2021-07-31T17:28:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:8B432C8913 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2010
‘Young Goodman Brown’: The close lane Naim Ezghoul and Malek Zuraikat Full Length Research Paper This study aims to present #39;Young Goodman Brown#39; by Nathaniel Hawthorne as a satire of Puritanism as a prejudiced and intolerable system of belief reflected in the character of Brown who is seen as the incarnation of Puritanism which sees all non- conformists as sinners. Being the incarnation of the Puritan ideology, ldquo;Brown is not just one Salem citizen of the late seventeenth century, but rather seems to typifyhellip;in a sense every [Puritan]rdquo;. Brown is the spokes-person and the mouth-piece of all Puritans whose words, actions, and interactions with other characters and the setting gradually unfold the Puritan ideology into a full-fledged system of belief. In trying to establish my outlook of Puritanism, I have been basically guided by Nathaniel Hawthornersquo;s disapproval of Puritanism as being particularly biased and discriminative against all non-conformists. Other signals including Hawthorne#39;s knowledge of his Puritan ancestors have formed the basis of the study. Moreover, Brown#39;s intolerance and his hesitation to follow up the journey on many occasions on the account of what he saw on the journey and his determination at the end of the story of the hypocrisy of the minister in so far as belief is concerned have helped to establish my argument. All this and more support the idea that Brown is as an embodiment of Puritanism which always tends to repeal the other. I have too seen in the setting a continuous revealer of the personality of Brown. The journey through the forest deepens the conflict within his mind leading him unexpectedly to be a stern believer in God. Therefore, I have used the traditional approach to investigate Hawthornersquo;s experience with Puritanism by analyzing Brownrsquo;s religious conflicts and finally his unyielding stand on Puritanism. The study also shows how the non-acceptance of the other is a reflection of a bigoted belief that tends to reject others in advance on the basis of belief. This further shows how this idea of pre-judging others is related to Brown#39;s close attachment both to his Puritan ancestors and finally to Puritanism which are responsible for Brownrsquo;s one-way progress to the close lane. To highlight the theme of the story which goes as follows, Puritanism never gives up nor allows its followers to be lenient in favor of assimilating non-conformists, the study discusses some main elements of the story such as the setting, the plot, and symbolism which work together towards showing the work as a satire. The study also sheds light on Brown#39;s most critical moment, the moment when he leaped out of belief. However, the study means to assert that Brown#39;s slip out of belief is only a slip out of consciousness resulting from Brown#39;s losing balance at a moment of great mental deliriousness which immediately shows a firmer retrieval to his previous state of belief. As the study asserts, Puritanism for Brown is a matter of destiny and any deviation from Puritanism is not likely. As ldquo;Thomas E. Connolly, has remarked that Goodman Brown has not lost his faith; he has found it.rdquo;. Key words: Prejudiced, intolerable, Puritanism, incarnation, belief, deviation, hesitation, retrieval Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/8B432C8913 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000011 en Copyright © 2010 Naim Ezghoul and Malek Zuraikat
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:CFDFE16867 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2010
Abilities and disabilities of literature Mohammad Khosravi Shakib Full Length Research Paper The present article tries to describe and analysis various roles that have been contributed to the literature as an organic unity for specific instrument. After a brief attempt to define literature, some of its essential characteristics are discussed. It is literature which simultaneously can promote and nourishes several facets of human mind. Literature has this aptitude that satisfies audience with news in chorus, enjoyment of literariness and constructs a bridge between peoples in spite of their distance. It is literature which single-handily makes conciliation of divergent as same as making generalization. At the same time, literature has no direct struggle and contact with occurrence, however, it moves behind or before the event with preserving the distance. Key words: Literature, reality, conciliation of divergent, generalization. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/CFDFE16867 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000005 en Copyright © 2010 Mohammad Khosravi Shakib
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:2252D3A882 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2010
Another country not my own: Crossing disciplinary borders, forging alliances within the framework of a (communication across the curriculum) CAC initiative in the sciences Ingrid McLaren Review This paper outlines within the framework of action research, the process of implementing a communication across the curriculum (CAC) programme in the Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences. It highlights the link between institutional context and the dialectical implications of merging the skills, agenda and focus of multidisciplinary teams while maintaining a balance of power. It is suggested that these challenges may be met by forging effective alliances with those who are intrinsically motivated to achieve a common goal, adopting a context driven rather than a norm driven approach and applying creativity and resourcefulness within this context. Guidance for similar undertakings is offered and the direction of future work is outlined. ldquo;I soon realized that no journey carries one far, unless, as it extends into the world around us, it goes an equal distance into the world withinrdquo;-Lillian Smith Key words: Communication across the curriculum (CAC), writing fellow (WF), writing across the curriculum (WAC), inter-disciplinary Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/2252D3A882 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000009 en Copyright © 2010 Ingrid McLaren
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:8A25A3B891 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2010
Pausing preceding and following to in to-infinitives of Obama’s G-20 summit speech in London: Read vs spontaneous speech Bilal Genccedil;, Yonca Ouml;zkan and Erdoan Bada Full Length Research Paper Research on pausing in read and spontaneous speech has been the concern of researchers in the past few decades. While elicited data reveals that in read speech pauses preceding heads of phrases are produced considerably longer by native speakers of English than pauses following heads in read speech, the situation tends to differ in spontaneous speech. Based on this premise, this study reports on President Obamarsquo;s audio recording of the speech he made in the G-20 Summit in London in 2009, thus aiming to describe different silent pausing strategies, as they were employed by the President during his address to an international community. The recordings of both the first part of the speech he made during the opening of his address, assumed as a recitation of previously written text and during question-answer session, when he spontaneously responded to questions of international journalists were measured in milliseconds. Measurement was conducted utilizing Goldwave, the sound analyzing software. Each part was analyzed separately in terms of pauses preceding and following the to particle in to-infinitive phrases, and later, a comparison between the two types, read and spontaneous, was made in order to observe any potential differences/similarities between the two types of speeches. Obtained results display significant differences between pausing preceding and following to in read speech, in that the to particle was kept intact with the infinitive phrase while in spontaneous speech, preceding and following pauses did not display any statistically significant differences in terms of duration. Key words: Pausing, prosody, speech, teaching speaking/reading, principles and parameters theory. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/8A25A3B891 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000020 en Copyright © 2010 Bilal Genccedil;, Yonca Ouml;zkan and Erdoan Bada
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:39296CD965 2010-12-06T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2010
Symbols, metaphors and similes in literature: A case study of "Animal Farm" Elaheh Fadaee Full Length Research Paper One of the aims of literary text is to say as much as possible as briefly as possible, means to say more in few words to achieve a maximum effectiveness. In this case, figures of speech, specifically symbol, metaphor and simile have an important role, as they include figurative meaning of words besides their literary meaning. In this article, symbols, metaphors and similes in George Orwell#39;slsquo;Animal Farmrsquo; were studied to find out the effect of using figures of speech on the writer#39;s style and the addressee#39;s understanding. For this aim, these three figures of speech were founded in the novel and their types were determined according to Newmark`s (1988b), Fromilhague`s (1995) and Rokni `s (2009) classifications, respectively. Key words: Literature, symbol, metaphor, simile, figurative language, lsquo;Animal Farmrsquo;. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/39296CD965 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000023 en Copyright © 2010 Elaheh Fadaee
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:79ECC39932 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
Epistemological and moral implications of characterization in African literature: A critique of Patrick Chakaipa’s ‘Rudo Ibofu’ (love is blind) Munyaradzi Mawere Review This paper examines African epistemology and axiology as expressed in African literature through characterization, and it adopts the Zimbabwean Patrick Chakaiparsquo;s novel, Rudo Ibofu as a case study. It provides a preliminary significance of characterization in Zimbabwean literature and by extension African literature before demonstrating how characterization has been lsquo;abusedrsquo; by some African writers since colonialism in Africa. The consequences are that a subtle misconstrued image of Africa can indirectly or directly be perpetuated within the academic settings. The Zimbabwean novel as one example of African literature that extensively employs characterization, it represents Africa. The mode of this work is reactionary in the sense that it is responding directly to trends identifiable in African literature spheres. The paper therefore is a contribution towards cultural revival and critical thinking in Africa where the wind of colonialism in the recent past has significantly affected the nativesrsquo; consciousness. In the light of the latter point, the paper provides a corrective to the western gaze that demonized Africa by advancing the view that Africans were without a history, worse still epistemological and moral systems. The paper thus criticizes, dismantles and challenges the inherited colonial legacies which have injured many African scientists and researchersrsquo; consciousness; it is not only against the vestiges of colonialism, but of neo-colonialism and western cultural arrogance that have been perpetuated by some African writers through characterization. Key words: Characterization, Africa, Zimbabwe, literature, epistemology, morality, Chakaipa, lsquo;Rudo Ibofursquo; Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/79ECC39932 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000014 en Copyright © 2011 Munyaradzi Mawere
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:0F2D802948 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
A critical study of encyclopedia of translation studies in China (1995 - 2001) Fan Min and Zhao Wei Review It is generally assumed that the research of encyclopedia of translation studies (ETS) as a historical and cultural fact is inevitably influenced and manipulated by the cultural background. Toward this goal, this article gives a critical analysis of three ETS published in China (1995-2001) based on some compilation principles, so as to show the international audience what kind of translation knowledge and terms/concepts have been encoded in Chinese ETS. In this paper, a critical, dynamic and communicative review of the proper organization and content of the three ETS in China is provided. The criticism and review are both lexicographical and translatological. It is hoped that this research will provide some useful suggestions to future dictionary makers and translation scholars. Key words: ETS research, entry inclusion and explanation, translation studies, ETS reception Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/0F2D802948 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000001 en Copyright © 2011 Fan Min and Zhao Wei
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:8888256971 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
Qualitative and quantitative analyses of L2 learners’ performance in essay writing and two correction tasks: Insights from L2 acquisition research and cognitive psychology Hosni M. El-dali Full Length Research Paper This study attempted to find answers for the following questions: (1) Are studentsrsquo; errors in grammatical structures, as they will appear in their written output, due to deficiency in their conscious grammar rules, or to deficiency in their abilities to transfer this knowledge (if it exists) to other language tasks such as writing compositions in English? and (2) Can conscious rules of grammar guide students#39; performance in monitoring (self-correcting) their written output once their attention is drawn to an error?. The subjects of this study consisted of fifteen foreign students enrolled in the advanced level of the English Language Institute at the University of Pittsburgh. The instruments of this study were (1) questionnaire; (2) free composition; (3) unfocused correction and focused correction tasks; and (4) interviews. The results of this study demonstrate, among other things, that deficiency in the subjectsrsquo; knowledge of grammar results in accurate composition writing and unsuccessful correction of errors, even if their attention is drawn to their errors. Key words: L2 writing, correction tasks, transfer of knowledge, attention. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/8888256971 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000022 en Copyright © 2011 Hosni M. El-dali
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:2E573AB2745 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
Stanley Fish with respect to the reader Ruzbeh Babaee and Iraj Montashery Review The present study is an investigation of the reader-response theory on three works of Fish. In quot;Literature in the Reader: Affective Stylisticsquot; (1970), quot;Interpreting the Variorum (II)quot; (1976), quot;Normal Circumstancesquot; (1978), Fish charts the progress of his evolving interpretive method. For this study, first, a comprehensive reading is done on Stanley Fish#39;s three major works as well as on different attitudes toward the reader-response theory. Then, Fish#39;s contribution to the development of reader-response theory is traced and the concurrence and contradictions of his ideas are shown with other critics such as William Wimsatt, Monroe Beardsley, and Norman Holland. Finally, the relevance and impact of his ideas in contemporary society are drawn. Key words: Reader-response criticism, interpretive community, affective stylistic. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/2E573AB2745 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.114 en Copyright © 2011 Ruzbeh Babaee and Iraj Montashery
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:9B39CC1993 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
Theatre of the oppressor: A reading of Butake’s play, “Family Saga” Christopher Odhiambo Joseph Review This article argues that theatre as an apparatus of change has for along time privileged the transformation of the oppressed people by inciting their conscience and consciousness. This incitement is meant to make them take action, leading to some kind of social and political agency. However, this article argues that the oppressor equally needs to be changed. Therefore theatre/drama as a tool of intervention should be framed in such a way that it provides possibilities for the oppressor to change instead of acting as an imaginary that only privileges the vanquishing of the oppressor. The article takes recourse in John Orsquo;Toolersquo;s experiment with theatre in education process to advance its arguments in regard to Bole Butakersquo;s drama and specifically his play lsquo;Family Sagarsquo;. Key words: Educational drama, theatre of the oppressor, consciousness, dramatic imaginary Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/9B39CC1993 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000028 en Copyright © 2011 Christopher Odhiambo Joseph
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:805FC891001 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
The third sex: A paradox of patriarchal oppression of the weaker man Rubaya Clemence and Gonye Jairos Review The study explores the paradox of potential patriarchal subjugation of weaker men. The paper is informed by the belief that is contrary to the popular view in some feminist quarters that all men in patriarchal societies enjoy protection under the male-biased society that brutalizes its weaker female members, there is, in fact, a certain class of underrepresented males who are victimized by a system believed to pamper them. Critical analysis of the African and African-American fiction has revealed that some men too, fall victim in their attempt to obey gender expectations or in their failure to satisfy their cultural prescription. The study finds limitations in the view that dismisses all men as beneficiaries of patriarchy and, therefore, without any cause to challenge that order. Thus, the research calls for a more gender inclusive fight against patriarchy for evidence seems to suggest that patriarchy has no respect for sex though more men have benefited by it just as more women have suffered because of it. Key words: Patriarchy, weaker man, ideal man, emasculation, feminism Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/805FC891001 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000027 en Copyright © 2011 Rubaya Clemence and Gonye Jairos
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:B7E831D1017 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
The quest for identity in Arthur Miller's "The crucible" Noorbakhsh Hooti Full Length Research Paper The purpose of the present analysis of ldquo;The Cruciblerdquo; is to study the action of the play in terms of the implication of quest for identity of the characters involved by scrutinizing the various dilemmas into which the characters find themselves. The self of an individual becomes foregrounded in the moment of crisis, which involves emotional, moral and social predicaments. Such situations lead the individual to enter into a process of covert introspection, which leads to certain decisions resulting in an overt action. Thus, the study of the actions of characters in a play can effectively lead to an understanding of the nature of their lsquo;selfrsquo;. By studying the play from the perspective mentioned earlier, the researcher hopes to uncover a hidden search for identity in the play. Key words: Crucible, self, identity, quest, self-understanding. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/B7E831D1017 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000025 en Copyright © 2011 Noorbakhsh Hooti
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:D8808081029 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
