2022-12-07T16:04:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:E58D6E61682 2010-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2010
Reproductive performance, egg and larval quality and egg fatty acid composition of hatchery-reared Spotted Babylon (Babylonia areolata) broodstock fed natural and formulated diets under hatchery conditions S. Sangsawangchote, N. Chaitanawisuti and S. Piyatiratitivorakul Full Length Research Paper A 120 day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the reproductive performance, egg and larval quality and egg fatty acid composition in Spotted Babylon (Babylonia areolata) broodstock fed with natural food (fresh meat of carangid fish, Seleroidesleptolepis,) and one of four experimental formulated diets containing 5 or 15% of dietary lipid from either tuna oil or a mixture of tuna oil and soybean oil (6:4) labeled as 5% TO, 15% TO, 5% MO and 15% MO respectively. Using trash fish as a control food resulted is the lowest levels of in 20:5 n - 3, 22:6 n - 3 and 20:4 n - 6 fatty acids compared to those of all experimental diets, while the highest contents of those fatty acids were found in the 5% TO diet. Statistically significant differences in reproductive performance between dietary treatments with the best reproductive performance were found only for females fed the 5% TO diets, but egg and larval quality showed no variability among females fed trash fish and all experimental diets. No significant differences were observed in the survival duration in the starvation tolerance test for females fed trash fish or any of the experimental diets. However, the fatty acid profile of egg capsules was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. The levels of major fatty acids (20:5 n - 3, 22:6 n - 3 and 20:4 n - 6) in egg capsules produced from females fed diets containing 5% tuna oil (5% TO) was significantly higher than those from females fed trash fish or other experimental diets. We therefore conclude that formulated diets resulted in successful reproduction and high essential fatty acids in egg capsules comparable to the use of trash fish. Key words: Babylonia areolata, broodstock diet, reproductive performance, egg and larvae quality. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/E58D6E61682 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000030 en Copyright © 2010 S. Sangsawangchote, N. Chaitanawisuti and S. Piyatiratitivorakul
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:8B4C16E1669 2010-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2010
Real-time quantitative (PCR) applications to quantify and the expression profiles of heat shock protein (HSP70) genes in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and Oreochromis mossambicus (P.) J. Baby Joseph and S. S. Sujatha Full Length Research Paper Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) has already been used to study the expression profiles of heat shock protein (Hsp) genes in Nile tilapia, Oreochromisniloticus (Lineaus, 1752) and Oreochromis mossambicu (Peter, 1983). Young fish were exposed to heat stress for 5.5 h followed by qRT-PCR of Hsp70 mRNA, using tubulin (tub) as a reference gene and flourogenic dyes. Expression of Hsp70 mRNA peaked at 1 h of heat stress and decreased at 5.5 h. This method proved to be a very sensitive technique in quantifying Hsp70 transcripts in 6.70 ng of total DNA from the two tilapia species. A standard curve was prepared, for both tilapia fishes showed almost uniform results throughout the experiment. The threshold PCR cycle (Ct), at which RT-PCR products from DNA standards accumulated to a critical level, was determined for samples in the range of 2 times; 104 to 2 times; 1010molecules/mu;l. From conclusion of this study, it is shown that when the tilapia fish muscles are subjected to stress, with the help of abiotic factors- temperatures, whether above or below optimum condition within a stipulated period of time in a peculiar way, will lead to the production of the Hsp70 protein. Key words: Hsp70, quantitative RT-PCR, Oreochromis mossambicus,Oreochromis niloticus. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/8B4C16E1669 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000027 en Copyright © 2010 J. Baby Joseph and S. S. Sujatha
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:B309D8E1709 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2010
Zooplankton-based assessment of the trophic state of a tropical forest river ImoobeTunde Ohiokhioya Thadeus and Adeyinka Muideen Lekinson Full Length Research Paper In this study, we explored the usefulness of zooplankton as a tool for assessing the trophic status of a Nigerian forest river. The river was sampled monthly and investigated for water physico-chemistry and zooplankton community structure using basic statistical measurement of diversity indices to characterize the zooplankton fauna. The trophic status of the river evaluated from the physico-chemical parameters indicates that the river is oligotrophic. The zooplankton composition was typical of a tropical freshwater river, with a total of 40 species made up of 16 rotifers, 12 cladocerans and 12 copepods and their developing stages in the following order of dominance; Rotifera gt; Cladocera gt; Cylopoida gt; Calanoida. The zooplankton community was dominated by numerous species of rotifers and crustaceans, which are typical of oligotrophic to mesotrophic systems, amongst these includes Conochilus dossuarius and Synchaeta longipes. However, the most dominant zooplankton species in West Africa freshwater ecosystems namely, Keratella tropica, Keratella quadrata, Brachionus angularis, Trichocerca pusilla, Filinia longiseta, Pompholyx sulcata, and Proales sp. amongst others which are indicator species of high trophic levels were not recorded in the river. We therefore, conclude based on these facts that the river is clear, oligotrophic and it can be used for all manner of recreational activities. Key words: Trophic status, zooplankton, forest river. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/B309D8E1709 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000039 en Copyright © 2010 ImoobeTunde Ohiokhioya Thadeus and Adeyinka Muideen Lekinson
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:BD9FC1D1705 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2010
Optimum dietary protein levels and protein to energy ratios on growth and survival of juveniles spotted Babylon (Babylonia areolata Link) under the recirculating seawater conditions N. Chaitanawisuti, C. Rodruang and S. piyatiratitivorakul Full Length Research Paper A feeding experiment of three dietary protein levels (35, 40 and 45%) and three dietary energy levels (3.8, 4.0 and 4.2 kcal g-1 diet) factorial design with four replicates was conducted to determine the proper dietary protein and energy levels for the growth and survival of the juveniles spotted babylon Babylonia areolataunder the recirculating seawater conditions. Snails with initial body weight averaging 0.29 plusmn; 0.01 g were fed the experimental diets for 16 weeks. Survival rates (SR) of each group was above 95% and no significant difference among dietary treatments (p gt; 0.05). Mean weight gain of snails fed the 35% protein diets with 4.0 kcal/g diet was significantly (P lt; 0.05) different from that of snails fed the 40 and 45% protein diets at all energy levels. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly influenced by dietary protein and energy levels (p lt; 0.05). Diets containing 35% protein level and 4.0 kcal g-1 energy level appeared to be utilized more efficiently in term of FCR (3.21) than diets containing the other dietary protein and energy levels, ranging 3.62 - 4.54. The results of this study indicate that a diet containing 35% dietary protein and 4.0 kcal g-1 diets with P/E ratio of 85.99 mg protein/kcal was recommended for juvenile B. areolata growth under our experimental recirculating seawater conditions. Key words: Babylonia areolata, dietary protein, protein/energy ratio, growth, survival. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/BD9FC1D1705 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000024 en Copyright © 2010 N. Chaitanawisuti, C. Rodruang and S. piyatiratitivorakul
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:73240DA1726 2010-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2010
Toxicity of pawpaw (Carica papaya) seed powder to sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus fingerlings and effects on haematological parameters Ezekiel Olatunji Ayotunde, Benedict Obeten Offem, Irom Bassey Okey, Gabriel Ujong Ikpi, Stephen Ncha Ochang, Nnanke Effiom Agbam and Dodeye Eno Omini Full Length Research Paper The mesocarp of pawpaw fruits (Carica papaya) is a delicacy in the Tropics but the seeds are known to contain toxic substances (Carpine, Papain). However, there have been very few studies on the toxicity of these substances to organisms. First part of the present study determines the toxicity of an aqueous extract of pawpaw (Carica papaya) seed powder to catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings using static bioassay. The second part investigates the haematological effects. 400 healthy catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings 10.5 plusmn; 3.2 cm (total length), 15.5 plusmn; 6.4 g (body weight) were exposed to triplicate concentrations of 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 mg/l in eighteen 30 L glass tanks, each with 22 fish in 20 L aerated rain water. 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values were 19.0 plusmn; 3.3, 13.0 plusmn; 2.8, 12.8 plusmn; 1.6 and 12.9 plusmn; 2.1 mg/L, respectively. There was significant reduction (p lt; 0.05) in the value of blood parameters [blood cell count (erythrocytes and leucocytes) and basic erythrocyte indices (mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH)] of C. gariepinus fingerlings after exposure to 96 h in aqueous extract of C. papaya seed powder. Toxic reactions include; erratic movement, air gulping, loss of reflex, molting and discoloration. Maximum admissible toxicant concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 1.29 mg/L (confidence level: 22 - 78.8%). The results showed that concentrations of pawpaw seed powder in excess of 1.29 mg/L can be potentially harmful to C. gariepinus fingerlings. Key words: Toxicity, pawpaw seed, catfish, fingerlings, haematology, water quality. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/73240DA1726 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000038 en Copyright © 2010 Ezekiel Olatunji Ayotunde, Benedict Obeten Offem, Irom Bassey Okey, Gabriel Ujong Ikpi, Stephen Ncha Ochang, Nnanke Effiom Agbam and Dodeye Eno Omini
