen and rainfall were estimated. The atmospheric and water temperature ranged from 24 to 38 and 22 to 36deg;C, respectively. The pH ranged between 6.7 and 7.4. The dissolved oxygen was ranged from 4 to 5.1 ml/L. Salinity fluctuated between 4 and 38 ppt. The value of rainfall ranged between 240 and 6070 mm. Further the physic- chemical parameters in various seasons was subjected to analysis of covariance and was calculated as F = 3.055484 (Plt;0.05). Quadrate sampling was carried out monthly. The population density was found to be lesser (average 2 numbers / quadrate / 0.5 m2) in monsoon (November, 2008) and higher (average 7 numbers / quadrate of 0.5 m2) during post monsoon (February, 2008). Further the density of Nerita crepidularia in different seasons was subjected to analysis of covariance and was calculated as F = 0.0215 (Plt;0.05). In the present study, the correlation coefficients obtained between the population density and the hydrobiological parameters were non significant. This gastropod species is found enjoying a variety of habitats and interesting movement along the tides within the same mangroves. It is found attached to the mangrove plants on the stems and moving up and down along the tidal water, that is, during the high tide when the water level goes up to the height of 2.5 m above the ground level, the animals are also moving up and when the water level is coming down during the low tide, the animals are moving down along the tidal water. Further the animals are also found crawling in the intertidal muddy substratum during low tide. Key words: Mangroves, physico-chemical parameters, Nerita (Dostia) crepidularia, population density, distribution pattern, Vellar estuary. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/F03E24C17580 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000075 en Copyright © 2011 Chendur Palpandi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:D28EFA117599 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Role of auxin on adventitious root formation and subsequent growth of cutting raised plantlets of Ginkgo biloba L. Aseesh Pandey, Sushma Tamta and Dinesh Giri Full Length Research Paper Role of some auxins, indol-3-butyric acid (IBA) and alpha;-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) has been examined for their stimulatory effects on adventitious root formation in stem cuttings of Ginkgo biloba as well as on subsequent growth and survival of these cutting raised plantlets. Lower concentration of IBA (10.0 M) was found to be the most effective treatment as it not only induced maximum rooting (88.89%) but also enhanced number of roots, length of roots and length of longest root to the maximum. Further, the growth performance of these cutting raised plantlets, via control and IBA treatment (best treatment), was compared. It was found that the IBA treated plantlets were morphologically healthy in terms of their shoot height, diameter of shoot, number of nodes per cutting, number of leaves/node and number of branches per cutting than the control plants. Besides this, the survival rate of IBA treated plantlets was 100% in comparison to control where it was 87.5%. Therefore it was concluded that IBA treatment not only improve the percent rooting but also improve the subsequent growth and survival rate of the plantlets of G. biloba. Key words: Auxins, indol-3-butyric acid (IBA); rare species, propagation, stems cuttings, survival. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/D28EFA117599 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000002 en Copyright © 2011 Aseesh Pandey, Sushma Tamta and Dinesh Giri
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:AD7BC2741234 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Plant composition and growth of wild Coffea arabica: Implications for management and conservation of natural forest resources Taye Kufa and Mand J. Burkhardt Full Length Research Paper The montane rainforests of Ethiopia are the only places of origin and genetic diversity for Coffea arabica species. These natural forest areas with the occurrence of wild coffee gene pools are however under constant threats, largely due to anthropogenic activities. The study aims to determine the variability in plant compositions and growth of wild Coffea arabica trees in the natural forests of southeastern and Southwestern Ethiopia. The data were collected at twelve study sites. The dominant plants were broadly classified into three forest canopy strata with varying vegetation coverage among and within the study forests. The average abundance of large shade trees, wild coffee plants and shrubs was highest at Berhane-Kontir, Yayu and Bonga natural forests, respectively. The frequency of the respective plant forms was highest at Birhane-Kontir (61%), Harenna (53%) and Bonga (68%). The occurrence of the semi-domesticated spices crops was higher in the Bonga and Berhane-Kontir forests. The average plant density followed the descending order of Bongagt;Yayugt;Birhane-Kontirgt;Harenna forest, largely reflecting anthropogenic impacts. There was negative association between the growth of the coffee trees and the undergrowth shrubs. In contrast, the upper canopy large trees and coffee plants had direct relationships. However, the vegetative and reproductive growth responses of wild coffee plants were impaired, partly due to the multiple stresses in the dense forest ecology. Consequently, more than 70% of the total surface area of coffee trees did not bear crops and altogether coffee yield was low. The highest and lowest reproductive efficiencies were obtained from the Harenna and Yayu wild coffee populations, demonstrating the levels of coffee forest management practices. Overall, our findings indicated great variations in the patterns of plant co-existences and growth natures of wild coffee trees and underlines in multiple benefits of coffee forest environments, among others, as natural coffee gene pools. This depicts the need for multi-site in situ conservation and environmental management planning for sustaining biodiversity conservation and maintaining ecosystem goods and services in Ethiopia and worldwide. Key words: Biodiversity, Ethiopian wild coffee, genetic conservation, natural coffee forest, plant composition. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/AD7BC2741234 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000106 en Copyright © 2011 Taye Kufa and Mand J. Burkhardt
