2019-12-15T01:11:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:2A2BA7940370 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2010
Pathogenic variability within biochemical groups of Pectobacterium carotovorum isolated in Algeria from seed potato tubers R. Yahiaoui-Zaidi, R. Ladjouzi and S. Benallaoua Full Length Research Paper One hundred Pectobacterium carotovorum, isolates, recovered from soft rot symptoms on potato tubers in Algeria and previously characterised taxonomically, were assessed in a half-tuber test for differences in ability to cause tuber rotting on two cultivars (Deacute;sireacute;e and Bintje) respectively considered to be moderately and very susceptible to soft rot. A first trial at 20deg;C, involving the complete collection of isolates at two inoculum concentrations (2.105 and 2.107 cel. ml-1), showed significant effects of inoculum dose, host cultivar and biochemical and molecular groups on pathogenicity. A significant interaction between pathogen groups and cultivars was also apparent. P. carotovorum. subsp. atrosepticum (Pca) was more pathogenic on cv. Bintje than on cv. Deacute;sireacute;e, while the susceptibility of these two cultivars to P. carotovorum. subsp carotovorum (Pcc) was the opposite. Some Pcc isolates were non-pathogenic to both cultivars, and others were pathogenic on cv. Bintje but not on cv. Deacute;sireacute;e. A second trial, conducted at 20 and 25deg;C with a high inoculum concentration (2.107 cel. ml-1) of forty isolates representative from the collection, confirmed the previous findings, and showed a significant effect of temperature on pathogenicity. Pca isolates were more aggressive than Pcc isolates at both temperatures, but the difference was greater at 20deg;C. Our data therefore suggest that cultivar resistance rankings depend on the Pectobacterium subspecies considered, and should therefore be assessed separately for the various Pectobacterium subspecies. Key words: Sensitivity, soft rot, aggressiveness, cultivars, resistance. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/2A2BA7940370 en Copyright © 2010 R. Yahiaoui-Zaidi, R. Ladjouzi and S. Benallaoua
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:A86C3C940373 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2010
Studies in the graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto cassava starch by ceric ion induced initiation E. U. Ikhuoria, A. S. Folayan and F. E. Okieimen Full Length Research Paper Graft copolymers of starch and acrylonitrile were synthesized in aqueous solution. Ceric ammonium ion was used to initiate the graft copolymerization. Ten grades of graft copolymers were synthesized- five by varying the initial concentration of the monomer and the other five by varying the initial concentration of the initiator. Evidence of graft copolymerization of the hydrolyzed products was obtained from the IR analyses. Some grafting parameters such as % grafting ratio and % conversion were favoured by initial increase in the monomer concentration. However, these parameters were observed to decrease at much higher concentrations (gt;3 M). Evidence of hydrolysis shows that the grafted copolymers could be used as flocculants. Key words: Acrylonitrile, homopolymer, grafting initiator, starch. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/A86C3C940373 en Copyright © 2010 E. U. Ikhuoria, A. S. Folayan and F. E. Okieimen
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:01ADD8341250 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2010
Optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources of submerged culture process for the production of mycelial biomass and exopolysaccharides by Trametes versicolor Krishna Bolla, B. V. Gopinath, Syed Zeenat Shaheen and M. A. Singara Charya Full Length Research Paper Medicinal mushrooms have profound health-promoting benefits. Polysaccharides constitute an important percentage of fungal biomass, where the hyphal wall frequently contains more than 75% of polysaccharide. Trametes versicolor is a medicinal fungus producing exopolysaccharides (EPS). The media were tested with different carbon and nitrogen sources which maximize the production of EPS by T. versicolor. The media were optimized with different carbon (glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, raffinose, mannitol and xylose) and nitrogen sources (peptone, glycine, gelatin, casein, yeast extract, ammonium sulphate, KNO3 and NaNO2) for the higher yield of polysaccharides. Biomass, pH changes along with the EPS production of the broth were followed during fermentations lasting 7 and 14 days. Fructose (8 g. dr. w/l) was shown to have yielded the highest production of EPS for 7 days, and gelatin (11 g. dr. w/l) to have produced the highest biomass. An experimental design to do this was adopted, in which the effects of pH were considered. Key words: Basidiomycetes, exopolysaccharide, biomass, submerged culture. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/01ADD8341250 en Copyright © 2010 Krishna Bolla, B. V. Gopinath, Syed Zeenat Shaheen and M. A. Singara Charya
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:CD847E941257 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2010
Substrate utilization and inhibition kinetics: Batch degradation of phenol by indigenous monoculture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa S. E. Agarry, B. O. Solomon, and T. O. K. Audu Full Length Research Paper The biodegradation potential of an indigenous monoculture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied in batch fermentation using synthetic phenol in water in the concentration range of (100 - 500) mg/L as a model limiting substrate. The effect of initial phenol concentration on the degradation process was investigated. Phenol was completely degraded at different cultivation times for various initial phenol concentrations. Increasing the initial phenol concentration from 100 to 500 mg/L, increased the lag phase from 0 to 24 h and correspondingly prolonged the degradation process from 54 to 168 h. This implies that there was decrease in biodegradation rate as initial phenol concentration increased. Four substrate utilization models were examined, and out of these, the adapted Miura model was found to be the best fit for description of kinetics. The rsmax decreased and Ks increased with higher concentration of phenol. The rsmax has been found to be a strong function of initial phenol concentration. The bacterial culture followed substrate inhibition kinetics and the specific phenol consumption rates were fitted to five inhibition models. The Haldane and Yano and Koga inhibition models were found to give the best fit. Therefore, the biokinetic constants estimated using these models show good potential of the monoculture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the possibility of using it in bioremediation of phenolic waste effluents. Key words: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, phenol, biodegradation, kinetic model, batch cultivation, bioreactor, primary culture, secondary culture, bioremediation. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/CD847E941257 en Copyright © 2010 S. E. Agarry, B. O. Solomon, and T. O. K. Audu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:233E91E41263 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2010
Urinary schistosomiasis: Efficacy of praziquantel and association of the ABO blood grouping in disease epidemiology M. O. Oniya and O. Jeje Full Length Research Paper Schistosomiasis, one of the neglected tropical diseases continues to plague communities with little or no access to potable water and with high water contact activities. Ipogun village in Ondo State is one of such communities in Nigeria. This study assessed the efficacy of praziquantel and the association of the ABO blood grouping in disease epidemiology in the only private primary school in the village. Ten milliliters of urine and 3 ml of blood samples were collected for urinalysis and blood grouping test respectively from a total of 113 pupils. Results showed that, 60 (53.1%) were infected with Schistosoma haematobium. Infected pupils were treated with praziquantel (40 mg/kg body weight) and subsequently re-screened 5 months after the administration of the chemotherapeutic. Results also showed that a single dose of praziquantel conferred a 94.44% cure rate. ABO blood grouping was also observed not to be associated with the epidemiology of the disease as frequency or severity of infection was not significant (p gt; 0.05) among the three represented blood groups (A, B and O). Key words: Urinary schistosomiasis, praziquantel, ABO blood grouping, epidemiology. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/233E91E41263 en Copyright © 2010 M. O. Oniya and O. Jeje
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:12CB31541262 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2010
Theileria parva apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) shares conserved sequences with apicomplexan homologs Nyerhovwo J. Tonukari Full Length Research Paper The apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) is a leading malaria vaccine candidate that is expressed in mature stage parasites and is thought to be essential for invasion. In Plasmodium falciparum, AMA-1 is localized initially to the micronemes, apical organelles of the parasite. A similar apicomplexan parasite, Theileria parva infects and transforms lymphocytes of cattle and African buffalo causing the disease called East Coast fever (ECF). The AMA-1 homolog in T. parva was isolated, cloned and sequenced. The predicted amino acid sequence was further analyzed. The partial gene sequence, which is 1422 bp long and encoding 473 amino acid residues, is located on chromosome 1 of the T. parva genome. The AMA-1 homolog in T. parva shares conserved sequences with apicomplexan homologs. It is 64% similar to the AMA-1 in Babesia bigemina, and 56% similar to the homolog in P. falciparum. Given the importance of AMA-1 in invasion and the central role invasion plays in pathogenesis, the T. parva AMA-1 may likely have implications for vaccine design in East Coast fever disease. Key words: Theileria parva, East Coast fever, apical membrane antigen-1, apicomplexan parasite. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/12CB31541262 en Copyright © 2010 Nyerhovwo J. Tonukari
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:5D4D34241264 2010-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2010
Antimutagenic activity of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia Meera Sumanth and G. Nagarjuna Chowdary Full Length Research Paper Toxicological studies have undergone a significant evolution during the past decade, with inclusion and great emphasis on chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and mutagenicity. Present study was taken up to evaluate antimutagenicity of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia (MC) by bone marrow micronucleus assay (MNT) and chromosomal aberration test (CAT) in mice. Cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg, i.p) was used as a genotoxic challenge and bone marrow of control and MC treated mice was collected after 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. In MNT, the bone marrow smears were stained with May-Grunwaldrsquo;s followed by Giemsa stain. Polychromatic and Normochromatic erythrocytes were counted and P/N ratio was calculated. In CAT, colchicine, four mg/kg, i.p, was administered 90 min before sacrifice, bone marrow smears were prepared, stained with Giemsa stain and observed under 100X for different types of chromosomal aberrations. Mitotic index was calculated. The MC has significantly decreased the formation of micronuclei, increased the P/N ratio, inhibited the formation of chromosomal aberrations and increased the mitotic index. Hence, M. charantia has significant antimutagenic activity. Key words: Antimutagenic activity, chromosomal aberration test, micronucleus assay, Momordica charantia. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/5D4D34241264 en Copyright © 2010 Meera Sumanth and G. Nagarjuna Chowdary
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:61549D841266 2010-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2010
Patterns of colonization and immune response elicited from interactions between enteropathogenic bacteria, epithelial cells and probiotic fractions Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc, Coralia Bleotu, Diana-Roxana Pelinescu, Veronica Lazar, Lia-Mara Ditu, Tatiana Vassu, Ileana Stoica, Olguta Dracea, Ionela Avram and Elena Sasarman Full Length Research Paper The purpose of this study was to investigate by in vitro studies the antimicrobial activity of eight lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains belonging to Lactobacillus paracasei spp. paracasei, L. plantarum and L. rhamnosus species against Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri and EPEC pathogenic strains isolated from pediatric diarrhoea cases, simultaneously with the assessment of the cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory potential of the respective strains. The study of the adherence capacity to the cellular substrate represented by HeLa cells was performed by Craviotorsquo;s adapted method. The cytotoxicity was determined on HeLa cells and the level of soluble pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was assessed by ELISA. Our in vitro studies are demonstrating that the selected probiotic strains are inhibiting the adherence and colonization of HeLa cells by the enteropathogenic strains isolated from pediatric diarrhoea mainly by direct competition for adherence sites, demonstrating their potential use in the treatment of pediatric gastro-intestinal disorders, as an alternative to/in association with antibiotics. A great advantage of the selected probiotic strains is their low cytotoxicity and ability to trigger a beneficial cytokine response in the epithelial cells, which potentiates their antimicrobial activity by stimulating the occurrence of a rapid immune response following the intestinal injury. Key words: Antimicrobial activity, immunomodulatory, cytokines, invasive bacteria, Lactobacillus, enteropathogenic bacteria, antimicrobial effect, cytotoxicity, probiotics. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/61549D841266 en Copyright © 2010 Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc, Coralia Bleotu, Diana-Roxana Pelinescu, Veronica Lazar, Lia-Mara Ditu, Tatiana Vassu, Ileana Stoica, Olguta Dracea, Ionela Avram and Elena Sasarman
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:6AC0A8041266 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2010
Elaboration of mycotoxins by seed-borne fungi of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) Shilpa Penugonda, S. Girisham and S. M. Reddy Short Communication Mycotoxin producing potential of fungi associated with finger millet was investigated. Many species of Aspergillus elaborated aflatoxins, patulin, terreic acid and sterigmocystin, while species of Fusarium elaborated zearalenone, fusarinone-X, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscripenol, neosolanil and HT-2 toxins. Penicillium griseofulvum elaborated cyclopiazonic acid. The toxigenic potential of individual fungus varied. Key words: Mycotoxins, seed-borne fungi, finger millet. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/6AC0A8041266 en Copyright © 2010 Shilpa Penugonda, S. Girisham and S. M. Reddy
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:1E11B8F41267 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2010
Effects of planting dates and compost on mucilage variations in borage (Borago officinalis L.) under different chemical fertilization systems Ahmad Ebrahimi, Payam Moaveni and Hossein Aliabadi Farahani Full Length Research Paper The experimental design was a split factorial on the basis of completely randomized block design with three replications at the expermintal field of the Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Iran in 2009. The planting dates (1 March, 15 March and 1 April) were assigned to the main plots and the combination of compost including 5, 10, 15 and 20 ton ha-1 and the chemical fertilization systems (N1P1K1 = 160, 128, 160; N2P2K2 = 120, 96, 120; N3P3K3 = 80, 64, 80; N4P4K4 = 40, 32, 40 respectively) were factorially assigned to the subplots. The chemical fertilization systems and compost significantly increased the mucilage percentage, flower yield, grain yield, root dry weight, plant height, flower number per plant and thousand seed weight in borage. Although, the planting date treatment significantly increased the plant features and the highest mucilage percentage (9.4%) was achieved under the treatments of 1 March and N1P1K1. It can be stated that compost is able to enhance the growth of borage under chemical fertilization systems enhancing NPK uptake. Key words: Planting date, chemical fertilization system, compost, mucilage, borage. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/1E11B8F41267 en Copyright © 2010 Ahmad Ebrahimi, Payam Moaveni and Hossein Aliabadi Farahani
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:260C22941267 2010-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2010
Chemical fractionation and heavy metal accumulation in maize (Zea mays) grown on chromated copper arsenate (CCA) contaminated soil amended with cow dung manure S. O. P. Urunmatsoma, E. U. Ikhuoria and F. E. Okieimen Full Length Research Paper Cow dung used as soil amendments and a sequential chemical speciation (six steps) procedure were used to predict the uptake of Cr, Cu and As by maize (Zea mays) plant in chromated copper arsenate (CCA) contaminated soil. A pot experiment containing the contaminated soil samples with different percentage levels of amendments and control (no amendment) was set up. The relative concentrations of the metals in the CCA contaminated soil were established as Cr 265.84 mg/kg, Cu 155.82 mg/kg and As 33.09 mg/kg. However, with the use of speciation and calculations based on mobility factor (Mf), the relative toxicity of the metals in the soil was established as As (60%) gt; Cr (19%) gt; Cu (8%). The amendment, rich in organic matter raised the pH level of the soil, demobilized the metals rendering them unavailable through bounding resulting into relatively lower uptake by plants in soils with amendment when compared with plants in the control pots. Key words: Chromated copper arsenate CCA contaminated soil, amendment, copper, maize (Zea mays). Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/260C22941267 en Copyright © 2010 S. O. P. Urunmatsoma, E. U. Ikhuoria and F. E. Okieimen
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:BE56E0041270 2010-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2010
Ethnomedicinal plants and other natural products with anti-HIV active compounds and their putative modes of action Kazhila C. Chinsembu and Marius Hedimbi, Full Length Research Paper The use of ethnomedicines to manage HIV/AIDS has recently gained public interest, although harmonization with official HIV/AIDS policy remains a contentious issue in many countries. Plants and other natural products present a large repertoire from which to isolate novel anti-HIV active compounds. In this literature survey, 55 plant families containing 95 plant species, and other natural products, were found to contain anti-HIV active compounds that included diterpenes, triterpenes, biflavonoids, coumarins, caffeic acid tetramers, hypericin, gallotannins, galloylquinic acids, curcumins, michellamines, and limonoids. These active compounds inhibited various steps in the HIV life cycle. However, further studies are needed to determine their interactions with current regimes of antiretroviral drugs. More clinical trials of candidate drugs developed from these novel compounds are also encouraged. Key words: Anti-HIV active compounds, other natural products, plants. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/BE56E0041270 en Copyright © 2010 Kazhila C. Chinsembu and Marius Hedimbi,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:77942B941275 2010-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2010
Nutrigenomic analysis of mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) strains using polymerase chain reaction - simple sequence repeats (PCR-SSR) Chinnaswamy Ramesha, Savarapu Sugnana Kumari, Chebba Moremnagari Anuradha, Hothur Lakshmi and Chitta Suresh Kumar Full Length Research Paper The DNA marker use in assisting selection are safe method in breeding process and it is an important tool for authentication of new gene cascade in genome. In mulberry silkworm, the major economic and nutrigenomic traits are polygenic in nature. In the present study, we have utilized ten PCR-SSR microsatellite markers to gain better understanding on genotyping of certain nutrigenomic gene loci in nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds / hybrids. Results showed that a single yet varying size amplified band in all four parental silkworm strains (RMG4, RMW2, RBD1 and RBO2) and two clear amplified bands in the hybrids (RMG4 times; RBD1 and RMW2 times; RBO2) with different molecular weight from three PCR-SSR primers loci viz., F11139, F10429 and F10705. The PCR-SSR results demonstrated that homozygosity in newly evaluated nutritionally efficient parental silkworm strains and heterozygosity in hybrid. These investigations authentically confirmed the previous findings of heterotic nutritionally efficient silkworm hybrids with superior nutrigenomic traits. The developed molecular analysis in silkworm could be utilized for the benefit of the farmers in sericulture industry. In conclusion, these results would be useful in identification of nutrigenomic cascade of genes in silkworm and also emphasize the future prospects of silkworm functional mechanism in nutrigenomic studies. Key words: Silkworm, breed, hybrid, nutrigenomics, PCR-SSR marker, homozygosity, heterozygosity, cascade of genes. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/77942B941275 en Copyright © 2010 Chinnaswamy Ramesha, Savarapu Sugnana Kumari, Chebba Moremnagari Anuradha, Hothur Lakshmi and Chitta Suresh Kumar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:1344D1541277 2010-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2010
Green energy from chemicals and bio-wastes Abdeen Mustafa Omer Full Length Research Paper This paper discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other measures necessary to reduce climate change. Energy use reductions can be achieved by minimising the energy demand, by rational energy use, and by recovering heat. The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates the use of more green energies. The adoption of green or sustainable approaches to the way in which society is run is seen as an important strategy in finding a solution to the energy problem. The key factors to reducing and controlling CO2 emissions to the atmospheric sink, which is the major contributor to global warming, are the use of alternative approaches to energy generation and the exploration of how these alternatives are used today and may be used in the future as green energy sources. Key words: Biomass, wastes, bi-wastes, bioenergy, bioheat, biogas. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/1344D1541277 en Copyright © 2010 Abdeen Mustafa Omer