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:0003F701741 2010-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2010
The status of mangrove mud crab fishery in Kenya, East Africa Esther N. Fondo, Edward N. Kimani and Dixon O. Odongo Full Length Research Paper Mangrove mud crabs, Scylla sp. are among crustaceans of commercial value along the Kenyan coast and in many mangrove areas in the Western Indian Ocean region. In Kenya the crabs are landed by artisanal fishermen. Rising population in the coastal areas and high demand for the crabs has led to increased pressure on the crabs. The population structure and maturity stages of Scylla serrata from Ngomeni - Fundisa area of Malindi were investigated from July 2005 to July 2006. The size of crabs caught ranged from 50 to 125 mm carapace length, with crabs of 75 mm carapace length dominating. Male crabs dominated in the captured population. Linear relationships were obtained for both female and male crabs for the Carapace length - Carapace width. The size at first maturity was at 75 and 70 mm carapace length for male and female crabs respectively. There is an indication of exploitation pressure on the population and to ensure sustainable management, regulation on the minimum size of the crabs to be caught is recommended. Key words: Malindi, mangroves, maturity stages, mud crab, population structure,Scylla serrata. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/0003F701741 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000037 en Copyright © 2010 Esther N. Fondo, Edward N. Kimani and Dixon O. Odongo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:417A74E1756 2010-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2010
Site selection for grouper mariculture in Indonesia W. Brian Szuster and Hatim Albasri Full Length Research Paper Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/417A74E1756 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000033 en Copyright © 2010 W. Brian Szuster and Hatim Albasri
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:A13DC901780 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2010
Digestibility coefficients of processed jackbean meal Cannavalia ensiformis (L.) DC for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) diets Jimoh W. A., Fagbenro O. A. and Adeparusi E. O. Full Length Research Paper A study was conducted to determine in-vivo apparent digestibility coefficient of nutrients in processed jackbean meal. Acid Insoluble Ash (AIA) was used as an indicator. The test diets consist of the seed meal replacing soybean meal at 10, 20, 30 and 40% to serve as test diets D10, D20, D30, and D40 respectively. A diet called as diet CTR, without jackbean meal served as control. These diets were fed to Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (6.37 plusmn; 0.07 g) in a glass tanks for 5 weeks. Faecal collection was made by siphoning after four hours of each feeding. Proximate analysis of both diets and faecal samples were carried out for crude protein, lipid, crude fiber, energy, and AIA. These were used to calculate the digestibility coefficient of nutrients. There was no significant difference (p gt; 0.05) in lipid and organic matter digestibility of the fish fed control diet and test diets. Significant (p lt; 0.05) variations occurred in nitrogen-free extracts, protein and crude fiber digestibility of fish fed control diet and the test diets. Key words: Digestibility, in vivo, jackbean, Oreochromis niloticus. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/A13DC901780 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000009 en Copyright © 2010 Jimoh W. A., Fagbenro O. A. and Adeparusi E. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:68386B71784 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2010
Effect of the inclusion of a bacterial mix (Streptococcus faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus), and the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on growth, feed utilization and intestinal enzymatic activity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Maurilio Lara-Flores, Leticia Olivera-Castillo and Miguel A. Olvera-Novoa Full Length Research Paper This study evaluated the effects of two types of probiotics, a mix of two bacteria and one yeast, on growth performance and intestinal enzyme activity in Nile tilapia. Three diets were formulated containing the optimum protein level (40%) for tilapia fry: one was supplemented at 0.1% with a bacterial mixture containingStreptococcus faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus; a second was supplemented at 0.1% with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae; and a third, was complemented with a control diet without supplements. Two additional diets were formulated to contain 27% protein to serve as a stress factor. They were supplemented at 0.1% with either the bacterial probiotic mix or the yeast. The diets were fed for 9 weeks to tilapia fry housed in 20-L tanks at two densities: a high density of 20 fry per tank as a stress factor; and a low density of 10 fry per tank. Every week an organism was selected from each tank for the enzymatic analyses of unicellular protein, alkaline phosphatase, disaccharidases and peptidase. Results indicate that the fry fed with diets containing probiotic supplement exhibited greater growth rate than those fed with control diet. Of the four probiotic treatments, the 40% protein diet supplemented with yeast produced the best growth performance and feeding efficiency. This was attributed to an increase in the alkaline phosphatase activity, suggesting that yeast is an appropriate growth-stimulating additive in tilapia cultivation. Key words: Probiotic, Nile tilapia, enzymatic activity, streptococcus,Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/68386B71784 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000014 en Copyright © 2010 Maurilio Lara-Flores, Leticia Olivera-Castillo and Miguel A. Olvera-Novoa
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:C11FF853704 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Comparative morphology of wild, farmed and hatchery-released gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) in western Greece Yiannis G. Rogdakis, Katerina K. Koukou, Alexios Ramfos, Evagelos Dimitriou and George N. Katselis Full Length Research Paper In May 2001, 60,000 individuals of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fry, originating from a common bloodstock of the Ionian coastal region, were allocated between Papas lagoon and cages of mariculture enterprises located at Western Greece. During the period of November to December 2001, a sample of 531 gilthead sea bream individuals was collected from the lagoon and the cages. The variations in 24 morphomertic characters and in two indices (condition factor and gonadosomatic index) were examined using multivariate analysis, in order to evaluate the morphological similarity/dissimilarity between hatchery-released (EN), wild (WL) and farmed (RR) individuals. Statistically significant differences were observed among the groups in mean and standard deviation values for most of the morphometric characters, a fact that can be possibly attributed to the life-history of the fish. Principal component analysis along with discriminant analysis identified that the characters of primary importance in distinguishing the three groups were those related to head, fin and lengthwise dimensions. Discriminant analysis also revealed that about 86.1% of the examined specimens could be correctly classified in the three groups. The above findings can be useful for scientific but also for commercial reasons, since the market value of the fish is highly dependant on its origin. Key words: Sparus aurata, gilthead sea bream, hatchery-release, multivariate analysis, morphometrics, lagoon Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/C11FF853704 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000006 en Copyright © 2011 Yiannis G. Rogdakis, Katerina K. Koukou, Alexios Ramfos, Evagelos Dimitriou and George N. Katselis
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:6B3BAAE3739 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Food and feeding habits of the African river prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, Herklots, 1857) in Epe Lagoon, southwest Nigeria Abayomi A. Jimoh, Edwin O. Clarke, Olusegun O. Whenu and Haleemah B. Adeoye Full Length Research Paper The study investigated the stomach contents of Macrobrachium vollenhovenii from the commercial artisanal catches in Epe Lagoon in Lagos, southwest Nigeria from July to October 2008 and April to May 2009. The stomach analysis was carried out using frequency of occurrence and numeric methods. It was observed that the prawn fed on a variety of plankton species, which included chlorophyta, euglenophyta, xantophyta, chrysophyta, cladocera, copepoda, protozoa, dinoflagellate, diatoms, insect parts and unidentified food items, with chlorophyta and diatoms forming the most important food items. Chlorophyta constituted 32.00% by number and 83.62% by occurrence, diatoms constituted 31.55% by number and 65.09% by occurrence. Amongst the chlorophyta, Cosmarium granatum was the most preferred, constituting 7.93% by number and 17.67% by occurrence, followed byAnkistrodemus falcatus with 7.57% by number and 16.38% by occurrence, respectively. The least eaten food item was insect parts. The results indicated that M. vollenhovenii can be considered as an omnivorous detritivore. Key words: Feeding habits, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, Epe Lagoon. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/6B3BAAE3739 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000019 en Copyright © 2011 Abayomi A. Jimoh, Edwin O. Clarke, Olusegun O. Whenu and Haleemah B. Adeoye