Poetry in translation: A comparative study of Silverstein's monolingual and bilingual (English to Persian) poems Elaheh Fadaee Full Length Research Paper Bilingual translations are as important as monolingual ones and can have many advantageous in different dimensions of literature, translation, education and other areas of study. But they are more difficult than monolingual translations, particularly in literary work, such as poem, novel, short story and etc. Translating literary text, particularly poetry is a difficult process as it includes different figures of speech and literary devices and conveys metaphorical and figurative concepts beyond its literally meanings. Difficulties of understanding poet#39;s style and message for the translator is in one hand and techniques of translating poetry and figures of speech which are not appropriate for all types of poems is in another hand. In this article, Silverstein#39;s monolingual and bilingual short poems (English to Persian) were studied on the basis of Newmark (1988) poetry#39;s translation techniques to evaluate qualities of translations and answer these two research questions: 1) Was the qualification of Stein#39;s bilingual poems as well as his monolingual poems in Iran? 2) Were the same translation techniques used in both monolingual and bilingual poems of Stein? The cause of selecting Stein#39;s poems was that his poems have many acceptable Persian translations and also have many followers in Iran. Firstly an introduction on bilingual translation was stated which includes poetry in literature and poetry in translation. Next is the methodology used, followed by results and discussion of the acquired data, and finally conclusion. Key words: Poetry, translation, bilingual poems, monolingual poems, Silverstein. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/D8808081029 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000021 en Copyright © 2011 Elaheh Fadaee
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:ADF8E311053 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
A psychoanalytic reading of ‘Marechera’s house of hunger’, ‘the black insider’ and ‘mindblast’ Mika Nyoni Review This paper analyses three works of art namely lsquo;House of Hungerrsquo;, lsquo;The Black Insiderrsquo; and lsquo;Mindblastrsquo; by one of Zimbabwersquo;s most famous, talented and controversial authors, Dambudzo Marechera, using mainly psychoanalytic tools of inquiry. The aforementioned works of fiction have been carefully chosen to sample the writerrsquo;s skills and concerns as a poet, playwright and novelist extraordinaire. These works, which were written between 1978 and 1984, give a fair representation of the said authorrsquo;s vast and varied skills whose works according to one critic lsquo;read a little like a clever dissertation for a PhDrsquo;(Veit-Wild, 1992: 17) yet he never completed a first degree! Key words: lsquo;House of Hungerrsquo;, lsquo;The Black Insiderrsquo;, lsquo;Mindblastrsquo; Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/ADF8E311053 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000002 en Copyright © 2011 Mika Nyoni
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:0DD23F21063 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
Apemanship: A critique of the modernization theory in Ngugi’s selected works and Clement Chihota’s ”Shipwreck” in No More Plastic Balls Thamsanqa Moyo and Jairo Gonye Review The paper critiques the Modernization Theory through an analysis of three of Ngugirsquo;s selected works and Chihotarsquo;s short story ldquo;Shipwreckrdquo;. The paper contends that no society has ever developed on the basis of being copycats or following the philosophy of catching up. Development is inextricably linked to that societyrsquo;s history, culture and the envisioned future. This paper argues that the Modernization Theory as a development model tries to push Africa by the wayside of its historical continuity and has therefore always been doomed from the start. It argues that a peoplersquo;s movement into the future is context-bound because borrowed lenses do not make a people see themselves truthfully and holistically. The paper finds that both Ngugi and Chihota represent neo-liberalism as an ideological and historical continuation of the modernization theory that seeks to enforce the lsquo;erasurersquo; of the histories and cultures of African countries that was begun by lsquo;colonial modernityrsquo; in the past. The paper further contends that the issues concerning any countryrsquo;s economic development should not be left to the leadership alone. As the artists have hinted, every citizen has the obligation to safeguard their countryrsquo;s founding national vision, philosophy and ethos. In other words, African leaders of the 21st century should constantly be monitored for they have a propensity to co-opt foreign ideologies entirely unsuitable for their countriesrsquo; situations and contexts. Key words: Apemanship, modernization theory, globalization, ESAPs, neoliberalism. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/0DD23F21063 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000010 en Copyright © 2011 Thamsanqa Moyo and Jairo Gonye
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:03A6B441069 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
An investigation into the relationship between the type of self-repair and structural complexity of utterances Ali Kazemi Full Length Research Paper This study is concerned with the investigation of the relationship between the type of self-repair and the structural complexity of utterances in which they appear, focusing mainly on syntactic self-repairs. The subjects of the study were 48 students of East Asian backgrounds, learning English as a second language in Australia. Specifically, this study has sought to establish a relationship between the occurrence of syntactic repairs and the complexity of syntactic structures L2 speakers use. The findings suggest that the occurrence of repairs in general (that is, without relating specific categories of repair to structural complexity) does not appear to be related to the syntactic complexity of the structures in which they occur. However, the scrutiny of the position of syntactic self-repairs is indicative of a relationship between the frequency of syntactic self-repairs and the complexity of the syntactic structures, suggesting that for those who learn English as their second language, the complexity of syntactic structures must be one, if not the,contributing factor leading to the occurrence of syntactic repairs. For other kinds of repairs, including phonological, morphological/lexical, appropriacy and information-structuring repairs, the occurrence of repairs is unrelated to syntactic complexity. Keywords: Structural Complexity; Self-repairs; Second language learning; Class room presentation. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/03A6B441069 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000007 en Copyright © 2011 Ali Kazemi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:75ADF401086 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
Exploring innovative activities in using news stories to teach advanced Chinese learners English in a multimedia way Wang Ping Review The basic reason of selecting English newspapers as a teaching tool is very pragmatic as English newspapers cover an array of information and knowledge and that is too within the reach of learnersrsquo; computers. The present paper aims to study issues that are interwoven with teaching English through English newspaper in an EFL (English as Foreign Language) classroom. Key words: News stories, teaching tools, multimedia Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/75ADF401086 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000015 en Copyright © 2011 Wang Ping
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:F402DBC1099 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
Alma’s psyche: The battlefield of opposite drives in Summer and Smoke Akram Amiri Senejani Review To Jung, literary works are media through which the archetypes of the collective unconscious manifest themselves. Summer and Smoke is a striking psychological drama that can be analyzed based on the Jungian psychoanalysis. So employing Jungrsquo;s theories, the research aims at exploring the main archetypes hidden in the deeper layers of Almarsquo;s mind in Summer and Smoke. Although there have been some interpretations of this drama based on psychological aspects, the present research intends to explore this work more deeply for extracting new concepts in relation to Jungrsquo;s collective unconscious theory. First, an introduction to the mentioned drama is stated. Then, Jungian archetypal theories are applied. Key words: Anima/animus, persona, shadow, self, process of individuation. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/F402DBC1099 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000006 en Copyright © 2011 Akram Amiri Senejani
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:64155281112 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
Grammatical cohesion in students’ argumentative essay Josephine B. Alarcon and Katrina Ninfa S. Morales Full Length Research Paper This study analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively the cohesive devices used by undergraduate students in their argumentative essay. One-hundred and four essays were collected and assessed by two interraters, but only 64 essays statistically qualified as the corpus of the study. Halliday and Hasan (1976) concept of grammatical cohesion was used as framework for the analysis of the essays. Reference had the highest frequency which is 90.67% of the total cohesive devices with mean score 53.37. Conjunction occurred 326 times in the essays, which is 9.08% with mean score 5.34 while substitution was the least used type of cohesive device which is only 0.25%. The cohesive devices are not significantly correlated with the quality of the studentsrsquo; essay. The resulting r using Pearson r is -0.054 which is not significant at 05 level of significance. Based on the qualitative analysis, it was found out that certain cohesive types assisted the students in the argumentation process. For instance, the use of adversative conjunctions helped the students establish counterclaims. However, lsquo;butrsquo; is the most frequently used adversative conjunction by the students which may signify that their knowledge on the use of this kind of cohesive device is limited. There were instances where the students can use concessive like ldquo;yet or howeverrdquo; to establish stronger claims. Hence, qualitative analysis supports the concept of form and function. In the studentsrsquo; argumentative essays, certain forms were chosen over the others for a specific purpose that supports the overall objective of an argumentative text. Key words: Cohesion, coherence, grammatical cohesion Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/64155281112 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000016 en Copyright © 2011 Josephine B. Alarcon and Katrina Ninfa S. Morales
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:30FD4F81252 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
Tales from the Hard Side”: A French existentialist perspective on Haruki Murakami’s Norwegian Wood Kieran James, Laurie James, Eunice M. James and Susan P. Briggs Full Length Research Paper This paper employs the French existentialist philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre and Fyodor Dostoyevskyrsquo;sCrime and Punishment to analyse the classic Japanese novel Haruki Murakamirsquo;s Norwegian Wood. This paper explores the existential struggles of the main characters, Watanabe, Naoko, Nagasawa, Midori, Hatsumi, and Keiko, as they attempt to come to terms with the stresses of adolescent life in late-1960s Tokyo and forge their own sustainable identities. The suicide death of Kizuki, seventeen-year-old boyfriend of Naoko and best friend of Watanabe, marks a chilling end to their carefree school years and both Watanabe and Naoko flee Kobe for Tokyo to try to rebuild their lives. The paper finds that Watanabe, Keiko, and Midori successfully rebuild their lives according to existentialist principles whereas Naoko never recovers, mentally and emotionally, from her suffocating relationship with Kizuki and his suicide death. Midori emerges as a feisty extroverted companion for Watanabe who takes his heart away from the ghostlike Naoko. Murakami presents Western rock music as a liberating outside influence that gives some of the characters extra motivation and resources to emerge from lifersquo;s challenges. The Beatles and other Western musicians help Watanabe and Midori to overcome the ideology inherent in traditional Japanese social mores. Key words: Beatles, crime and punishment, Dostoyevsky, French existentialism, ideology, Japanese literature, Murakami, Norwegian Wood, Sartre Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/30FD4F81252 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000024 en Copyright © 2011 Kieran James, Laurie James, Eunice M. James and Susan P. Briggs
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:D2F8A1A1259 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
A state of complete simplicity in poetry and psychoanalysis Moran Shoham Full Length Research Paper Following the works of D. W. Winnicot and M. Balint on regression in psychoanalysis, this paper offers a discussion of states of harmony between self and other as these are expressed in poems by Whitman and Dante. An attempt is being made to demonstrate the emotional nuances expressed by poets in order to enhance psychoanalytic understanding. Key words: D. W. Winnicott, M. Balint, psychoanalysis, poetry. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/D2F8A1A1259 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000003 en Copyright © 2011 Moran Shoham
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:4FAB1671263 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
“To those who feel rather than to those who think:” Sound and emotion in Poe’s poetry Cynthia Whissell Full Length Research Paper In his critical writings, Edgar Allan Poe stressed the importance of the impressionistic use of sound and emotion in poetry. This research quantifies Poersquo;s use of emotionally communicative sounds and demonstrates that he wrote in accordance with his expressed principles praising the use of pleasant and sad emotions in poetry and decrying the use of active ones. Poersquo;s poems were submitted to a phonoemotional analysis and proportions for the usage of sounds in eight emotional categories were obtained. Frequently anthologized English poems, some of Poersquo;s non-poetic writings, and poems of two other 19th century American poets were compared to Poersquo;s poetry. As predicted, Poe used several classes of emotionally-toned sounds at significantly higher than normal rates (Pleasant, Sad, Soft, Passive, and Cheerful ones), and several at significantly lower than normal rates (Unpleasant, Active, and Nasty ones). His poetry was significantly more extreme in the employment of his preferred emotional sounds than his other writings, and than other poetry, especially with respect to the use of Pleasant, Sad, and Soft sounds. Key words: Poe, poetry, sound, emotion. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/4FAB1671263 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000012 en Copyright © 2011 Cynthia Whissell
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:667B5251335 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
A study of form and content Raj Kumar Mishra Review This paper mainly takes four schools of criticism into account to make clearer the concept of lsquo;formrsquo; and lsquo;contentrsquo;. No doubt, it had been debated too much from Plato onwards. Formalists (New Critics included) put premium on diction. In fact they exclusively hold that lsquo;formrsquo; dictates lsquo;contentrsquo; as such lsquo;contentrsquo; is at the mercy of lsquo;formrsquo;. They examine especially poetry and its constitutive components; for instance, metre, rhyme scheme, rhythm, figures, syntax, motifs, styles, and conventions. Genre Critics or Chicago Critics unlike New Critics consider all genres and its sub-genres. They hold lsquo;formrsquo; lsquo;shaping or constructive principlersquo;. To them, the relation of lsquo;formrsquo; and lsquo;contentrsquo; is in the manner of cause and effect. The cause is lsquo;contentrsquo; and effect is lsquo;formrsquo;. They are inseparable. Marxist concept of lsquo;formrsquo; by and large is based on manrsquo;s relation to his society and the history of the society. This school altogether opposes all kinds of literary formalisms. This school seeks to observe cheerful dialectical relationship of lsquo;formrsquo; and lsquo;contentrsquo;. However in the long run prefer to give stress on lsquo;contentrsquo;. The psychoanalytic approach mainly takes interest in the revelation of lsquo;latent contentrsquo;. They divide lsquo;contentrsquo; into lsquo;manifest contentrsquo; and lsquo;latent contentrsquo;. This school does not take much interest in style, form or technique. It simply analyses a work of art in the light of writerrsquo;s psychology. In effect, separability of any sort cannot be justified because in absence of any of them, an artistic whole is altogether impossible Keywords: Form, content. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/667B5251335 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000004 en Copyright © 2011 Raj Kumar Mishra
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:7C380B61342 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
Learners' communicative competence in English as a foreign language (EFL) Vahid Norouzi Larsari Review Moving from the #39;focus on form#39; teaching approach such as grammar translation and audiolingualism, recently more language teachers have noticed the failure of form focusing approach in developing learners#39; communicative ability in real-life situations and shifted to adopt the communicative language teaching (CLT). The CLT approach highlights learners#39; communicative competence (Hymes, 1972) which is defined as learners#39; ability to efficiently express what they mean in the target language and successfully achieve communications in real-life situations (Lightbown and Spada, 1999; Power, 2003). In order to do so, learners not only need to acquire the linguistic but pragmatic knowledge of the TL (Hedgcock, 2002). It is suggested that competence, both linguistic and pragmatic, is the knowledge developed and acquired through exposure and use (Kasper, 1997). In other words, without sufficient exposure needed for learners to notice and acquire the language input and chances to use the knowledge, communicative competence is not likely to be promoted. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that the integration of computer-mediated communication (CMC) into English as a foreign language EFL learning can increase both input (exposure) and output (use) of the target language that is needed for learners to promote both their linguistic and pragmatic competence. Key words: Communicative competence, computer mediated communication (CMC), authentic and interactive learning tasks. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/7C380B61342 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000017 en Copyright © 2011 Vahid Norouzi Larsari
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:F568B691355 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
Anita Desai’s ‘in custody’: Unlocking the web of time and space Bhasha Shukla Sharma Review This paper attempts to semiotically interpret the use of time and place as narrative device in Anita Desairsquo;s lsquo;In Custodyrsquo;. Space and time have aroused the curiosity of people for many centuries. It has been central to philosophy from its inception. In literature, there is no other device which captures imagination of the narrative in both temporal and spatial implications. Time and space are regarded as substrata of culture. Here is an attempt to outline a contemporary view on the hierarchy of spatial and temporal structures. The lsquo;conceptual primitivenessrsquo; has been revisited through the study of In Custody. Marred by time and place, the protagonist moves in search of his identity. The presentation of the characters is very near to the life in twentieth century India, lsquo;True to the temper of our times, there are no heroes, no big chested ideologies, and no utopias that will provide complete solutions to our problemsrsquo; (Das, 2002). Key words: Time-space, semiotics, culture, post-colonial literature, twentieth century India. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/F568B691355 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000008 en Copyright © 2011 Bhasha Shukla Sharma
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:D88C26C1397 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