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:D1D69A041279 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Application of subspecies-specific marker system identified from O. sativa to O. glaberrima accessions and O. sativa × O. glaberrima F1 interspecific progenies Isaac Kofi Bimpong, , Joong Hyoun Chin, Joie Ramos and Hee-Jong Koh Full Length Research Paper Interspecific hybrids (F1#39;s) between Asian rice (Oryza sativa 2n=24 AA) and African rice (Oryza glaberrima 2n=24 AA) are almost completely sterile. This hybrid sterility barrier is mainly caused by an arrest of pollen development at the microspore stage. Intersubspecific F1 hybrid sterility is mainly caused by cryptic chromosomal aberrations and allelic interaction between indica and japonica. To identify O. glaberrima specific loci, 67 subspecies-specific (SS) sequenced-tagged site (STS) marker were used to evaluate 30 O. glaberrima accessions, which could be classified into sub eleven groups. SPI (subspecies-prototype index) of O. glaberrima accessions ranged from 51.67 to 60.00, suggesting intermediate subspecific type based on whole-genome. Some informative markers for classifying O. glaberrima accessions, called reference markers, S01054, S01160, S02085, S02140, S03041, and S08107, showed indica alleles, which might have contributed to genomic diversification of O. glaberrima. Ten (14.9%) SS markers generated glaberrima-specific alleles, implying loci adjacent with these markers could be a key for interspecific hybrid sterility. Only 40 (59.7%) SS markers might be useful in O. glaberrima analysis, as other markers did not amplify heterozygous alleles in F1 of O.sativa x O. glaberrima. Key words: Subspecies-specific marker (SS), STS markers, indels, subspecies-prototype (SP), Oryza sativa, Oryza glaberrima. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/D1D69A041279 en Copyright © 2011 Isaac Kofi Bimpong, , Joong Hyoun Chin, Joie Ramos and Hee-Jong Koh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:C54E0F941281 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Identification of Ralstonia solanacearum using conserved genomic regions Alka Grover, Abhinav Grover, S. K. Chakrabarti, Wamik Azmi, Durai Sundar and S. M. P. Khurana Full Length Research Paper The aim of the present study is to develop a scheme for identification of Ralstonia solanacearum with high specificity based on conserved genomic regions. Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) in R. solanacearum genome were searched using Tandem Repeat Finder software. A total of 189 and 74 STRs were found in chromosomal and megaplasmid DNA respectively. Sequence homology of these STRs analyzed using BLAST showed that out of total 273 STRs only nine were found unique for R. solanacearum. Correspondingly nine pairs of primers were synthesized for the flanking regions of these STRs. Sequence homology of these primer pairs carried using BLAST revealed that out of the nine pairs, one pair uniquely matched only at a single locus in the Ralstonia chromosomal DNA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using templates from 44 different isolates of R. solanacearum yielding single sized amplicon ascertains the versatility and unambiguousness of the designed primers. The fact that the primer pair did not amplify the genomic DNA of 12 soil bacteria establishes the specificity to R. solanacearum. Thus the novel and specific primers designed for R.solanacearum would enable fast and definitive identification of the lethal pathogen. The designed primers would be of great importance for detection of R. solanacearum in seed tubers, soil and water streams thus helping in establishing preventive measures for checking pathogen spread. This would also allow facilitating epidemiological studies allowing better surveillance of this pathogen. Key words: Ralstonia solanacearum, identification, specific primers, differentiation, polymerase chain reaction. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/C54E0F941281 en Copyright © 2011 Alka Grover, Abhinav Grover, S. K. Chakrabarti, Wamik Azmi, Durai Sundar and S. M. P. Khurana
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:B7E03D541282 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Transient receptor potential channels interference has broader implications in safeguarding against genomic instability Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Qaisar mansoor, Aamir Rana, Zeeshan Javed and Shahzad Bhatti Full Length Research Paper Prostate cancer is a multistep molecular disorder that arises because of a miscellany of proteins. Calcium channels, hotspots in genome and susceptibility to DNA damage, an illegitimate repair of the genome, all these factors work synchronously at various levels to worsen the clinical management of the disease. Fusion transcripts are recently acclaimed candidates for exacerbation of the disease. Erlotinib has been used for the treatment of various molecular pathologies but it has been ineffective in producing desired level of effects. It is therefore used in conjunction with other therapeutic intercessions. Despite the characterization of a number of fusion genes, therapeutic interventions to address the underlying mechanisms are still insufficient. In this particular study, we have applied a combinatorial approach to silence some calcium channels which have been documented earlier to be contributory in disease progression. The siRNA against TRPM2, TRPV6 and TRPC6 were used to evaluate the striking synergy. Simultaneously, the effects were evaluated for ATM activation and a downregulation of the chimeric gene. The expression of channels was blocked effectively as analyzed by RT PCR and Blotting assays. TRPM2 ablation instigated a DNA damage response which was observed by the blotting assay for phosphorylated ATM. Dampening the expression of TRPV6 and TRPC6 by siRNA concomitantly inhibited the genomic rearrangements. We have evaluated the synergistic impact of Erlotinib along with TRP interference on genomic instability. The observations are indicative of the fact that, silencing of calcium channels offer exciting avenues for getting a step closer to personalized medicine. Key words: ATM, TMPRSS2-ERG, TRPM2, TRPV6, TRPC6, genomic instability, prostate cancer. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/B7E03D541282 en Copyright © 2011 Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Qaisar mansoor, Aamir Rana, Zeeshan Javed and Shahzad Bhatti
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:4A37EEF41283 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Incidence of mycotoxigenic penicillia in feeds of Andhra Pradesh, India V. Koteswara Rao, P. Shilpa, S. Girisham and S. M. Reddy Full Length Research Paper Incidence of different species of Penicillium in poultry feeds (starter, breeder, boiler and layer) and cattle feeds was analyzed. In all twenty three species of Penicillium, Penicillium aethiopicum, Penicillium alli, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium brevicampactum, Penicillium camemberti, Penicillium caseifulvum, Pchrysogenum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium dipodomyis, Penicillium discolor, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium flavigenum, Penicillium griseofulvum, Penicillium italicum, Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium nordicum, Penicillium olsonii, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium rubrum, Penicillium tricolor and Penicillium verrucosum could be recorded in 400 samples of feed samples, poultry feed (280) and cattle feed (120) was analyzed for fungus isolation by dilution plate method, screening of 483 Penicillium species by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and spray reagents for mycotoxin production, 299 strains were positive to be mycotoxigenic which elaborates a variety of mycotoxins such as Citrinin, Cyclopiazonic acid, Mycophenolic acid, Ochratoxin A, Patulin, Penitrems, PR toxin, Roquefortine C,Rubratoxin and Terric acid etc. Key words: Penicillium species, mycotoxins, cattle feed, poultry feed. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/4A37EEF41283 en Copyright © 2011 V. Koteswara Rao, P. Shilpa, S. Girisham and S. M. Reddy
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:17365D341286 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Construction of genome-length cDNA for foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia 1 IND 63/72 vaccine strain T. Saravanan, C. Ashok Kumar, G. R. Reddy, H. J. Dechamma, G. Nagarajan, P. Ravikumar, G. Srinivas and V. V. S. Suryanarayana Full Length Research Paper Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The virus (FMDV) belongs to the genus Apthovirus of the family Picornaviridae. The FMDV genome consists of a positive sense ssRNA of about 8500 nt encoding a single open reading frame (ORF) which later processed into multiple viral proteins. Although FMDV replication resembles those of other picorna viruses, there are notable differences like broad host range and several unique genetic features. On the Asian continent, FMDV serotype Asia 1 plays a second major role in causing outbreaks after serotype O. The Asia 1 virus displays unique characteristics in its stability, replication kinetics and plaque morphology. In order to study these characteristics we have constructed a genome-length cDNA clone of FMDV Asia 1 vaccine strain IND 63/72. The functionality of the cDNA was checked in BHK 21 cells and it did not yield any viable virus particle. The genome-length cDNA contained a single ORF of 6902 nucleotides terminating at a UAA codon 95 bases from the 3rsquo; poly (A) tail sequence. The 8167 base pair sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence (2330 aa) were compared with the published FMDV sequence of Chinese strain YNBS/58 showed 5.3% variation at amino acid level. Key words: Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Asia 1, Apthovirus, genome-length cDNA, In vitro transcription and translation. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/17365D341286 en Copyright © 2011 T. Saravanan, C. Ashok Kumar, G. R. Reddy, H. J. Dechamma, G. Nagarajan, P. Ravikumar, G. Srinivas and V. V. S. Suryanarayana
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:1953DE141295 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Molecular docking analysis of whey proteins with angiotensin converting enzyme to lessen high blood pressure Uma Maheshwari and Shwetha Ashok Shet Full Length Research Paper Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II a potent vasoconstrictor in a substrate concentration dependent manner and degrades bradykinin a potent vasodilator and other vasoactive peptides which leads to increase in blood pressure. Prolonged increase in blood pressure condition increases the risk of heart attacks, heart failure, stroke, or kidney failure. Naturally occurring when proteins acts as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors results in the decreased formation of angiotensin II and decreased metabolism of bradykinin leading to systematic dilation of the arteries and veins and a decrease in arterial blood pressure. The molecular docking analysis done indicates that the receptor of human angiotensin converts enzyme through an interaction with the chemical bonds and the bovine ligand whey proteins - beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, serum albumin and immunoglobulins effectively. The bovine ligand whey proteins - beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, serum albumin and immunoglobulins are safer and milder with fewer or no side effects than the drugs currently used in the treatment of lessening high blood pressure which can be better used for the development of new therapeutics to decrease formation of angiotensin II and to decrease inactivation of bradykinin as a means of inhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme lessening high blood pressure there by reducing the risk factors of heart attacks, heart failure, stroke, or kidney failure. Key words: Angiotensin converting enzyme, whey proteins, beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, serum albumin, immunoglobulins, hex, molecular docking, intermolecular bonding interactions, high blood pressure. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/1953DE141295 en Copyright © 2011 Uma Maheshwari and Shwetha Ashok Shet
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:117B12541295 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
In vitro propagation of Rorippa indica L. from nodal and shoot tip explants P. Ananthi, B. D. Ranjitha Kumari and A. Ramachandran Full Length Research Paper A simple micropropagation method from nodal and shoot tip explants were reported here for Rorippa indica, an economically important medicinal plant. High frequency of micro shoots were obtained from these two explants on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of BAP (1.0 to 4.0 mg/l) and Kn (1.0 to 4.0 mg/l). Maximum number of shoots was obtained from nodal explants in the medium containing 3.0 mg/l BAP. The nodal explants produced the highest number (42.00 plusmn; 4.42) of shoots per culture with a mean length of 9.45 plusmn; 4.13 cm. The shoot tip explants produced maximum number of (37.35 plusmn; 5.82) shoots per culture on the same medium, average length of the in vitro shoots being 7.10 plusmn; 4.36 cm. The root induction was carried out by using IBA and IAA (0.5 to 2.0 mg/l). Among these, high frequency of root proliferation was achieved in the medium containing 1.5 mg/l of IBA. Rooted plantlets were carefully removed from the medium and treated with 10% bavistin for protecting the root system from fungal infection. After the bavistin treatment, roots were washed with distilled water six to eight times and transferred to plastic cups containing (1:1:1) red soil, sand, vermicompost. The rooted plantlets were hardened and transferred to the field. The survival rate was 90 to 95% after 25 days. Key words: Rorippa indica, 6-benzyal amino purine, Kinetin, iodole 3 butyric acid, indole acetic acid, murashige and skoog medium. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/117B12541295 en Copyright © 2011 P. Ananthi, B. D. Ranjitha Kumari and A. Ramachandran
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:579E9FD41297 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Back propagation neural network method for predicting Lac gene structures in Streptococcus pyogenes M Group A Streptococcus strains Santhosh Rebello, Uma Maheshwari, Safreena and Rashmi Venex DSouza Full Length Research Paper The rapid growth and availability of whole genome sequences of Streptococcus pyogenes M Group A Streptococcus strains which is a spherical gram-positive bacteria that causes important human diseases ranging from mild superficial skin infections to life-threatening systemic diseases have initiated the need to analyze these sequences. The motivation of this paper is to adopt content based gene prediction method along with the machine learning techniques of Artificial Neural Networks - Back Propagation Network, specific for predicting Lac genes of S. pyogenes M Group A Streptococcus strains. We first obtained Lac genes from the genome sequences of S. pyogenes M Group A Streptococcus strains and calculated the mean gene content. The mean gene content had 70 parameters indicating the mean of the percentages of the frequencies of occurrences of 64 possible codons, 4 nucleotides, purines and pyrimidines. We constructed threendash;layer feed-forward neural network with 70 input units, 20 hidden units and 1 output unit. After being trained in a supervised manner with the Error Backndash;Propagation Algorithm by mean gene content, the network is examined by testing the algorithm for the mean gene content vector and 99 sample Lac gene vectors to get a range of values for the output that the Lac gene vector falls. The values obtained ranged from 0.9857 to 0.9901 and these ranges of values are used in classifying whether a given sequence is a Lac gene or not. SpyMGASLacGenePred is a tool that has been developed. It accepts a DNA sequence. It finds all possible ORFs in 6 reading frames. It calculates gene content and runs the testing algorithm of the network for all ORFs to confirm whether they are Lac genes or not. For the set of ORFs that the neural network classifies as a Lac gene, the tool determines and displays the position, length, frame information, GC content and translated sequence. The calculated performance measures for evaluation of the developed tool SpyMGASLacGenePred showed that it has a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 76.9%. Since every Lac gene used for training is taken into consideration by the Back Propagation Neural Network program for testing, the tool has 100% sensitivity. However, if Lac genes of the other strains of S. pyogenes which are not used for training is tested, then sensitivity might drop to a certain extent. The tool has a specificity of 76.9% and this indicates that the tool is above an acceptable threshold level to predict the correct Lac genes out of a total of Lac genes. The tool also showed a correlation coefficient of 0.733 which is near +1 and thus can be considered as near perfect prediction. Thus the adopted Back Propagation Algorithm of Artificial Neural Network method has been useful for the development of the SpyMGASLacGenePred tool to identify the Lac gene structures in S. pyogenes M Group A Streptococcus strains. Key words: Back Propagation Algorithm, Artificial Neural Network, Lac gene prediction, Streptococcus pyogenes M Group A Streptococcus strains. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/579E9FD41297 en Copyright © 2011 Santhosh Rebello, Uma Maheshwari, Safreena and Rashmi Venex DSouza
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:2D3FDCE41299 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Proposal for access to the femur in rats Clayton Miguel Costa, Geraldo Bernardes, Sandro Melim Sgrott, Jorge Bins Ely, Luismar Marques Porto and Armando Joseacute; drsquo;Acampora Full Length Research Paper Reconstructions, implantation procedures and bone synthesis materials used to treat bone loss caused by tumors or fractures require in vivo testing. In this study, we created an access route to the femur in rats, allowing us to conduct in vivo bone experiments with less cost, more easily obtainable materials and simplified storage and care. Eighteen male Wistar rats, 180 days of age and weighting 350 to 370 g were surgically operated. Their femurs were accessed and exposed quickly and safely. This proved to be an effective method for experiments in which the bone needs to be approached and studied. The approach proposed in this study is suitable for full exposure of the rat femur. Key words: Rats, femur, models, animal. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/2D3FDCE41299 en Copyright © 2011 Clayton Miguel Costa, Geraldo Bernardes, Sandro Melim Sgrott, Jorge Bins Ely, Luismar Marques Porto and Armando Joseacute; drsquo;Acampora
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:7BDBFE141300 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Drug release and antimicrobial studies on polylactic acid suture O. L. Shanmugasundaram, R. V. Mahendra Gowda and D. Saravanan Full Length Research Paper The aim of the present study was to develop drug releasing polylactic acid (PLA) suture. PLA suture was taken for the research work. The material was analyzed, its properties, such as tensile strength, elongation, knot strength and diameter. Biopolymers such as chitosan, sodium alginate, calcium alginate, and their blends were coated on the suture material. The polymer coated samples were subjected to Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. Bacteria present in wound samples were found out using different biochemical methods. The results show that Staphylococcus aureus and proteus was found in the wound samples. Tetracycline hydrochloride, rifampin and chloramphenicol drugs were selected based on the antibiotic sensitivity test. These drugs were then incorporated into the polymer coated samples using immersion method. All the drug loaded samples were subjected to drug release study for about four days in static condition. Further, the drug loaded samples were subjected to antimicrobial test. Hence these sutures are quite suitable for wound healing in addition to wound closing. Key words: Alginate, antimicrobial, bacteria, biopolymer, chitosan, suture. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/7BDBFE141300 en Copyright © 2011 O. L. Shanmugasundaram, R. V. Mahendra Gowda and D. Saravanan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:883799141301 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Temperature as a factor in the elaboration of mycotoxins by two fungi in groundnut fodder Kiran Saini, S. Kalyani, M. Surekha and S. M. Reddy Short Communication Production of patulin and terreic acid by Aspergillus terreus and zearalenone by Fusarium oxysporum in groundnut fodder in relation to temperature was investigated. Biodeterioration activity of F. oxysporum and A. terreus was more at incubation temperature of 20 and 30deg;C respectively. F. oxysporum elaborated maximum amount of zearalenone at 20 to 25deg;C, while A. terreus could produce maximum terreic acid and patulin at 25deg;C. Key words: Groundnut fodder, temperature, Aspergillus terreus, Fusarium oxysporum, terreic acid, zearalenone and patulin. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/883799141301 en Copyright © 2011 Kiran Saini, S. Kalyani, M. Surekha and S. M. Reddy
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:C9C756A41307 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Antigen specific cellular response in patients with hepatitis C virus infection and its association with HLA alleles Chinmaya Mahapatra and Anuradha S. Tripathy Full Length Research Paper Article retracted by the authors Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/C9C756A41307 en Copyright © 2011 Chinmaya Mahapatra and Anuradha S. Tripathy
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:9A3715E41309 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Decolorization of anthroquinone based dye Vat Red 10 by Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112 and Galactomyces geotrichum MTCC 1360 Archana A. Gurav, Jai S. Ghosh and Girish S. Kulkarni Wastewater, from the textile and other dyestuff industries containing synthetic dyes, require prior treatment to prevent groundwater contamination. The microbial decolorization and degradation of these dyes play a pivotal role in this aspect. Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112 and Galactomyces geotrichum MTCC 1360 could bring about oxidative degradation resulting in decolorization of this water insoluble Vat Red 10 (Novatic red 3B) dye at pH 9, at 25deg;C. The decolorization was measured as the decrease in absorbance maxima at 530 nm. The end product of degradation and decolorization was 2, 6-Di isopropyl Naphthalene (2, 6-DIPN), which is an important plant growth factor. Key words: Vat dyes, vat red 10(Novatic Red3B), dye decolorization, textile, Pseudomonas desmolyticum, Galactomyces geotrichum, wastewater, 2, 6-DIPN. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/9A3715E41309 en Copyright © 2011 Archana A. Gurav, Jai S. Ghosh and Girish S. Kulkarni
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:EBA5B6541310 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