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:08CA6DE17627 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
An overview of shifting cultivation with reference to Nepal Gandhiv Kafle Review Shifting cultivation is a form of land use among resource poor communities with a rotation of cultivation and fallow in the same unit of land. Millions of indigenous people are dependent on shifting cultivation practice, with majority households for subsistence living. This practice is in transition these days with rising population of shifting cultivators and demand for more food. This paper provides a review on shifting cultivation practice in the world with reference to Nepal, with an insight on emerging land use transition, its impacts and future priorities. Key words: Shifting cultivation, biodiversity, fallow, climate change, Chepangs, Nepal. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/08CA6DE17627 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000011 en Copyright © 2011 Gandhiv Kafle
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:5228CAD17644 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
No chilling obligation for germination in seeds of Arnebia benthamii: A critically endangered alpine medicinal plant of north-west Himalaya Khursheed Ahmad Ganaie, Shabana Aslam and Irshad A. Nawchoo Full Length Research Paper Arnebia benthamii (Wall. ex G.Don.) Johnst., Boraginaceae, is an important Himalayan alpine herb with tremendous medicinal properties. The species is facing the pressure of overexploitation and is ranked as a critically endangered species. In an effort to develop a strategy to conserve and cultivate the species, the present study of in vitro seed germination was carried out. The study depicted that the seeds have a very high viability (98%) and contain oil as the reserve food material. The seeds imbibe water nicely and there is no physical dormancy imposed by the seed coat. Among the many pretreatments used to increase percentage germination and reducing mean germination time (MGT), scarification (seed coat removal) proved most effective. The scarification treatment enhanced seed germination to 96.66% and reduced mean germination time to 4.03 days, followed by Kinetin (50 ppm) with 90.83% seed germination and MGT of 4.15 days, as against control, with 31.66% germination and MGT of 9.18 days. Furthermore, when the scarified seeds were treated with seed coat extract, the percentage germination depleted drastically to 28.33% which is suggestive of the fact that the seed coat contains the chemical inhibitors which do have a regulatory or inhibitory effect on seed germination. The study also revealed that the seeds do not need chilling for witnessing germination. Key words: Arnebia benthamii, Kashmir Himalayas, conservation, seed germination, alpine. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/5228CAD17644 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000098 en Copyright © 2011 Khursheed Ahmad Ganaie, Shabana Aslam and Irshad A. Nawchoo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:8D107B117661 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Farmers' perception of leopard (Panthera pardus) conservation in a human dominated landscape in northern Ethiopian highlands Gidey Yirga, Hans Bauer, Yowhans Worasi and Simret Asmelash Full Length Research Paper Attitudes toward leopard (Panthera pardus) conservation were surveyed in two sub districts; May Anbesa (relatively high leopard density area) and Egriwonber (area with no leopard) in the northern Ethiopian highlands. This district is a completely human dominated landscape, where conflict has manifested in terms of livestock depredation. Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), leopard (P. pardus) and common jackal (Canis aureus aureus) are common in this landscape but all other large carnivores are virtually absent. A structured survey instruction was prepared in the form of an interview-based questionnaire. We interviewed 519 randomly selected households. Majority of the respondents (64.6%) had positive feelings and only 10.2% had negative feelings in the core area, whereas majority of the respondents (52.3%) had neutral feelings and only 9.1% had negative feelings towards leopard in the control area. The mean attitude score in both areas was 3.53: neutral to positive. The majority of respondents (72.3%), including 88.6% in the core area and 46.5% in the control area, thought that compensation should be paid to farmers whose livestock had been killed. Only 34.7% of all participants, including 25.9% in the core area and 48.5% in the control area, agreed that killing of leopards should be strictly regulated. Farmers of the core area reported losses of 85 domestic animals due to leopard depredation causing an estimated financial loss of about US$ 3,470 over the last five years. Of all the respondents in core area only 12% of the people had suffered from leopard depredation. Goats were the most depredated livestock species (49.4%). The findings indicated that tolerance for depredation is high for that further efforts could improve support for carnivore conservation. Key words: Leopard, conservation, financial impacts, Ethiopian highlands. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/8D107B117661 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000057 en Copyright © 2011 Gidey Yirga, Hans Bauer, Yowhans Worasi and Simret Asmelash