Metaphor and the absurd: Reimagining the discourse on nationhood in Ola Rotimi’s plays Ikenna KAMALU Full Length Research Paper Working within the framework of Lakoff and Johnsonrsquo;s (1980) model of conceptual metaphor, this paper investigates Ola Rotimirsquo;s use of metaphor to frame the absurdities in the Nigerian society. Previous studies on Ola Rotimi have examined some of his texts from the perspective of the absurd or from literary criticism, but no conscious effort has been made to study the conceptual or cognitive dimensions of the texts. The rhetoric of metaphorization enables him to create new categories, schemata and semantic domains that present the ideology of social disjuncture, exclusion and inclusion in his society. The primary texts are selected plays of Ola Rotimi in which the absurdity in human situations and actions are framed metonymically as the image of the nation. The texts are Holding Talks, Hopes of the Living Dead, and ldquo;Our Husband has Gone Mad Againrdquo;. The rhetoric of metaphorization provides the resources with which a writer can express their experiences and vision of the semiotic system. Conceptual metaphor provides the frames and schemata through which the reader comprehends the socio-economic and political realities that informed the writerrsquo;s rhetoric, and also signifies how language gives rise to meaning among individuals and groups of individuals, and how these meanings are integrated in matters of cooperation and conflict (Chilton, 2004). Key words: Metaphor, absurdities, rhetoric, frames and schemata, Ola Rotimi. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/D88C26C1397 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000018 en Copyright © 2011 Ikenna KAMALU
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:1E168731407 2011-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
British colonial education policy in Africa Ccedil;ar Turul Mart Review As a result of colonization, the colonizing countries implemented their own form of education within their colonies. Colonizing governments realized that they gained strength over colonized nations not only through physical control but also mental control. This mental control was carried out through education. The colonizerrsquo;s educational goal was to expose Africans to a superior culture. Colonizers thought education would bring Africans into the modern world and education would bring them to a higher level of civilization. However the need for skilled native labor by colonizers for economic development and eagerness to propagate Christianity caused colonizers to use education as a tool to achieve social control over African people. Key words: Africa, colonial education, western culture, assimilation, inferiority, superiority. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/1E168731407 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000013 en Copyright © 2011 Ccedil;ar Turul Mart
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:8A6F4DB1428 2011-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2011
Migration and culture: Implications on Nigerian languages M.O Ayeomoni Review Language is important in the society as man needs it to communicate his ideas and experiences. As culture influences the structure and functions of a group, so also does the language influence the individual interpretation of reality. So, cultural identity can be established through the use of language, and a society is based on the language people speak. Migration from one place to another has a far reaching effect and impact on the language people speak. It could lead to a number of linguistic implications such as language borrowing, language shift, creation of a new language and even language endangerment. Equally, the migration bid to different parts of Nigeria has several implications on Nigerian languages. It engenders varieties of languages spoken in Nigeria, especially the official language (English). It affects the phonological production of several items in the language (English). It has also led to diaglossic use of languages in Nigeria. It also shows that these effects are both positive and negative as it (migration) helps to develop and expand the languages spoken in Nigeria; it equally endangers some of these languages. Key words: Language, culture, migration, development and endangerment. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/8A6F4DB1428 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000019 en Copyright © 2011 M.O Ayeomoni
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:F4E09F72773 2012-01-27T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
The city of sarcasm and woe: Swift’s “A description of a city shower” and “A description of the morning” Sura M. Khrais Review In his poetry, Jonathan Swift (1667 to 1745) has shown a deep concern in understanding human nature and explaining human behavior. This paper aims at studying the technical devices Swift uses to introduce a satirical image of the city in an attempt to clarify his moral outlook. With special emphasis on Swift#39;s two poems quot;A Description of a City Showerquot; and quot;A Description of the Morning,quot; this study emphasizes Swift#39;s use of sustained irony, satire, dramatization of vice and realistic portrayal of human nature to clarify physical and spiritual degradation which has become a characteristic of the society in the eighteenth-century. Swift#39;s description of man#39;s nature and the exposure of the fallaciousness of man#39;s illusory ideas reflect his repudiation of man#39;s false and immoral conduct. He meant his poetry to be a genuine reforming force; to be evaluated by its real influence on moral sensibility. Key words: Moral outlook, satire, irony, gradualism, realistic depiction, mock-heroic style, moral indignation, social reformation. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/F4E09F72773 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.131 en Copyright © 2012 Sura M. Khrais
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:A4069E21510 2012-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
The theme of self and identity in the ‘Theater of the Absurd’ Saeid Rahimipoor and Henrik Edoyan Review Adam#39;s idea of emergence of life out of habit and order out of chaos implicates the idea of getting to identity from nonentity. Dramatic literature, and more specifically, theTheater of the Abusrd, has proved promising in revealing the existential obsessions of man imposed on him by the demanding characteristics of the postmodern era. In the realm of theater, Samuel Beckett and Harold Pinter, are seen as two major proponents of this theater[AS1] , have illustrated the theme of self and identity, one of the greatest obsessions of modern man. This paper reflects Beckett#39;s deployment of entropy technique as well as Pinter#39;s concept of identity via the framework of chaos theory to show how they have tried to depict this existential problem of man in their major works from their own idiosyncratic view points: philosophical and psychological respectively to project upon the audience or the reader a better view of modern man#39;s sense of his self and identity and enable the reader/viewer to get to a stabilized sense of self and identity amidst the maximum communicative entropy based on the butterfly effect principle that one#39;s chaos can result in order in the other. Key words: Theatre of absurd, self, identity. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/A4069E21510 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000026 en Copyright © 2012 Saeid Rahimipoor and Henrik Edoyan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:45759192793 2012-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
The influence of teachers and students’ language attitudes towards the use of shona as medium of instruction in secondary schools Kadodo Webster, Kadodo Mavies, Bhala Timothy and Bhebe Cordial Full Length Research Paper The article examines the influence of language attitudes of secondary school teachers and students on their choices as to whether Shona can be used as medium of instruction in secondary schools. Language policy in Zimbabwe prescribes (albeit in a non-committal manner) the use of L1 as medium of instruction from Grade one to three. Thereafter, English (L2 for the majority of students) is used exclusively as medium of instruction except in the teaching of other languages. Over the years, debate has been rife regarding the use of indigenous languages as media of instruction at all levels of education. However, advocacy for such innovation has tended to ignore the influence of language attitudes of the clientele of such innovation. This article examined the attitudes of principal users and implementers of language change. The assumption in this article was that for language innovation to succeed, the users (teachers and students) need to hold favourable attitudes towards the intended language policy change and if not, the innovation is likely to suffer from tissue rejection (Obanya, 1987). The findings show that the majority of secondary school teachers and students prefer using English to Shona as medium of instruction. This leads to the conclusion that attitudes of users regarding the proposed language innovation, negatively affect the implementation of the proposed change. Attitudes of teachers, therefore, are keys to successful language innovation in education. Key words: Shona, medium of instruction, language attitudes, former group B schools. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/45759192793 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.018 en Copyright © 2012 Kadodo Webster, Kadodo Mavies, Bhala Timothy and Bhebe Cordial
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:47867062810 2012-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Advertising discourse: Studying creation and perception of meaning Piar Chand and Shivani Chaudhary Full Length Research Paper Discourse of advertising has been of interest and significance to many researchers. Linguists are particularly interested in studying creation of meaning and advertisers are largely concerned about studying consumption of meaning. The two go hand in hand. The present study aims at gauging the gap between creation and consumption of meaning through a pair of print advertisements. Creation of meaning was studied using an amalgamation of Norman Faircloughrsquo;s critical discourse analysis and Daniel Chandlerrsquo;s compilation of semiotics whereas for studying the consumption of meaning a field survey was conducted; the sample for which was 450 college going students. At the face value the adverts were projecting novel notions of challenging the stereotypes related with men and women. But on a semiotic and critical discourse analysis it had been found that the advertisement which overtly appeared to break the old norms and welcome the fresh ones were embedded in stereotypical norms related to women. In the end both the advertisements have been compared. Endorsement by a popular celebrity, fair complexion, femininity related with gratification of menrsquo;s desire- all such discourses are viewed as legitimate by the consumers. Consumers generally do not understand the copywritersrsquo; strategies and manipulations in reproducing and propagating these discourses through advertising. Key words: Advertising, discourses, creation, perception, strategies, ideology Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/47867062810 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.070 en Copyright © 2012 Piar Chand and Shivani Chaudhary
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:C93B1732832 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Existentialism in two plays of Jean-Paul Sartre Cagri Tugrul Mart Review Existentialism is the movement in the nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy that addresses fundamental problems of human existence: death, anxiety, political, religious and sexual commitment, freedom and responsibility, the meaning of existence itself (Priest, 2001: 10). This study tries to define what existentialism is and stresses themes of existentialism. This research finally points out these themes of existentialism by studying on two existentialist drama plays written by Jean-Paul Sartre who was a prominent existentialist writer. The plays by Sartre studied in this research are lsquo;The Fliesrsquo; and lsquo;Dirty Handsrsquo;. Key words: Existentialism, freedom, absurdity, anguish, despair, nothingness. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/C93B1732832 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.042 en Copyright © 2012 Cagri Tugrul Mart
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:1BDBD902850 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Intertextuality in James Reeves' verses for children Dimitrios Politis Review This article seeks to consider the relation between intertextuality and poetry through James Reevesrsquo; verses for children. By examining all his poems intended to children, this study demonstrates that Reeves constitutes with his readers a peculiar as well as an interactive relationship, which may be detected mainly in the light of the dynamic model of intertextuality as it has been refined by certain reader-response theorists. What becomes apparent then is that the way Reeves employs intertextual associations in his verses is symptomatic of his attitude towards the literary experience. The child-reader who comes across Reevesrsquo; poetry not only activates the relevant texts via a process of experiencing the very essence of poetry itself, but additionally stimulates his/her own response. Reeves tries to develop the ability of his reader to extend his/her imagination and to widen the day-to-day feelings through the way he invites his child-reader into the literary experience. By transforming his material into unusual arrangements, he demands his/her reader to discover unknown or incomprehensible associations, in order to develop the meaning of the poetic text, to decode textual consequence, and, finally, to experience textuality in the perspective of intertextuality. Key words: James Reeves, poetry for children, verses, intertextuality, reader-response theory. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/1BDBD902850 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.090 en Copyright © 2012 Dimitrios Politis
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:A6ABAA82875 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory Oedipus complex: A critical study with reference to D. H. Lawrence’s “Sons and Lovers” Sofe Ahmed Review Sigmund Freud and his Oedipus complex are among the most often discussed critical and contentious issues of modern psychology and literature. Freud has brought lot of controversies in the field of modern psychology and literary trend through his theory Oedipus complex. Contrariwise, in some other assessorrsquo;s notions his concept of Oedipus complex deserves a great deal of appreciation. Nonetheless, prominent English novelist D.H. Lawrence is one of those modern writers who are greatly influenced by Freudian theories and have been promoting Freudrsquo;s notions through their works. His ldquo;sons and loversrdquo; are considered as one of the most modern as well as controversial novels of the twentieth century. In this fiction, the protagonist Paulrsquo;s extremely emotional dealings with his mother are the illustration of Doctor Freudrsquo;s psychological theory Oedipus complex. Nevertheless, this paper aims to critically analyze the facts lying with the hallucination of Oedipus complex as it is presented in ldquo;Sons and Loversrdquo;. The evaluation is conducted liberally and objectively as well as through comparisons between the central characters of Lawrencersquo;s ldquo;Sons and Loversrdquo; and Sophoclesrsquo; King Oedipus. This attempt also tends to judge the universality of Freudrsquo;s claim particularly sexual theory with the help of modern biological experiments and the result of relevant laboratory tests, conducted by eminent psychologists and psychiatrists. In short, the critique ultimately endeavors to find out a factual solution for the controversies, raised by Oedipus complex, with the help of logic, fact and scientific researches. Key words: Freudian psychoanalysis, Oedipus complex, ldquo;Sons and Loversrdquo; Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/A6ABAA82875 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.137 en Copyright © 2012 Sofe Ahmed
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:803C0C82897 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Academic writing challenges at Universities in Zimbabwe: A case study of great Zimbabwe University Jairos Gonye, Rugare Mareva, Washington T. Dudu and Jabulani Sibanda Full Length Research Paper This paper reports on the findings of an inquiry into the nature of academic writing weaknesses inherent among first year undergraduate university students in Zimbabwe, using Great Zimbabwe University (GZU), as a case study. Five hundred and fifty students and fifteen lecturers constituted the sample. Document analysis, interviews and the questionnaire were used as data collecting instruments. Results were presented and discussed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The study revealed that first year undergraduate university studentsrsquo; written papers are riddled with a multiplicity of weaknesses, and suggests that students should view writing as different from speech and that they should treat writing as a process rather than a product. The paper also recommends that there be a paradigm shift in the teaching of academic writing at universities in Zimbabwe, from a study skills orientation to an academic literacies orientation. The paper further recommends an integrative approach to the teaching of writing at universities. Key words: Academic writing, writing as a process, writing as a product, study skills orientation, academic literacies orientation. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/803C0C82897 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.092 en Copyright © 2012 Jairos Gonye, Rugare Mareva, Washington T. Dudu and Jabulani Sibanda
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:D1090E52949 2012-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Invisibility of the I's in “Their Eyes Were Watching God” Mahmood Daram and Sepideh Hozhabrsadat Review Janie Crawford, the female protagonist of Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston, is a black woman. To be black and to be a beautiful woman entails the extreme visibility in case of body in the society. Janie is under the oppressing gaze of the patriarchal society and through strengthening the invisible inside and hiding it from the disciplinary power structure; she manages to return the gaze, to gain the autonomy. In this study, we will discover the way Janie learns to free herself from the shackles of suppressing society by changing the way she looks. Key words: Visibility, invisibility, vision, look, gaze, seeing, othering, power, bod Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/D1090E52949 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.062 en Copyright © 2012 Mahmood Daram and Sepideh Hozhabrsadat
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:A29FCB52963 2012-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
What the body remembers: A feminist perspective of the Partition of India and Pakistan Radhika Purohit Review The most predictable form of violence experienced by women is when the women of one community are sexually assaulted by the men of the other community, in an overt assertion of their identity and a simultaneous humiliation of the other community by dishonouring their women. Being extremely vulnerable women become easy targets of every form of oppression. This evil is further compounded if they are placed in unstable political societies or events. As in other moments of ethnic conflicts in the world, the rape and molestation of Hindu, Sikh and Muslim women before and after the Partition followed the same familiar pattern of sexual violence, retaliation and reprisal. It is an established fact that in all wars and holocausts it is women who have been humiliated, deprived and discriminated. The novel lsquo;What the Body Remembersrsquo; taken up for study in this paper, projects the Partition from a womanrsquo;s perspective which is the first ever attempt to view the Partition through the experiences of women. This novel on the Partition stands evidence to the statement that, lsquo;since only women have undergone those specifically female life-experiences, only they can speak of a womanrsquo;s life. Key words: Partition, women, victims, trauma. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/A29FCB52963 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.146 en Copyright © 2012 Radhika Purohit