HLA-DQA1 and –DQB1 genotyping in individuals with family history of gastritis Nibras S. Al-Ammar, Ihsan Al-Saimary, Saad Sh. Hamadi and Ma Luo Full Length Research Paper The objective was to study HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 genotyping in individuals (patients and controls) with family history of gastritis. This study was carried out in College of Medicine, University of Basrah. HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 genotyping was done in College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, and Winnpeg, Canada during the period from 17th of April 2009 to 15th of July 2010. A total of 100 patients (41 males and 59 females) and a total of 30 controls (18 males and 12 females) were included in this study. A significant decreased frequency of DQA1*0201 allele was found in individuals (patients + controls) with family history of gastritis with a strong association (odds ratio = 4.57), as compared with individuals without family history of gastritis. Significant increased alleles frequencies of DQA1*0402 and DQB1*0402 were found in individuals with family history of gastritis, but with weak association (odds ratios, 0.16 and 0.20 respectively), as compared with individuals without family history of gastritis. Key words: HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, genotyping and gastritis. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/EBA5B6541310 en Copyright © 2011 Nibras S. Al-Ammar, Ihsan Al-Saimary, Saad Sh. Hamadi and Ma Luo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:BB4C37541311 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Authentication of fusion genes in chronic myeloid leukemia Aamir Rana, Shahzad Bhatti, Ghulam Muhammad Ali, Shoukat Ali, Nazia Rehman, Sabir Hussain Shah and Ammad Ahmad Farooqi Short Communication Chronic myeloid leukemia is a multifactorial molecular anomaly that confounds the standardization of therapy to date. It is triggered by a broad spectrum of ldquo;fused oncoproteinsrdquo; which are entailed in the disease refractoriness. In Pakistan the molecular diagnosis for leukemia is still in its infancy, as the diagnosis does not efficiently encompass a wide range of the fusion transcripts which are generated as a result of exclusive genomic rearrangements. Two point mutations C944T and T932C of ABL gene were detected which cause complete/partial imatinib resistance with limelight NUP98-LEDGF fusion transcript. It will be helpful in understanding primary resistance of molecularly targeted cancer therapies. Key words: Allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR), leukemia, myeloid, chronic, imatinib. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/BB4C37541311 en Copyright © 2011 Aamir Rana, Shahzad Bhatti, Ghulam Muhammad Ali, Shoukat Ali, Nazia Rehman, Sabir Hussain Shah and Ammad Ahmad Farooqi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:28E629341313 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Genetic polymorphism of growth hormone locus and its association with bodyweight in Grati dairy cows Sucik Maylinda Full Length Research Paper The aim of this research was to study genetic polymorphism in growth hormone (GH) locus and its association with body weight of 43 Grati dairy cows ranging from 2 to 4 years old. Polymorphism of GH locus was ascribed using a PCR-RFLP method involving restricted enzyme Msp1 on 2% agarose gel. All data were subjeced to statistical analysis based on one way classification model using a statistical software package of Genstat 200 version 2. The results showed that frequencies of normal allel (Msp1+) and mutant allel (Msp-) were 0.34 and 0.66 respectively with 0.22 polymorphism was found in this locus. There was significant relationship between Msp1+/Msp1+, Msp1+/Msp1- and Msp1-/Msp1- genotypes and body weight (P lt; 0.05) but Msp1+/Msp1+ and Msp1+/Msp1- genotypes had a stronger correlation to the higher body weight than Msp1-/Msp1- genotype. Key words: Grati cows, polymorphism, growth hormone, body weight. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/28E629341313 en Copyright © 2011 Sucik Maylinda
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:0BE656A41312 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Sourcing starter cultures for Parkia biglobosa fermentation I: Phylogenic grouping of Bacillus species from commercial ‘iru’ samples Aderibigbe E. Y., Visessanguan W., Sumpavapol P. and Kongtong K. Full Length Research Paper Twenty five isolates of Bacillus species were obtained from ten commercial samples of lsquo;irursquo; (fermented African locust bean), after heat-treatment at 80deg;C for 30 min. All the isolates were Gram-positive, spore-former, catalase-positive, non-motile rods. The phylogenic relationship between the isolates was studied by repetitive PCR fingerprinting using the (GTG)5 primer, referred to as (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses. The (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting resulted in grouping of the isolates into 12 phylogenetic groups. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, most of the Bacillus isolates were found to be closely related to Bacillus subtilis, while strain 8B was closely related to Bacillus licheniformis. Key words: lsquo;Irursquo;, Bacillus, starter culture, African locust bean, Parkia biglobosa fermentation, rep-PCR fingerprint, 16S rRNA sequencing. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/0BE656A41312 en Copyright © 2011 Aderibigbe E. Y., Visessanguan W., Sumpavapol P. and Kongtong K.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:0C466AC41314 2011-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Genomic DNA extraction protocols from a Moroccan medicinal and aromatic plant Artemisia herba-alba Asso for RAPD-PCR studies Ourid Ibtissam, Ghanmi Mohamed, EL Ghadraoui Lahsen, Kerdouh Benaissa and Bakkali Yakhlef Salah Eddine This is the first report on development of protocol for high purity genomic DNA isolation from the Moroccan Artemisia herba-alba schrub leaves and optimization of conditions for RAPD-PCR analysis. Two DNA extraction protocols were specifically developed: QIAgen DNA Kit and protocol developed by Ouenzar et al. (1998). DNA yield and purity were monitored by gel electrophoresis and by determining absorbance at UV (A260/A280). Both ratios were between 1.7 and 2.0, indicating that the presence of contaminating metabolites was minimal. The Ouenzar and collaborators protocol gave higher yield but was more time consuming compared to QIAgen Kit. However, both techniques gave DNA of good quality that is amenable to RAPD-PCR reactions. Additionally, restriction digestion and PCR analyses of the obtained DNA showed its compatibility with downstream applications. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA profiling from the isolated DNA was optimized to produce scorable and clear amplicons. The presented protocols allow easy and high quality DNA isolation for genetic diversity studies within A. herba-alba. Key words: Artemisia herba- alba, genomic DNA extraction, PCR-RAPD. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/0C466AC41314 en Copyright © 2011 Ourid Ibtissam, Ghanmi Mohamed, EL Ghadraoui Lahsen, Kerdouh Benaissa and Bakkali Yakhlef Salah Eddine
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:26FDE5541313 2011-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
An effective method for obtaining high quality messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) with minimal ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) contents Vinay Kumar, Kalpesh Katudia, Manoj Kumar Vyas, Navin Srivastava, Kanak Vaidya, Spandan Chaudhary and Surendra Kumar Chikara Short Communication Plant transcriptomes are very complex in nature and includes overlapping transcripts, transcribed intergenic regions, and abundant non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs). With RNA-Seq approach using next generation sequencing technology, complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) library constructed either from Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) or from ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) minus total RNA can be directly sequenced for transcriptome studies. The transcriptome analysis is mainly hampered by presence of unwanted abundant rRNA transcripts in cDNA library, which may represent majority species in RNA-Seq if not removed carefully from the total RNA. Though many commercial kits are available in the market for isolation of high quality mRNA from total RNA and their efficiency to remove rRNA contaminants from mRNA may vary. In the present study an effort has been made to isolate high quality mRNA with minimal rRNA contamination through designing an experiment with the use of two commercially available kits. Key word: RNA-Seq, transcriptome, next generation sequencing, ribosomal RNA, bioanalyzer. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/26FDE5541313 en Copyright © 2011 Vinay Kumar, Kalpesh Katudia, Manoj Kumar Vyas, Navin Srivastava, Kanak Vaidya, Spandan Chaudhary and Surendra Kumar Chikara
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:BDFE01B41315 2011-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Screening of different insect pests of mulberry and other agricultural crops for microsporidian infection Ifat Bashir, S. D. Sharma and Shabir A. Bhat Full Length Research Paper In the present study, different insect pests of mulberry and other agricultural crops were collected from mulberry gardens and agricultural crop fields in and around Mysore, Karnataka, India. The collected insects were screened for microsporidian infection and microsporidian spores were isolated from infected specimens, purified and tentatively designated as NIK- 1Pr, NIK- 1Cc, NIK- 1Cpy, NIK- 1So and NIK- 1Dp. The serological affinity test carried out through monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, showed negative reaction of these microsporidia which indicated that these are niether Nosema bombycis nor Lbms. Key words: Agricultural crops, mulberry, pests, microsporidia, monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/BDFE01B41315 en Copyright © 2011 Ifat Bashir, S. D. Sharma and Shabir A. Bhat
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:C9E287641334 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Bacteriological quality and diarrhoeagenic pathogens on River Njoro and Nakuru Municipal water, Kenya Kiruki Silas, Limo Kiprop Moses, Njagi Eliud Nyaga Mwaniki and Paul Owuor Okemo Full Length Research Paper Waterborne diarrhoeal pathogens are considered a re-emerging threat and are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine bacteriological quality, biochemical oxygen demand and presence of diarrhoeagenic pathogens in water samples collected from River Njoro and Nakuru Municipal water. A total of 432 samples were tested, 216 from River Njoro and 216 from Nakuru Municipal water. Bacteria indicator numbers (arithmetic mean MPN/ml) varied from 24.4 (source) to gt;2700.0 (midstream) for total coliforms and 3.6 (source) to 1880.0 (midsream) for faecal coliforms in River Njoro. There was a consistent increase in bacteria loading as the river flowed from the source (Nessuit) to downstream sites. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) ranged from 2.0 mg/L at the source of the river to 44.0 mg/L at Njoro bridge. The frequency of enteropathogenic bacteria isolated in 216 samples collected from River Njoro were; Aeromonas hydrophila 52%, Hafnia alvei 29.2%, Salmonella typhimurium 18%, Salmonella typhi 17%,Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli 9.2%, Necrotoxigenic E. coli 7.4% and Enteropathogenic E. coli 3.2%. Only H. alvei 4.6% and A. hydrophila 6.5% were isolated from Nakuru Municipality water and no enteropathogens were detected at Nakuru town centre, Kiti and Milimani estates. River Njoro has been found to be heavily contaminated with indicator bacteria, organic material and diarrhoegenic pathogens. This suggests need to educate people regarding good health practices, proper waste disposal, boiling drinking water and seek alternative sources of drinking water in the study area. Key words: Biochemical oxygen demand, coliforms, diarrhoea. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/C9E287641334 en Copyright © 2011 Kiruki Silas, Limo Kiprop Moses, Njagi Eliud Nyaga Mwaniki and Paul Owuor Okemo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:6985AC741336 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Molecular characterization of a gene capable of degrading trichloroethylene, an environmental pollutant Srijata Mitra and Pranab Roy Full Length Research Paper Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used organic solvent and metal degreasing agent, one of the most frequently detected groundwater contaminants and a potential health hazard. Our novel isolate, Bacillus cereus strain 2479 was capable of degrading TCE efficiently. The gene for TCE degradation was PCR amplified from genomic DNA of B. cereus 2479. The amplified gene was cloned into expression vector pUC I8 in the E. coli host XL1-Blue and expressed under the control of lac promoter and nucleotide sequence was determined. The sequencing results showed that this novel gene (designated as tce1, GenBank Accession No: GU183105) contained 342 bp long ORF encoding 114 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight 12.6 kDa and the theoretical pI value of the polypeptide is 5.17#39;. E. coli expressing the tce1 gene overproduces a polypeptide in the presence of the inducer Isopropyl-beta;-D-thiogalaocto-pyranoside which reacts immunologically to the polyclonal antibody against TCE inducible proteins of the strain 2479. The secondary structure of Tce1 protein was predicted through internet resources with software, CLC Protein Workbench. The present study suggested that cloned gene product (Tce1) was capable of degrading TCE as verified chemically. Key words: Trichloroethylene, tce1gene, molecular cloning, expression, bioinformatics analysis. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/6985AC741336 en Copyright © 2011 Srijata Mitra and Pranab Roy
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:7EECBE441330 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Comparative studies on properties of amylases extracted from kilned and unkilned malted sorghum and corn OYEWOLE O. I. and AGBOOLA F. K. Full Length Research Paper This study investigated the activities of a-amylase, beta;-amylase and glucoamylase extracted from kilned and unkilned sorghum and corn. Dry grains of sorghum and corn were obtained, steeped and allowed to undergo malting at room temperature for 48 h. Part of the malted starch was kilned by taken into an oven at 50deg;C for 24 h while the other part was derootted by hand before further processing. a-amylase, beta;-amylase and glucoamylase were extracted from the kilned and unkilned malted cereals and assayed. Results obtained showed that sorghum is richer in amylases than corn. The activities of the three enzymes were higher in unkilned malt than kilned malt which indicates an appreciable loss in enzymes activities during kilning. The cereals are also rich in glucoamylase compared to the other two enzymes. All the enzymes have appreciable glucose yield on maltose substrate. These results demonstrated that sorghum and corn are good sources of amylases which are the basic enzymes required for hydrolysis of starch to glucose in many industrial processes most especially in brewing. Key words: Amylase, sorghum, corn, kilned malt, unkilned malt. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/7EECBE441330 en Copyright © 2011 OYEWOLE O. I. and AGBOOLA F. K.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:2196E7741341 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Effects of polysorbate-80 on liver and kidney function in broiler chicken during juvenile growth period Khosravinia, H., Manafi M. and Rafiei Alavi, E. Full Length Research Paper An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of polysorbate-80 (PS-80) on liver and kidney function in broiler chicken using 120 one-day-old Cobb 500 chicks. The birds were randomly divided into 6 groups, of 20 birds each (as one replicate) and then allocated to 1 of 6 floor pens (90times;180 cm) at the stocking density of 0.08 m2/ bird in a concrete floor, cross ventilated house. All the birds received the same corn and soybean meal based starter (1 to 21 days) and grower (15 to 28 days) diets for ad libitum consumption. The birds in 3 pens continually received water supplemented with either 0 (control) or 3500 ppm PS-80 throughout the experiment. Live weight gain as well as, feed conversion ratio were significantly suppressed in response to supplementation of drinking water with 3500 ppm PS-80 (Plt;0.05). Mean liver weight and liver pH did not significantly change, for the birds received treated water compared to those grown on normal water (Pgt;0.05). No alteration in concentration of GPT, GOT, Urea, uric acid and creatinine in blood serum were observed in the chicks receiving PS-80-supplemented water as compared to control group (Pgt;0.05). The PS-80 treated water resulted in increased levels of serum ALP (Plt;0.05). Based on these findings, persistent exposure of broiler chicks to 3500 ppm PS-80 through drinking water has a negative impact on juvenile growth performance in chicks. No indication found that such discouraging impact is caused by liver or kidney dysfunction. Key words: Polysorbate-80, GPT, GOT, ALP, liver, kidney. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/2196E7741341 en Copyright © 2011 Khosravinia, H., Manafi M. and Rafiei Alavi, E.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:E1B116041342 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Biofilm forming bacteria isolated from urinary tract infection, relation to catheterization and susceptibility to antibiotics Nermeen Mahmoud Ahmed Abdallah, Shereen Bendary Elsayed, Manal Mohamed Yassin Mostafa and Ghada Metwally El-gohary Full Length Research Paper In human medicine, it has been estimated that 65% of nosocomial infections are biofilm associated, loading the health care system enormous costs. These biofilm infections are 10 to 1000 times more resistant to the effects of antimicrobial agents. This study aimed at showing the difference between patients with catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) and those with non catheter associated (UTI) in terms of the type of isolated pathogens, antibiotic susceptibility of isolated pathogens, detection of their ability to form biofilm, and comparing (antibiotic susceptibility of sessile cells) minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) and (their planktonic counterpart) minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for biofilm forming bacteria. The most frequently isolated micro-organisms were Escherichia coli (31.7%) followed by Klebsiella (15%); Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS); Enterococcus (11.7%); Proteus (10%); Pseudomonas (6.7%) and the least common was Enterobacter (1.7%). In the catheterized patients, 13 isolates out of thirty bacterial isolates (43.3%) were biofilm forming and 17 isolates (56.7%) were non biofilm forming, while in the non catheterized patients, 9 isolates out of thirty bacterial isolates (30%) were biofilm forming and 21 isolates (70%) were non biofilm forming. Antibiotic sensitivity of the isolated pathogens was done using disc diffusion method which showed that Imipenem and Amikacin were most effective antibiotics against gram-negative isolates while for gram positive isolates, Vancomycin and Ciprofloxacin were most effective. There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding the isolated pathogens or the antibiotic susceptibility pattern. For the biofilm forming isolates, antibiotic susceptibility of sessile cells MBEC were tested and compared to the MIC of their planktonic counterpart. For gram negative isolates, Amikacin and Imipenem were used and for gram positive isolates, Ciprofloxacin and Vancomycin were used. The difference between MBEC and MIC for tested strain was statistically significant. Therefore, researches on easier methods for diagnosing and quantifying biofilm infection would surely help the fight against biofilm formation. Also for certain infection such as CAUTI, it is advised to test antimicrobial susceptibility in biofilm form MBEC. Key words: Urinary tract infection, Biofilm. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/E1B116041342 en Copyright © 2011 Nermeen Mahmoud Ahmed Abdallah, Shereen Bendary Elsayed, Manal Mohamed Yassin Mostafa and Ghada Metwally El-gohary
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:B14173741341 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Micropropagation of Allanblackia stuhlmannii: Amenability to tissue culture technique Johnstone Neondo, Joseph Machua, Anne Muigai, Aggrey B. Nyende, Moses Munjuga, Ramni Jamnadass and Alice Muchugi Full Length Research Paper Allanblackia stuhlmannii is an endangered forest tree valued for its edible nut oil. Its limited regenerative potential in the wild hinders the sustainable utilization of its products. To achieve mass production of A. stuhlmannii, its amenability to micropropagation technique was examined. Explants were best surface sterilized at 8% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min and rinsed using sterile distilled water. Of eight basal nutrient media tested, Lloyd and McCown Woody plant medium (WPM) was the most suitable (88.89% explants survival). Microshoots were induced from apical meristems cultured on WPM supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzyladenine (BAP), kinetin (KN), Dichlorophenoacetic acid (2, 4 - D), Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and Thidiazuron (TDZ), (P lt; 0.05). All responding explants produced a single microshoot irrespective of the type and concentration of PGRs used. 1.2 mg/lBAP and 1.2 mg/lKIN exhibited the most rapid and consistent shoot length increase (P lt; 0.05). Prolonged culture or sub culturing did not promote further shoot proliferation. Callus was induced from leaf explants cultured on WPM fortified with Gamborgrsquo;s vitamins, 3% sucrose, 1 mg/lKIN combined with 1.2 mg/l 2, 4 - D. No somatic embryos emerged from the callus. The success in explant sterilization and induction of microshoot and callus in this study is a milestone step in the regeneration of A. stuhlmannii. Key words: Sterilization, media plant growth regulators, shoot proliferation, callus induction. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/B14173741341 en Copyright © 2011 Johnstone Neondo, Joseph Machua, Anne Muigai, Aggrey B. Nyende, Moses Munjuga, Ramni Jamnadass and Alice Muchugi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:3209D8541344 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Lung function decline: Screening of alpha-1 antitrypsin gene in a population exposed to coal dust M. Bhattacharjee, B. G. Unni, S. Das, M. Deka and P. G. Rao Full Length Research Paper Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an inherited disorder that causes low levels of, or no alpha-1 antitrypsin in the blood. Most commonly, it is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema chronic bronchitis - inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes emphysema - permanent destruction of the alveoli. Mutations in the PI gene, located on chromosome 14, are associated with this genetic disorder. The Z protein is due to a single amino acid substitution of 342 glutamine to lysine .Chronic respiratory diseases have a pre-eminent role in the health conditions of people residing near coalmine areas with implications for morbidity and excess mortality from specific causes. We screened 412 individuals (COPDs and Non-COPDs) for carriers of deficient ZZ allele of AAT gene at the coal mine site, Assam. DNA extraction was done by standard phenol chloroform method and amplification for Alpha-1-antitrypsin gene was done by site directed mutagenesis PCR method. Coal dust exposure was a potential factor in development of COPD. AAT deficiency was not found to be present in our study population. Key words: COPD, A1AT gene, Coal Dust, ZZ type, air pollution. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/3209D8541344 en Copyright © 2011 M. Bhattacharjee, B. G. Unni, S. Das, M. Deka and P. G. Rao