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:994DD363785 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Reproductive biology and some observation on the age, growth, and management of Tilapia zilli (Gerv, 1848) from Lake Timsah, Egypt Waheed Farg-Alla Mahomoud, Amal Mohamed Mahmoud Amin, Kamal Fathey Elboray Amal Mohamed Ramadan and Magdy Mostafa Kamal Osman EL-Halfawy Article In the present investigation, some biological aspects of Tilapia zillii from Lake Timsah were studied. This was carried out on 700 fish samples collected during the period from October, 2002 to September, 2003. Total length of females ranged from 7 to 16 cm and males from 8 to 21 cm. Age determination based on length frequency distributions showed that the life span are two and four years for females and males, respectively. Estimates of growth parameters are widely used for detailed assessment and modeling of fish species and fisheries. The length-weight relationship, age at length zero (to), growth coefficient (K), asymptotic length (Lyen;) and rates of natural (M) and total mortality (Z) were estimated for T. zillii from Lake Timsah. Length-weight relationships were calculated from individual fish length and weight records collected from sampling using gill nets. Analyses were obtained by sampling direct from the fisherrsquo;s catches. Data were analyzed using the FISAT software. T. zillii, the estimate of K was 0.320 and 0.680 year-1 for males and females, respectively, whilst Lyen; was approximately 22.05 and 17.85 cm, for males and females, respectively. T. zillii (males) had the lowest value of K and the largest Lyen; than females. Natural mortality was the lowest for T. zillii (females) (M=0.464 and 0.38 year-1) and fishing mortality was highest for T. zillii (males) (F=2.656, 1.88 year-1). In addition, exploitation rate was estimated at E=0.83 and length at first capture (Lc) was calculated at 11.30 cm for males while E=0.78 and (Lc) was estimated as 6.68 cm for females. The majority of fish caught of the main commercial species in the Lake Timsah fishery were from the first age group, at a size far below the optimal length at capture. This suggests growth overfishing for T. zillii in Lake Timsah. Key words: Lake Timsah, Tilapia zillii, age and growth, mortality, gonadosomatic index, length at first maturity, population structure. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/994DD363785 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000028 en Copyright © 2011 Waheed Farg-Alla Mahomoud, Amal Mohamed Mahmoud Amin, Kamal Fathey Elboray Amal Mohamed Ramadan and Magdy Mostafa Kamal Osman EL-Halfawy
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:1BAD6723806 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Status and perception of coastal small-scale trawling fishers in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam Le Xuan Sinh and Nguyen Thanh Long Full Length Research Paper Trawlers are dominant in Vietnamrsquo;s fisheries and small-scale trawlers account for about 90% of total number of fishing boats in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. This type of fishing had received much attention in relation to both the depletion of natural aquatic resources and attendant socio-economic problems. This paper describes the small-scale trawling fisheries in the Mekong Delta using data from four coastal provinces, and compares key technical-economic indicators and perceptions among different fisher groups based on their locations relative to Ca Mau National Park. The results show that small scale trawl fisheries are placing increasing pressure on coastal aquatic resources in the Mekong Delta and that there had been insufficient management on this type of fishing boats. Shrimps and squids are the two most important species of near-shore trawling fisheries but least profitable to fishers located close to the Park (group 2). The importance of mangrove ecosystems, coral reefs, and the Ca Mau National Park were recognized by the local fishers for the direct benefits they generate. Higher investment for off-shore fishing and better income from alternative occupations are important to protect the natural aquatic resources along the coasts of the Mekong Delta, in particular in the Ca Mau National Park. Key words: Small-scale fisheries, trawler boats, catch, costs, income, perception, Vietnam. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/1BAD6723806 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000035 en Copyright © 2011 Le Xuan Sinh and Nguyen Thanh Long
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:7BC75483833 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Successful artificial reproduction of the African carp: Labeo parvus Boulenger, 1902 (Pisces: Cyprinidae) Elie Montchowui, Cleacute;ment A. Bonou, Philippe Lalegrave;yegrave;, Jean-Claude Philippart and Pascal Poncin Full Length Research Paper The effectiveness of hormonal treatments to induce gamete emission in Labeo parvuswas investigated in two spawning seasons (2007 and 2008). Brood fishes measuring 15 to 30 cm were gill netted in the Oueacute;meacute; River (Benin) during their migration to their spawning habitat and then held in captivity (ponds). Captive fish (N = 30 males and N= 37 females) were treated with GnRHa combined with a dopamine antagonist during their natural spawning season from July through October. Ovulation was stimulated in four experimental groups of females by injecting Dagin (0.2 to 0.3 mlkgminus;1 body weight) and Ovaprim (0.5 to 0.6 mlkgminus;1 body weight). No female ovulated either in the groups receiving normal (as recommended by the manufacturers) dose injections of Dagin and Ovaprim (0.2 and 0.5 mlkgminus;1 body weight respectively) or in the group treated with a Dagin injection of 0.3 mlkgminus;1 body weight. Successful ovulation was only obtained with Ovaprim in the group treated with 0.6 mlkgminus;1 body weight. Latency times ranged from 10 to 14 h after hormone injection. L. parvus eggs were nonadhesive and transparent at ovulation. Fertilisation rates ranged from 74.0 to 97.7%. Hatching occurred after 10 to 14 h of incubation at 27 to 30deg;C and lasted 5 to 7 h. Hatching rates ranged from 70.0 to 83.3%. Larvae were 3.0 plusmn; 0.4 mm long (total length) at hatching. In the two reproductive seasons, fertilisation rates and hatching were not significantly different (P gt; 0.05). The water temperature was shown to significantly affect spawning latency and incubation time. Our study demonstrated that captive L. parvus could be successfully induced to produce sperm and ova using injection of a synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone coupled with a dopamine antagonist (Ovaprim). Their ova could also be artificially fertilised in an experimental hatchery at water temperatures ranging from 27 to 30deg;C. The results obtained indicate that Ovaprim is the most effective agent for inducing artificial reproduction in L. parvus. Key words: GnRH analogues, Induced spawning, Labeo parvus. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/7BC75483833 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000036 en Copyright © 2011 Elie Montchowui, Cleacute;ment A. Bonou, Philippe Lalegrave;yegrave;, Jean-Claude Philippart and Pascal Poncin
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:68A53113855 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Multidisciplinary identification of clupeiform fishes from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean Graciela Garciacute;a, Gustavo Martiacute;nez, Susana Retta, Veroacute;nica Gutieacute;rrez, Julia Vergara, and Mariacute;a de las Mercedes Azpelicueta Full Length Research Paper In the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, several described species of Clupeiformes overlap their geographical distribution in the coastal areas from Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil) to Bahiacute;a Blanca (Argentina) and the Riacute;o de la Plata estuary. Larvae and juveniles of the SW Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia aurea are very difficult to discriminate from those of other clupeids belonging to the genera Platanichthys andRamnogaster inhabiting the same environments. Here we implemented phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences and morphometric and osteological studies to achieve unambiguous species recognition in different ontogenetic stages of six endemic species of Clupeiformes from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. All phylogenetic analyses based on the cytochrome b gene yielded a robust support to the existence of highly structured and monophyletic groups conforming clupeiforms taxa. These monophyletic entities were consistent with major groups accessed through the first two principal components (PCs) from morphometric variation among taxa. Both approaches resulted in accurated and complementary tools for the individual assignment in clades and groups within Clupeiformes during different ontogenetic stages in their life cycle. The detection of species-specific spawning and nursery areas through accurated methodological approaches of identification constitute a prerequisite for a sustainable management in pelagic fisheries. Key words: Estuarine, clupeiformes, identification, morphology, cytochrome b. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/68A53113855 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000023 en Copyright © 2011 Graciela Garciacute;a, Gustavo Martiacute;nez, Susana Retta, Veroacute;nica Gutieacute;rrez, Julia Vergara, and Mariacute;a de las Mercedes Azpelicueta
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:E823B043879 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Bioindicators for siting the carpet clam Tapes decussatus L. farming in Mediterranean lagoons Cilenti Lucrezia, Scirocco Tommaso, Specchiulli Antonietta, Florio Marisa and Breber Paolo Full Length Research Paper With a worldwide increase in shellfish aquaculture and awareness towards sustainable practices, this paper provides a method based on bioindicators for identifying a suitable site for rearing the carpet clam Tapes decussatus in a lagoon of the South Adriatic coast of Italy (Varano lagoon). Although the species is naturally widespread in Italian coastal lagoons, it was in fact absent from Varano lagoon. However, we would like to judge whether Varano lagoon offered a suitable habitat for farming this clam when no local wild population could give us a clue. We applied the indirect method of investigating the indicator species for this purpose. We sampled the benthic macrofauna of Varano lagoon for the presence of species known to be sympatric with the carpet clam, based on our judgement on the bionomic classification of Frisoni et al. (1984). The data analysis on the presence/absence of benthic indicators shows that Varano lagoon is divided into three Zones from among those described by Frisoni. The existence of two areas with the characteristics of a Zone III fulfilled the first prerequisite of our working hypothesis. In October 2002, Ndeg; 50,000 seed clams were placed in the park in Zone III. The clams grew from 16 to 35 mm in 21 months with growth concentrated in summer with lost of 20%. Key words: Bioindicators, site suitable shellfish farming, Tapes decussatus; Varano lagoon. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/E823B043879 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000004 en Copyright © 2011 Cilenti Lucrezia, Scirocco Tommaso, Specchiulli Antonietta, Florio Marisa and Breber Paolo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:7BD92A53915 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Monosex production of African catfish, Heterobranchus longifilis, through gynogenesis and androgenesis Olufeagba S. O. and Yisa Moses Full Length Research Paper This study examined the economic viability of the use of microfinance bank loan on aquaculture development in Ogun state, Nigeria. The simple random sampling technique was used in selecting eighty aquaculturists that provided the primary data used in this study. The primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured, validated and pre-tested sets of interview schedules, administered through personal interviews and observations, so as to elicit the required information from the targeted loan users and were analyzed using descriptive, budgetary analyses and profitability ratios. Results showed a mean age of 47 and 43 years for beneficiaries of microfinance bank loan and non-beneficiaries respectively, while 57.5 and 42.5% had secondary education and an average household size of 5 persons, their vast experience in fish farming (13 and 12 years) has been a facilitating factor in productivity improvement in the localities. Gross margin of N27,461.48 and N59,030.31; benefit cost ratio of 1.58:1 and 6.9:1 shows that, aquaculture was profitable and viable. Findings concluded that, aquaculture is a profitable business with a high return on investment; therefore adequate policies should be made to ensure that the interest rate is subsidized for increase in the supply of animal protein source. Key words: Economic viability, microfinance bank loan, aquaculture development, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/7BD92A53915 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000022 en Copyright © 2011 Olufeagba S. O. and Yisa Moses
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:BD8B56D3936 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Economic viability for the use of microfinance bank loan on aquaculture development in Ogun State, Nigeria Olaoye, Olalekan Jacob and Odebiyi, Oluwaseun Christianah Full Length Research Paper This study examined the economic viability of the use of microfinance bank loan on aquaculture development in Ogun state, Nigeria. The simple random sampling technique was used in selecting eighty aquaculturists that provided the primary data used in this study. The primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured, validated and pre-tested sets of interview schedules, administered through personal interviews and observations, so as to elicit the required information from the targeted loan users and were analyzed using descriptive, budgetary analyses and profitability ratios. Results showed a mean age of 47 and 43 years for beneficiaries of microfinance bank loan and non-beneficiaries respectively, while 57.5 and 42.5% had secondary education and an average household size of 5 persons, their vast experience in fish farming (13 and 12 years) has been a facilitating factor in productivity improvement in the localities. Gross margin of N27,461.48 and N59,030.31; benefit cost ratio of 1.58:1 and 6.9:1 shows that, aquaculture was profitable and viable. Findings concluded that, aquaculture is a profitable business with a high return on investment; therefore adequate policies should be made to ensure that the interest rate is subsidized for increase in the supply of animal protein source. Key words: Economic viability, microfinance bank loan, aquaculture development, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/BD8B56D3936 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000011 en Copyright © 2011 Olaoye, Olalekan Jacob and Odebiyi, Oluwaseun Christianah
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:061A3A63956 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Comparisons between two production–scale methods for the intensive culture of juveniles spotted babylon, Babylonia areolata, to marketable sizes N. Chaitanawisuti, S. Kritsanapuntu and W. Santaweesuk Full Length Research Paper This study is the first attempt to compare the aquaculture potential on growth, production and economic analysis for growth of spotted babylon juveniles (Babylonia areolata) to marketable sizes using the large-scale operation of flow-through canvas ponds and earthen ponds. This study shows that the average growth rates in body weight were 0.91-1.07 g/month and 0.82 - 0.98 g/month for the canvass pond and earthen pond trials, respectively. At the end of the experiment, final body weights of snails ranged from 5.6 - 6.6 and 5.2 - 6.2 g for the canvas pond and earthen pond trials, respectively. Total yields per production cycle were 1,930 and 1,760 kg for the canvas pond and earthen pond trials, respectively. For economic analysis, investment requirements of the canvas pond trial ($US18,629.6) was higher than that of earthen pond trial ($US8,832.3) and total cost per production cycle were estimated to be $US13,143.3 and 10,162.4 for the canvas pond and earthen pond trials, respectively. Net return per production cycle of the canvas pond ($US5,075.9) was lower than that of earthen pond trial ($US6,452.0) and payback period were estimated to be 1.8 and 0.7 production cycle for the canvas pond and earthen pond trials, respectively. This study indicated that grow out of juvenile B. areolata in earthen ponds was highly profitable than those in flow-through canvas ponds. Key words: Babylonia areolata, grow out, flow-through system, canvas, earthen ponds, growth, production. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/061A3A63956 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000007 en Copyright © 2011 N. Chaitanawisuti, S. Kritsanapuntu and W. Santaweesuk
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:0D96A623998 2011-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Differences in fatty acid composition of egg capsules from broodstock spotted babylon, Babylonia areolata, fed a local trash fish and formulated diet under hatchery conditions N. Chaitanawisuti, S. Sangsawangchote and S. Piyatiratitivorakul Full Length Research Paper This study was the first attempt to condition broodstock Babylonia areolata using the formulated diets under hatchery conditions. Samples of spotted babylon egg capsules from broodstock, which had been fed either a formulated diet or a local trash fish, carangid fish (Seleroides leptolepis) for 120 days were analyzed for proximate composition and fatty acid composition. The formulated diet contained significantly higher levels of arachinodic acid (ARA) (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3) than those of the local trash fish. The formulated diet also had significantly higher ratios of DHA/EPA and (n-3)/(n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than those of the local trash fish but not for ARA/EPA ratio. The fatty acid compositions of egg capsules produced from broodstock fed formulated diet contained significantly more ARA, EPA and DHA compared to the broodstock fed the local trash fish. The ARA/EPA and DHA/EPA ratios in egg capsules were significantly higher in the trash fishndash;fed group compared to those fed the formulated diet. However, (n ndash; 3)/(n ndash; 6) PUFA ratios in egg capsules produced from broodstock fed the formulated diet did not significantly differ compared to those from broodstock fed the local trash fish. The relatively low DHA/EPA, ARA/EPA and (n ndash; 3)/(n ndash; 6) ratios in the egg capsules produced from the formulated diet ndash; fed broodstock of B. areolata suggested that this diet was inferior, when compared to the traditional food of trash fish. Key words: Babylonia areolata, broodstock diet, egg capsules, fatty acid composition. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/0D96A623998 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000008 en Copyright © 2011 N. Chaitanawisuti, S. Sangsawangchote and S. Piyatiratitivorakul
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:58931C64008 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Proximate composition of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) smoked in Nigerian stored products research institute (NSPRI): Developed kiln Olayemi Folorunsho Foline, Adedayo Majekodunmi Rachael, Bamishaiye Eunice Iyabo and Awagu Emenike Fidelis Short Communication The effect of drying on proximate compositions of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) using Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI) developed kiln was determined. The purchased quantities of catfish were shared into two parts; one part was used to determine the proximate compositions of the raw fish and the other part was dried using smoking kiln at a temperature range of 60 to 70deg;C for 15 h. The proximate compositions of the fresh and dried samples were determined. Also, sensory evaluation was also determined using 9 point hedonic scale. Protein, carbohydrate, moisture content, fat, ash and nitrogen free extract (NFE) for fresh and dried fish were 16.24, 0.92, 78.70, 0.50, 1.33, 2.31% and 68.4, 1.80, 7.30, 12.50, 6.40, 3.60% respectively. The general acceptance as shown by sensory evaluation was equally high. It was therefore concluded that drying does have a positive effect on fish since there was an increase in embedded nutritional parameters. Key words: Smoking kiln, sensory evaluation, protein, carbohydrate, moisture content, fat Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/58931C64008 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000026 en Copyright © 2011 Olayemi Folorunsho Foline, Adedayo Majekodunmi Rachael, Bamishaiye Eunice Iyabo and Awagu Emenike Fidelis