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:27179872978 2012-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
On the dimensions of test anxiety and foreign language learners Azadeh Nemati Full Length Research Paper Anxiety is one of the most basic human emotions and occurs in every person. In the educational setting, anxiety is experienced often by the students when being evaluated such as when taking a test which is called test anxiety. lsquo;Test anxietyrsquo; is an apprehension over academic evaluation. This anxiety is also available in foreign language learning. This study intends to investigate the relationship between age, gender, discipline and foreign language test anxiety specifically. The participants of the present study consisted of 323 Iranian undergraduate and post graduate university males and females students from different disciplines. Sarason Anxiety Scale (1975) was given to the students before the foreign language final exam. The results indicated that there was not a significant correlation between age and anxiety (r = -0.024, P = 0.664). The result of the independent t-test also established that males and females were equally affected by test anxiety, t (321) = 5.24, P = 0.601. Along with ANOVA pair wise comparisons of the means revealed that pre-university had the highest level of test anxiety (M = 20.25) comparing the students of other disciplines. Exploratory factor analysis found out 3 main factors with the more items loading on them regarding worry and emotional feeling before the exam. At the end some recommendations were presented for language teachers to help students reduce test anxiety. Key words: Test anxiety, gender, discipline, foreign language anxiety. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/27179872978 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.116 en Copyright © 2012 Azadeh Nemati
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:C6F54DC3047 2012-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Structural or communicative approach: A case study of English Language teaching in Masvingo urban and peri-urban secondary schools Rugare Mareva and Shumirai Nyota Full Length Research Paper This paper investigates the teaching of English as a second language (ESL) in Zimbabwe, using Masvingo urban and peri-urban secondary schools as a case study. The study employed both the quantitative and the qualitative designs. A questionnaire and document analysis was used to gather data. The data gathered were also analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively through tables, thick descriptions and paraphrases. The study established that the structural approach and its associated methods and techniques were mainly used in the teaching of ESL, with communicative language teaching (CLT), which is recommended by the Zimbabwe School Examinations Council (ZIMSEC) O-Level English syllabus, playing second fiddle. The paper concludes that this could be due to ignorance, on the part of teachers, of the principles and advantages of CLT, or it could be a result of conservatism. The paper recommends that relevant authorities, such as universities, teachersrsquo; colleges and the responsible Ministry should vigorously strive to make English Language teachers have a paradigm shift towards full implementation of CLT. Key words: Structural Approach, Communicative Approach, English as a Second Language (ESL), Linguistic Competence, Communicative Competence. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/C6F54DC3047 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.015 en Copyright © 2012 Rugare Mareva and Shumirai Nyota
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:97CF1AA3063 2012-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
A descriptional study on differences in L1 and L2 academic writing Wang Yingli Full Length Research Paper Since the first contrastive rhetoric study by Kaplan in 1966, many studies have been produced, and over several decades of development, there have been many contributions gained from previous contrastive rhetoric studies. Some researchers summarized and made critiques about certain studies. Stapleton (2002) claims the differences between academic writing in an L1 and an L2 are often misrepresented and overstated. The study disagrees with Stapleton. The study believes that there are differences between academic writing in L1 and L2. Results of many studies support my argument that there do exist differences between academic writing in L1 and L2 in various aspects and they are not overstated. The study will categorize the differences in three major parts as following: differences in the level of lexicon, differences in the level of sentence, and differences in the level of passage. Besides, one point worthrsquo;s further consideration, that is, languages is dynamic and they will change with many factors such as time, cross-cultural communication, etc. The dynamic development of language could push contrastive rhetoric studies to go further and wider and then help people understand each other better in the cross-cultural communication. Key words: Contrastive rhetoric studies, differences between academic writing, English and Chinese. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/97CF1AA3063 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.118 en Copyright © 2012 Wang Yingli
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:037154C3086 2012-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Season of Migration to the North and the story of the Sudanese Nation: Hopes and Impediments Yahya Ali Abdullah Idriss Review Season of migration to the North has been variously described as a novel of events, a postcolonial quest novel, and more than little postmodern novel. Having won large audience across the globe, Season of Migration to the North has been acclaimed as one of the first hundred masterpieces in the world and the best Arabic novel in the twentieth century. While Season of Migration to the North has been conceived thus, not much attention has been paid to it as a story of national interests. This study argues thatSeason of Migration to the North looks in particular at the crisis of the Sudanese nation. The novelrsquo;s use of expressions such as lsquo;slaversquo; and lsquo;master,rsquo; #39;local manrsquo; and lsquo;stranger,rsquo; lsquo;southrsquo; and lsquo;northrsquo; epitomizes its approach to highlighting the fate of the Sudanese people as a nation. This paper explores the relationship between this novel and the Sudanese nation. It reads, that is to say, the novel against the grain. It overlooks the journey outside, the journey undertaken by the protagonist from Sudan to Britain. It considers, instead, the journey inside as much as from the outskirts of Khartoum to the village at the bend of the Nile. This south-northward journey through the Sudanese landscape poses the question, lsquo;How do the Sudanese people see themselves as a nation?rsquo; This paper tries to come close to answering this question. Key words: Master, slave, local man, stranger, janjawid, zurga, sons of the North, sons of the West, Northerners, non-Northerners. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/037154C3086 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.088 en Copyright © 2012 Yahya Ali Abdullah Idriss
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:DC8D6653096 2012-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Will there ever be a final solution? Mahesh Dattani’s final solutions revisited in the light of communal divide Dashrath Gatt Review India since ancient times has the history of communal violence and it has grown up witnessing all that goes with this sectarian divide and selective preferences. This undercurrent of mistrust runs unabatedly between the two most dominating communities in the sub-continent-Hindu and Muslim-as generation after generation this feeling of cultural and communal animosity is further transmitted to the coming generation, making the next moment frightening and scary for the inhabitants of this world. The mistrust between the two communities emanates on account of expression of cultural hegemony, difference in the religious practices and by playing the role of godfather by the majority. The finger pointing at each other as the narrow minded fundamentalists on both sides poses the biggest danger to the establishment of healthy relationship between the Hindus and the Muslims. Here the playwright Mahesh Dattani explores some possibilities for solution to the problem of communal divide in his playFinal Solutions and ultimately suggests some remedies in this regard. The dramatist feels that liberal outlook with a conciliatory approach and respect for one-anotherrsquo;s beliefs, mutual trust and sharing of pleasures and pains can help in overcoming the man-made communal divide where individual will be treated as a human being and not as a Hindu or Muslim. Key words: Sub-continent-Hindu, Muslim, mistrust, animosity, communal divide. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/DC8D6653096 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.087 en Copyright © 2012 Dashrath Gatt
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:4EEE6673117 2012-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
The significance of religion in Hamlet Omar Abdulaziz Alsaif Review The tragedy Hamlet is one of the most important of Shakespearersquo;s plays published and performed as part of the rainbow of world literature. This study investigates the role of religion in Hamlet, and attempts to provide a new interpretation to understand how religious beliefs influence the charactersrsquo; motives. Text analysis shows Hamletrsquo;s social surroundings are receptive to metaphysical beliefs. Hamlet is fundamentally more religious than his religious community; therefore, he seems reluctant to take a position on his father#39;s murderer because of his fearing to be a sinner. The paper concludes that, although Christianity is the main influence on Hamlet, the playwright also uses Hellenic religious symbols for purely rhetorical purposes. Hamlet, having suffered a psychological shock, re-evaluated events in light of his religious views. Even if the ghostrsquo;s appearance is the result of mental illness caused by the trauma of his mother#39;s marriage to his uncle and the story of killing his father is imagined, Hamlet#39;s attitudes and behavior are religiously based. Hamlet reveals how Shakespeare uses rhetoric to create a religious message about the church and re-create the values of right and wrong according to his own view, so he punishes sinners by creating disastrous endings. Key words: Hamlet, Shakespeare, religion, Christianity, hesitation, revenge, Hamlet#39;s shock, Hamlet#39;s faith. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/4EEE6673117 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.050 en Copyright © 2012 Omar Abdulaziz Alsaif
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:6E093EB3135 2012-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Speaking as an indicator of general proficiency in placement test Zahra Shirinzadeh Aghdam and Ali Akbar Farahani Full Length Research Paper This study investigates whether there is a strong correlation between the speaking abilities of Iranian learners of English and their general proficiency as reported in placement tests. Thirty intermediate learners from three English conversation classes at an English language Institute in Tabriz participated in the study. A standardized 300 D test of Nelson English Test was used to determine their overall English language proficiency. In addition, an oral interview was conducted to test their speaking ability. The scoring criteria for assessing the oral interview were pronunciation, vocabulary, and fluency. The results obtained were used as indicators of learnersrsquo; English proficiency levels and their oral abilities. A Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was used to determine the strength of the correlation between the accuracy rates drawn from the Nelson Test and those from the oral interview. Data indicated that there was a statistically significant correlation between the two types of testing indicating that learnersrsquo; general proficiency shown in the Nelson placement test could be easily achieved by evaluating their speaking ability. Key words: Speaking, general proficiency, oral interview, placement test, communicative competence. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/6E093EB3135 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.095 en Copyright © 2012 Zahra Shirinzadeh Aghdam and Ali Akbar Farahani
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:4F5669C3158 2012-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Blanche Dubois’s tragedy of incomprehension in ‘A Streetcar Named Desire’ Akram Amiri Senejani and Eyvazi Mojgan Review The present paper elaborates on the concept of self- knowledge in Tennessee Williamsrsquo;A Streetcar Named Desire based on Carl Gustav Jungrsquo;s psychoanalytic theory of archetypes. Jung considers the ldquo;collective unconsciousrdquo; as a mental process in human mind from which he/she is not aware. It is the immortal part of man and the unknown psyche of him which is shaped by archetypes - the images, motifs or thematic patterns that occurred regularly in history, literature, or folkways. The aim of the study is to apply Jungrsquo;s archetypes to Blanche Duboisrsquo;s psyche in order to find the causes of her disintegration. It is concluded that the lack of self-realization and an unbalanced psyche causes the failure of individuation process and consequently some abnormal behaviors in this character. Key words: Animus, shadow, persona, self, process of individuation. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/4F5669C3158 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.038 en Copyright © 2012 Akram Amiri Senejani and Eyvazi Mojgan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:F9EA3453166 2012-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Transcending conventional identity structures: Dorothea Smartt’s re-negotiated self-projections Marie Sairsingh Review Dorothea Smarttrsquo;s poetics reflects an innovative paradigm by which she challenges and reshapes concepts of national and gender identities. She explores old and new world inheritances, and skillfully traverses historical, cultural, temporal and spatial boundaries to arrive at a re-negotiated and reinvigorated identity. Smarttrsquo;s poetics thus evinces multiple elements: while it synthesizes Caribbean and Black British traditions, it also enlarges these traditions by incorporating mythic elements. By excavating the Medusa myth as an African legacy, Smartt re-connects old and new world inheritances, in a stratagem that empowers writers in both Black British and Caribbean literary traditions. Key words: Black British Literature, Caribbean literary aesthetics, Medusa myth, identity. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/F9EA3453166 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.078 en Copyright © 2012 Marie Sairsingh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:E8DA9AE3450 2012-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Semiotics and language interlarding in Yoruba traditional wedding bilingual discourse Adebukunola Atolagbe Full Length Research Paper The paper discusses the traditional Yoruba wedding ceremony among bilingual Yoruba speaking families, with the following aims: (i) to throw more light on the discourse content and structure of the traditional Yoruba-English wedding bilingual discourse; (ii) to identify the place of semiotics and signage in the wedding discourse. Sociolinguistics and discourse analysis provided the theoretical framework for the study while two recorded wedding transactions were used as empirical data. Moreover, participant observation by the author, a Yoruba bilingual as well formed part of the research methodology. The findings show that: (i) a typical traditional Yoruba wedding in the twenty-first century almost always involves Language Interlarding, since it is practically impossible to identify pure Yoruba monolinguals at such weddings; (ii) Features of bilingualism are prevalent in the traditional Yoruba wedding discourse; (iii) Yoruba dialectal greetings or English greetings in their Yoruba equivalents are rampant in the traditional Yoruba wedding discourse; (iv) Gricersquo;s Cooperative Principle and Leechrsquo;s Politeness Principle find expression in this interesting speech event; (v) social semiotics ndash; whether verbal or non-verbal - and signage, also feature prominently in this speech event; (vi) conclusively, Yoruba traditional wedding is in itself, an evolving register with an lsquo;inner circlersquo; of users. Key words: Language Interlarding, traditional Yoruba wedding, semiotics, lsquo;alaga ijokorsquo;, lsquo;alaga idurorsquo;. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/E8DA9AE3450 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.054 en Copyright © 2012 Adebukunola Atolagbe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:2DFB5413492 2012-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Was Hamlet a level 5 leader? A critical analysis Mohan Gopinath, Abhijit Nair, Dolphy M. Abraham and Chinnam Nayar-Gopinath Review This paper is what can be described (in a positive sense) as a hybrid. This is because it analyzes the character of Hamlet in terms of his leadership qualities which means that it also explores the world of organizational behavior. In fact what the paper does is an analysis of one of Shakespearersquo;s most famous protagonists and then draws the specific leadership traits he exhibits. It does this by drawing heavily on the play itself to make the points. More specifically, it looks at the character of the Prince of Denmark in terms of the leadership typology created by Jim Collins, the specialist in organizational development and behavior. Collins coined the term Level 5 leader based on his research of visionary companies. A Level 5 leader according to Collins is one who combines the paradoxical traits of personal humility and professional will. This does not mean that he or she is a weak person. On the contrary the professional will drives them to extraordinary lengths in order to benefit the organization. But at the same time they do not thrust themselves into the limelight. They are thinkers who know what is best for the company and then go about to deliver what is required. The question the paper explores is whether Hamlet was a genuine Level 5 leader or was he some other type of leader masking as a Level 5. Key words: Level 5 leadership, leadership, crisis, organizational development. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/2DFB5413492 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.122 en Copyright © 2012 Mohan Gopinath, Abhijit Nair, Dolphy M. Abraham and Chinnam Nayar-Gopinath
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:8C41DE83500 2012-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Helpful hints for the successful teaching of reading comprehension in the ESL English language classroom Dare Owolabi Review The performance of ESL students in English language public examinations may not be unconnected with lack of proper comprehension of what is read. More specifically, performance in the comprehension section in public examinations such as the School Certificate/Senior School Certificate Examinations in Nigeria is appalling. Studentsrsquo; performance in the West Africa Examination Councilrsquo;s conducted examinations confirms this fact and also points to the reality that the stereotyped method of teaching the language is no longer effective. The method is not only drab, but has also failed to produce the expected result. In this paper, efforts have been made to look at the possibility of methods that have not been fully explored up till now. There are suggestions of gradual stages in the teaching of reading comprehension, right from the Junior School to Senior School in a six-year post-primary education system. The paper also considers the place of motivation in an ESL comprehension lesson and the teaching of different types of question that are often tested in the West Africa Examination Councilrsquo;s conducted Senior School Certificate public Examinations. The different methods of teaching new words have equally been suggested. Finally, a suggestion is made on how the time allotted to the English Language on the school time-table can be effectively utilized for optimal value. It is concluded that if Nigeria and other countries that use English as a second language is not to be left behind in the technological revolution currently going on in the world, the teaching and learning of the language should be given more serious consideration, not only because it has become the second language of many developing countries, but because it is a tool in the successful acquisition of knowledge. Key words: ESL classroom, reading, comprehension. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/8C41DE83500 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.155 en Copyright © 2012 Dare Owolabi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:810C8723511 2012-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