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:CCEFA3441326 2011-12-29T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Genetic variability among Coleus sp. studied by RAPD banding pattern analysis Govarthanan M., Guruchandar A., Arunapriya S., Selvankumar T. and Selvam K. Full Length Research Paper Genetic improvements of medicinal plants depend on the existence, nature and extent of the genetic variabiles available for manipulation. Genetic analysis with random amplification of polymorphic DNA markers has been extensively used to determine genetic diversity among Coleus sp. and to identify the best quality for human consumption and its medicinal purpose. The objectives of the present study were to assess molecular variation among Coleus amboinicus, Coleus aromaticus and Coleus forskohlii and to determine the level of genetic similarity among them. Analyses carried out include random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) on three strains of Coleus sp. and random primers were used for PCR. Electrophoresis on denaturing acrylamide gels improved RAPD reproducibility and increased the band number. In this study, the primer OPW 6 and OPW 7 gave reproducible results and the band profiles. Key words: RAPD, genetic diversity, conservation, primers, genetic polymorphism. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/CCEFA3441326 en Copyright © 2011 Govarthanan M., Guruchandar A., Arunapriya S., Selvankumar T. and Selvam K.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:672091F41324 2011-12-29T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Studies of wine produced from banana (Musa sapientum) Idise, Okiemute Emmanuel and Odum, Edward Ikenna Banana, a wonderfully sweet fruit with firm and creamy flesh that come prepackaged in a yellow jacket, available for harvest throughout the year consists mainly of sugars and fibers which make it a source of immediate and slightly prolonged energy. When consumed, reduces depression, anemia, blood pressure, stroke risk, heartburns, ulcers, stress, constipation and diarrhea. It confers protection for eyesight, healthy bones, kidney malfunctions, morning sickness, itching and swelling, improves nerve functions as well as help people trying to give up smoking. Fermentation of banana must for 144 h was carried out using recipes A to D. Recipe A contained a mixture of banana must with natural yeast. A was enhanced with granulated sugar to obtain recipe B. Recipe C contained recipe A augmented with granulated sugar and bakersrsquo; yeast while recipe D (control) contained only granulated sugar solution and bakersrsquo; yeast. Wine produced had values that ranged from 31.4 plusmn; 0.29 to 33.2 plusmn; 0.12deg;C for temperature, 3.38 plusmn; 0.017 to 3.54 plusmn; 0.052 for pH, 0.999 plusmn; 0.0085 to 1.02 plusmn; 0.0058 for specific gravity, 0.586 plusmn; 0.018 to 0.71 plusmn; 0.017 for optical gravity, 1.37 plusmn; 0.075 to 1.383 plusmn; 0.152 for percentage (%) alcohol (v/v), 0.271 versus 0.012 to 1.348 plusmn; 0.072 for percentage (%) titratable acidity, 8.2 plusmn; 0.099 to 9.38 plusmn; 0.283 for total aerobic counts and 3.5 plusmn; 0.5 to 4.75 plusmn; 0.1 for Rf. Malo-lactic fermentation after 48 h was evident. Taste testing showed very little differences in wines from recipes A to C. Statistical analyses of tested parameters at 95% confidence level showed no significant differences. The wine from the control was similar to natural palm wine in taste and characteristics. Wine could thus be produced from banana for immediate consumption, within 48 h, using the recipes A to C. Key words: Banana, flora, fermentation, sugar, wine, flavor, yeast. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/672091F41324 en Copyright © 2011 Idise, Okiemute Emmanuel and Odum, Edward Ikenna
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:441339741328 2011-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Microbial bioinoculants and their role in plant growth and development Sujata Dash and Nibha Gupta Review The increase in the world#39;s population, coupled with the limitations in the world#39;s supply of natural resources and widespread degeneration of the environment presents a major challenge to agriculturalists. Chemical fertilizer is used to give the plant nutrient requirements within a short period to get faster results. Newly improved varieties of crops need high proportions of fertilizer. But chemical fertilizer has certain limitations and entails a lot of disadvantages. No doubt, the application of chemical fertilizer provides nutrition in high concentration in the soil and plants. When chemical fertilizer is applied, the entire contents would not be absorbed by the plants and the remaining parts would react in the soil. Part of it would be washed away and would contaminate water and some part of it would evaporate to the atmosphere; thereby the environment is polluted. Intense activity is involved in efforts to create plants that by themselves are able to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere ndash; that is, convert nitrogen gas into nitrates that can be used by plantrsquo;s metabolic machinery. At present, only certain plants called legumes are naturally able to do so and even legumes require the aid of symbiotic bacteria. Such a development would drastically curtail the amount of fertilizer required by agricultural crops (Tilak, 2001). The main factor is the price, biotechnology could provide an alternative to technologies that have harmful effects on the environment and it would have the potential of enhancing production on a sustainable basis (Al- Garni, 2006). Microorganisms are useful for biomineralization of bound soil and make nutrients available to their host and/or its surroundings. Nitrogen and phosphorus are major plant nutrients which occupy a key place in balanced use of fertilizer. Phosphorus is an important requirement of legumes for their nitrogen fixation process (Huda et al., 2007). All tropical legumes fix the atmospheric nitrogen by Rhizobium which requires optimum level of phosphorus in plant tissue. Their seedlings establish better in presence of mineral solubilizers because more of the tropical soils are phosphate fixing and make it unavailable to the plants (Dabas and Kaushik, 1998; Sahgal et al., 2004; Tilak et al., 2005; Hameeda et al., 2008; Gupta et al., 2007). It is due to the phosphate solubilizing organisms those solubilize the bound form of phosphorus and AM fungi acts as up-taker of phosphorus and make it available to the host plants. Microorganisms facilitate plant mineral nutrition by changing the amounts, concentrations and properties of minerals available to plants. These changes lead to change in growth, development and chemical composition of plant that are common and substantial enough to encourage the exploitation of plant microbe interaction for improvement of crop productivity. Possible approaches include both the introduction of foreign microorganisms and capitalization on the indigenous microflora. There are various groups of organisms that can be solubilize and/or leaching of phosphate, iron and other mineral metals. Since the chemical fertilizers are becoming important ingredient of the agricultural farming and production, need based technology should be given priority. As the production and manufacture cost of the chemical fertilizer are very high, its availability and uses are also becoming imperative. Biomineralizing phenomenon of the microbes is very important in this regard. Plant microbe interaction is an important phenomenon and also useful in the development of most suitable bioinoculant which may be able to improve the plant productivity under adverse condition. A large number of literatures are available regarding the microbial interaction and beneficial uses in plants of agriculture, horticulture and forestry. Keeping this in view, some important information regarding the biofertilizing potential of some important group of microbes and their application for the development of sustainable technology has been reviewed here. Key words: Bioinoculants, phosphate solubiliser, nitrogen fixing bacteria, mycorrhiza, PGBR. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/441339741328 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBRX11.005 en Copyright © 2011 Sujata Dash and Nibha Gupta
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:906EEDA41329 2011-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Lead toxicity, oxidative damage and health implications. A review Sadhana Sharma, Veena Sharma, Ritu Paliwal, Pracheta Review The toxicity of Lead was recognized centuries ago, and it continued to pose serious threat to the health of children as well as adults. This review presents an overview of the current knowledge of toxic effects of Lead induced oxidative damage and also suggests some possible measures which could reduce the toxic effects of the metal. This paper examines the effect s of Lead in blood, soft tissues, haematopoietic system and the antioxidant defense system. On the other hand, data also indicated that lead is an essential element at low dietary intakes. Its deficiency was shown to depress growth, disturb iron metabolism, alter activities of some enzymes and disturb the metabolism of cholesterol, phospholipids and bile acids. It was found that lead toxicity is significant but a preventable health problem. Furthermore, work is needed to find the effective and safe intervention for lowering the lead exposure at the general population level. Key words: Lead toxicity, oxidative damage, haematological, antioxidant. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/906EEDA41329 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBRX11.002 en Copyright © 2011 Sadhana Sharma, Veena Sharma, Ritu Paliwal, Pracheta
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:D6DD32641327 2011-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Solid lipid nanoparticles as new drug delivery system Abbasalipourkabir, R. Salehzadeh, A. and Rasedee Abdullah Review The main challenge in cancer chemotherapy is toxic side-effects induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. Thus, alternative methods of drug administration like appropriate drug carrier system is needed to overcome this problem. The main objective of new drug delivery systems is to improve the anti-tumor efficacy of drug and reduce their toxic effects on normal tissues. Recently Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) as colloidal particulate drug delivery system have received much attention from drug development researchers. The use of solid lipid nanoparticle opens up new perspectives for the formulation of poorly soluble drugs. The SLN is a very complex system with some advantages and disadvantages over other colloidal carrier systems. Tamoxifen, an antiestrogen molecule and strong hydrophobic drug is used as a chemotherapy drug against breast cancers. When tamoxifen encapsulated within solid lipid nanoparticles, it is like free TAM display antitumoral activity against human breast cancer cells. The biological availability of drug is not affected when incorporated into SLN. Therefore SLN could be applied as a drug delivery system for cancer treatments. Key words: Drug delivery systems, solid lipid nanoparticles. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/D6DD32641327 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBRX11.004 en Copyright © 2011 Abbasalipourkabir, R. Salehzadeh, A. and Rasedee Abdullah
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:D7627A941328 2011-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2011
Involvement of biotechnology in climate change adaptation and mitigation: Improving agricultural yield and food security Godliving Y. S. Mtui Review In the context of climate change adaptation and mitigation, biotechnology can respond positively towards reducing vulnerability of natural and human systems to climate change effects. This paper reviews different approaches in which both conventional and modern biotechnology can be employed to address climate change adaptation and mitigation for improved crops adaptability, productivity and food security and contributing to the reduction of the greenhouse gases. The current challenges and future perspectives of biotechnology for climate change adaptation and mitigation are highlighted. The negative effects of climate change on agricultural productivity and food security as a result of extreme temperature, drought, salinity and infectious disease vectors include low yield, hunger and malnutrition. Conventional agricultural biotechnology methods such as energy-efficient farming, use of biofertilizers, tissue culture and breeding for adaptive varieties are among feasible options that could positively address the potential negative effects of climate change and thereby contributing to carbon sequestration initiatives. On the other hand, the adoption of modern biotechnology through the use of genetically modified stress-tolerant, energy-efficient and high-yielding transgenic crops also stand to substantially counter the negative effects of climate change. Safe application of biotechnology will greatly complement other on-going measures being taken to improve agricultural productivity and food security. Both conventional and modern agricultural biotechnologies will significantly contribute to the current and future worldwide climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts. Key words: Adaptation, carbon sequestration, climate change, green biotechnology, marker assisted selection, mitigation. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/D7627A941328 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBRX11.003 en Copyright © 2011 Godliving Y. S. Mtui
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:DE3E2302173 2012-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2012
Studies of wine produced from pineapple (Ananas comosus) Idise, Okiemute Emmanuel Full Length Research Paper Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is the common name for a tropical plant with edible fruit, which is actually a multiple fruit, consisting of coalesced berries. The ratio of 1: 4 (pineapple must: sugar) was used to produce wine using recipes A to D. A contained only natural yeast; B contained natural yeast augmented with granulated sugar; C contained natural yeast augmented with bakerrsquo;s yeast and granulated sugar while D (control) contained granulated sugar and bakerrsquo;s yeast. Wines produced after 144 h of fermentation had average values of 3.44, 3.32, 3.46 and 3.50 for pH; 0.583, 0.627, 0.715 and 0.666 for optical density; 0.999, 1.003, 0.998 and 0.993 for specific gravity; 6.67, 6.69, 6.75 and 6.72 for total aerobic count (Log10 cfu/ml); 1.355, 1.355, 1.350 and 1.350 for % alcohol and 0.956, 1.246, 0.997 and 0.260 for %.titratable acidity for A to D respectively. The mean values for temperature and Rf were 30.5deg;c and 0.6 respectively. Malo-lactic fermentation after 48 h was evident. Taste testing showed very little differences in the wines with recipes A to C while statistical analyses at 95% confidence level showed no significant differences. The wine from the control had similar taste and characteristics with natural palm wine. Pineapple wine could thus, be produced for immediate consumption or preservation by refrigeration using recipes A to C. More research is still required to determine the shelf stability of the Pineapple wine. Key words: Pineapple fermentation, sugar, wine, flavor, yeast. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/DE3E2302173 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR11.034 en Copyright © 2012 Idise, Okiemute Emmanuel
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:C0854E22188 2012-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2012
A survey of avian malaria parasite in Kano State, Northern Nigeria Karamba K. I, Kawo A. H., Dabo N. T and Mukhtar M. D Full Length Research Paper As an attempt to keep abreast of the variety of avian Plasmodium parasite in Kano State, a total of 218 blood films were made from wild (116) and domesticated (102) bird species collected between January and July, 2009 period. The slides were examined for the presence of Plasmodium parasite (parasitaemia value). Birds examined were six Columbidae livia (pigeons), two Cisticola cantans (Singing cisticola), two Crinifer piscato (Western grey plantain eaters), two Lamprotornis superbus (Buffalo weavers), five Stigmatopelia senegalensis (Laughing doves), twenty-six Ploceus cucullatus (Black-headed weavers), forty-three Amadina fasciata (Cut-throat finches), five Lamprotoni caudatus (Long-tailed glossy starlings), twenty-four Uraeginthus bengalus (Cordon bleu finches), fifty poultry chickens, forty-six local chickens (Gallus gallus), three Nigrita Spp (Negro finches) and fourStreptopchia decipiens (African mourning doves). Results of the investigation showed that Plasmodium circumflexicum, Haemoproteus columbae and Plasmodium gallinaecium were present. The frequencies of occurrence in the birdsrsquo; species were: 19.56% for local chickens, 50% for pigeons, 13.95% for Cut-throat finches, 50% for Grey plantain eaters, 33.3% for Negro finches and 0% for other birds. Overall, 6.89% of all the wild birds screened were infected as against 11.7% in domesticated birds. Domesticated birds had higher parasetaemia value (100 to 1000) cells per field than the wild birds (10 to 100) cells per field. However, the distribution of the parasites among the different species of the host birds was not statistically significant (P gt; 0.05). Chloroquine was found to be potent at 2.2 mg/ml concentration upon infected pigeons. A lineage of H. columbae named as type COLIV03 in MalAvi database was identified from the pigeons. This finding has thus called immediate massive screening of pigeons in Kano for this new variant of Plasmodium species with a view to elucidating its molecular and virulence nature as agent of avian malaria. Key words: Kano, Plasmodium, pigeon, survey, malaria. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/C0854E22188 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR11.035 en Copyright © 2012 Karamba K. I, Kawo A. H., Dabo N. T and Mukhtar M. D
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:80B1F3A2211 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2012
Chromium stress on peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and acid invertase in pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedling Surekha and Joginder Singh Duhan Full Length Research Paper In this investigation, chromium (Cr) toxicity on enzymes like peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and acid invertase was studied in pea seedling to evaluate the relative tolerance of the different pea varieties. Effect of Cr (0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mM) on different parts of the seedling that is, cotyledon, plumule and radicle were studied separately to have a comparative study of the enzyme activity in these parts of the plants and its varieties. Acid invertase activity in cotyledons of Arkel was not affected significantly by chromium but increased in Rachna and HFP-8712. Chromium decreased acid invertase activity in radicle and plumule. Chromium treatment increased peroxidase activity in all component of seedling and found to be highest in untreated cotyledons of Arkel. Ascorbate peroxidase activity in the radicle and plumule was higher in Rachna. Enzyme activity decreased significantly with the increasing chromium treatment in cotyledons of Arkel while converse was true with regard to HFP-8712. These results indicate that Rachna is more tolerant followed by HFP-8712 and Arkel. Key words: Chromium toxicity, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidise, acid invertase, Pisum sativum. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/80B1F3A2211 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR11.052 en Copyright © 2012 Surekha and Joginder Singh Duhan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:C24BAEF2248 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2012
Histopathological studies of microsporidian infected tissues of Lamerin breed of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Shabir A. Bhat, B. Nataraju and Ifat Bashir Short Communication Ultrastructure of gut and fat bodies of Lamerin breed of the silkworm Bombyx mori L infected with microsporidia did not show hypertropy of cells but structural disorganization was obvious in infected tissues. The different developmental stages (meronts and sporonts) and a few mature spore could be observed in direct contact with cell cytoplasm. Key words: Bombyx mori, cytoplasm, microsporidia, Lamerin, spore. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/C24BAEF2248 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR11.056 en Copyright © 2012 Shabir A. Bhat, B. Nataraju and Ifat Bashir
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:12034B92298 2012-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2012
Enhancing thermostability of the biocatalysts beyond their natural function via protein engineering Shelly Goomber, Pushpender K. Sharma, Monika Sharma, Ranvir Singh and Jagdeep Kaur Review Majority of the naturally occurring enzymes lacks essential features required during the harsh conditions of the industrial processes, because of their less stability. Protein engineering tool offers excellent opportunity to improve the biochemical properties of these biocatalysts. These techniques further help in understanding the structure and function of the proteins. Most common methods employed in protein engineering are directed evolution and rational mutagenesis. Several research groups have utilized these methods for engineering the stability/activity of diverse class of enzymes. In silico tools further plays an important role in designing better experimental strategy to engineer these proteins. The availability of vast majority of data on protein thermostability will enable one to envisage the possible factors that may contribute significantly in maintaining the protein structure and function during various physical conditions. This review discusses the common method employed in protein engineering along with various molecular/computational approaches that are being utilized for altering protein activity, along with important factors associated with these processes. Key words: Computational database, rational, directed evolution, thermostability, hydrophobicity, three dimensional structure, configuration, biocatalysts. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/12034B92298 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR12.012 en Copyright © 2012 Shelly Goomber, Pushpender K. Sharma, Monika Sharma, Ranvir Singh and Jagdeep Kaur