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:AD493F94027 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Fatty acids content and profile of common commercial Nile fishes in Sudan Elagba Haj Ali Mohamed and Gamal Nasser Al-Sabahi Full Length Research Paper The muscle tissues of the Nilefishes: Lates niloticus, Bagrus bayad, Oreochromis niloticus, Synodontis schall and Tetraodon lineatus were analyzed for fatty acids compositions and profiles by gas liquid chromatography. Of the thirty-three fatty acids of different saturation levels detected, the predominant fatty acids were palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1omega;9), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n3), eladic acid (C18:In9t), arachidic acid (C23:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1). Docosahexaenoic acid alone amounted to 37 to 77% of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). Eicosapentaenoic (EPA, C20:5n3), arachidonic (C20:4n6) and eicosadienoic (C20:2) acids were not detected in any of the fish studied. The range of saturated fatty acids was 31 to 65%, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were 4 to 53% and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were 16 to 33%. Tetraodon lineatus contained 53% of the PUFAs and L. niloticus contained 33% of the MUFAs. The omega 3 and 6 (omega;3/omega;6) ratio was 0.9 to 3.6 and S. schall showed the highest ratio. The results showed that all the studied species of the Nile fish were comparable to other freshwater fish and were good sources of PUFAs, while S. schall was the best source of omega;3 essential fatty acid (35% of UFAs) compared to the other four species. It was recommended that, other species of the Nile fish, especially the unused ones should be assessed for different sexes, seasons, sizes and geographical localities, because it could influence post-harvest processing and storage. Key words: Arachidonic, decosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic, fatty acid profile, Nile fish, omega-3/omega-6 ratio, polyunsaturated. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/AD493F94027 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000016 en Copyright © 2011 Elagba Haj Ali Mohamed and Gamal Nasser Al-Sabahi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:7F8D69D4034 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Research on in vitro culture and inducing nacre crystal formation of freshwater pearl mussel mantle epithelial cell Sinohyriopsis cumingii Pham Van Phuc, Pham Quoc Viet, Nguyen Minh Hoang, Nguyen Thanh Tam and Phan Kim Ngoc Full Length Research Paper The foundation of natural pearl formation by mussels is calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite crystals, secreted essentially by the epithelial cells of mantle tissue as nacre. The in vitro explant culture of nacre secreting pallial mantle explants of freshwater pearl mussel was a vital step in the approach to the establishment of quality of pearl mussel species, by screening pearl mussel species that are able to form pearls with high efficiency. Moreover, the results of this research provide knowledge for the future in vitro colored pearl production. The aims of this research were to culture freshwater pearl mussel mantle epithelial cells and to investigate the capacity of their nacre-secretion when they were induced by some specific factors such as Ca2+, FGF-2 and EGF. In this research, mantle epithelial cells were cultured in four different kinds of medium (DMEM/F12, L15-M199, IMDM, TCM) and temperature [(4, 24deg;C and room temperature (28deg;C)] to select the suitable environment for pearl mussel mantle epithelial cell culture for at least one month. After that, old medium was changed by fresh medium supplemented with three inducers (Ca2+, FGF, EGF). Nacre secretion of these cells was evaluated via the nacre formation in culture medium. The results showed that the mantle epithelial cells may be cultured in vitro and secrete nacre in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% FBS, but the efficiency of secretion was independent with different inducers investigated. DMEM/F12 medium is the best for growing of mantle epithelial cells while IMDM medium is suitable for heamocyte ndash;like cells. Key words: DMEM/F12, Ca2+, EGF, FGF, Freshwater mussel, mantle epithelial cells, nacre secretion. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/7F8D69D4034 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000031 en Copyright © 2011 Pham Van Phuc, Pham Quoc Viet, Nguyen Minh Hoang, Nguyen Thanh Tam and Phan Kim Ngoc
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:BCD9A694043 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Growth, survival and proximate body composition of Labeo rohita larvae fed artificial food and natural food organisms under laboratory condition Yahya Bakhtiyar , Seema Langer, S.K. Karlopia and Imtiaz Ahmed Full Length Research Paper This investigation was carried out to study the effect of different live feed and dry feed on growth and survival of Labeo rohita at a stocking density of 20 larvae per trough having 10 L of water. The increase in weights and lengths were used as measures of growth. The duration of the experiment was 30 days. Seven dietary treatments were tested viz. Artificial diet with 45% protein (LFr1), rotifers like Asplanchna and Brachionus (LFr2), wild zooplankton (LFr3), bioenriched zooplankton (raised on Chlorella, cod liver oil and vitamin C) (LFr4), Artemia (LFr5), Chironomous (LFr6) and Oligochaetes (LFr7). Among the different treatments, larvae fed with diet LFr4 resulted in the maximum body weight gain (BWG) (13.18 plusmn; 0.13 mg) which was significantly (P lt; 0.05) higher than all the treatments which followed the order of preference as: LFr5 (12.31 plusmn; 0.10 mg), LFr3 (9.75 plusmn; 0.08 mg), LFr2 (7.85 plusmn; 0.10 mg), LFr7 (6.49 plusmn; 0.15 mg), LFr6 (5.66 plusmn; 0.13 mg) and LFr1 (4.99 plusmn; 0.14 mg). The diet LFr4 recorded maximum survivability (92.0 plusmn; 2.0%). All the values recorded for the BWG and survival were found to be significantly different (P lt; 0.05) among others. Protein and lipid content of the prawn after the treatment was found to be highest for LFr5 and LFr4, respectively. Key words: Labeo rohita, food organisms, growth, body composition. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/BCD9A694043 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000021 en Copyright © 2011 Yahya Bakhtiyar , Seema Langer, S.K. Karlopia and Imtiaz Ahmed
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:DCA997D4056 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Economic performance of crab fishery in Lagos lagoon, Nigeria O. A. Adeogun, B. B. Solarin, H. K. Ogunbadejo, E. E. Ambrose, O. R. Akinnigbagbe, A. A. Ajulo, Bolaji D. A., O. A. Olusola and M. O. Adeogun Full Length Research Paper The study evaluates the economic performance of small-scale crab fishery operations in terms of economic indicators and success performance during 2009 and 2010 fishing season in five lagoon systems in Lagos state. The objectives of the study were to state economic viability of the crab fishing activity and to identify factors influencing the cost structure. Initial analysis reveals that a large variation in cost structure exists in the crab fishing in Lagos lagoon. Economic results of the study showed that small-scale crab fishing have a positive net profit and fully recover their costs, with no losses. The net cash flow, economic and financial performance of the crab fishers was very satisfactory. The result shows that increasing catch decreases costs implying that scale and improving efficiency is key to reducing cost. Key words: Crab fishery, economic viability, economic performance, returns on capital, Lagos lagoon. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/DCA997D4056 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000010 en Copyright © 2011 O. A. Adeogun, B. B. Solarin, H. K. Ogunbadejo, E. E. Ambrose, O. R. Akinnigbagbe, A. A. Ajulo, Bolaji D. A., O. A. Olusola and M. O. Adeogun
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:27010514072 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Bioremediation of ammonia and nitrite in polluted water P. Barik, H. K. Vardia and S. B. Gupta Full Length Research Paper High ammonia nitrogen is a key limiting factor in polluted waters or intensive aquaculture system. Removal of unionized ammonia (NH3) and nitrite (NO2) through biological activity is thus an important tool for changing such ecosystem. Nitrifying bacterial inoculants are the biologically active materials which may be used in intensive aquaculture for bioremediation. In all, 12 treatments were used with two replications (Completed Randomized Design) factorial design to assess the effects on various physic-chemical conditions of water. Decrease of ammonia nitrogen concentration from 10 mg l-1 to below the minimum limit (0.3 mg l-1) was obtained within 3 days after inoculation of microbial inoculums with aeration in water. Rate of nitrification was very slow in tanks without aeration. Soil at the bottom was not found to affect the nitrification process. Aeration and microbial application played an important role in increasing the nitrification. After acclimation phase nitrification rate was found to be increased. Therefore, application of bioremediators (nitrifiers) decreased ammonia and nitrate nitrogen. Key words: Bioremediators, ammonia, nitrite, aquaculture systems, polluted waters Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/27010514072 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000005 en Copyright © 2011 P. Barik, H. K. Vardia and S. B. Gupta
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:FC66A954094 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Fatty oil composition of Osteobrama belangeri (Val.) from Manipur Virendra Singh Rana, Basudha Devi and Maria AmparoBlazquez Short Communication The fatty oil content of Osteobrama belangeri and its chemical compositions were determined by the analysis of fatty acid methyl esters using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of eighteen compounds were identified constituting about 96.1% and 96.7% of the crude head and body oils. Ten compounds were identified as major fatty acids in the oil and the main acids were oleic acid (38.3 and 35.1%), palmitic acid (27.3 and 23.9%), linoleic acid (12.6 and 21.8%) and octadecanoic acid (8.7 and 7.7%) besides two trace fatty acids. Key words: Fatty oil composition, Osteobrama belangeri, oleic acid, palmitic acid. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/FC66A954094 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000017 en Copyright © 2011 Virendra Singh Rana, Basudha Devi and Maria AmparoBlazquez