Remnants of Urdu poetic culture and politics of language in Anita Desai’s ‘In custody’ Bhasha Shukla Sharma Review The performance of ESL students in English language public examinations may not be unconnected with lack of proper comprehension of what is read. More specifically, performance in the comprehension section in public examinations such as the School Certificate/Senior School Certificate Examinations in Nigeria is appalling. Studentsrsquo; performance in the West Africa Examination Councilrsquo;s conducted examinations confirms this fact and also points to the reality that the stereotyped method of teaching the language is no longer effective. The method is not only drab, but has also failed to produce the expected result. In this paper, efforts have been made to look at the possibility of methods that have not been fully explored up till now. There are suggestions of gradual stages in the teaching of reading comprehension, right from the Junior School to Senior School in a six-year post-primary education system. The paper also considers the place of motivation in an ESL comprehension lesson and the teaching of different types of question that are often tested in the West Africa Examination Councilrsquo;s conducted Senior School Certificate public Examinations. The different methods of teaching new words have equally been suggested. Finally, a suggestion is made on how the time allotted to the English Language on the school time-table can be effectively utilized for optimal value. It is concluded that if Nigeria and other countries that use English as a second language is not to be left behind in the technological revolution currently going on in the world, the teaching and learning of the language should be given more serious consideration, not only because it has become the second language of many developing countries, but because it is a tool in the successful acquisition of knowledge. Key words: ESL classroom, reading, comprehension. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/810C8723511 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.077 en Copyright © 2012 Bhasha Shukla Sharma
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:42137233518 2012-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2012
A case of art imitating life in Paul Slabolepszy’s angst-ridden Pale Natives (1994) M. A. Van Deventer Review Pale natives is one of the gems in Slabolepszyrsquo;s dramatic repertoire. The play focuses on the surviving clan of white males in South Africa, with South Africarsquo;s imminent changeover of government as a backdrop. With typical machismo, Rabelaisian (Rabelaisian humour refers to vulgar use of bodily (scatological), sexual humour through exaggeration and suspension of disbelief (Walter-Barden, October 6:2010; accessed on 31 May 2012: http://voices.yahoo.com/rabelaisian_humor-7058140.htm) and comic humour, Slabolepszy relates the personal angst of his five forty-plus male characters facing and handling their lives, in a turbulent South Africa. By poignantly combining pathos, satire and comic humour, Slabolepszy enables us to empathise with them. The positive note on which the play ends suggests hope for the future, but this hope is ambiguous. The comic mirror Slabolepszy holds up to his audience ultimately questions the fate of present-day South Africarsquo;s disillusioned ldquo;pale nativesrdquo;. Key words: Comedy, South Africa, imitation. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/42137233518 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.111 en Copyright © 2012 M. A. Van Deventer
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:EFE67D43571 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Inevitability of arts from inter-textuality Mohammad Khosravi Shakib Review Kristeva coined the term, intertextuality in 1966, and since that time intertextuality has come to have almost as many meanings as its users. It is no small task for this paper to clarify what intertextuality means for Kristeva and her mentor/colleague, Roland Barthes before criticizing their concept of intertextuality and its application in interpretation. Because no rational and coherent concept of intertextuality is offered by Kristeva and Barthes or by their Epigoni, it will be concluded that intertextuality should be treated using lexicon of sincere and intelligent humanists. This work will discuss and analyze some types and theories of intertextuality, with examples. These examples would be based on the definitions discussed in this paper, because it is discovered in this research that there are conflicting views among scholars on this topic. For instance, while some authors consider pictures as texts, others do not. At the end of the work, it will be taken that any text is a new tissue of past citations. Bits of code, formulae, rhythmic models, fragments of social languages etc are passed into the text and are redistributed within it, for there is always language before and around the text. Intertextuality, the condition of any text whatsoever, cannot of course be reduced to sources or influences of problem; intertext is a general field of anonymous formulae whose origin can scarcely be ever located; of unconscious or automatic quotations, given without quotation marks. Key words: Intertxuality, imitation, film, literature, art. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/EFE67D43571 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.101 en Copyright © 2013 Mohammad Khosravi Shakib
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:84B0A9C3593 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Identity crisis- Indian English fiction of post 1980s Kanak Lata Tiwari Review Rapid developments in the fields of trade, market, commerce and telecommunication technologies, together with cultural confrontations at the global level are creating a paradigmatic shift in people#39;s understanding of selfhood and identity. This paper makes a serious attempt to trace and map out the making of contemporary post-national identities within the sub continental cultural production of India and in its English fiction. One of the structural ventures of this study is that these newer identities, which are basically fragmented, ruptured, hyphenated in nature, require new descriptions and new elaborations within the field of creative literature and literary criticism. In order to pursue its research on these lines, the present work contrasts the notion of subject hood and identity with the earlier phases of Indian cultural imagination as represented in some of the pioneering works of Indian English fiction that have now attained a canonical status. By analyzing some of the predominant concerns that work as leitmotif in most of the Indian English novels, the paper brings together and reinterprets some problematic concepts such as history, culture, religion, nation and nationalism and creates a theoretical axis upon which it charts insightful and engaging aspects of selfhood and identity. Key words: Selfhood, identity, insight, crisis, hidden dimensions, quest, escape. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/84B0A9C3593 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.067 en Copyright © 2013 Kanak Lata Tiwari
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:AB9F04E3614 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Doris Lessing’s The Grass is Singing: Anatomy of a female psyche in the midst of gender, race and class barrier Mohammad Kaosar Ahmed Full Length Research Paper One of the founder mothers of feminism, Doris Lessing made her debut as a novelist with The Grass is Singing (1950). The novel examines the relationship between Mary Turner- a white farmerrsquo;s wife and her black servant. The novel does not unswervingly explore the feminist causes. Still, Lessingrsquo;s portrayal of Mary Turner warrants a closer examination because of the unique perspective Lessing brings to unfold the female psyche in the midst of gender, race and class barrier. Key words: Gender, psyche, race, sexism. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/AB9F04E3614 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.119 en Copyright © 2013 Mohammad Kaosar Ahmed
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:30263DA3656 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
A mythical interpretation of Yeats’ The Second Coming Shweta Saxena Full Length Research Paper W. B. Yeatsrsquo; poetry is rich in mythical symbols and imagery. He gleans the religion and philosophy of different cultures and traditions to give his poetic oeuvre an aura of profundity. His seminal poetic work, The Second Coming, can be read in the light of the ancient Indian myth of Narasimha avatar, the hum-animal hybrid incarnation of Lord Vishnu. The idea of the second coming of Christ sounds very much like the concept of reincarnation, which lies at the heart of Hinduism. The ferocity of the anti-Christ as envisioned by Yeats stands close to Narasimharsquo;s brutality in quelling the head of a horrendous demon. Yeatsrsquo; vision emanates from the shared consciousness, which among other things could invariably have a place for the ancient Indian myth and traditions. The Second Coming of Christ, thus, could be seen in an altogether new perspective through the concept of re-incarnation myth. Key words: Nar-simha, myth, religion, Yeats, Second Coming, re-incarnation. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/30263DA3656 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.171 en Copyright © 2013 Shweta Saxena
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:D7BE3723675 2013-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Self-reliance: The essence of making difference in Robert Frost’s The Road Not Taken R.B. Edi Pramono Review Life is a choice, and determining what to choose shows self-reliance, the dignity of the doer as well as the essence of human right in running life. The character of the poem, lsquo;rsquo;The Travellerrsquo;rsquo; was encountering two choices of which he had to choose one to take for his continuing journey. The shape of the diverging roads could perhaps be in any forms; however, a Y shape took the reference since it had traditional root of binary meanings. Somehow, what the traveller was dealing with was not purely binary opposition but two identical roads. Here lies the inner conflict of the traveller in that he had to, consequently, rely on himself. He must believe in himself for a strong self-reliance. Hence, both self-confidence and self-reliance became the key in this matter. This resulted in a decision that showed the essence of the traveller making difference. This analysis applied phenomenological aesthetics of Roman Ingarden to break down Frostrsquo;s literary work. Through a detailed explication based on five interwoven layers, the poem did not only show its beauty and harmony, but it also conveyed philosophical meaning, which is self-reliance, the essence of making difference. Key words: Confidence, self-reliance, choices, making difference. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/D7BE3723675 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0385 en Copyright © 2013 R.B. Edi Pramono
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:C55174E3695 2013-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Celebration of a girl’s journey from ‘interior colonized’ to liberated self: Kashmira Sheth’s Keeping Corner Darshita Dave Review In twenty first century with changes in many facets of life books for children also have changed from simple stories that are rich in morals and traditions to those that reflect the new changing society. Childrenrsquo;s literature from India is not yet recognized around the world, but it is certainly spreading its wings. Writers of childrenrsquo;s literature produce books, both traditional and contemporary, that reflect Indian reality in content, style, visuals and production. Childhood is a very important period in the formation of character and for the emergence of a value structure in the life of a human being. This paper is focused on the presentation of a new girl by a children novelist Kashmira Sheth. Keeping Corner is the powerful and enchanting novel juxtaposes Leela#39;s journey to self-determination with the parallel struggle of her family and community to follow Gandhi on the road to independence from British rule. The setting of the novel is before 1947 when India was struggling for independence from the colonizers. Freedom fighters like Gandhiji were struggling for getting lsquo;Purna Swarajrsquo; in India. In this research paper, it is discussed how the girls also faced lsquo;interior colonizationrsquo; from the patriarchy before independence. They were victims of different traditional evils like child marriage and child widowhood. The girls like Leela fight against the traditional customs and inequality of gender and tries to get lsquo;purna Swarajrsquo;. Gandhirsquo;s pursuit of freedom from colonial control is consistently shown to inspire Leelarsquo;s own pursuit of freedom from patriarchal constraints. Gandhi is struggling for freedom of the nation and Leela is struggling for liberation of self and women in general. Key words: Interior colonization, oppression, patriarchy, gender equality, new Indian girl. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/C55174E3695 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.079 en Copyright © 2013 Darshita Dave
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:FC899673710 2013-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Toward an RT-based functionalist approach to subtitling: A case study Chuanmao Tian Review The paper first formulates an integrated approach to subtitling by combining elements ofSkopos theory, relevance theory and knowledge of media studies into one whole. Its ultimate goal is to realize the purpose of general translation as well as various kinds of specific aims on different occasions so as to facilitate audio-visual products to win over the intended audience, the market. Then, it discusses approach-related translation strategies and techniques for inter-lingual subtitling taking as case study the film Gone with the Wind, an adaptation of Margaret Mitchellrsquo;s 1936 novel. Key words: Audio-visual subtitling, Skopos theory, relevance theory, integrated approach, translation strategy. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/FC899673710 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL13.001 en Copyright © 2013 Chuanmao Tian
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:D68940D3788 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Planning out pre-writing activities Mogahed M. Mogahed Review This article tackles a very important stage of the process of writing, namely pre-writing. This stage helps students find ideas and arrange them properly. A framework is suggested that divides the pre-writing stage into two sections: invention and arrangement. The former deals with coming up with ideas whether they are relevant to the topic of writing or not. The latter has to do with organizing the ideas in a meaningful way to write a well-developed composition. There are some activities accompanying each section. The article takes a closer look the previous studies that focused on mainly on the pre-writing stage. Pre-writing activities need much practice for students to be good at writing. Actually, mastering pre-writing facilitates the later stages of writing, such as drafting and revising, and encourages students to write more and more. Key words: Writing, pre-writing, writing activities. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/D68940D3788 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.120 en Copyright © 2013 Mogahed M. Mogahed
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:B8E3F993858 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Exploring sources of phonological unintelligibility in spontaneous speech Pedro Luis Luchini and Sara Kennedy Full Length Research Paper The aim of this case study is to extend the work of Jenkins (2000, 2002) in identifying aspects of speech which decrease intelligibility in spoken interactions between non-native English speakers. Two native Hindi speakers and one native Spanish speaker (the first author) were recorded engaging in a two- hour spontaneous conversation in English. Speech transcripts from only four separate episodes of communication breakdown were analyzed for aspects of speech which caused unintelligibility. Data analyses revealed that substitutions of individual sounds and deviations of lexical stress were the factors which affected intelligibility the most. Implications for researching and teaching English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) are discussed. Key words: Intelligibility, second language, non-native speakers, Lingua Franca Core, English as a Lingua Franca. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/B8E3F993858 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.049 en Copyright © 2013 Pedro Luis Luchini and Sara Kennedy
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:45DADE43843 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Effectiveness of a glossary of security expressions in error predictability and translation performance of movie translators Reza Jelveh, Ahmad Moinzadeh and Dariush Nejadansari Full Length Research Paper Hundreds of thousands of strategic movies and TV series are being produced every year and almost all of them get translated into so many different languages. The present paper is an attempt to examine the role of a particular type of glossary on the translation performance of movie translators. In this study, efforts have been made to develop the first cinematic glossary of security terms for movie translators. This bilingual glossary is compiled based on the errors Iranian movie translators have committed while translating this genre of movies. The main body of this glossary was obtained from the translated screen plays of 30 popular action movies in English. In the second phase of the project, 30 translators were assigned with a translation task comprised of movie extracts. The translators had to do the translation task without having the proposed glossary in the pretest stage and in the posttest stage, with an interval of one month, the same translation task was given to the same translators with the glossary. Data was analyzed in the SPSS Software and the results of a t-test showed that the difference between participants` pretest and posttest scores was statistically significant indicating that the proposed glossary was effective in the translation performance of the participants. Findings further showed that the proposed glossary had the potentials to predict the possible errors of movie translators. Key words: Terminology, cinematic glossary, movie translators. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/45DADE43843 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0425 en Copyright © 2013 Reza Jelveh, Ahmad Moinzadeh and Dariush Nejadansari
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:19E6CCC3825 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Teaching expressions of cause, effect, purpose and function in English to students of science and technology Meenakshi Raman Full Length Research Paper Definitions of scientific terms, descriptions of scientific and technological processes and procedures, and the like have a pride of place in most of the scientific writings. As a result, the students who pursue their undergraduate or masters program in science and technology in various universities across the world require using several expressions in their writing tasks intended to define, describe and discuss certain concepts pertaining to their respective domains of knowledge. Among them, expressions to explain causes and effects, purposes and functions are more frequently used than others in the writing tasks carried out by the students of science and technology. This article discusses the strategies and the practical exercises that can be used by the teachers of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) to teach the expressions of cause, effect, purpose and function in their ESP classes. Key words: English, writing, science and technology, teachers, classroom. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/19E6CCC3825 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.124 en Copyright © 2013 Meenakshi Raman