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:96C34822309 2012-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2012
Extraction, purification and characterization of L-asparaginase from Penicillium sp. by submerged fermentation Krishna Raju Patro and Nibha Gupta Full Length Research Paper A fungal strain identified as Penicillium sp. was evaluated for its Lndash;asparaginase enzyme production. The L-asparaginase enzyme was purified to homogeneity from Penicillium sp. that was grown on submerged fermentation. Different purification steps including salt precipitation, followed by separation on sephadex G-100-120 gel filtration and DEAE were applied to obtain pure enzyme preparation. The purified enzyme showed 13.97 IU/mg specific activity and 36.204% yield. The polyacrylmide gel electrophoresis of the pure enzyme exhibited one protein of 66 kDa. The enzyme showed maximum activity at 7.0 pH and 37deg;C and Km value 4.00 times; 10-3 M. Key words: L ndash; Asparaginase, fungi, Penicillium. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/96C34822309 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR11.066 en Copyright © 2012 Krishna Raju Patro and Nibha Gupta
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:FEFBE322337 2012-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2012
Effect of feeding malted foods on the nutritional status of pregnant women, lactating women and preschool children in Lepakshi Mandal of Ananthapur district, Andhra Pradesh, India Vijaya Khader and K. Uma Maheswari Article Information of preschool children (400), pregnant women (100) and lactating women (100) was collected. Anthropometric, hemoglobin, clinical and morbidity assessments were carried out before amp; after supplementation. Amylase Rich Malted Mixes (ARMMs) 2 types (Ragi/Wheat) were formulated and suitable products namely laddu, roti, kheer and porridge were prepared using formulated malted mixes. Malting decreased grain length, width, kernel weight (0.45 to 19.0g), volume (0.50 ndash;31.2 ml) and hardness (1.12 to 5.9 kg/cm2), thus reduced the bulk density of the malted mixes. Chemical composition revealed that, the significant increase (Plt;0.05) in fat (2.27 g), carbohydrate (98.0 g) and calorie (396 kcal) content of wheat malted mix. However significant increase was observed in calcium (440 mg), thiamine (0.7 mg) and riboflavin (0.9 mg) content of ragi malted mix. Germinated greengram had significantly higher protein (33.0 g), fibre (11.5 g), iron (8.0 g) and vitamin C (157.8 mg) content. The selected preschool children, pregnant women amp; lactating women were divided into 3 groups. Group II and III fed with ragi malted mix amp; wheat malted mix respectively served as the experimental groups and remaining group I served as the control group. Significant increase was observed in weight of preschool children and lactating women after supplementation. Hemoglobin level in pregnant and lactating women significantly increased (Plt;0.01) after supplementation. Considerable reduction (50%) in the incidence of PEM, vitamin A, B vitamins, vitamin C and iron deficiency symptoms in experimental groups. After supplementation, morbidity rate decreased to 50% both the Group II and III. Key words: Malted foods, chemical composition, physical parameter. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/FEFBE322337 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR11.050 en Copyright © 2012 Vijaya Khader and K. Uma Maheswari
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:099CDB92350 2012-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2012
Gene diversity and identification of putative hybridizing parents for root rot resistance in cassava using simple sequence repeats Oluwasayo Kehinde Moyib,, Jonathan Mkumbira, Oyeronke Adunni Odunola and Alfred Godwin Dixon, Article The incidence of root rot diseases partly contribute to the currently observed low percentage increase in the yield of cassava. We estimated gene diversities and identified putative hybridizing parents for root rot resistance using 18 simple sequence repeats loci in 43 improved genotypes of cassava. Root rot was measured over 2 years as the percentage proportion of rotten roots to the total number of roots harvested at 12 month after planting. Estimated rot ranged from 1.2 to 21.2% with a mean of 5.7plusmn;0.5. Rank-sum analysis generated 8 rot classes and identified TMS 96/1089A as best genotype resistant to root rot. Gene diversity analysis revealed expected heterozygosity that ranged from 0.701 for very highly susceptible genotypes to 0.781 for moderately resistant and susceptible. Genetic differentiation ranged from -0.0178 (resistant and susceptible) to 0.0523 (very highly resistant and highly resistant genotypes). A total heterozygosity of 0.764 was estimated and was largely due to within class diversity (0.755). DNA analysis representatives for window (DARwin) identified 10 hybridizing groups with a dissimilarity coefficient that ranged from 0.18 to 0.81 on a mean of 0.60. The results obtained from the present study are useful for the genetic improvement of cassava against root rot disease. Key words: Cassava genotypes, gene diversity, heterozygosity, resistant genotypes, root rot disease. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/099CDB92350 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR12.009 en Copyright © 2012 Oluwasayo Kehinde Moyib,, Jonathan Mkumbira, Oyeronke Adunni Odunola and Alfred Godwin Dixon,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:01146102456 2013-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
Development of cost-effective media for the culture of Chilo partellus larvicide in Kenya Daniel Anyika, Hamadi Boga and Romano Mwirichia Full Length Research Paper Stem borers (Chilo partellus) are important field insect pests of maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in Africa. They account for more than 30% yield losses depending on the composition of the pest community. C. partellus larvicide like Bacillus thuringiensis have been widely and effectively used in C. partelluscontrol programs, but the industrial production of theses bacilli is expensive. Here we have attempted to develop three cost-effective media, based on legumes, potato, and whey. Growth and production of the insecticidal proteins from these bacteria were satisfactory; protein concentration yields of 27.60 mg/ml, spore counts of 5.60 times; 108 CFU/ ml and first-instar Chilo partellus larvicidal activity (LC50) of 78 g/l were obtained with a 72 h culture of this bacterium. Therefore, this investigation suggests that legume, potato and whey-based culture media are more economical and effective for the industrial production of B. thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins. Key words: Bacillus thuringiensis, larvicidal, Chilo partellus, insecticidal crystal proteins, LC50, optical density,sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), spore counts. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/01146102456 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR12.011 en Copyright © 2013 Daniel Anyika, Hamadi Boga and Romano Mwirichia
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:0372ABE2469 2013-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
Molecular cloning, expression, sequence analysis and in silico comparative mapping of trehalose 6-phosphate gene from Egyptian durum wheat Ayman A. Diab, Ahmed M. K. Nada and Ahmed Ashoub Full Length Research Paper Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide which consists of two glucose units that functions as a compatible solute to stabilize the membrane structures under heat and desiccation stress. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and trehalose-6- phosphate phosphatase (TPP) are the key enzymes for trehalose biosynthesize in the plant kingdom. On the basis of bioinformatics prediction, fragment containing an open reading frame of 945 bp was cloned from durum wheat. Sequence comparison and analysis of conserved domains revealed the presence of a TPP domain. Full length of the gene was isolated using gene race technology. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real time quantitative PCR indicated that the expression of this gene is up-regulated in response to drought stress. The biochemical assay of the trehalase activity showed that the enzyme#39;s activity decreased under the dehydration stress. The obtained phylogenic tree showed that the isolated TPP protein forms a distinct clad close to the Oryza sativa trehalose-6- phosphate phosphatase. In silico and comparative mapping indicated that the isolated TPP gene is localized on rice chromosome 8, durum wheat chromosome 20, bread wheat chromosome 3B, oat linkage group E, sorghum chromosome 4 and barley 5H. Key words: Abiotic stress tolerance, trehalose-6- phosphate phosphatase (TPP), durum wheat, trehalose, real time PCR, cloning, full length gene, drought stress. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/0372ABE2469 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2012.0147 en Copyright © 2013 Ayman A. Diab, Ahmed M. K. Nada and Ahmed Ashoub
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:83316352489 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
Influence of biofertilizer on essential oil, harvest index and productivity effort of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) Seyed Alireza Valadabadi and Hossein Aliabadi Farahani Full Length Research Paper In order to investigate the effects of biofertilizer on essential oil harvest index and productivity effort of black cumin (Nigella sativa L), an experiment was conducted during the growing season of 2010 at Iran. The experimental design was factorial on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications. Certain factors including four levels of animal manure (0, 10, 20 and 30 ton/ha, respectively) and two levels of azotobacter (non-application and application) were studied. The final statistical analysis indicated that in the 10 ton/ha animal manure and azotobacter application, essential oil, harvest index and productivity effort were significantly higher. Key words: Biofertilizer, essential oil, Nigella sativa, harvest index. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/83316352489 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR13.0149 en Copyright © 2013 Seyed Alireza Valadabadi and Hossein Aliabadi Farahani
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:DDD94BA2500 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
Large scale recovery of tetanus toxin and toxoid from fermentation broth by microporous tangential flow filtration Chellamani Muniandi, Kavaratty Raju Mani and Rathinasamy Subashkumar Full Length Research Paper The commercial production of purified tetanus toxoid mainly depends on the effective separation of the bacterial toxin and toxoid from large volumes of fermentation broth of Clostridium tetani (Harvard 49205) vaccine strain. Tangential flow or cross-flow filtration system was used as rapid drive in the processing of immunobiological assays of tetanus toxin. Tetanus toxoid was prepared by detoxifying the culture filtrates of C. tetani and further purified by ultrafiltration, salt fractionation and adsorption onto aluminium phosphate. Present study deals with the separation of tetanus toxins using a microporous membrane (0.22 m) and concentration of tetanus toxoids using an ultrafiltration membrane (30 kDa, NMWL pore size) with operational variables like average trans-membrane pressure (ATP), cross flow rate, flux. Under the best conditions, gt;96% recovery was achieved. Additionally, potency control of 10 batches of tetanus toxoid, prepared from the filtered toxins/toxoid lots by microporous tangential flow filtration system, was evaluated by in vitro passive haemagglutination (PHA) assay and the results obtained in the in vitro PHA were compared with in vivo toxin neutralization (TN) test. An excellent correlation between in vitro test and in vivo TN test was observed by Spearmanrsquo;s correlation coefficient. It reveals that the process development in which employing available equipment and the in vitro PHA is a promising alternative to the toxic TN test in the potency assay of tetanus vaccine. Key words: Tetanus toxin, Seitz filtration, tangential flow filtration, microfiltration module, flux, tetanus toxoid, immunogenicity test. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/DDD94BA2500 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR12.014 en Copyright © 2013 Chellamani Muniandi, Kavaratty Raju Mani and Rathinasamy Subashkumar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:0792CE82523 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
Use of SSR markers for genetic diversity studies in mulberry accessions grown in Kenya Nderitu Peris Wangari, Kinyua Miriam Gacheri, Mutui Mwendwa Theophilus and Ngode Lucas Full Length Research Paper The knowledge and understanding of the extent of genetic variation of mulberry germplasm is important for conservation and improvement. The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity between and within two mulberry species widely grown in Kenya which include Morus alba and Morus indica. Five individuals per species were genotyped with 13 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The SSR markers presented a high level of polymorphism and detected a total of 35 polymorphic bands and 74.47% polymorphic loci. The mean observed heterozygosity per primer was 0.3670 suggesting a high degree of variation. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 95% of the variation was found within the species and only 5% between the species. Principal coordinates analyses (PCOA) clearly distinguished three groups. It was evident from this study that the mulberry accessions did not cluster on the basis of their geographical origin, and neither according to the group of species they fall into. The study showed a close relationship between the two species and therefore mulberry improvement should target sampling more individuals within species rather than among species. Key words: Mulberry, simple sequence repeat markers, genetic diversity. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/0792CE82523 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR11.057 en Copyright © 2013 Nderitu Peris Wangari, Kinyua Miriam Gacheri, Mutui Mwendwa Theophilus and Ngode Lucas
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:C914DAE2533 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
Assessment of antifungal effect of omeprazole on Candida Albicans Fahriye Kuuml;ccedil;uuml;kaslan, Hasibe Cingilli Vural, Didem Berber, Zeki Severoğlu, Sabri Suuml;mer and Meltem Doykun Full Length Research Paper The goal of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of omeprazole on Candida albicans and analyze the antifungal activity of omeprazole. A total of 150 samples were collected from the patients in Bakirkouml;y Dr. Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital and samples were evaluated for C. albicans. After the microbiological analyses, fifty one patients (18 men and 33 women) between 0 and 78 of age were found to be C. albicans positive and they were included in the study. All consecutive isolates of C. albicans were recovered from blood, urine, sputum, oral cavity, vagina, catheter tip and ascitic fluid. Antifungal suspectibility test was carried out by microdilution assay according to the method outlined in the NCCLS document M27-A. It was determined that omeprazole is fairly effective in particular MIC range. Furthermore, it was observed that omeprazole in high concentrations support the growth of fungi. Key words: Candida albicans, omeprazol, antifungal effect, antifungal agents. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/C914DAE2533 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2013.0157 en Copyright © 2013 Fahriye Kuuml;ccedil;uuml;kaslan, Hasibe Cingilli Vural, Didem Berber, Zeki Severoğlu, Sabri Suuml;mer and Meltem Doykun
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:63A83EE40376 2013-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
Beta glucuronidase activity in early stages of rice seedlings and callus: A comparison with Escherichia coli beta glucuronidase expressed in the transgenic rice Poosakkannu Anbu, and Loganathan Arul Full Length Research Paper We have chosen rice as a model crop to ascertain endogenous beta;-glucuronidase (family 79) activity and to differentiate the same from Escherichia coli based beta;-glucuronidase (family-2). The investigation dwells on characterizing endogenous beta;-glucuronidase (GUS) activity during the early stages of seed germination and from rice callus. Also, similar studies were made from homozygous transgenic rice line expressing E. coli GUS under the control of glyoxalase I promoter. Endogenous GUS activity was detected in plumules, shoots and calli of rice, nevertheless, showing differential response to pH. Further, endogenous GUS in rice was specifically inhibited by saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (SL) but, the E. coli beta;-glucuronidase remain unaffected, indicating distinct biochemical properties of family-2 and family-79 beta;-glucuronidase. Key words: Family 2, family 79, X-gluc, saccharic acid, 1,4-lactone. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/63A83EE40376 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2013.0152 en Copyright © 2013 Poosakkannu Anbu, and Loganathan Arul
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:6979C3B2546 2013-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
Cell growth curves for different cell lines and their relationship with biological activities Iloki Assanga, S. B., Gil-Salido, A. A., Lewis Lujaacute;n, L. M., Rosas-Durazo, A., Acosta-Silva, A. L., Rivera-Castantilde;eda, E. G. and Rubio-Pino, J. L. Full Length Research Paper The cellular-growth curves for distinct cell lines (tumor and non-tumor) were established, evaluating the population of doubling time (DT) and maximum growth rate ( max). These curves define the growth characteristics for each cell line; they allow determination of the best time range for evaluating the effects of some biological compounds. Subsequently, the biological activities of three ethanolic extracts of Phoradendron californicum were evaluated in these cells lines; two extracts were of Prosopis laevigata (Mesquite tree) from two distinct geographic zones, and the other one was of Quercus ilex (Encino/Oak tree). We also evaluated the cytotoxic activity and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging ability of these extracts. The results showed the RAW 264.7 cell-line had the highest growth rate in all experiments. For the rest of cell-lines, we found max in the following order: L929 gt; A549 gt; ARPE-19 ge; 22Rv1; while the DT was in the order: RAW 264.7 gt; A549 ge; L929 gt; ARPE-19 gt; 22Rv1. With respect to the anti-proliferative activity of the P. californicum ethanolic extracts, we observed that the most sensitive cell line was RAW 264.7 (with all three extracts), and the least sensitive was the ARPE-19 cell line; the first one was the fastest growing and the second was the one of the slowest. The anti-oxidative studies by NO scavenging were evaluated in RAW 264.7 cell-line, the best extracts were the ethanolic extracts of P. californicum from P. laevigata and were geographic zone no-dependent for these biological activities. Key words: Cellular-growth curve, doubling time (DT), P. californicum, anti-proliferative, NO scavenging. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/6979C3B2546 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2013.0154 en Copyright © 2013 Iloki Assanga, S. B., Gil-Salido, A. A., Lewis Lujaacute;n, L. M., Rosas-Durazo, A., Acosta-Silva, A. L., Rivera-Castantilde;eda, E. G. and Rubio-Pino, J. L.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:C04570A40377 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
Molecular characterisation of two cichlids populations (Tilapia guineensis and Sarotherodon melanotheron) from different water bodies in Lagos State, Nigeria B. A. Usman, O. T. Agbebi, M. O. Bankole, O. R. Oguntade and M. O. Popoola Full Length Research Paper This study used random amplified polymerase DNA technique (RAPD) to characterize two populations of cichlids species Tilapia guineensis and Sarotherodon melanotheron from selected two water bodies in Lagos using molecular approach. Ten samples of each S. melanotheron and T. guineensis with standard length value ranging between 8.4 and 17.2 cm and their weight ranging between 26.1 to 133 g were collected from Lagos Lagoon, Badagry, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research and Akinsateru fish farm, respectively. The DNA of the fish samples were extracted using salt-out method. RAPD analysis was carried out using RAPD primers (OPC 04, 05, 10, OPR 02 and OPI 05). Depending on the similarity coefficient through the used primers, the similarity between T. guineensis and S. melanotheron from the wild was 78%; between T. guineensis and S. melanotheron from the culture was 80%; and 100% of both wild and culture of samples; 82 and 88% of T. guineensis and S. melanotheron from wild and culture, respectively. The description of this similarity coefficient is not simple, especially when more than one character is involved in the same cluster. The values of the genetic distances obtained were utilized to generate a distance matrix to construct a dendrogram which linked the studied species DNA for possible variation in their genetic makeup. This generated banding pattern populations of T. guineensis and S. melanotheron from the wild and cultured environment have similar DNA profile, which indicated that there were similarities among the fish species from these environments which can lead to high probability of hybridization between the very closed species to improve the genetic characters; also, high quality and quantity of DNA can be gotten in using salt-out method for extraction and pure strain of the samples can be gotten from wild and culture. Key words: Molecular characterization, DNA, RAPD primers, PCR, tilapia, water bodies. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/C04570A40377 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2013.0159 en Copyright © 2013 B. A. Usman, O. T. Agbebi, M. O. Bankole, O. R. Oguntade and M. O. Popoola
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:A95DCF440379 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