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:BC2CF675454 2011-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Reproductive biology, length–weight relationship and condition factor of the African snake head, Parachanna obscura, from River Oshun, South-west Nigeria Olurin K. B. and Savage O. D. Full Length Research Paper Aspects of the biology of the African snake head, Parachanna obscura, obtained from River Oshun, South-west Nigeria, from August 2006 to February 2007, were studied. Fish were captured with gill nets. The species attained a maximum total length of 36.4 cm and body weight of 389.36 g. The length/weight relationship indicated allometric growth for males and isometric growth for females. Gonado-somatic index ranged between 1.1 and 2.8% in the females. Values of condition factor were high for males. There were more females than males, and immature fish dominated the catch. Eggs ranged in size between 0.88 and 1.11 mm, while fecundity estimates ranged between 1711 and 4000 and were not related to length and body weight. P. obscura in this study did not show any distinct seasonal pattern of breeding. Key words: Parachanna obscura, River Oshun, Nigeria, reproductive biology. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/BC2CF675454 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000029 en Copyright © 2011 Olurin K. B. and Savage O. D.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:F7E90A040382 2011-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Evaluation of some heavy metals in Pangasius hypothalmus and Tilapia nilotica and the role of acetic acid in lowering their levels Tarek Elnimr Full Length Research Paper Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, manganese, phosphorus, lead and zinc in samples of Basa fish (Pangasius hypothalmus) and some fresh water fish (Tilapia nilotica, named Bolti and Karmout) collected from Kafer-El-Zayat were determined. Karmout fish contained the highest level of metals where phosphorus level was 3.45 mu;g/g, lead (1.51mu;g/g), zinc (1.03 mu;g/g), cadmium (0.17 mu;g/g), manganese (0.08 mu;g/g) and mercury (0.007mu;g/g). In Bolti fish, phosphorus level was 4.03 mu;g/g, lead (0.83 mu;g/g), zinc (0.62 mu;g/g), cadmium (0.12 mu;g/g), manganese (0.08 mu;g/g) and mercury (0.004 mu;g/g). In Basa fish, phosphorus level was 4.06 mu;g/g, lead (0.79 mu;g/g), zinc (0.62 mu;g/g), cadmium (0.12 mu;g/g), manganese (0.07 mu;g/g) and mercury (0.004 mu;g/g). Cadmium and lead levels in all examined fish were higher than permissible safety level of human use (0.1 ppm). Pre-treatment of fish muscles by acetic acid (5%) for a period of 15 min resulted in marked reduction of metals in these fish. When the Basa fish was immersed in 5% acetic acid, the cadmium level in the flesh was reduced from 0.12 to 0.07 mu;g/g (41.6%) and lead level was reduced from 0.83 to 0.41 mu;g/g (51.9%). In Bolti fish, pre-treatment of the fleshy parts by acetic acid reduced cadmium level from 0.12 to 0.07 mu;g/g (58.3%) and lead was reduced from 0.83 to 0.02 mu;g/g (24%). The same result was observed in Karmout fish, where pre-treatment with acetic acid lowered the cadmium level from 0.17 to 0.05 mu;g/g (29.4%) and lead was lowered from 1.51 to 0.82 mu;g/g (54.3%). Key words: Basa fish, Tilapia nilotica, Karmout, acetic acid, heavy metals. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/F7E90A040382 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000015 en Copyright © 2011 Tarek Elnimr
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:B2A9BEC40383 2011-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Aquaculture in Europe: Media representations as a proxy for public opinion Anne Katrin Schlag Full Length Research Paper Fish is traditionally considered a healthy and pure food. However, with the development of modern aquaculture, a range of potentially controversial issues are emerging. These could significantly impact the future success of the industry. In the absence of in-depth data on lay perceptions on farmed fish and fish farming, this paper utilises media representations as a proxy for public opinion. Media representations of aquaculture were investigated in Germany, Norway and the UK over a five-year timeframe (May 2002 to May 2007). A total of 1049 articles from both broadsheet and tabloid newspapers were analyzed with the qualitative software Atlas/ti. We compare the article framings cross-nationally, focusing in-depth on four major analytical themes which emerged: the environment, the economy, human health and trust/regulation. Despite general similarities, these themes are represented with different salience and foci across the countries of analysis. These divergent media representations of aquaculture are discussed in terms of their likely impacts on lay perceptions of farmed fish and fish farming. In turn, the understanding of consumer perceptions is a vital component for policy making about aquaculture. Key words: Aquaculture, farmed fish, risk, media analysis, cross-national research. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/B2A9BEC40383 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000003 en Copyright © 2011 Anne Katrin Schlag
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:BA0E92D40384 2011-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Pork production system and its development in mainland China Heng-wei Cheng, You-ming Wang, Qing-ping Meng, Jia Guo and Yi-zheng Wang Review Livestock production and marketing have been driven by the growing consumer demand for high quality and low cost animal protein. As a result, intensive livestock industries have been rapidly developing globally. International trade, especially with China, creates new opportunities and challenges for the emerging international agriculture market. China provides an enormous market for international trade by stimulating its import and export activities. Pigs are the primary farm animals raised for human consumption in China, and the development of pork production systems in China will affect its trade globally. To meet the need for developing international animal agriculture and trade, this article describes the current status of the swine industry, its production in China and the factors that may affect its development. Urbanization, available farmland, grain production, water resources and management practices encompass some of these factors. In addition, the effects of the culture, religion and education of the populations on the development of swine sector in China are also discussed. Understanding the development of the swine production system and its associated factors is critical to assessing Chinarsquo;s impact and implication in the emerging international agricultural market. Key words: Animal agriculture, swine farm, pork production, international trade, China. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/BA0E92D40384 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000025 en Copyright © 2011 Heng-wei Cheng, You-ming Wang, Qing-ping Meng, Jia Guo and Yi-zheng Wang
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:898048440383 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
A karyological analysis of Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) (Pisces, Cyprinidae), a new cytotype from Dal Lake Srinagar Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), India Farooq A. Ganai and A. R. Yousuf Full Length Research Paper The karyotypic and cytological characteristics of Rosy barb, Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) (cyprinidae) were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes spreads from the anterior kidney following Thorgaard and Disney (1990). The fishes were obtained from the local fishermen and transported live to the Limnology and Fisheries Laboratory of Centre of Research for Development, University of Kashmir. Ten fish were injected intraperitoneally with two doses of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), 4 g g-1body weight with a 20 h interval to induce cell division. After 8 h in 20deg;C water, the fish were injected intraperitoneally with colchicine 0.05% at 0.5 ml/50 g body weight to depress the cell division in the metaphase stage and left for 2 to 3 h before sacrificing. Kidney and gill epithelia were used for karyotype analysis. The diploid chromosome number of the fish was 2n = 50, consisting of 11 pairs of metacentric, 8 pairs of submetacentric and 6 pairs of telocentric chromosomes respectively. Centromeric index, arm ratio and Fundamental Number were determined as 0 to 50, 1-infin; and 88 respectively. No heteromorphic sex chromosomes were cytologically detected. Key words: Chromosome, Puntius conchonius, Dal Lake, karyotype. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/898048440383 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000002 en Copyright © 2011 Farooq A. Ganai and A. R. Yousuf
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:EC7B19040383 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Socio-economic evaluation of rural women and the estimation of profitability of fish marketing in four markets in Nigeria Yisa T. A., Tsadu S. M. and Mohammed I. The level of unemployment, poverty, hunger and disease is growing at an alarming rate in developing countries despite global technological and entrepreneurship development. Fish is known to be the most important food commodity handled by rural women in Katcha Local Government area of Niger State because of abundant water from River Niger and streams. This study examined the socio-economic characteristics of rural women involved in marketing; the problems and constraints associated with fish marketing, as well as its socio-economic benefits and profitability. Four markets randomly selected were used for data collection. Structured questionnaire was designed to elicit information from twenty (20) respondents in each selected market. Analytical tools used were simple descriptive statistics such as percentages and benefit cost ratio. The results showed that 32.5% of the respondents were within the age range of 36 to 45 years. The percentage profits margin were 10.33, 9.77, 8.48 and 7.26% for Katcha, Chapo, Dibbo and Ndalada markets while percentage of total profit were 32.23, 26.74, 22.34 and 18.68% respectively. Similarly, benefits/cost ratio for Katcha, Chapo, Dibbo and Ndalada markets were 1.10, 1.09, 1.08 and 1.07 respectively; indicating that fish marketing is a profitable venture. This index can be used as a tool for economic empowerment and poverty reduction among rural women. Key words: Rural women, fish marketing, poverty reduction, economic empowerment. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/EC7B19040383 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000034 en Copyright © 2011 Yisa T. A., Tsadu S. M. and Mohammed I.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:73E73CE40385 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Effect of beach seine height and mesh size on catch characteristics in the southern part of the Caspian Sea Seyed Aminollah Taghavi Motlagh, Saeed Gorgin, Hasan Fazli and Shahram Abdolmaleki Full Length Research Paper In this study, the influence of height and mesh size of beach seine net on the amount of fishing, length frequency and species composition of caught fish was examined. Two beach seine nets with 20 and 24 m heights and each net with 30 and 33 mm center part mesh size were used by two fishing cooperatives during 2008 and 2009. Rutilus frisii kutum and Mugil auratus were selected as a target fish in this study. Catch and biological data were measured and recorded. Results indicated that the height and mesh sizes used in the present study had significant effect on the catch characteristics in terms of amount of species, catch rates and species composition. Amount of catch was reduced in 24 m beach seine in comparison with 20 m height net both in 2008 and 2009. There were significant differences between fish caught by 30 and 33 mm mesh size net in 2008 and 2009. With an increase in size of mesh net from 30 to 33 mm, amount of R. frisii kutum catches increased but amount of M. auratus catches decreased. There was no any especial effect of height and mesh size on fish length. Amount of bycatch also increased in relation to net height from 20 to 24 m. Key words: Beach seine net, height, mesh size, quantity and quality of fishing, Caspian Sea. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/73E73CE40385 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000012 en Copyright © 2011 Seyed Aminollah Taghavi Motlagh, Saeed Gorgin, Hasan Fazli and Shahram Abdolmaleki