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:8ABE3FC3777 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Violet without purple: The colour of spousal violence in Neshani Andreas’ The Purple Violet of Oshaantu Ogbeide O. Victor Review Women are often the victims of spousal abuse which male writers, in their reductionist preoccupation with socio-political issues of the moment, often down play. This is the issue fore-grounded in this paper from the standpoint of a female novelist as seen in Neshani Andreasrsquo; The Purple Violet of Oshaantu. It argues that wife battering continues courtesy of the silence of the fairer sex themselves in deference to the oppressive yoke of patriarchy which has come to define their existence. Until they learn to stand up to the bullying antics of their partner, women are likely to continue in their oppression. The possibility of this, the paper contends, is the very essence of the network of friendship among the women themselves as well as the central characterrsquo;s resolve and radical transformation at the end of the narrative. Key words: Spouse, abuse, marriage, battering, patriarchy, couple. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/8ABE3FC3777 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.118 en Copyright © 2013 Ogbeide O. Victor
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:8FD25DD3766 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Beckett’s Molloy: Postmodern schizophilia Mahmoud Daram and Razieh Rahmani Review This study is an attempt to mark out the possible postmodern schizoid tendencies in Beckettrsquo;s Molloy, schizophrenia as a postmodern concept; the study aims to find the way in which postmodern theorists construe the clinical form rather than clinical designations of schizophrenia. Beckettrsquo;s groundbreaking novel with its eccentric characters, Molloy and Moran, entails a twofold quality of paranoia and schizophrenia. The novel consists of two parts with two heroes, or more appropriately two anti-heroes; the first of whom, Molloy, gives us several evidence for some schizophrenic features (fragmented self, becoming minority, and being anti-social which resonate the attitude of thinkers such as Deleuze and Guattari), and the second hero, seemingly a paranoid individual with features in stark contrast to Molloyrsquo;s, ends up in a schizoid Molloy-like character; thus, the second part of the novel and its move from paranoia to schizophrenia, along with the first part, indicates noticeable proclivity for schizophrenia and its ramifications. Beckett demystifies the previously-held, clear-cut and epistemological concepts of self and its integrity and calls into question the coded social myth by creating his anti-social fragmented subjects. Key words: Postmodern, schizo-philia, Molloy, self-fragmentation, becoming minority, anti-social. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/8FD25DD3766 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.130 en Copyright © 2013 Mahmoud Daram and Razieh Rahmani
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:8E7D8943751 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Linguistic and cultural issues in translating Bruneian folk tales into Arabic Arif Karkhi Abukhudairi Review A great number of Arabic folklore, including A Thousand and One Night and Kalila and Dimna have been translated into Malay. Nevertheless, none of the Malay folk tales has been rendered into Arabic. In 2004, however, thirteen Bruneian folk tales, including AnakIkan Raja Ikan, Buaya Buteh, Titisan Ayer Mata Buyong, Sulong Dan Bungsu, Wang Pandir Malu Makan Sekoi, SiKuning and KetikaTasek Merinbun Keringhave been finally rendered into the Arabic language. This paper analyzes these thirteen Bruneian folk tales, illustrates the impact of Arabic fairy tales as well as Creek, Indian and European fairy tales on them and shows their unique and original literary features. The main objective of this paper, however, is to highlight the major linguistic and cultural problems that the present writer encountered in translating these Bruneian folk tales into Arabic. In the meantime, he offered some of the solutions he reached in overcoming both types of problems in translating the Malay folk tales into Arabic. Key words: Nautical, transliteration, linguistic, cultural, problem. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/8E7D8943751 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.073 en Copyright © 2013 Arif Karkhi Abukhudairi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:0E915A13888 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
The fearful dream of the Gladneys: Death Sevilay Yavuz Review Everybody has some fears; however, death, the termination of the biological functions of a living organism, is probably the most feared thing for human beings. Nearly all people fear death but some of them fear excessively. They are obsessed with death and they feel it in every moment of their lives. They do not want to accept that they cannot do anything about dying and there is no point in fearing death itself. Hence, people, worrying about death, apply some strategies such as using drugs and living in a crowd to deal with their own fear of death or to escape from death. White Noise, written by Don DeLillo, examines the theme of the fear of death with the characters of the novel, who have been obsessed with death. The main characters, Jack and his wife, Babette, could not overcome their own fear so, instead of facing reality, they create an artificial lifestyle and remain plagued in a depression. At the end of the novel, we understand that instead of meditating always on death, characters of the novel realize the harsh truth of death because life goes on despite it. Death is for all people and this world is not their eternal home, so they comprehend that death is inevitable for human beings. Key words: Death, fear, White Noise, reality, artificial. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/0E915A13888 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.134 en Copyright © 2013 Sevilay Yavuz
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:6785C203902 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Dynamic organicism and the romantic imagination: Shelley’s vegetarianism as nonviolence Ewane George Ngide Review This paper sets out to study the concept of lsquo;dynamic organicismrsquo; in Percy Bysshe Shelleyrsquo;s romantic vision of Vegetarianism. Dynamic organicism refers to an energetic and driving force instrumental in growth or change. It is a universal literary concept whereby the writer transcends the ordinary view of things, sees reality beyond the corporal frame of existence and through the imagination seeks an ideal and works towards changing the corrupt order of the universe by reinstating order and moving it backwards to its natural state of felicity. According to Barzun (1943: 2 to 3), it is ldquo;a kind of revolt, a vindication of the individual, a liberation of the unconscious, a reaction against scientific methods...a revival of Catholicism...a return to naturerdquo;. Abrams (1973) considers dynamic organicism as a return to manrsquo;s original state of felicity as inGenesis before the original sin of Adam and Eve. For him, therefore, it is a kind of progression that looks like a regression. This study posits that Shelleyrsquo;s vegetarianism is not only a health prescription, it is also a return to the nonviolent nature of man as in the Garden of Eden before Adam and Eve distorted and corrupted the natural order of being. It is, therefore, Shelleyrsquo;s goal to seek a return to vegetarianism as a meal prescription in the Bible both for health reasons and as a nonviolent necessity in the universe. The quickening point here is that those who feed on vegetables are less prone to violence than those who slaughter for food. The violence on animals is a microcosm of manrsquo;s macroscopic violence on man, thus the result of all societal violence, conflicts and ills. The paper uses both the romantic theories of Morse Peckham and the Ecocriticism of Glotfelty in the interpretation of Shelleyrsquo;s vegetarianism. Key words: Vegetarianism, dynamic organicism, romanticism, imagination, nonviolence, ecocriticism. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/6785C203902 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.150 en Copyright © 2013 Ewane George Ngide
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:A380B683917 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Reading kurunmi and ijaye as factual historical war dramas: A genre and text Tunji AZEEZ Review The Nigerian dramatic stage has been greatly enriched by the twin concepts of war and insurgence. Unlike the literatures derived from the Nigerian civil war that have been classified by critics as lsquo;Nigerian War Literaturesrsquo;, plays written on war and insurgence have been generally misclassified as tragedy, historical plays, satire or any other popular genre. Such general classifications, definitely, do not adequately represent plays on war and insurgence. For this reason, there is a need to re-question these plays with a view to laying new criteria for their classification as war dramas. The study adopts the genre theory in its content analysis of two plays that are derived from historical wars and written by two Nigerian playwrights whose selection is informed by their generational and ideological position vis-a-vis dramatic recreation of history. Rotimirsquo;s and Ogunyemirsquo;sKurunmi and Ijaye plays on the 19th century Yoruba war between Ijaye and Ibadan armies are studied in detail to arrive at a sub-genre of war drama which this study delineates as ldquo;Factual Historical War Dramardquo;. In arriving at this sub-genre of drama, the paper examines such dramatic devices as theme, characterisation and style as well as the faithfulness of the writers in utilizing actual historical materials and personalities of the war. It argues that a conscious reading of the plays as war dramas would make the reader to have the privilege of having a real sense of the war rather than seeing it as history in his/her understanding and interpretation of the play. Key words: Genre theory, factual historical, war, drama, insurgence. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/A380B683917 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.075 en Copyright © 2013 Tunji AZEEZ
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:0263C1F3927 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
The paradox of nation and nationhood and the process of reconciliation in Bole Butake’s Family Saga Adamu Pangmeshi Review This study addressed and captured the problem associated with the definition of a nation. It further demonstrated that the notion of nationhood in postcolonial Africa is unequivocally paradoxical; those who were on power had without any shame become dictators, tribalistic. They employed all forms of exploitative means to further colonize their citizens. This paper focused on the lack of patriotism and nationhood. However, it concluded with the fractured postcolonial Cameroonian nation built on historical circumstances; and it also presented metaphorically our playwright who tactfully proposed dialogue and reconciliation as a way forward. To buttress this argument, the tenets of postcolonial theory and new historicism will be employed. Key words: Paradox, nation, nationhood, healing, reconciliation, postcolonial theory, new historicism, exploitation. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/0263C1F3927 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.097 en Copyright © 2013 Adamu Pangmeshi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:AA1AB233935 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Ambanasom’s Son of the Native Soil and the Western Concept of a Tragic Hero Denis Fonge Tembong Review The essay, ldquo;Ambanasomrsquo;s Son of the Native Soil and the Western Concept of a Tragic Herordquo; discusses the view that although African and Western Literatures are fundamentally different as they exhibit or represent radically distinct cultural values, they nevertheless share some common notions. The concept of a tragic hero is one of those convergent spots where the two literatures meet. With this in mind, the essay examines in detail, Aristotlersquo;s and Shakespearersquo;s concepts of a tragic hero and demonstrates how the ideas, which are exploited in Macbeth are similarly used in Ambanasomrsquo;s Son of the Native Soil, against the backdrop of rich African culture and colours. Key word. Son of the Native Soil, Western Concept of a Tragic Hero. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/AA1AB233935 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.143 en Copyright © 2013 Denis Fonge Tembong
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:71109E63948 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Postcolonial feminism: Looking into within-beyond-to difference Raj Kumar Mishra Review Postcolonial feminism is a relatively novel wing of postcolonial feminine scholarship. Postcolonial feminism or lsquo;third world feminismrsquo; emerged in response to Western mainstream feminism. Western feminism has never been heedful to the differences pertaining to class, race, feelings, and settings of women of once colonized territories. Postcolonial feminism rejects Western feminism on the ground of its utter lsquo;eurocentricismrsquo;. Hence it is fallacious to hope postcolonial females to be valued, appreciated and justified by the Western hands. Of course, the long Western tendency to homogenize and universalize women and their experiences led to the emergence of lsquo;postcolonial feminismrsquo;. Postcolonial feminism is a hopeful discourse it seeks peaceful solutions for all world marginalized women. Postcolonial feminists imagine a world in which differences are celebrated and enjoyed. Postcolonial feminists work for social, cultural, economic, and religious freedoms for women. Key words: Colonialism, postcolonialism, postcolonial feminism, and postcolonial ecriture. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/71109E63948 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.165 en Copyright © 2013 Raj Kumar Mishra
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:03B69A93954 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Urdu in anglicized world: A corpus based study Muhammad Asghar, Zobina and Mahmood, Muhammad Asim Review This paper aims to find out the variation in Urdu language due to language contact. It studies the use of English vocabulary in Urdu written language. The nature of the research is quantitative as well as qualitative as it examines the grammatical and domain-wise categories of English words used in Urdu and tries to determine the social factors that are the cause of this increase. It counts and calculates the frequency and the percentages of English words to examine the diachronic changes in the language. The researchers have taken the corpus of 30,000 words in total which includes15000 words of Urdu magazine published from 1995 to 1997 and the similar corpus of year 2011. The corpus is minutely observed by the researchers and English words are extracted and tested from English to Urdu dictionaries in order to see whether or not English vocabulary is increasing due to (non)availability of their Urdu substitutes. The results reveal that Urdu language is now absorbing English words more than a decade ago. The results also brought forth an interesting fact that the magazines that are promoters of Urdu language are conscious to restrain the use of English. However, English words frequently used by Urdu users are showing up in the written language and are used at the expense of their Urdu correlates. Key words: Code-mixing, code-switching, variation in Urdu. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/03B69A93954 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2012.0383 en Copyright © 2013 Muhammad Asghar, Zobina and Mahmood, Muhammad Asim
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:D12C56C3965 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Feminist discourses in Chenjerai Hove’s and Yvonne Vera’s selected nationalist narratives Tendai Mangena Review This paper demonstrated how Yvonne Vera and Chenjerai Hoversquo;s selected works challenge the masculinized dominant nationalist version of history of the Zimbabwean liberation struggle against colonialism by foregrounding the black Zimbabwean womanrsquo;s lsquo;otherrsquo; struggles. Such a response to the biased nationalist narration has been to illuminate the other struggles that are women specific. The selected works were aimed at bringing women back in the study of nationalism and national politics. Selected works included but were not limited to the following: Yvonne Verarsquo;s selected short stories such as Why Donrsquo;t You Carve Other Animals, Without a Name and Under the Tongue and Chenjerai Hoversquo;s Ancestors and Bones. Key words: Nationalism, Zimbabwe, historiography, patriarchy, liberation, struggle. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/D12C56C3965 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2012.0384 en Copyright © 2013 Tendai Mangena
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:4F953673973 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Processes and source of linguistic knowledge: Explorations in the theories of language learning Aladdin Assaiqeli Full Length Research Paper Children have an enviable capacity for acquiring competence in whatever language or languages they get exposed to and in a manner so rapid, so creative, so uniform, so systematic, so regular and indeed so easy compared with the mammoth task that they within a remarkably short span of time accomplish victoriously. This marvellous phenomenon unique only to humans has instigated scholars to propound various theories that aim to account for this feat, where some have argued that language is a genetic capacity originating from the brain, while others contended to look at it as a system originating from the environment. While the former approach views language acquisition as ldquo;genetically endowed and readymade,rdquo; the latter sees it as ldquo;environmentally fashioned and evolvingrdquo;. Using the descriptive method, this paper, following a brief discussion of early bilingualism, and an initiatory section on ldquo;the father of modern linguistics,rdquo; explored and contrasted, within this context, these approaches concerning the processes and source of linguistic knowledge. Emphasising a third view, the sociolinguistic approach, the paper verified that language acquisition and learning was neither solely the result of innate knowledge (first position); nor the progeny of the environment of the child alone (second position); but rather the product of and interplay between both social interaction and cognitive development. Key words: Language acquisition, genetic capacity, process, innate knowledge, environment, social interaction, behaviourists, mentalists, environmentalists, sociolinguistic, social semiotic. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/4F953673973 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.001 en Copyright © 2013 Aladdin Assaiqeli
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:C22B0383979 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Social critique in Bharati Mukherjee’s Jasmine Arjun Dubey and Shradha Srivastava Full Length Research Paper The authorsrsquo; aim in this paper is to observe, examine and present the existing position of women and the problems they face both in India and abroad. Through the main character, Jasmine, the attempt is made to give a picture of women who suffer from man-made cultural and traditional prescriptions as well as sanctions which do not allow them live a life free from such constraints. The social issues that the protagonist raises are of cosmopolitan significance. The picture that emerges from the study of the novel is not only that of female being victimized by male but also that of female coming out as strong character to combat the challenges that come on her way. Through the paper the endeavor is to encompass the social and cultural issues through the mouth of a very dominant female character who is successful in bringing about a cultural and social change by presenting her condition in cinematographic manner. Key words: Female sexuality, immigrants, criticism, Jasmine, Bharati Mukherjee. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/C22B0383979 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.076 en Copyright © 2013 Arjun Dubey and Shradha Srivastava