Micropropagation of Litsea glutinosa (Lour) C.B Syed Naseer Shah, Amjad M. Husaini and S. A. Ansari Full Length Research Paper Litsea glutinosa (Lour) C.B (Hindi: Maida lakri) is a medicinal plant of immense pharmaceutical value. The species is critically endangered due to its indiscriminate collection as raw material for pharmaceutical industry, where it is used for manufacturing drugs for pain, arousing sexual power and in treatment of diarrhea and dysentery etc. An attempt has been made for development of in vitro propagation procedure for the species, involving four steps, namely: culture establishment, shoot multiplication, rooting and hardening. Aseptic cultures were established on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented 10.0 M N6-benzyladenine (BA) using nodal segments (1 cm). Four sets of simple randomized experiment were carried out on MS medium to study the effect of four doses of each BA, GA3, IAA, (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 M) and ascorbic acid (0, 284, 852 and 1136 M) for in vitro shoot multiplication. MS medium supplemented with 5.0 M BA with 852 M ascorbic acid significantly proved optimum for in vitro shoot multiplication and resulted in 1.05 shoot number explant-1, 1.72 node number shoot-1 and 1.79 node number explant-1 at one month after inoculation. The in vitro multiplied shoots were tested for in vitro root induction on MS culture media containing auxin IBA (Indole-3-butaric acid) treatments (0, 2.5, 5.0 and10.0 M) in simple randomized designs experiment. MS media supplemented with 10.0 M IBA, screened out to be significantly excellent for induction and growth of adventitious roots, resulting in 72.2% rooting and 0.72 root number explant-1 at 30 days after inoculation. The in vitro propagated plants exhibited excellent growth. Therefore, the present study recommends a four step micropropagation procedure for in vitro production of L. glutinosa plants on a commercial scale to meet the requirement of pharmaceutical industries and save the species from extinction. Key words: Litsea glutinosa (Lour) C.B, ascorbic acid, nodal segments. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/A95DCF440379 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2013.0165 en Copyright © 2013 Syed Naseer Shah, Amjad M. Husaini and S. A. Ansari
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:0F0A98340897 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
Micropropagation of the Indian Birthwort Arsitolochia indica L. Syed Naseer Shah, Amjad M. Husaini and Fatima Shirin Full Length Research Paper Aristolochia indica L. is a medicinal woody perennial climber plant of immense pharmaceutical value. The species is endangered with possible extinction due to its indiscriminate harvesting as raw material for pharmaceutical industry, to manufacture drugs against cholera, inflammation, biliousness, dry cough and snake bite. A rigorous attempt has been made for development of in vitro propagation procedure for this species, involving four steps, namely: culture establishment, shoot multiplication, rooting and hardening. Aseptic cultures were established by growing nodal segments (1 to 1.5 cm) as explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 5.0 M N6-Benzyladenine (BA). Five nutrient media, MS, Woody Plant Medium (WPM), Gamborg Medium (B5), Nitsch and Nitsch Medium (NN), and Schenk and Hildebrandt Medium (SH) supplemented with different cytokinins and auxins at a concentration of 10.0 M were used in this study. Ads at 10.0 M proved optimum for in vitro shoot multiplication. The treatment resulted in 100% shoot number per explant at 15 days and 61.9% at 30 days on MS medium, 65.2% node number per shoot at 15 days and 196.2% at 30 days on WPM medium and 147.5 and 366.6% node number per explant at 30 days after inoculation on MS medium. The in vitro multiplied shoots were used for rooting experiment. Five nutrient media (MS, WPM, B5, NN and SH) and three auxin sources 10.0 M each (IBA, IAA and NAA). SH medium with 10.0 M NAA induced 327.8% rooting at 21days and 654.8% at 28 days and root number per explant 4300% at 21 and 394% at 28 day after inoculation. The in vitro propagated hardened plants exhibited excellent growth on transfer to natural condition. Key words: Aristolochia indica L, in vitro propagation, N6-Benzyladenine. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/0F0A98340897 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2013.0166 en Copyright © 2013 Syed Naseer Shah, Amjad M. Husaini and Fatima Shirin
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:45EFB8640899 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
A quick bud breaking response of a surface model for rapid clonal propagation in Centella asiatica (L.) AK Bhandari, M Baunthiyal, VK Bisht, Narayan Singh and JS Negi Full Length Research Paper Present investigation was planned to evaluate time period of bud breaking in Centella asiatica with different concentration of plant growth regulators, a medicinal herb distributed throughout the worldwide. For the study, concentrations were designed for response surface model describing bud breaking growth in optimum conditions. A combination of BAP (2 mg/L) + gibberellic acid (GA3, 0.5 mg/L) was achieved at a best initial bud breaking at 8thhour. Longest time period taken for bud breaking was shown in combination of BAP (0.5 mg/L) + naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, 0.5 g / L) and BAP (0.1 mg/L) + adenine sulphate (0.5 mg/L) which was recorded at 84th hour. Half strength MS media was supplemented with IBA alone (2 mg/L) and in combination with IAA (0.5 mg/L) to attain an early in vitro rooting. Their interactions observed were statistically significant (P lt; 0.05). Key words: Centella asiatica, bud, plant growth regulator, medicinal plant. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/45EFB8640899 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2013.0167 en Copyright © 2013 AK Bhandari, M Baunthiyal, VK Bisht, Narayan Singh and JS Negi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:4E6162641725 2013-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
Effects of harvesting stage and storage duration on postharvest quality and shelf life of sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) varieties under passive refrigeration system Dargie Tsegay, Bizuayehu Tesfaye, Ali Mohammed, Haddis Yirga and Andnet Bayleyegn Full Length Research Paper A laboratory experiment was carried out to determine the effects of harvesting stages (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% fruit colourations) and storage durations (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks) on physicochemical quality and shelf life of sweet pepper varieties (Telmo-Red and Velez-Yellow) under passive refrigeration system (PRS). The aim of the study was to identify the optimum stage of maturity at harvest and storage period under PRS that can ensure better quality and longer shelf life of two greenhouse sweet pepper varieties. The experiment was arranged in 2 x 5 x 5 factorial combinations in complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Thirty (30) fruits of sweet pepper were packed in card-board boxes for each treatment and stored under PRS optimum storage conditions. Fruits were assessed for weight loss percentage, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, postharvest decay percentage and shelf life. Total soluble solids were increased; whereas fruit firmness decreased with increasing harvesting stages. Weight loss percentage, postharvest decay percentage and shelf life increased; while fruit firmness decreased with increasing storage periods. Telmo variety showed significantly better postharvest quality and storability potential than Velez variety. Key words: Harvesting stage, postharvest, passive refrigeration system, sweet bell pepper. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/4E6162641725 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2013.0154 en Copyright © 2013 Dargie Tsegay, Bizuayehu Tesfaye, Ali Mohammed, Haddis Yirga and Andnet Bayleyegn
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:CEDB85541726 2013-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
Diversity analysis of sugarcane genotypes by microsatellite (SSR) markers Smiullah, Farooq Ahmed Khan, Aqeel Afzal, Abdullah, Ambreen Ijaz and Usman Ijaz Full Length Research Paper Thirty (30) simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs chosen randomly from the SSR primer collection were used to detect polymorphism in 17 sugarcane accessions. A total of 62 DNA fragments were generated by the 30 primers with an average of about 2.14 bands per primer. Bands that a primer yielded in the study ranged from 1 to 4. The genetic distances for SSR data using 17 sugarcane accessions, was constructed based on Nei (1978) and relationships between accessions were portrayed graphically in the form of a dendrogram. The value of genetic similarity ranging from 62.90 to 90.30% was observed among the 17 sugarcane accessions. The highest genetic similarity of 90.03% was seen among genotypes S-2003-US-118 and S-2003-US-312. From the present study, it may be concluded that SSRs markers are best tool for investigation of genetic diversity in sugarcane. Key words: Simple sequence repeat (SSR), polymorphism, genetic diversity. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/CEDB85541726 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2012.0146 en Copyright © 2013 Smiullah, Farooq Ahmed Khan, Aqeel Afzal, Abdullah, Ambreen Ijaz and Usman Ijaz
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:24BB0B541976 2013-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
Influence of preservative solutions on vase life and postharvest characteristics of rose (Rosa hybrid) cut flowers Hailay Gebremedhin, Bizuayehu Tesfaye, Ali Mohammed and Dargie Tsegay Full Length Research Paper The experiment was carried out to asses the influence of five preservative solutions (aluminium + ethanol, aluminium + sucrose, ethnol + sucrose, aluminium + ethanol + sucrose and water) and two rose cultivars (lsquo;Red Skyrsquo; and lsquo;Blizzardrsquo;). The scope of the study was to identify the best combination of preservative solutions on rose cultivars. The treatments were arranged in factorial combination in CRD with three replications. Ten (10) cut flowers of each treatment were pre-treated using prepared preservative solution for 24 h in cold room (3 plusmn; 1deg;C) before storage. Interaction effects of Preservative solutions and cultivars were significant (P lt; 0.05) on solution uptake on day 16; petal fresh weight on day 4; total soluble solids (TSS) on day 4, 8 and 12 and on vase solution absorbance. Preservative solutions had significant effects on solution uptake on day 1, 4, 8 and 12; TSS on day 1 and 16; petal fresh weight on day 1, 8, 12, and 16. Flower longevity and maximum flower head diameter, relative fresh weight and petal fresh weight loss were significantly (P lt; 0.05) reduced. Cultivars had significant (P lt; 0.05) difference on solution uptake and TSS. Aluminium + ethanol + sucrose preservative solution treated cut flowers had shown longest vase life, flower opening, solution uptake, petal fresh weight and TSS on both cultivars; while the values were significantly higher in lsquo;Red Skyrsquo; cultivar. The findings provide an alternative for extending the vase life of cut roses and thereby ensure the satisfaction of flower users and sustainability of cut rose flower production. Key words: Aluminum sulphate, ethanol, preservative solution, quality, rose, sucrose, vase life. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/24BB0B541976 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2013.0171 en Copyright © 2013 Hailay Gebremedhin, Bizuayehu Tesfaye, Ali Mohammed and Dargie Tsegay
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:E1A493C41977 2013-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2013
Genetic variation of 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) loci from unrelated individuals in Iraq Imad H., Cheah Q., Mohammad J. and Aamera O. Full Length Research Paper Analysis of 17 Y chromosomal STR loci in a population sample of 400 unrelated male living in the middle and south of Iraq was done to evaluate allele frequencies and gene diversity for each Y-STR locus of the Y filertrade; PCR amplification kit. The seventeen loci include DYS635, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, YGATA H4, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS19, DYS391, DYS438, DYS390, DYS439, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a and DYS385b. Total DNA from blood cells was extracted using the FTAtrade; paper DNA extraction. A total of 361 unique haplotypes were identified among the four hundred individuals studied. The DYS385b had the highest diversity (GD = 0.8392), while loci DYS392 had the lowest (D = 0.2695). Key words: Allele frequency, gene diversity, Iraq, Y filertrade;. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/E1A493C41977 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2013.0175 en Copyright © 2013 Imad H., Cheah Q., Mohammad J. and Aamera O.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:9C9B96443879 2014-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2014
In vitro effects of gibberellic acid and sucrose concentration on micropropagation of two elite sweet potato cultivars in Rwanda Valery Ndagijimana, Jane Kahia, Theodore Asiimwe, Peter Yao Sallah, Bancy Waweru, Isidore Mushimiyimana, Jean Ndirigwe, Sindi Kirimi, Damien Shumbusha, Peter Njenga, Modeste Kouassi and Edmond Koffi Full Length Research Paper The current study aimed at evaluating the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) and sucrose on in vitro propagation of two elite sweet potato cultivars (Ukerewe and Gihingamukungu). Nodal explants from in vitro growing plantlets were harvested and cultured on Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mu;M, GA3. In a separate experiment, sucrose was evaluated at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 mM. For Ukerewe, the explants cultured on medium supplemented with 10 M GA3 recorded the longest (2.78 plusmn; 0.36 cm) microshoots.. On the other hand, cultivar Gihingamukungu explants cultured on media supplemented with 2.5 GA3 M produced the longest ((3.23 plusmn; 0.40 cm) microshoots. Nodal explants from the two cultivars cultured on media supplemented with sucrose 150 mM yielded the longest microshoots (2.51 plusmn; 0.26 and 2.34 plusmn; 0.24 cm, respectively). From the results of the current study, it can be concluded that for micropropagation of the cultivar Ukerewe 10 M GA3 should be used while 2.5 GA3 M should be used for micropropagtion of cultivar Gihingamukungu. The regenerated plantlets were successfully weaned in the greenhouse. The protocol developed in this research will open new prospects for massive propagation of the elite sweet potato cultivars in Rwanda. Key words: Ukerewe, Gihingamukungu, nodal explants, microshoot. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/9C9B96443879 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2013.0178 en Copyright © 2014 Valery Ndagijimana, Jane Kahia, Theodore Asiimwe, Peter Yao Sallah, Bancy Waweru, Isidore Mushimiyimana, Jean Ndirigwe, Sindi Kirimi, Damien Shumbusha, Peter Njenga, Modeste Kouassi and Edmond Koffi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:C73CF5E45008 2014-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2014
Effect of humic acid application on accumulation of mineral nutrition and pungency in garlic (Allium sativum L.) Manas Denre, , Soumya Ghanti and Kheyali Sarkar Full Length Research Paper Humic acid promote the conservation of mineral nutritions and as well as stimulate the pungency usually being more prominent in the cloves of garlic bulb. The effect of humic acid application on accumulation of mineral nutritions and pungency in garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. lsquo;Gangajalirsquo; was studied. Here, we observed that the maximum concentration of Ca, Fe and S were shown when plants were treated with 400 ppm humic acid. While, in the case of Mg, P and Zn content, the maximum values were observed by application of 200 ppm humic acid. The maximum concentration of K, Cu, Mn were observed when plants were treated with 300 ppm humic acid. Regarding, pungency, content was determined as pyruvic acid development significantly increased with increase in concentration of humic acid applications. Our results also showed significant positive correlations between Mg and P, Mg and Zn, P and Zn, Cu and PAD, and S and PAD, respectively. Based on average values and ANOVA of overall variables, the highest result was observed by application of 300 ppm of humic acid followed by 400 and 200 ppm of humic acid, which may be the proper value addition in garlic bulb by enhancing the mineral nutritions and pyruvic acid development that needs to be studied in the future. Key words: Allium sativum L., humic acid, mineral nutritions, pungency. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/C73CF5E45008 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0186 en Copyright © 2014 Manas Denre, , Soumya Ghanti and Kheyali Sarkar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:C69E99A45501 2014-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2014
Anthology of historical development and some research progress glimpses on phytochemical antioxidants phenomenon Daramola, B. Review The inevitability of applications of antioxidants in protection of human and preservation of dormant living systems such as food, drugs, cosmetics and other allied chemicals against internal and external stresses have made antioxidants an area of active research world over. Study impact of antioxidant research has advanced from topic level to subject level as revealed by the volume of antioxidants research publications. Each cardinal research interest is engaged in scientific exploration with view to gain mechanistic understanding and consequently raise the bar of knowledge in order to maximise exploitation of antioxidants benefits. The cardinal research interest is so diverse and the volume of publications is so enormous and profusely dispersed. Therefore, it is academically worthwhile to pool some of the research developments into a single piece which could offer accessibility to array of study briefs that appeared in many journals which could motivate readership to seek further knowledge on specific area of antioxidant research interest. In this review, glimpses of developments on antioxidant research that transverse research cardinal perspectives such as phytochemical antioxidant genesis, highlights mechanism of action. Modern methods of extraction and evaluation techniques, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and rational design strategy for antioxidants were reviewed. The research future of antioxidants of phytochemical origin was projected. These academic collections should motivate readership to seek further knowledge for product research and development of antioxidants of phytochemical origin and natural product analogues. Key words: Antioxidants, phytochemicals, cardinal research glimpse, lead references. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/C69E99A45501 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0189 en Copyright © 2014 Daramola, B.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:16D975746312 2014-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2014
Effect of common feed enzymes on nutrient utilization of monogastric animals Bimrew Asmare Review Some nutrients in livestock feed may not be fully digested by animals own digestive enzymes, and hence important nutrients are unavailable to the animal. Although, supplementation of enzymes to farm animals has shown to increase the digestibility of poorly digested diets to a much greater extent. By targeting specific anti-nutrients in certain feed ingredients, feed enzymes allow especially pigs and poultry to extract more nutrients from the feed and so improve feed efficiency. Enzymes are most commonly used when the dietary ingredients contain relatively higher amounts of fiber. The classification of enzymes is usually according to the substrates they act upon and the classification can be enzymes that break down fiber, proteins, starch and phytate. Appropriate use of exogenous enzymes in feeds requires strategic reductions in dietary energy and nutrient content, as well as careful choice of feed ingredients to capture economic benefits of the various enzymes. The efficacy of enzymes will vary depending on ingredients because nutrient and energy release caused by enzyme supplementation will depend on the structure of the feedstuff itself. It is important to continue the effort to understand the use and limitations of matrix values of enzymes, which, if inappropriately applied, will result in depressed performance because of inadequacy of diets or will lead to wastage of resources. Key words: Carbohydrate, monogastric, feed enzymes, phytase, nutrient utilization. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/16D975746312 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0191 en Copyright © 2014 Bimrew Asmare
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:2B0F93546316 2014-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2014
Biotechnological production of α-amylases for industrial purposes: Do fungi have potential to produce α-amylases? Gowhar Hamid Dar, Azra N. Kamili, Ruqeya Nazir, Suhaib A. Bandh and Tauseef Ahmad Malik Review Enzymes are substances produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. Amylases are a class of hydrolytic enzymes, widely spread in nature having varied application in different industrial processes and constitute a class of industrial enzymes. Fungal amylases have been widely used for the preparation of oriental foods. In spite of the wide distribution of amylases in nature, fungal amylases are used for industrial production due to advantages such as cost effectiveness, consistency, less time and space required for production and generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Due to the increasing demand for these enzymes in various industries, there is enormous interest in developing enzymes with better properties such as raw starch degrading amylases suitable for industrial applications. Penicillium and Aspergillus produces a large variety of extracellular enzymes, of which amylases and proteases are of significant industrial importance and serve in the production of a number of biotechnologically produced enzymes. Key words: alpha;-Amylase, Penicillium, Aspergillus, enzyme, hydrolytic. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/2B0F93546316 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0196 en Copyright © 2014 Gowhar Hamid Dar, Azra N. Kamili, Ruqeya Nazir, Suhaib A. Bandh and Tauseef Ahmad Malik
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:D43368046890 2014-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2014
Assessment of different samples for molecular diagnosis of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis Gasmelseed N., Aljak M. A., Elmadani A. E., Elgaili M. E. and Saeed O. K. Full Length Research Paper Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is an important clinical problem particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess two different samples (blood and fluid) for the diagnosis of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (abdominal tuberculosis and tuberculous lymphadenitis). The study subjects were recruited from WadMedani Teaching Hospital during 2009-2013. Seventy five ascetic fluid and blood samples were collected from each suspected patient with abdominal tuberculosis and twenty five lymphatic aspirates and blood samples were collected from each suspected tuberculous lymphadenitis patient. DNA was extracted using DNPTM kit (CinnaGenInc) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done using IS6110 gene for both samples. In abdominal tuberculosis, 20/75 (27%) were positive for tuberculosis when ascetic fluid was used and 9/75 (12%) in case of blood samples. The comparison between ascetic fluid and blood samples, showed that, there was a significant difference in both results, P-value lt; 0.05. In tuberculous lymphadenitis, 13/25 (52%) and 3/25 (12%) were positive to tuberculosis when lymph aspirate and blood were used respectively. This study concluded that the best sample for diagnosis of abdominal TB and lymphadenitis is ascetic fluid and LN aspirate. This study recommends that ascetic fluid and lymph aspirate samples are recommended to be used in molecular diagnostic test. Key words: Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, molecular diagnosis, acetic fluid, lymph aspirate samples. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/D43368046890 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0192 en Copyright © 2014 Gasmelseed N., Aljak M. A., Elmadani A. E., Elgaili M. E. and Saeed O. K.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:FD8205B46891 2014-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2014