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:1148F8117677 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Macroinvertebrate assemblages as biological indicators of pollution in a Central Himalayan River, Tawi (J&K) K. K. Sharma and Samita Chowdhary Full Length Research Paper Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages at sub-tropical River of Jamu, River Tawi, corresponding to different catchment land uses, were assessed in 2008 to 2009 as indicators of water quality. The relative diversity, species richness, dominance, evenness indices, physico-chemical parameters and percentage of Annelida + Arthropoda + Mollusca (AAM) individuals were determined. Significant spatio-temporal variation was observed in relative diversity, with Diptera dominating the study area instead of Annelida, Odonata, Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera and Gastropoda. Significant relationships were recorded between physico-chemical parameters (air and water temperature, depth, transparency, pH, FCo2, DO2, CO32-, HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-) and the occurrence of specific genera. Significant changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages were primarily due to changes in water quality. As elsewhere, macroinvertebrate communities proved to be good indicators of water quality and should be used as bioindicators in long-term monitoring of this river. Key words: Macrobenthic invertebrate fauna, correlation, diversity, species richness, Tawi River, water quality. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/1148F8117677 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000090 en Copyright © 2011 K. K. Sharma and Samita Chowdhary
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:7B04EAE17696 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Buxus wallichiana L., a multipurpose Himalayan tree in peril Shreekar Pant Short Communication The family Buxaceae, best represented by the species Buxus wallichiana is known worldwide for its manifold uses. Therefore, an attempt has been made to assess the current status and utilization pattern in Jammu and Kashmir region. Generally, Buxus is used for making wood craft, fuel, and fodder and for other purposes. Due to over exploitation of this species, the natural populations of this species are depleting fast. Present communication highlights the critical situation of Buxus wallichiana in Jammu and Kashmir region. Key words: Chikarri, Buxus, Rajouri ndash; Poonch, Jammu and Kashmir. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/7B04EAE17696 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000021 en Copyright © 2011 Shreekar Pant
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBC:96AB90617713 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBC IJBC:2011
Harvesting and marketing of Massularia species in Cameroon and Nigeria Nkwatoh Athanasius Fuashi, Labode Popoola, Iyassa Sabastine Mosua and Nkwatoh Ferdinand Wehmbazeyi Full Length Research Paper The forest, besides timber, contains many useful goods and services of subsistence and commercial value called Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs). Falconer defines NTFPs as all forest goods and services, excluding commercial timber, that sustain rural people and rural economies. Massularia species as an NTFP is the stem of an ever green perennial shrub from the family Rubiaceae (G. Don) Bullock ex Hoyle. It is harvested from the study area and processed into local tooth brushes (chewing sticks). In a strive to meet set objectives,questionnaires and a selection of some participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools were used to source information from NTFPs harvesters and traders on the occurrence, marketing and market channels for Masularia species in the study area. One species of Massularia (Masularia acuminata) was identified to be sourced and processed for the market from the study area. Harvesting and processing techniques for M. acuminata were characterized by the use of crude tools associated with resource degradation. Market prices were determined by a few buyers who had a monopoly of the M. acuminata market information system. ANOVA and t-test analysis showed no significant differences in quantities harvested within and between zones and the two seasons at plt;0.05 level. Between 2003 and 2010, a total of 10,677,661.5 metric tons of M. acuminata were harvested from the study area and marketed. This was valued at about 14,728,775 FCFA (US$ 24241.65) internally generated revenue (IGR) to the economies of Cameroon and Nigeria. In conclusion, the natural stock of M. acuminata in the study area is on a sharp decline due to unsustainable harvesting and poor land use patterns. Key words: Massularia acuminata, harvesting, marketing, NTFPs. forest, products. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/96AB90617713 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC.9000072 en Copyright © 2011 Nkwatoh Athanasius Fuashi, Labode Popoola, Iyassa Sabastine Mosua and Nkwatoh Ferdinand Wehmbazeyi
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