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:FAE23C53990 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
An analysis of figurative languages in two selected traditional funeral songs of the Kilba people of Adamawa State Emmanuel C. Sharndama and Jamila B. A Suleiman Full Length Research Paper Figurative languages are employed in performing arts as a medium of expressing thoughts, feelings and ideas implicitly rather than explicitly. This paper analyses rhetorical devices in two funeral songs of the Kilba people of Adamawa State of Nigeria. The two texts were subjected to analysis using the descriptive and discursive approach. The outcome of the analysis revealed that performing artists among the Kilba people use a lot of rhetorical device to dress the content of the message in the songs. Metaphors, smiles, rhetorical questions, imageries, symbolism, repetitions among others were found to be the common figurative languages used by the performing artists when composing funeral songs. Figurative expressions are used in order to create sad feelings and to let the people recall the positive qualities and achievements of the deceased. Key words: Funeral, songs, figurative expressions, gwadang sal-sal, Mbaya. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/FAE23C53990 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.156 en Copyright © 2013 Emmanuel C. Sharndama and Jamila B. A Suleiman
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:5427B494000 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Clash of conventionality and unconventionality: Quest for deliverance from the social alienation in Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure Noorbakhsh Hooti and Mojtaba Jeihouni Full Length Research Paper The purpose of this study is to discuss the disgust of the two leading characters of Hardyrsquo;s Jude the Obscure in a context which shows their sense of alienation in the society. They view marriage as a hindrance to their happiness and, instead, prefer a love affair which, however, ends in their disgrace and misery. Hardy in fact tries to point his criticism to the Victorian society where the excessive attention to matrimonial conventions acts as an obstacle to a couple, who have the fear of losing each other under the contract of marriage. Another point is that Jude as a representative of the poor class sees his dreams crushed under the dominion of the upper class. He helplessly struggles to enjoy a formal education, an opportunity not dedicated to his class. This study attempts to indicate that the aroma of deliverance from the clash of tradition and modernism does not seem to be felt when the quagmire of hatred and hostility between the two notions is refueled every now and then. Genuinely, the hostility will go on as the chief cause of public manipulation through which people, as powerless victims, is enchained through this rivalry. This rivalry creates the sense of enmity between the apparently different holders of two seemingly incompatible beliefs which are surprisingly complementary. This study gives it sole attention to the religious and social conventions of the novel in a Victorian England context, which is viewed by Hardy as both suppressive and narrow-minded. Key words: Tradition, modernism, suppression, alienation, Hardy, Victorian England. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/5427B494000 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2012.0367 en Copyright © 2013 Noorbakhsh Hooti and Mojtaba Jeihouni
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:1A23BB94006 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Writing “like” a woman: An analysis of The Fox by D. H. Lawrence M.G. Prasuna Full Length Research Paper This paper presents an analysis of The Fox ndash; A Novella by D.H.Lawrence. It presents the conflicting interpretations of various critics, from the feminist point of view. It also highlights Lawrencersquo;s perspective of what it means to lsquo;write like a womanrsquo; and how it is reflected successfully. Key words: Writing like a woman, sexuality, textuality. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/1A23BB94006 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.155 en Copyright © 2013 M.G. Prasuna
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:1B12E664016 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Assessing and evaluating continuing professional development Deshmukh Samina Khan Full Length Research Paper ldquo;Learning is a never ending processrdquo;. The above quotation is so apt as the present day technological world is the eye witness. Continuing professional development (CPD) is a platform that provides practical guidance for a teacher educator for his learning and growth. This abstract focuses on how a teacher can become a trendsetter by evaluating oneself continuously for progressive success. Continuing professional development (CPD) or Continuing professional education (CPE) is the means by which people maintain the knowledge and skills related to their professional lives. Continuing education is part of ongoing requirements for members. The paper aims to highlight some of the issues of self assessment and present some insights that enrich the efficacy and quality of our education to ensure phenomenal success. Key words: Learning, education and self assessment. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/1B12E664016 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.072 en Copyright © 2013 Deshmukh Samina Khan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:02EEABF5110 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Representations of Kenyan history in oral literature: 1948-2002 Njogu Waita Review This paper discusses the representation of Kenyan history in oral literature between 1948 and 2002. The paper relied on library and ethnographic data. The ethnographic data included audio recordings of renditions of well known Mau Mau folksongs, popular and topical songs and a narrative. The play, Ngahika Ndeenda, by Ngugi Wa Thiongrsquo;o and Ngugi Wa Mirii was treated as an oral drama. The texts were translated from Gikuyu language to English and the content messages categorized for analysis. The analytical categories cover the literary representations of the Olenguruone land crises, the Mau Mau uprising and the independence era. The independence era is divided into Kenyatta and Uhuru and the Post Kenyatta era of 2002. The paper lays no claim to historical objectivity but interrogates the texts as literary artifacts. In the analysis and discussions, the Olenguruone land crisis emerges as the genesis of the armed resistance to colonialism and Kenyatta is represented as the collective wish for the de-colonization of Kenya. The paper further discusses the literary representations of the political changes surrounding the governance of President Jomo Kenyatta, President Daniel Arap Moi and the fight for democratic pluralism in Kenyan politics. This paper concludes that oral literature is a significant instrument in the reflection of change and innovations in politics. As a cultural artifact, it also becomes a form of national consciousness. Key words: Kenyan, history, oral literature, Central Province. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/02EEABF5110 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.162 en Copyright © 2013 Njogu Waita
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:65349EA5140 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Exhausting the poet: a study of Chenjerai Hove’s poetry across historical periods Muvindi Israel Review This paper explores Chenjerai Hoversquo;s poetry stretching over different historical periods. First, the colonial era poetry is analysed that operates at the critical realist level, which registers discontent with different levels of segregation, especially in Red Hills of Home and some poems in And now the Poets Speak. It then moves on to the analysis of conflict in the Rhodesian socially stratified society. It seems the disgruntlement intensifies into a full-scale war typified in Up in Arms where heavy imagery creates a vivid mental picture of this struggle for total emancipation. This, therefore, implies that such poetry operates at socialist realist level. It moves on to focus on the authorrsquo;s post-colonial poetry that is mainly celebratory in the heydays of independence (in And Now the Poets Speak and Patterns of Poetry in Zimbabwe), as opposed to neo-colonial tendencies and dictatorship lambasted in Rainbows in the Dust. The Afro-centric nature of the poems is expounded, making it clear that Hoversquo;s audience is than the black Rhodesian in the earlier anthologies and the denigrated ldquo;independentrdquo; black Zimbabwean in the latter works. Howbeit, the research shows that Hove throws in love poetry as comic relief in the otherwise lsquo;seriousrsquo; poetry that aims at societal overhaul. Finally, the paper questions the poetrsquo;s pessimism throughout these different historical periods concluding that literary artists have a calling to police their societies against excesses regardless of the race of the perpetrator. The vision of the poet is to see a tolerant democratic society that provides equal opportunities to all regardless of race, sex or tribe. Key words: Afro-centric literary approach, conscientisation, hegemony, Marxist literary theory, transliteration. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/65349EA5140 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0411 en Copyright © 2013 Muvindi Israel
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:CF799CF5178 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Mother or monster: A postcolonial study of two pathological women in postcolonial literature Sharif Chowdhury Omar and Tanusri Dutta Review The loveliness and selflessness of the relation between a mother and a child do not need any explanation to be proved as it is universally known and established. Motherhood is a universal concept, but in Ngugirsquo;s Petals of Blood and in Morrisonrsquo;sBeloved this concept has been damaged. Both of these novels have shown motherhood with monstrosity. Monstrosity is a concept like beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder and can therefore be interpreted differently. In these two novels mothers have been presented with excessive violence. Both of the novels dealt with an unnatural thing that the mother killed her own child which really does not sound usual and lacks credibility. But these two women did that impossible thing and this paper will try to find out the reasons why these mothers did that work. It will analyze these two women on one hand as child-killing ugly monsters and on the other hand, only as desperate but caring mothers. Key words: Double colonization, infanticide, monstrous feminine, neo-colonialism, violence. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/CF799CF5178 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0450 en Copyright © 2013 Sharif Chowdhury Omar and Tanusri Dutta
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:0EEDB0C5187 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Pronunciation challenges of open and distance learning students in the B.A English programme at the National Open University of Nigeria Theodore Iyere Review This paper analyzes some pronunciation challenges of English learners newly admitted into the B.A English programme at the National Open University of Nigeria, Lagos. It was discovered that factors leading to these problems are interference of the studentsrsquo; mother tongue, their ages, attitudes and their insufficient knowledge of sounds and the sound system of English. From this study, we could reiterate that having a clear understanding of the distinctions between phonetics as the general science of speech sounds and phonology as the sounds systems of particular languages can help to clarify what it is we have to deal with when we teach and learn pronunciation in the Open and Distance Learning environment. In the course of this study, it was subsequently discovered that the contrastive analysis of the target language and the learnersrsquo; Mother Tongue can greatly facilitate the second language acquisition. This is why we advocated that it is necessary to make learners in the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) system know the phonological differences between their languages and English and consciously compare the two languages themselves during the learning process. From the various observations acquired through this study, we postulated that in order to learn English well, the second language teachers and learners in the ODL system should pay attention to the need to learn English pronunciation effectively. Key words: Mother tongue interference, pronunciation, English sound system, open and distance learning (ODL). Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/0EEDB0C5187 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0456 en Copyright © 2013 Theodore Iyere
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:E7C10945195 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
The motherhood in Sarah Morgan Bryan Piatt’s selected poems V. Selvam and S. Jeyachandra Review Sarah Piatt wrote immense poems on all position, in spite of other themes which would also bring name and fame to her; themes such as civil war, slavery, political subversion, north and south identification and socialist concepts and religious themes etc. Domestic nature, civil war, slavery system, political issues, the impact of reading news, being between belief and faith in basic sense of Godliness in time of adversities were some of the components of comprehensible, impressionistic and influencing factors of her writings. In this article lsquo;Motherhoodrsquo; is the focus of selected poems. Key words: motherhood, selected poems, civil war. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/E7C10945195 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0462 en Copyright © 2013 V. Selvam and S. Jeyachandra
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:6C33FE75214 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Some factors influencing the academic performance of junior high school pupils in English Language: The case of Assin North Municipality, Ghana D. Oppong-Sekyere, F. Oppong-Sekyere and MM Akpalu Full Length Research Paper Academic achievements, like any attainable goal in life, do not come by chance. Men, money and materials (resources) must be combined in an ideal manner to ensure its success. A total number of thirty (30) pupils; eighteen (18) boys and twelve (12) girls, with an average age of 12 years, sampled from the Junior High School two class of Amoakrom, Nyame-bekyere and Ningo basic schools, and eight (8) teachers from Basofi-Ningo circuit in the Assin North Municipality were used for the study. Questionnaires of thirty (30) items each were administered to both teachers and pupils. The study reviewed sex, age and form (class) for the pupils, and sex and age for the teachers. For the pupils, 60% were males; the majority (43.4%), were aged between 11 and 14 with 36.7% recording sibling size of between 7 and 9. Over seventy percent (73.3%) of the pupils responded yes to the availability of textbooks whereas more than half (60%) of the respondents answered yes to the speaking of Pidgin English with peers. Among the teachers, 50% were aged between 20 and 36 years and a minority 12.5% were aged between 37 and 40 years. 62.5% of the teachers answered no to the use of Teaching Learning Materials. 37.5% of the teachers held Senior Secondary School Certificate and Teachersrsquo; certificate lsquo;Arsquo; respectively while just about one quarter (25%) held a bachelorrsquo;s degree. The results revealed that two-thirds (75%) of the teachers found it difficult to understand and teach some concepts in English Language. Key words: Academic, certificate, municipality, Pidgin English, pupils, resources, sex ratio, teachers, textbooks, questionnaire. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/6C33FE75214 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0387 en Copyright © 2013 D. Oppong-Sekyere, F. Oppong-Sekyere and MM Akpalu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:097291A5228 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Folktale as material resources for movie production in selected Nollywood movies Usman Joshua, Ohwovoriole Felicia, Owoicho I. Odihi, Dik Ali Joshua and Torutein Richaard Walson Full Length Research Paper The study examines the role of folktale employed in the making of Hausa movies (Nollywood). The research analyses the plots of some selected Hausa movies with a view to examine the significance of folktale in movie production. The study was carried out through field work (interview). A textual analysis of aspects of folktales in the selected movies was also carried out. The study discovers that folktale in movie production has been a material resource in depicting and transmitting Hausa culture. It educates guides and counsels the people. It also reveals that Hausa movies, through the employment of folktale, promote morality, good governance, informing the public about conflict resolution mechanisms and cautioning against anti-social behaviours in the society. Consequently, it was recommended that folktale should continue to be held and regarded with high esteem despite the emphasis on written records. Key words: Oral tradition, folktale, movie production, culture, Hausa film. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/097291A5228 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL12.0410 en Copyright © 2013 Usman Joshua, Ohwovoriole Felicia, Owoicho I. Odihi, Dik Ali Joshua and Torutein Richaard Walson
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:EB214465237 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Enhancing students’ writing skills through the genre approach Dawit Amogne Full Length Research Paper In Ethiopia, the role English language plays in education and industries is indubitable although the language is considered largely as a foreign language. Paradoxically, studies indicate that the English language proficiency of Ethiopian students is plummeting. This article reports on a study conducted to examine the extent to which EFL students who majored in English at Bahir Dar University improved their argumentative essay writing skills as they were exposed to a genre based writing practice with their writing teacher. The results revealed out that throughout their learning, even after their exposure to genre based argumentative essay drafting, students had serious problems of critiquing or rebutting opposition views and coming up with stronger refutations. However, they were able to show progress in terms of identifying the lexico-grammatical features and overall rhetorical (genre) structure of argumentative essays. The participantsrsquo; reaction toward the approach was positive. The paired- samples t-test also indicated that the studentsrsquo; argumentative texts written during the post-intervention phase showed significant improvements compared to the pre-intervention drafts. It was generally understood that given a learning passage through a genre based approach in writing, students could take control over the linguistic features of text types with particular communicative purposes, and develop their writing skills at ease. The article suggests implications for teaching of writing in EFL contexts. It has also called for the employment of the genre approach in EFL writing classroom contexts. Key words: Genre, genre-based writing, essay, rhetoric, argumentation, EFL (English as a Foreign Language). Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/EB214465237 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0421 en Copyright © 2013 Dawit Amogne