Use of the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique to analyse the Anthocyanidin Synthase (ANS) gene Locus in Zimbabwean sorghum landraces with different seed proanthocyanidin profiles Ngonidzashe Mangoma and Zephaniah Dhlamini Full Length Research Paper Studies on the effects of mutations within flavonoid pathway genes on the resultant flavonoid profiles in sorghum are important in the identification and characterisation of varieties with nutritionally superior flavonoid profiles. In this study, we aimed at determining the effect of mutations at one important flavonoid pathway locus, the anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) gene, on grain flavonoid profile in sorghum. Sequence polymorphisms at this locus were determined in sorghum varieties with different seed proanthocyanidin profiles. The proanthocyanidin profiles of 61 local landraces were determined by the DMACA stain and butanol-HCl assay. The Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) gene was then amplified using PCR from a subset of 11 landraces, and the amplicons subjected to sequence polymorphism analysis using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. Results show that 89% of the brown landraces, 4% of the red and none of the white landraces had detectable proanthocyanidins in their grain. Grain proanthocyanidins ranged from 0.1 to 1.8 AU at 550 nm per gram of sample. Using the PCR-RFLP technique, no sequence variations were detected at the ANS locus. Consequently, the different proanthocyanidin profiles observed could not be attributed, according to the methods used, to events at the ANS gene locus. These could be due to mutations at other loci or a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Key words: Sorghum, flavonoid, flavonoid profile, mutation, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), condensed tannins, Zimbabwe. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/FD8205B46891 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0193 en Copyright © 2014 Ngonidzashe Mangoma and Zephaniah Dhlamini
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:A797DEA49386 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2014
Molecular identification of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from fermenting cereals Adeyemo, S. M. and Onilude, A. A. Full Length Research Paper The identification of a microbial isolate to genus level only amounts to a partial characterization of the isolate, but this can tell us a lot about that organism. Knowing the species allows the laboratory access to the body of knowledge that exists on that species. Identification schemes using phenotypic characteristics such as colony and cell morphology, Gram reaction and other staining characteristics, nutritional and physiological requirements for growth and metabolic characteristics have been developed and improved over many decades to a point where laboratories are able to identify isolates to species level using simple conventional methods. This phenotypic method however have some limitations apart from being laborious and time consuming, some organisms may however be misidentified either at genus or species level. This work aims at looking directly at the genome of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and from this identifies some species using its genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. These bacteria species were identified by sequencing specific sections of ribosomal DNA - the 16S rRNA gene, after amplification by PCR, and then comparing the results to sequences stored on a related database. The results from both conventional and molecular methods were then compared. Twenty (20) Lactobacillus plantarum were isolated from spontaneously fermented cereals made into ldquo;Ogirdquo; and identified using classical methods. They were further characterized using molecular methods by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rDNA genes to confirm their identities. The genotypic characterization however showed that 85% of the organisms identified using conventional method as L. plantarum correlated, while 15% did not correlate; 2 were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus and one unidentified Lactobacillus sp. The method is a rapid and reliable way of producing a large number of copies of a specific DNA sequence for the identification of LAB. This method is however, able to solve the problem of poor identification that is usually associated with the identification of this fastidious organism that is regularly used as probiotics, starter culture and bio-preservatives in fermented foods that are consumed and in biotechnology because they are generally regarded as safe. Key words: Molecular methods, conventional, Lactobacillus plantarum identification, fermented foods, species and genera level, rapid, reliable. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/A797DEA49386 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0184 en Copyright © 2014 Adeyemo, S. M. and Onilude, A. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:D0E922249388 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2014
Molecular characterization of resistance to Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) line KRWA9 E. A. Masinde, J. N. Malinga, W. A. Ngenya, R.M.S Mulwa and M. Cakir Full Length Research Paper The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) causes extensive economic damage to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in most wheat growing regions of the world. Control of RWA using systemic insecticides is expensive and pollutes the environment therefore the most effective method of RWA control is the development of RWA resistant cultivars. This study was initiated to determine inheritance of RWA resistance in a wheat resistance source KRWA9, and identify the chromosome location of the resistance gene. Inheritance was studied in parent materials, F1 populations, F2 populations and F2:3 families of a cross between resistant line KRWA9 and a susceptible variety NjoroBW2. Seedlings were infested with RWA then scored for damage on a visual scale of 1 to 9 after 21 days of infestation. The segregation data from NjoroBW2 times; KRWA9 population depicted monogenic dominant inheritance of the resistance gene with phenotypic ratios of 3:1 in F2 populations and 1:2:1 in F2:3 families. Bulk segregant analysis approach was used for the mapping of resistance. Nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were tested between parental lines and bulks, and only chromosome 7DS SSR marker Xgwm111 produced clear polymorphism between the parental lines and the resistant and susceptible bulks. Detailed analysis of this marker with the full population revealed very close linkage to resistance with a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 85%. This marker provides good opportunities for the marker-assisted breeding towards improving Russian wheat aphid resistance. Key words: Russian wheat aphid, resistance, susceptibility, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/D0E922249388 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0204 en Copyright © 2014 E. A. Masinde, J. N. Malinga, W. A. Ngenya, R.M.S Mulwa and M. Cakir
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:927CE3249952 2015-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2015
A new method for the detection of oil degrading genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on transformation and PCR hybridization Shiju Mathew and Yahya Hasan Hobani Full Length Research Paper Biodegradation is the chemical breakdown of materials by a physiological environment. The term is often used in relation to ecology, waste management and environmental remediation. A specific gene from bacteria is identified and sequenced which has the capacity of oil degradation without any obvious strain specific discrimination using a combination of PCR and hybridization. The parameters of biodegradation that is culturing and PCR technique provide useful information for an assessment of the intrinsic biodegradation potential that is present at a site. PCR amplification products in the plasmid DNA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was transformed into competent Escherichia coli cells. Thus the E. coli cells were conferred with oil degrading property and this was confirmed by growing them in Bushnell Hass medium along with petroleum oil. The E. coli cells were found to be catabolizing the oil. Results show that the capability for alkane degradation is a common trait in microbial communities. The method can be a very useful tool for the fast estimation of the biodegradation potential at polluted sites. Key words: Detection, hydrocarbon biodegradation, PCR-hybridization, transformation. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/927CE3249952 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0218 en Copyright © 2015 Shiju Mathew and Yahya Hasan Hobani
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:7DC1AB550698 2015-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2015
Genetic diversity of sesame germplasm collection (SESAMUM INDICUM L.): implication for conservation, improvement and use Dagmawi Teshome Woldesenbet, Kassahun Tesfaye and Endashaw Bekele Full Length Research Paper Genetic diversity assessment of genetic resources maintained at Gene-Banks has important implication for future improvement, conservation and collection activities. However, such information is not available for sesame collected by IBC, Ethiopia. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker was used to assess the level of genetic diversity, genetic structure and genetic distance, and to indirectly estimate the level of gene flow among populations of sesame in Ethiopia. A total of 120 (82 Ethiopian and 38 exotic) sesame accessions and six ISSR primers were used. DNA was extracted using a triple CTAB extraction method from silica gel dried bulked sample of five randomly selected individual plants per accession at the stage of three to four weeks after planting. The presence of higher polymorphism was revealed among accessions collected from Ethiopia (75.85) than the exotic accessions (65.52). The average gene diversity relative to the overall population was 0.24. Samples from Welega was the most diverse, with gene diversity value of 0.26 followed by samples from Tigray (0.20) and Shewa (0.20). Samples from Gojam (0.10) and Sudan (0.12) were the least diverse. Inter-population genetic distance (D) ranged from 0.031 to 0.165 for the overall population. From the exotic accession, samples of South East Asia are distantly related to most of the Ethiopian accessions. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis (UPGMA) of Ethiopian sesame populations revealed two major groups and three outliers (Cultivated, Welega and Illubabore). Key words: Bulk sampling, gene flow, genetic differentiation, genetic distance, inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR), genetic diversity and sesame landrace accessions. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/7DC1AB550698 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0219 en Copyright © 2015 Dagmawi Teshome Woldesenbet, Kassahun Tesfaye and Endashaw Bekele
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:5C111FD51669 2015-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2015
Production, purification and characterization of a thermostable alkaline serine protease from Bacillus lichniformis NMS-1 C. D. Mathew and R. M. S. Gunathilaka Full Length Research Paper Alkaline proteases are used in food industry, leather tanning and processing industry, preparation of pharmaceuticals and also in the fiber industry. An alkaline serine protease producing strain was isolated using soil sample from a natural hot water spring in Sri Lanka. It was identified based on morphological, biochemical and 16s rRNA identifications as Bacillus licheniformis NMS-1. The extacellular protease enzyme was purified by two steps procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 gel chromatography. The purification gave a 56 fold increase of the specific activity with a yield of 16%. The optimal pH and optimal temperature of the protease were pH 9 and 60deg;C, respectively. The protease was relatively stable between 20ndash; 80deg;C. The enzyme was stable within the pH values of 8 ndash; 12. The Km and Vmax values calculated from Lineweaver ndash; Burk plot were 2.7x10-3 mg/ml and 263 mU/mg. Among the protease inhibitors that were tested, PMSF completely inhibited the enzyme activity indicating that the protease is a serine protease. The enzyme retained more than 50% of its activity after 60 min incubation at 60deg;C. The major protease types used commercially are heat stable alkaline proteases. Alkaline serine proteases are enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in protein in which serine serves as the nucleophilic amino acid at the enzyme active site. Properties of this protease have shown itrsquo;s suitability for industrial applications such as detergent industry. Key words: Alkaline protease, purification, characterization, Bacillus licheniformis NMS-1, thermophilic, serine protease. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/5C111FD51669 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0199 en Copyright © 2015 C. D. Mathew and R. M. S. Gunathilaka
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:2DCEE8952892 2015-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2015
Induction and regeneration of somatic embryos from Vitex doniana (Lamiaceae) leaf explants Colombe Dadjo, Jane Kahia, Catherine Muthuri, Lucien Diby, Christophe Kouame, Peter Njenga and Modeste Kouassi Full Length Research Paper The present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating some of the factors that influence induction and regeneration of somatic embryos in Vitex doniana since there are no available reports on tissue culture of this tree species. Leaves from plants growing under temporary shed were cultured on Murashige and Skoog supplemented with silver nitrate and four amino acids (proline, tryptophan, lysine and leucine) at varying concentrations, 0.11 mg/l thidiazuron, 2% sucrose and 100 mg/l myo-inositol in separate experiments. The explants cultured on media supplemented with tryptophan at 30.6 mg/l produced the optimal (6.5) number of embryos per explant. This number was fivefold more than the number obtained in the control. On the other hand, it was observed that the explants on media supplemented with silver nitrate at 8.45 mg/l gave the same mean (6.5) number of embryos per explant. These first ever results on the induction of somatic embryo in V. doniana could be used for mass propagation and to select useful traits of this tree species at the cellular level. However, further work needs to be done on the conversion of the regenerated embryos. Key words: Amino acids, leaf explant, silver nitrate, somatic embryogenesis, Vitex doniana. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/2DCEE8952892 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0216 en Copyright © 2015 Colombe Dadjo, Jane Kahia, Catherine Muthuri, Lucien Diby, Christophe Kouame, Peter Njenga and Modeste Kouassi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:13DDB2F53798 2015-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2015
RNA Interference – A fine tuner of gene regulation: a Review S.K. Dash, Sushil K. Mohapatra and H.N. Malik Review The discovery of RNA interference by Fire and Mello has opened up a new arena for research in molecular biology. The interfering RNAs (iRNAs) are 21-23 nucleotide RNA duplexes, which have the ability to reduce or abolish gene activity, and this property is being used in reverse genetics. Dicer and RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) play important role in mechanism of RNA interference. The specificity, efficiency and potency make RNAi an attractive tool for analyzing the function of genes. Researchers are investigating the possibility of using RNA interference in treatment of various important diseases such as HIV, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, malaria and various other diseases. Key words: RNA interference, Dicer, RISC, reverse genetics. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/13DDB2F53798 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0213 en Copyright © 2015 S.K. Dash, Sushil K. Mohapatra and H.N. Malik
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:A3E78B155990 2015-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2015
In vitro propagation of two elite cooking banana cultivars- FHIA 17 and INJAGI Jane Kahia, Felicien Ndaruhutse, Bancy Waweru, Ntirugulirwa Bonaventure, Amini Mutaganda, Peter Yao Sallah, Njenga Peter Kariuki and Theodore Asiimwe Full Length Research Paper Explants of two elite cooking banana cultivars, FHIA17 and INJAGI were collected from healthy source of stock plants growing in the field. Sterilization was evaluated using different concentrations (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60%) of a commercial bleach (JIK) for 25 min. Effects of cytokinins benzyl amino purine (BAP), 2-isopentenyl adenine (2iP) and kinetin each evaluated at 5, 10, 20, 24 and 40 M and thidiazuron (TDZ) at 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 M, on microshoot induction were investigated. Effects of auxins viz. napthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA each evaluated at 5, 10, 20 and 40 M) on rooting were tested as well. The highest (91%) numbers of clean explants were obtained when the explants were subjected to sterilization in 40% Jik for 25 min. The FHIA 17 explants cultured on MS media supplemented with 40 M kinetin produced the highest (3.00plusmn;0.35) mean number of microshoots. On the other hand, INJAGI explants cultured on MS media supplemented with 0.1 M TDZ yielded the highest mean number (1.84plusmn;0.24) of microshoots and the highest mean length (0.99plusmn;0.13). Rooting was achieved in all media supplemented with the auxins evaluated except on 2,4-D. These results have an important significance on the application of tissue culture in propagation of cooking bananas in Rwanda, which is highly desired to support the government policy of replacing old unproductive bananas with elite high yielding varieties. Key words: FHIA17, INJAGI, banana, microshoot, cultivar. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/A3E78B155990 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0231 en Copyright © 2015 Jane Kahia, Felicien Ndaruhutse, Bancy Waweru, Ntirugulirwa Bonaventure, Amini Mutaganda, Peter Yao Sallah, Njenga Peter Kariuki and Theodore Asiimwe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:D23B6BA56446 2015-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2015
Characterization of gamma-irradiated seeds of a wild Namibian marama bean (Tylosema esculentum) with microsatellite markers Takundwa, M. M., Ruzvidzo, O., Nambahu, F., Kawadza, D. T., Chatukuta, P. and Chimwamurombe, P. M. Full Length Research Paper Legumes have been used as food by indigenous people of Africa yet their full potential as food sources has not been completely realized. With modern technologies such as marker-assisted selection and mutational breeding, there is scope for rapid improvement of germplasm in these underutilized species. One approach is to induce genetic mutations through irradiation of plant tissues with neutrons or gamma rays generating molecular changes. The irradiation leaves residual radiation in the exposed tissues creating offspring with new features. Genetic mutations in plants can improve their performance, germination, quality, size and disease resistance. The effects of radiation applied to marama bean (Tylosema esculentum) were explored. The aim of this study was to screen individuals of T. esculentum derived from seeds irradiated with gammarays using microsatellite markers. There were two irradiation treatments -50 and 100 gamma ray irradiations that were compared to non-irradiated seeds as controls. For each treatment, seeds were imbibed and germinated. Seed emergence rates and percentages were ascertained. Each set of seeds was genotyped using a SSR marker - MARA039, located in a sub-unit of a polygalacturonase ndash; an enzyme that mainly regulates seed germination. In regard to emergence, significant differences between the irradiated seeds and non-irradiated counterparts were noted. Irradiated seeds germinated faster and in adosage-dependent manner compared to non-irradiated counterparts (pgt;0.05). Genotyping revealed that the total number of AGA repeats in the microsatellite region shifted from its original five in the controls to between four and seven in the irradiated seeds. Furthermore, there were several point mutations in the irradiated seeds as compared to the controls. The study findings, suggest that irradiation may induce beneficial mutational changes such as faster germination rate of the marama bean, considering that the mutated microsatellite repeat region is located in gene encoding the enzyme regulating seed germination in plants. Key words: Marama bean, Tylosema esculentum, mutational breeding, irradiation, seed cycle, SSR. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/D23B6BA56446 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2014.0207 en Copyright © 2015 Takundwa, M. M., Ruzvidzo, O., Nambahu, F., Kawadza, D. T., Chatukuta, P. and Chimwamurombe, P. M.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:B88C34F57886 2016-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2016