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:724B42A5250 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Learners of English as foreign language preference for grammar strategies in learning grammar Marshal Briewin, Bharathi Naidu and Mohamed Amin Embi Full Length Research Paper This study explores the needs analysis of grammar skills of learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in a private institution. The objective of this study is to investigate EFL learnerrsquo;s preferences for selected grammar strategies. The sample size consists of 20 EFL students from the intermediate level. The learners were given four-point Likert scale questionnaire which consists of 11 items in total to execute the grammar strategies preferred by them. The questionnaire can be divided into two sections. The first section is how they use certain strategies to improve their grammar ability which consists of eight items. The second section is when they encounter rules and sentences structure that they do not understand which consists of three items. The five main strategies were identified based on the responses that had higher percentages from 60 - 75%. The main two strategies that good language learners employ in learning grammar are the use of formula and visual. These would give them a better understanding and fun way of learning grammar. Thus, these strategies can be further developed into suitable learning materials to cater to their needs and enhance the mastery of their grammar skills. Key words: Needs analysis, grammar strategies, visual aid. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/724B42A5250 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.00369 en Copyright © 2013 Marshal Briewin, Bharathi Naidu and Mohamed Amin Embi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:56800CD5318 2013-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Thomas Hardy’s way of introducing Michael Henchard in The Mayor of Casterbridge: The Life and Death of a Man of Character Pallavi Gupta Full Length Research Paper In the novel, The Mayor of Casterbridge, Hardy presents Michael Henchard as lsquo;a man of characterrsquo; while throughout the novel Henchard commits a number of blunders. Hardy puts two characters in front of usndash; Michael Henchard and Donald Farfrae. By using this technique of showing the actions of his characters, Hardy proves that even an uneducated man may be a man of character. He draws a line between lsquo;education and qualificationrsquo;, and instead of introducing his main character by his name, he gives a detailed description of Michael Henchardrsquo;s personality to show that it is the personality of Henchard that matters more than the name he has. Hardy tries to prove that a lot of the bad stuff that happens to Henchard is a result of his natural personality, which he really cannot change. That is a convincing way of Hardy to introduce the main character of his novel. Moreover, it goes along with the novelrsquo;s title because the novel is not named Michael Henchard but The Mayor of Casterbridge: The Life and Death of a Man of Character. Throughout the novel Hardy tries to have a balance in Henchardrsquo;s character because Henchard is something between lsquo;a Manrsquo; and lsquo;a Mayorrsquo;. Key words: Blunders, technique, personality, name, balance, man. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/56800CD5318 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0377 en Copyright © 2013 Pallavi Gupta
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:8A4F6115301 2013-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Educational implications of the deficit/deprivation hypothesis in L2 situations: A case of Zimbabwe Muvindi Israel and Zuvalinyenga Dorcas Full Length Research Paper The paper discussed Basil Bernsteinrsquo;s language deprivation theory which presupposes that working class children have limited language competences as a result of their social and economic background. First, it established the anomaly in the use of some key terms in the theory such as deficit/deprivation, lsquo;elaboratedrsquo; and lsquo;restrictedrsquo; codes which are prejudicial and not truly reflective of what Bernstein actually meant. Then, it emerged that the education system, especially in the Zimbabwean ESL situation generally alienates children from financially challenged backgrounds. In the system, what came out as the most injurious are the examination system and the instructional methods used. Finally, the paper recommended a total overhaul of the whole system, starting from teachersrsquo; training where more emphasis should be on cooperative and/or communicative language learning rather than lsquo;commandistrsquo; linguistic instruction that is individualistic, resulting in the production of half-baked mimetic language graduates whose language codes remain lsquo;restrictedrsquo; even after lsquo;passingrsquo; their L2 examinations. Key words: Deficit theory, restricted codes, elaborated codes, language web, implicit. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/8A4F6115301 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0465 en Copyright © 2013 Muvindi Israel and Zuvalinyenga Dorcas
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:5900F915291 2013-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Soyinka as satirist: A study of The Trials of Brother Jero Patricia Beatrice Mireku-Gyimah Review Literary artists use language and the power of words to communicate messages to their audiences or readers. Satire provides these artists one such medium for language use. This paper discusses the African literary giant and Nobel laureate, Wole Soyinka, as a satirist. Specifically, it examines Soyinkarsquo;s use of the tools of satire which are irony, exaggeration and invective in The Trials of Brother Jero, in which he bitterly criticizes religious and socio-political vices, especially in his native Nigerian society. The paper concludes that Soyinka is successful as a satirist with this play largely because of his effective diction whose power provokes laughter in the audience and keeps them ldquo;listeningrdquo; as he bitterly condemns religious charlatanism and other societal cankers and seriously urges correction. Key words: Religious charlatanism, fake, corruption, phoney prophet, Juvenalian satire Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/5900F915291 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0465 en Copyright © 2013 Patricia Beatrice Mireku-Gyimah
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:07C353C5275 2013-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Historical and cultural relevance of the Adventures of Amir Hamza Qurat-ul-Ain Shirazi and Ghulam Sarwar Yousof Review The Adventures of Amir Hamza is an important work of popular Islamic literary tradition. It is a collection of tales which tells the life story of Amir Hamza. It contributes to the tradition of oral celebration of cultural and religious heroes. The Adventures of Amir Hamza is an English translation of Dstn-e-Amr Hamza Sahibqirn (Urdu). The translation has brought this important piece of Islamic literature into limelight. The paper aims at exploring the historical background of the story of Amir Hamza. It will also analyse its cultural relevance, as this story encompasses a wide variety of cultures which exist within the Islamic territories. Its historical and cultural relevance will be analysed through a critical insight into the storytelling tradition which has been widely popular among Muslim populations. It will highlight the Pre-Islamic and Islamic values as exhibited in the plot, characters and themes of this story. The paper will establish the story of Amir Hamza, as a significant specimen of multiculturalism and religious pluralism despite being produced within the Islamic literary environment. It will also highlight the religious tolerance and coexistence as an important thematic dimension of the story of Amir Hamza. Key words: History, cultural diversity, Amir Hamza, storytelling, pre-Islamic, Islamic. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/07C353C5275 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0380 en Copyright © 2013 Qurat-ul-Ain Shirazi and Ghulam Sarwar Yousof
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:408551A5271 2013-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Adrienne Rich’s “Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law”: A study Jeevan Kumar Review Adrienne Cecile Rich (1929-2012) comes before the readers as the most promising poet and essayist in contemporary American literature. She is a multi-talented writer, polemist, literary theorist and an exponent of a poetry of witness and dissent, a poetry that voices the discontent of those generally silenced and ignored. She is a political poet whose ideology is rooted in early American experience. Her prophecy of the community of women and of female energy free from patriarchal repression parallels the Puritan vision. She urges the world to open its gates to everyone regardless of gender, race, or class, and feels that the feminist vision of the community of women would be the beginning of a new chapter in American history. In the present paper, a study has been made on Adrienne Rich#39;s Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law, an overtly feminist poem that stands out as a watershed in her poetic development. Key words: Contemporary American Literature, multi-talented writer, political poet, gender, race, feminist vision. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/408551A5271 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0471 en Copyright © 2013 Jeevan Kumar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:2E497305281 2013-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Can Henny Speak? The inadequacy of epistolary narrative in Vikram Seth’s Two Lives Shweta Saxena Review The dialectic of lsquo;selfrsquo; and lsquo;otherrsquo; contains within it the rhetoric of expression. lsquo;Selfrsquo; is given ascendency over the lsquo;otherrsquo; because lsquo;selfrsquo; is able to speak while the lsquo;otherrsquo; is either considered unfit for speaking or forcefully muted or silenced. In the attempt to reclaim these lost voices of the lsquo;otherrsquo;, a handful of intelligentsia lsquo;representsrsquo; them before the world. But is it the true lsquo;representationrsquo; of the lost voice or merely an artificial lsquo;re-presentationrsquo;? The discourse upon the lsquo;representationrsquo; of unrecorded voices can be taken outside the realm of postcolonial critique and applied on the cosmopolitan narrative of Vikram Sethrsquo;s Two Lives, a biography on the life of his great uncle Shanti Behari Seth and his German wife Henny. For a spirited reader the interest of the book lies not only in the awe-inspiring tale of cross-cultural relationship of Shanti and Henny, but also in the epistolatory narrative technique conscientiously chosen by the writer. Vikram Seth, as the self-reflexive narrator of the story, explains the gestation of the book in the summers of 1994, when Aunty Henny was already dead and Shanti Uncle was a frail old man of eighty five. In the course of writing his book Seth interviewed Shanti many times to capture his side of story, but for recording Hennyrsquo;s voice there was no other way except her secret correspondence found by chance in a lsquo;cob-web covered trunkrsquo; kept hidden at the attic of her room. Hennyrsquo;s letters, thus, form the basis of her side of story in Two Lives. But then, can these letters truly represent her actual persona? Are they worthy enough of being explored for the purposes of biography? Is it ethical to make personal letters of a private person publicly visible in the form of a biography? And lastly, but most importantly, can Henny really speak through them? Key words: Vikram Seth, two lives, representation, epistolary narrative. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/2E497305281 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0478 en Copyright © 2013 Shweta Saxena
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:46FDD361382 2013-09-17T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Translation techniques of figures of speech: A case study of George Orwell's "1984 and Animal Farm" Elaheh Fadaee Full Length Research Paper Translating figures of speech deals with finding secondary meaning in the source language (SL), and finding cultural meaning and appropriate equivalence in the target language (TL). Figures of speech and multi-word expressions are some of the most challenging translation difficulties. In this article, translation techniques of figures of speech in George Orwell#39;s 1984 and Animal Farm and their Persian translations are compared on the basis of Newmarkrsquo;s and Larsonrsquo;s theories of translation to answer this question: Do English and Persian translation techniques of figures of speech correspond with each other? Among translation techniques of metaphor, translation techniques for stock and clicheacute; metaphors (TT stock and TT clicheacute;) are used more than other techniques in all six Persian translations; in these six translations, translation techniques of similes have more correspondence with the ST than translation techniques of metaphors. Hence, the study revealed that 1) according to Newmark (1988a: 57), quot;theories and techniques of translating figures of speech, such as metaphor and simile are so limited which do not cover translating all types of metaphors and similesquot;; 2) in Persian language, there is no general and fundamental technique for translating these metaphor and simile, and just English techniques are used for translating these two figures of speech; and 3) there are so limited research publications in the field of figures of speech, particularly about metaphor and simile, in both Persian and English Language which must be considered critically. Key words: Translation, translation techniques, figures of speech, George Orwell. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/46FDD361382 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL.9000029 en Copyright © 2013 Elaheh Fadaee
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:DF48EBA5359 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
The relationship between bamasaaba oral narratives and cultural songs Willy Wanyenya Review In this study, the researcher investigated how storytelling and singing of the songs of culture among BaMasaaba of Uganda affect each other, and why oral narratives disappear in that community, while the cultural songs prosper. An additional aim of the study is to find out how the obstacles in promoting oral narratives can be addressed.According to the findings of the study, culture is an important element in peoplersquo;s lives, because it brings social cohesion among the people of a particular society and they look at themselves as one people. This enhances peace and stability in society, which in turn brings about development. Oral narratives and cultural songs are some of the basic elements of culture. These are methods of communication for socio-economic development which are unfortunately not being utilized to the maximum chiefly because they are competing against other means of communication. Yet, if a person does not communicate effectively through the methods which are known to the people, one curtails their development. Unfortunately, the BaMasaaba who in the ancient times promoted oral narratives and cultural songs in the same way, have not taken the initiative in the present times to promote their culture of storytelling as they have done with the cultural songs. Therefore, as their cultural songs prosper, their culture of storytelling is generally disappearing. Key words: Storytelling, BaMasaaba, narration, Oral narratives. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/DF48EBA5359 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0406 en Copyright © 2013 Willy Wanyenya
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:89D6B2F5372 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Protest: A Biblical perspective of Bate Besong’s Beasts of No Nation SEINO Evangeline Agwa Fomukong Full Length Research Paper This work lsquo;Protest: A Biblical Perspective of Bate Besongrsquo;s Beasts of No Nationrsquo; seeks to show how the writer presents his case of protest in a derailed society using biblical passages. The study knits together context, use and subject matter to bring out those elements that appeal for protest against oppression. The work also shows that the author turns history to fiction, so as to create change in the society. This led to the hypothesis that the use of bible passages in Beasts of No Nation makes the play a metaphor of the Cameroonian situation. The theories used are the New historicism literary theory which stipulates that a literary text is formed and structured by the particular conditions of a time and place, and should be discussed in its own context,and functional theory of linguistics which states that situational factors determine what linguistic features are used by the text producer. The method used for analysis is the pattern of analysis postulated by Sinclair. The text was read with full critical understanding and scanned for patterns of linguistic signals. The study concludes that in his quest for national integration, Besong is in search of an avenue that can resolve the conflict between the Anglophones and Francophones in his country. This study reveals how Bate Besong uses the Holy Bible as a moral measuring rod, from which he extracts verses that can make the masses see the source of their problems, raise their awareness and instigate them to protest, and even castigate them if they do not want to adhere to his pleas. The analysis of the work shows that the author uses the religious register and writes with the socio-political situation of his country as a backdrop. Key words: Cameroon, Anglophone, Francophone, protest, Holy Bible. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/89D6B2F5372 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL012.164 en Copyright © 2013 SEINO Evangeline Agwa Fomukong
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:F2E150F5368 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
An expose of how the themes of violence, victimisation and brutality preoccupy the short stories in the collection: We Killed Mangy Dog and Other Mozambique Stories Zuvalinyenga Dorcas and Muvindi Israel Review The study made an expose of the themes of violence, victimisation and brutality as they pervade the short story collection. Working essentially in the Marxist literary theory, Fanonian critical realism and Marxist criminological theories as the springboard for the expose, it has made ground in highlighting colonial brutality towards the colonised and its inevitable violent dehumanising effects to the colonised. Key words: Violence, victimisation, brutality, alienation, assimilado, criminology, Louis Bernardo Honwana, and Mozambican short stories. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/F2E150F5368 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0480 en Copyright © 2013 Zuvalinyenga Dorcas and Muvindi Israel
oai:academicjournals.org:IJEL:938808A5353 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJEL IJEL:2013
Art and life: A propagandist reading of Festus Iyayi’s Violence Ujowundu, Cornel O. Review Literature is an imaginative work of art conveyed through the medium of language. It is a medium of reflecting the contemporary issues of the societymdash;be it class struggle, leadership problems, matters of security or issues on national development. In fact, literature serves as a mirror of society or a channel through which the social, political, cultural and economic issues that ravage a given society are explored. This means that there is a correlation between art and life; hence, literature deals with people and their experiences in a given milieu. This paper, therefore, concerns itself with the contributions of literary artists to the lives and experiences of people in the Nigerian society, especially on matters of national security and development. This is because the literary artist is seen as a committed person who uses his work to advocate for an egalitarian society, satirise the evils of corruption, exploitation and oppression; and push the proletariats into a struggle towards liberation from all the forces that undermine their existence. The paper will make specific emphasis on Festus Iyayirsquo;s Violence, a Marxist oriented novel that advocates force against all the forms of exploitation, deprivation and unpatriotism in our society. Key words: Art, life, propaganda, poverty, corruption, exploitation, inequality, infidelity, injustice, violence. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/938808A5353 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2013.0476 en Copyright © 2013 Ujowundu, Cornel O.
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