Effect of the initial pH on the performance characteristics of the deproteinization process of galactose supplemented shrimp shells by Aspergillus niger in a solid state drum bioreactor Abdel Ghaly and Nesreen Mahmoud Full Length Research Paper The aim of the research was to study the effect of adjusting the initial pH of shrimp shell (8.64 vs. 7.00) on the ability of the fungus Aspergillus niger to carry out deproteinization process of galactose supplemented shrimp shells and to investigate the performance characteristics of the deproteinization process. The results showed that the initial pH of the shells has a significant effect on the temperature, carbon dioxide emission, moisture content, galactose, proteinase activity, protein, chitin and final appearance of shells. The temperatures of the shrimp shells and the exhaust gas declined during the lag period as the heat losses from the bioreactor were higher than the heat generated by microbial activities in the bioreactor. They started to rise during the exponential growth when the heat generation by metabolic activity exceeded the heat losses, reaching maximum values of 37.5 and 30.6deg;C after 60 h and of 29.1 and 27.2deg;C after 72 h for the runs with the initial pH of 8.64 and 7.0, respectively. The carbon dioxide increased with time reaching maximum values of 0.49 and 0.22% and then declined reaching 0.06 and 0.08% by the end of the experiment for the runs with initial pH of 8.64 and 7.00, respectively. A strong correlation between the concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaust gas and the temperature of the shrimp shells was observed. The initial moisture content of 60% fell below 25.5 and 21.5% and the galactose concentration decreased from the initial value of 20 to 1.48% and 6.17% by the end of the deproteinization process for the runs with initial pH of 8.64 and 7.00, respectively. Although the protease activity increased by 3.3-6.3 fold, the reduction in the protein concentration did not correspond to the increase in the protease activity due to the high pH of the shrimp shells. The chitin concentration increased from an initial value of 16.56 to final values of 22.68 and 21.35 for the initial pH of 8.64 and 7.00, respectively. The spent shrimp shells obtained from the run with the initial pH of 8.64 were wet and had a pale pink-orange color with some tan patches, whereas the spent shrimp shells obtained from the with the initial pH of 8.64 appeared dry and had a gray-black color due to the presence of A. niger spores. The use of lactic acid to lower the pH of shrimp shells inhibited the growth of A. niger and protease production and activity and enhanced sporulation. The existence of the pink-orange color was an indication of the presence of pigments, which were not utilized during the fermentation process. Key words: Shrimp shells, Aspergillus niger, deproteinization, protein, protease, chitin, galactose, temperature, pH, moisture content. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/B88C34F57886 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2015.0227 en Copyright © 2016 Abdel Ghaly and Nesreen Mahmoud
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:90909E059065 2016-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2016
Shoot nodal culture and virus indexing of selected local and improved genotypes of cassava (Manihot esculenta) from Sierra Leone Janatu V. Sesay, Kwadwo O. Ayeh, Prince E. Norman and E. Acheampong Full Length Research Paper Cassava (Manihotes culenta Crantz) is among major food and income security crops in sub-Saharan Africa. However, high seed dormancy and delayed germination limit seed propagation. Using traditional stem cutting causes loss of superior genotypes and decreases productivity as a result of low multiplication ratio (1:10) and viral and bacterial diseases.Thus, the aim of this study was to optimize and screen efficient in vitro protocols for rapid multiplication and production of disease-free cassava planting materials through nodal culture technique. The experiment was laid out in a 5 x 5 factorial arrangement in Completely Randomized Design with five cassava genotypes (Warima, Munafa, SLICASS 6, Coco cassada and SLICASS 7) and five BAP supplemented MS medium (0, 0.02, 0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L), replicated three times. Results revealed that, BAP supplement significantly (plt;0.001) influenced numbers of leaves and shoots compared to plantlet height growth traits of nodal cassava explants in culture. Virus indexing of infected plants from screen house using species specific primer pairs, OjaRep/EACVMRep and OjaRep/ACMVRep, confirmed the presence of East Africa Cassava Mosaic Virus (EACMV) and the African Cassava Mosaic Virus (ACMV) at an amplicon of approximately 650bp and 400bp, respectively. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of cytokinin supplemented MS medium in enhancing growth of cassava; and the adequacy and effectiveness of the PCR technique in identifying ACMV and EACMV using nodal cuttings. Future studies will involve molecular characterization of the EACMV strain(s) existing in the country. Key words: Cassava, nodal culture, virus indexing. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/90909E059065 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2015.0245 en Copyright © 2016 Janatu V. Sesay, Kwadwo O. Ayeh, Prince E. Norman and E. Acheampong
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:FFCF7AA60770 2016-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2016
Efficient somatic embryogenesis of Jatropha curcas L. from petiole and leaf discs Cecilia Mbithe Mweu, Aggrey Nyende and Justus Onguso Full Length Research Paper Jatropha curcas L. is peculiar treasured tree species for its uses and considerable economic potential as a biofuel plant. Propagation using seeds is limited by low viability and germination hence unable to provide high quality planting material for sustainable use. To achieve mass production of J. curcas, regeneration from leaf discs and petioles using different treatments of plant growth regulators (PGRs) including 6- benzyl aminopurine (BAP), Kinetin (KIN), Indole -3-acetic acid (IAA) and Thiadiazuron (TDZ) was explored. Maximum callus formation efficiency (85.00%) and the shoot proliferation per explants (8.25) was observed on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L BAP, 0.6 mg/L KIN, 0.3 mg/L IAA and 0.1 mg/L TDZ. Rooting was induced from elongated shoots cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with different regimes of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). MS supplemented with 3.5 mg/L IBA and 3.5 mg/L NAA gave optimum root formation of 2.5 cm on JCO4, JN1, JE4 and JRV1 accessions. The rooted plants were established in forest soil, sand and manure mixed in the ratio of 2: 1:1 in the green house with 20% survival rate. This successful in vitro regeneration is vital for seedling system for mass production. Key words: Plant growth regulators, callus, shoot induction, root formation. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/FFCF7AA60770 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2012.018 en Copyright © 2016 Cecilia Mbithe Mweu, Aggrey Nyende and Justus Onguso
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:926D78261087 2016-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2016
Studies on various types of antigenic proteins of Fasciola spp. as a basis for the immunodiagnosis and vaccine development: A review J. S. Dar, I. Tak, B. A. Ganai and R. A. Shahardar Review Fasciola spp. is responsible for huge economic losses and animal welfare issues within the agricultural sector worldwide. Protein profiling studies of the two economically important species of Fasciola, that is, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica are important for identification of these species, their immunodiagnosis and also for vaccine designing. Protein profiling is expected to discover a number of target proteins for the purpose of drug designing and vaccine development by determining the function of thousands of unidentified proteins still likely to be found in the genome of F. hepatica and F. gigantica. Electrophoretic protein profiling is expected to multiply the number of known drug targets 100-fold. Different immunodiagnostic tests such as enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence and agglutination tests have been used in the early immune diagnosis of fasciolosis, but they have some disadvantages, such as cross reactions with other trematodes, leading to false positive results. In recent years, SDS-PAGE and Western blot procedures have created a new era in immunodiagnosis, and greatly reduced cross reactions. Over the last two decades, various studies to identify and characterize proteins of immunological significance have been carried out, especially the candidates for immunodiagnosis or vaccination in fasciolosis. Recent research indicates that a future prospect for the control of fasciolosis by immunological intervention appears brighter than previously thought. This paper reviews the principles of proteomics, as well as its key instruments and research applications in helminthology, including host parasite interactions, vaccine development and diagnosis of liver fluke diseases and encourage more young researchers to initiate work on the molecular aspects of these economically cosmopolitan parasites. Key words: Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, vaccines, ELISA, SDS-PAGE, Western blot. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/926D78261087 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2015.0241 en Copyright © 2016 J. S. Dar, I. Tak, B. A. Ganai and R. A. Shahardar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:57B0B2264888 2017-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2017
Callus growth and ion composition in response to long-term NaCl-induced stress in two sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) cultivars Tomader Errabii, Christophe Bernard Gandonou, Samira Bouhdid, Jamal Abrini and Nadia Skali-Senhaji Full Length Research Paper In this work, the effect of different concentrations of NaCl on calli induced from two sugarcane cultivars NCo310 and CP59-73 was studied. Growth and ion concentrations (Na+, Cl-, K+ and Ca2+) of calli were determined after 1, 2 and 3 months of stress with the objective to understand the cellular mechanisms operating in salt stress tolerance and to determine the implication of inorganic fraction in salt tolerance in sugarcane cultivars. A negative effect of the NaCl concentration and the duration of stress exposure on the callus rate growth was observed in both cultivars and with more extent in CP59-73 cv. Results showed an increase in Na+ and Clndash; and a decrease in K+ and Ca2+ concentrations after 1, 2 and 3 months of salt stress exposure. It also showed that resistant cv. NCo310 stressed calli accumulated less Na+ and retained more K+ and Ca2+ than CP59-73 calli. Cl- appeared to be involved in osmotic adjustment since the resistant cv. NCo310 stressed calli accumulated more Cl- than CP59-73 ones. These results suggested that the resistance to salinity in sugarcane is associated with a high K+, Ca2+ and Cl- concentrations and a low Na+ concentration within cells. Key words: sugarcane (Saccharum sp.), salt stress, ion uptake, callus growth, long-term stress exposure. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/57B0B2264888 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2017.0273 en Copyright © 2017 Tomader Errabii, Christophe Bernard Gandonou, Samira Bouhdid, Jamal Abrini and Nadia Skali-Senhaji
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:99E48FE66109 2017-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2017
Evaluation of two Portuguese strains of Botryococcus braunii as biofuel feedstock Joatilde;o Tavares, Tiago Pardal and Ricardo Melo, Full Length Research Paper ACOI 58 and ACOI 1257, two different Portuguese strains of colonial green microalga Botryococcus bruanii Kutz obtained from Coimbra Collection of Algae (ACOI), were evaluated on their potential for biofuel production, which was assessed from batch culture in photobioreactors under indoors and outdoors conditions using pretreated waste water and semisynthetic culture media. In the experiments, the maximum specific growth rate achieved was 0.4 day-1 with doubling times ranging from 2 to 7 days in the fastest growing phase. However, both strains showed ability to absorb nutrients in waste water cultures, to grow and accumulate oil. The maximum lipid extraction on a dry matter basis was 36% in CHU media and 29% in waste water cultures, which revealed the promising potential of these B. braunii isolates to be used in biofuel production applications. This is also supported by the predominance of oleic (C18:1, 42 to 63%) and palmitic acid (C16:0, 8 to 18%) in the lipid extract, since the methyl esters of these fatty acids (FAME) are ideal for biodiesel production. In summary, although these strains of B. braunii have presented a typical growth for this species, they produced considerable lipid content and were able to grow in waste water and under outdoors conditions that warrants further investment in their study. Key words: Microalga, Botryococcus braunii, wastewater, photobioreactors, biofuels. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/99E48FE66109 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2017.0274 en Copyright © 2017 Joatilde;o Tavares, Tiago Pardal and Ricardo Melo,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:181ADDF66508 2017-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2017
Genotype by environment interactions and grain yield stability of released and advanced Desi type chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes in western Ethiopia Biru Alemu, Kassahun Tesfaye,, Teklehaimanot Haileselassie and Dagnachew Lule Full Length Research Paper Genotype by environment interaction (Gtimes;E) obstructs breeding by persuading variations in genotype performance in different environments and thereby complicating selection. The aim of the present study was to determine the stability and yield performance of desi type chickpea varieties and advanced lines at multiple growing environments of western Ethiopia, using genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE) biplot analysis and AMMI model to find stable high yielding cultivar(s) and ratify for wider production. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated highly significant differences (Ple;0.01) for environments, genotypes and importantly genotype by environment interaction (Gtimes;E). Additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) and GGE biplot, AMMI Stability Value (ASV) and Genotype Selection Index (GSI) indices indicate that Natoli (G8) variety and DZ-2012-CK-20113-2-0042 (G16) advanced lines showed better grain yield with better stability across environments and thus are recommended for wider production in test locations and similarly agro-ecologies in Ethiopia. Key words: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE) biplot, Additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI), AMMI stability value (ASV), genotype selection index (GSI), stability. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/181ADDF66508 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2017.0281 en Copyright © 2017 Biru Alemu, Kassahun Tesfaye,, Teklehaimanot Haileselassie and Dagnachew Lule
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:51E07B766771 2017-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2017
Selection and optimization of lignocellulosic substrate for laccase production from Pleurotus species Teshome Edae and Melaku Alemu Full Length Research Paper The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Pleurotus species for laccase production on different lignocellulosic substrates and determine the optimal levels of physicochemical conditions required for the production. The study was conducted in National Agricultural Biotechnological Research Center, Holetta. The fruiting bodies of fungi were collected based on their morphology and inoculated on potato dextrose agar plate. Six different lignocellulosic substrates were collected and prepared for cultivation of Pleurotus species for laccase production. The highest enzyme production was obtained from bean straw compared to other substrates with an activity of 0.112 U/ml. The best three substrates; bean straw, Eucalyptus sawdust and wheat straw were selected, and a mixture of each of them on equal proportions was tested for laccase production potential. A mixture of Eucalyptus sawdust and bean straw on equal proportion was found to be the best, showing an activity of 0.137 U/ml and hence selected for different parameter optimization. Optimal laccase production (0.292 U/ml) was obtained on the 10th day of incubation period and the optimum temperature and pH were 28deg;C and 5.5, respectively. Soluble starch and peptone were found to be the most preferred carbon and nitrogen sources for laccase production, respectively. Asparagine and alanine induced more laccase production, with asparagine being the most potent inducer. Key words: Pleurotus species, lignocellulosic substrates, bean straw, Eucalyptus sawdust, laccase. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/51E07B766771 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2017.0272 en Copyright © 2017 Teshome Edae and Melaku Alemu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:4E81FEF55879 2018-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2018
Postharvest quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) varieties grown under greenhouse and open field conditions Yebirzaf Yeshiwas and Kassaye Tolessa Full Length Research Paper An experiment was carried out to evaluate performances of four tomato varieties (Bishola, Eshet, Marglobe and Moneymaker) harvested at ripe stage from greenhouse and open field condition at Jimma for post-harvest quality characters (total soluble solid, weight loss, titratable acidity, sugar-acid ratio, and pH). Bishola and Eshet had better chemical quality characteristics maintained throughout the end of the storage period. Varieties grown under open field condition showed highest fruit weight loss. The total soluble solid (TSS) values the open field grown tomatoes had highest than greenhouse grown tomatoes throughout storage period. The heighest TSS was obtained at 14 days storage while the lowest was at harvest. Titratable acidity of tomatoes after harvest tended to decrease throughout the storage period. Bishola had highest titratable acidity when compared with Eshet. There was increase in sugar/acid ratio throughout storage time for greenhouse growing condition, under open field condition there is a slight increment and rapid after harvest and then decrease at 14 days the storage period. This indicates that Greenhouse grown tomatoes have good flavor than open field grown. Tomato varieties grown under greenhouse condition were less weight loss, and higher sugar acid ratio and less prone to physical injuries than fruits of grown under open field condition. Variety Eshet and Bishola could be selected in maintaining better overall quality characteristics. Key words: Tomato, variety, storage period, greenhouse. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/4E81FEF55879 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2015.0237 en Copyright © 2018 Yebirzaf Yeshiwas and Kassaye Tolessa
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:9DE922D56542 2018-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2018
Isolation, production and characterization of amylase enzyme using the isolate Aspergillus niger FAB-211 Behailu Asrat and Abebe Girma Full Length Research Paper Amylase enzymes are industrially important enzymes used in food, sugar, textile, pharmaceutical, paper and detergent industries. The main objective of this study was to isolate, produce and optimize alpha;-amylase enzyme using a fungal strain isolated from fruit peel soil wastes. Media optimization was done by one-factor at a time method. Average values of duplicate experiments were taken. Microsoft office Excel worksheet 2010 was used for data analysis. Soil samples were collected from three places and a total of 89 fungal isolates were isolated. All isolates were screened for their potential to produce amylase based on the clear zone formation on starch agar media, of which isolate FAB-211 showed the maximum potential to produce amylase and considered for further study. The isolate was further characterized based on colony morphology and microscopic mount and the isolate FAB-211 was Aspergillus niger. Important process parameters affecting amylase activity with the fungal isolate were optimized. The maximum activity (0.483 U/ml) was observed at pH of 6.0 and temperature at 45deg;C was found to be the best for amylase activity (1.241 U/ml). The highest and least alpha-amylase production was found when 6 and 2 discs spore of A. niger FAB-211 were used, respectively. Maximum yield of alpha amylase (0.281 U/ml) was observed on the 3rd day of incubation period followed by 4, 6 and 5th days. Maltose and yeast extract were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Therefore, further optimization of parameters and characterization of A. niger FAB-211 amylase is important for their application in industries. Key words: Fungi, amylase enzyme, Aspergillus niger, FAB-211. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/9DE922D56542 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2018.0289 en Copyright © 2018 Behailu Asrat and Abebe Girma
oai:academicjournals.org:IJBMBR:45E102061767 2019-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJBMBR IJBMBR:2019
First detection of the BES-type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase produced by Enterobacteria at Saint Camille Hospital of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) Sougueacute; Serge, Megrave;tuor-Dabireacute; Amana, Zohoncon Theacute;odora Mahoukegrave;degrave;, Tiemtoreacute; Rahimatou Yasmine Wend-kuni, Bangreacute; Yasmine Aminata, Zongo Jacob Koudbi and Simporeacute; Jacques Full Length Research Paper Several studies have been reported on the blaTEM, blaCTX-M and blaSHV genes in Extended-spectrum beta;-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteria, however very few studies reported in the literature are related to blaBES in ESBL producing Enterobacteria. This study concerns the molecular epidemiology of the blaBES gene in Enterobacteria identified from in-patients and out-patients at Saint Camille hospital of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). The study was first involved microbiological identification of Enterobacteria that are implicated in antibiotic resistance using API 20 E system; the antibiotics susceptibility test was secondly performed by the diffusion method and the molecular characterization was finally made by PCR to detect the blaBES gene. Data were entered and analyzed using Excel 2013 and EPI Info version 6.0 software. A p-valuethinsp;lt;thinsp;0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 60 isolates of ESBL-producing Enterobacteria were found: 21 (35%) Escherichia coli; 18 (30%) Klebsiella pneumoniae; 6 (10%) Enterobacter cloacae; 4 (7%) Proteus mirabilis; 4 (7%) Serratia marcescens; 3 (5%) Citrobacter freundii; 1 (1.6%) Enterobacter aerogenes; 1 (1.6%) Citrobacter brakii; 1 (1.6%) Citrobacter youngae and 1 (1.6%) Salmonella arizonae. Molecular characterization revealed the presence of the blaBES gene in 38 (63.3%) of bacterial isolates carried by patients. The presence of blaBES gene in ESBL producing Enterobacteria at Saint Camille Hospital in Ouagadougou was therefore established in this study for the first time in Burkina faso. Key words: Enterobacteria, Extended-spectrum beta;-lactamase (ESBL), blaBES, gene, hospital, resistance, Ouagadougou. Academic Journals 2019 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJBMBR/article-abstract/45E102061767 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBMBR2019.0307 en Copyright © 2019 Sougueacute; Serge, Megrave;tuor-Dabireacute; Amana, Zohoncon Theacute;odora Mahoukegrave;degrave;, Tiemtoreacute; Rahimatou Yasmine Wend-kuni, Bangreacute; Yasmine Aminata, Zongo Jacob Koudbi and Simporeacute; Jacques