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:9511AE140389 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction is a sensitive diagnostic tool for detection of nodavirus infection in Macrobrachium rosenbergii D. P. Behera, K. Devdas and L. Nayak Full Length Research Paper Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured Palaemonid in the world. It is farmed on a large scale in many countries including India, once upon a time this species was considered as disease free animal but towards the later part of 2001, the hatchery and nursery pond of these animals suffered a massive loss due to a new viral disease named white tail disease. Till date different diagnosis has been established for detection of this disease but reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques is the most sensitive diagnostic tool among those present available for detection of MrNv (Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus). The designed primer fair (1F/1R) in 1st step PCR was carried out using 1 mu;l e DNA like wise in 2nd step RT-PCR product the nested primer 2nd 1 mu;l of 1st RT-PCR product were utilized. At the end of 8 mu;l of each step PCR product was analyzed by electrophoresis on 1% agarose gel along with sample. The confirm positive and negative sample were run in the gel, the gel electrophoresis of RT-PCR product positive control (Lane-3) is expected amplified product of about 489 bp size of noda virus presence in sample. Key words: Reverse transcriptase, diagnostic tool, nodavirus, Macrobrachium. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/9511AE140389 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000032 en Copyright © 2011 D. P. Behera, K. Devdas and L. Nayak
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:90FEDFC40391 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Growth and nutrient efficiency of meagre (Argyrosomus regius, Asso1801) fed extruded diets with different protein and lipid levels Silvia Martiacute;nez-Llorens, Javier Espert, Javier Moya, Miguel Jover Cerdaacute; and Ana Tomaacute;s-Vidal Full Length Research Paper Four commercial diets containing different levels of crude protein and crude lipid (44/25, 43/21, 46/20 and 47/20%) were assayed in duplicated groups in juvenile meagre (Argyrosomus regius) (initial individual weights were 94 g) in an experiment lasting 173 days. The essential amino acid contents (expressed in g/kg of diet basis) in diets 46/20 and 47/20 were higher than in diets 44/25 and 43/21. The HUFAs represented 184 and 207 g/kg in diets 46/20 and 47/20, respectively and 98 and 116 g/kg in diets 44/25 and 43/21, respectively. The fish fed diet 47/20 obtained the best growth and efficiency results, reaching a final individual weight of 393 g, followed by the meagre fed with diet 46/20. Meagre from the 47/20 group retained more of the ingested protein and energy than those fed diets 46/20. Fish fed 44/25 and 43/21 obtained the significantly lowest protein and energy efficiency. The retention of individual amino acids (AAs) in fish fed diets generally decreased in order of diets 46/20, 43/21 and 44/25. The IAA retention of meagre fed diet 47/20 was around 24.8% in phenylalanine and 39.7% in lysine. The results of the current experiment show that the fish fed commercial diet 47/20 obtained the best results in meagre growth, followed by fish fed diet 46/20. Diets 43/21 and 44/25 presented the worst growth and feed efficiency results. Key words: Meagre, protein level, lipid level, extruded diets. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/90FEDFC40391 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000020 en Copyright © 2011 Silvia Martiacute;nez-Llorens, Javier Espert, Javier Moya, Miguel Jover Cerdaacute; and Ana Tomaacute;s-Vidal
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:8A449C040394 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
A karyological analysis of Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) (Pisces, Cyprinidae), a new cytotype from Dal Lake Srinagar Kashmir, J&K, India Farooq A. Ganai and A. R. Yousuf Full Length Research Paper The karyotypic and cytological characteristics of Rosy barb, Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) (cyprinidae) were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes spreads from the anterior kidney following Thorgaard and Disney (1990). The fishes were obtained from the local fishermen and transported live to the Limnology and Fisheries Laboratory of Centre of Research for Development, University of Kashmir. Ten fish were injected intraperitoneally with two doses of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), 4 g g-1body weight with a 20 h interval to induce cell division. After 8 h in 20deg;C water, the fish were injected intraperitoneally with colchicine 0.05% @ 0.5 ml/50 g body weight to depress the cell division in the metaphase stage and left for 2 to 3 h before sacrificing. Kidney and gill epithelia were used for karyotype analysis. The diploid chromosome number of the fish was 2n = 50, consisting of 11 pairs of metacentric, 8 pairs of submetacentric and 6 pairs of telocentric chromosomes respectively. Centromeric index, arm ratio and Fundamental Number were determined as 0 to 50, 1-infin; and 88 respectively. No heteromorphic sex chromosomes were cytologically detected. Key words: Chromosome, Puntius conchonius, Dal Lake, karyotype. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/8A449C040394 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000001 en Copyright © 2011 Farooq A. Ganai and A. R. Yousuf
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:6D0121940393 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Fish colonization of artificial reefs in the Persian Gulf (Bandar Lengeh-Iran): Reef designs and seasonal changes of fish abundance Daniel Ajdari, Saeed Hajirezaee and Zahra Ajdari Full Length Research Paper Artificial reefs are used as a management tool to compensate for overfishing and anthropogenic degradation. In the present study, to find the best artificial structure for enhancing of fish yields, the values of total fish catch and its seasonal changes were investigated in different forms of artificial structures placed in costal waters of Persian Gulf (Bandar-e-Lengeh-Iran). For this purpose, eight treatments including different forms of artificial reefs, reef ball (RB), fish house (FH), non-designed materials (ND), RB+FH, RB+ND, FH+ND and RB+ND+FH and one control group (C) were established. At each site, the fish sampling were carried out every three months for one year. According to data, total fish catch was higher significantly in RB+ND+FH treatment than in other experimental reef structures. As well as, the total fish yields in spring season were significantly higher than in other seasons. The catch composition data showed that Epinephelus coioides with 65% allocates the main quota of total catch on experimental artificial structures. In conclusion, the results indicated that artificial structures especially a complex of RB+ND+FH are more suitable for enhancing of fish catch successes in inshore waters of Bandar Lengeh. Key words: Artificial reefs, reef ball, Persian Gulf. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/6D0121940393 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000018 en Copyright © 2011 Daniel Ajdari, Saeed Hajirezaee and Zahra Ajdari
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:754537340396 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Effect of stocking density on nutritive value of natural food and growth performance of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) reared in extensive aquaculture ponds Ceacute;lestin M. Bleacute;, Laurent Y. Alla, Antoinette A. Adingra, Seacute;bastien Niamkeacute; and Jacques K. Diopoh Full Length Research Paper The effects of stocking density (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 fish.m-2) on the nutritional value of the natural food source (total suspended solid (TSS) and sediment), diet quality and growth performance of fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus were studied in ponds. The nutritional value of TSS expressed in terms of hydrolysable organic matter (HOM) and total amino acids contents decreased with increasing stocking density. The quality of the sediment resource was not affected by the densities treatments. The percentage of HOM, total amino acids and the total amino acids-energy ratios of the food ingested by O. niloticus decreased with increasing stocking density. Digestibility of total organic matter (Ash free dry weight, AFDW) and total amino acids decreased with increased density (Plt;0.05), which ranged from 52.7 plusmn;19.3% to 29.8 plusmn; 14.7% and 60.4 plusmn; 24.5% to 39.7 plusmn; 16.8% respectively. There was a positive correlation between fish daily gain and dietary total amino acids, total amino acids-energy ratios, digestibility respectively. The high density (1 fish.m-sup2;) negatively affects food nutritional quality and growth performance of tilapia. Densities less than 0.5 fish.m-sup2; seem to be more adequate to obtaining the highest fish yields in practice of extensive aquaculture. Key words: Oreochromis niloticus, stocking density, natural food, nutritive value, growth, extensive aquaculture. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/754537340396 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.004 en Copyright © 2011 Ceacute;lestin M. Bleacute;, Laurent Y. Alla, Antoinette A. Adingra, Seacute;bastien Niamkeacute; and Jacques K. Diopoh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:0255DBF40398 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Parasites of landed fish from Great Kwa River, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria Ekanem A. P., Eyo V. O. and Sampson A. F. Full Length Research Paper Parasites of landed fish from the Great Kwa River, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria were studied. Parasitological examination of 180 fish samples belonging to 9 taxa from the River showed 50% incidence for Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus, 16.67% for Heterotis noloticus, Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia galileaus respectively and 0% for Hepsetus odoe, Arius gigas, Momyrus rume, Ethmalosa fimbriata and Cynoglossus senegalensis. Parasite infestations were found in the stomach and intestine, and no parasites were found on the fins, skin and gills. Nematodes, cestodes and protozoan were found in decreasing order of abundance. Diphyllobothrium sp. was found in the intestine of C. nigrodigitatus; Camallanussp. was found in the intestine of H. niloticus and T. galileaus while protozoan cysts were found in the intestine of C. garipinus. Parasites were more prevalent in the fish of 30 to 39.9 cm total length size range. The study determined that in the Great Kwa River the preferred organs of parasites were the intestines and stomach. Key words: Parasites, landed fish, Great Kwa River. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/0255DBF40398 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.072 en Copyright © 2011 Ekanem A. P., Eyo V. O. and Sampson A. F.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:3163A5940400 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Comparative effects of crude oil on juveniles Clarias gariepinus and Clarias anguillaris Awoyinka O. A., Atulomah E. and Atulomah N. O. S. Full Length Research Paper This study was based on biochemical assessment of the effect of crude oil spillage on marine life. Hence, life sustaining indices such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and free CO2 were analyzed in aquaria. However, a 96 h static acute toxicity test was also investigated on the juveniles Clarias gariepinus (African catfish) and Clarias anguillaris(mudfish) on exposure to different concentrations of crude oil polluted water. Over the period of the experiment there was an overall decrease in pH of the test vessel from 8.64 plusmn; 0.03 to 5.50 plusmn; 0.08. Decrease trend was also found in dissolved oxygen from 6.28 plusmn; 0.07 to 3.01 plusmn; 0.06 and free CO2 levels from 8.35 plusmn; 0.55 to 11.25 plusmn; 0.17. However as the concentration of crude oil increases the haematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), and white blood cell (WBC) reduced significantly (p le; 0.05) in both fish species. After 96 h, probit analysis showed the LC50 of crude oil for C. anguillaris to be 1.22 mg/L while that of C. garieinus was 2.19 mg/L. Overall, less insults was observed from the crude oil on C. gariepinuscompare to C. anguillaris that tend to elicit a low tolerance to the crude oil. Key words: Clarias gariepinus, Clarias anguillaris, crude-oil, LC50, and static-acute. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/3163A5940400 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.052 en Copyright © 2011 Awoyinka O. A., Atulomah E. and Atulomah N. O. S.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:2D381A440399 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Food and feeding habits of Ophiocephalus obscura (African snakehead) in the Cross River estuary, Cross River State, Nigeria George Ubong Uwem, Ekanem Albert P. and George Eni Full Length Research Paper Studies conducted on the food and feeding habits of Ophiocephalus obscura in the Cross River estuary, Cross River State, Nigeria, between February and April, 2009 revealed that the species feed mostly on food from animal origin, although diatoms and other plant materials were also identified. A total of 149 plant materials (15.95%) and 77 diatoms (8.24%) were consumed by the species. Food from animal origin consumed by the species included polychaete worm 110 (11.77%), shrimps 84 (8.99%), shrimp parts 33 (3.55%), juvenile fish 33 (3.33%), fish bones 44 (4.71%), fish scales 40 (4.28%), bivalves 61 (6.53%), insect larvae 2 (0.21%), adult insects 2 (0.21%), daphnia 62 (6.63%) and water snails 2 (0.21%). The condition factor calculated for the species varied during the study period with a mean value of 2.09 in February, 1.05 in March and 0.76 in April. Based on the food items isolated from the gut of the O. obscura, the species could be considered as a voracious carnivore in the Cross River system, while the variations in the condition factor of the species in the river system may indicate a period of high yield or otherwise of the species in the river system. Key words: Food, feeding habits, Ophiocephalus obscura, Cross River estuary. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/2D381A440399 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.074 en Copyright © 2011 George Ubong Uwem, Ekanem Albert P. and George Eni
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:4E2643B40405 2011-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Profitability analysis of small scale aquaculture enterprises in Central Uganda Theodora S. Hyuha, James O. Bukenya, Julius Twinamasiko and Joseph Molnar Full Length Research Paper The study had three overriding objectives. Firstly, to assess the profitability of small-scale aquaculture production enterprises in central Uganda; secondly, to ascertain the factors affecting profitability; and thirdly, to identify the constraints to fish farming in the region.The data were collected through a survey questionnaire administered to a random sample of 200 small scale fish farmers in the three major fish farming districts of Mpigi, Mukono and Wakiso in central Uganda. The analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics, enterprise budgeting and ordinary linear regression. Although the results show small-scale aquaculture enterprises to be profitable in the study region, the estimated profit margins are relatively small. Farming experience, fish price, record keeping, feed cost and volume of fish harvested were the most influential factors in explaining profitability. The key factors identified as hindrances to aquaculture development in the region included predators, unavailability of credit facilities, expensive feeds, shortage and poor quality of fingerlings. Key words: Aquaculture, enterprise budgets, profitability, Uganda, small farmers. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/4E2643B40405 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.069 en Copyright © 2011 Theodora S. Hyuha, James O. Bukenya, Julius Twinamasiko and Joseph Molnar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:02AAB3E40400 2011-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Histopathology of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles exposed to aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ipomoea aquatica leaf Ayoola Simeon Oluwatoyin Full Length Research Paper The effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ipomoea aquatica leaf on the histopathology of selected organs of the fresh water Oreochromis niloticus was investigated. The differential acute toxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of I. aquatica leaf on Nile Tilapia,O. niloticus were carried out under laboratory conditions. The LC50 after 96 h of exposure for aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ipomoea aquatica were 2.659 and 0.196 g/L, respectively. These values showed that ethanolic extract of I. aquatica was more toxic than its aqueous extract. Signs of agitated behaviours, respiratory distress and abnormal nervous behaviours including eventual deaths were observed in exposed fish. Control fish neither died nor exhibited any unusual behaviour. Histopathological changes of gill, liver and muscle were noticed when O. niloticus was exposed to aqueous extract of I. aquatica for 96 h. In the gills, filament cell showed lesion, necrosis, malignancy, cellular degeneration and inflammation. In the liver, there was vacuolation of hepatocytes, inflammation and necrosis. In the muscle there was mild lesion, necrosis, inclusion bodies, inflammation and cellular degenerations. Similar result was obtained when the tested organism (O. niloticus) was exposed to ethanolic extract of I. aquatica for the same duration and under the same laboratory conditions. But the level of tissue and organ degeneration is more severe in the case of the ethanolic extract than in aqueous extract. This investigation revealed that leaf ofI. aquatica has piscicidal property and can be put into use in the control and management of fish ponds by farmers. Therefore, this plant can actually be use as a biological control in eradicating predators and unwanted organisms in the ponds by farmer instead of using agrochemicals. Key words: Histopathology, Ipomoea aquatica, Oreochromis niloticus. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/02AAB3E40400 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.003 en Copyright © 2011 Ayoola Simeon Oluwatoyin
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:0EEAF7740401 2011-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Rheological changes of sea cucumber Stichipus japonicus during different heated times Xin Gao, Zhaohui Zhang, Lianfeng Liu and Qian Liu Full Length Research Paper Changes in tissue structure, weight, volume and rheological properties of sea cucumber meat were studied. Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus was heated at 70deg;C for 1, 2, 6, 10 and 24 h, respectively. Microscopic photograph revealed that the structure has significant changed. When heated from 1 to 24 h. The weight, volume, rupture strength, and elastic moduli of sea cucumber meat decreased greatly, but the relaxation time and viscosity showed positive correlation with heating time. These results confirmed that the change of texture and rheological properties of Sea cucumber meat was mainly due to thermal denaturation and gelatinization of collagen during heating. Key words: Sea cucumber, tissue structure, rheological properties, collagen. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/0EEAF7740401 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.003 en Copyright © 2011 Xin Gao, Zhaohui Zhang, Lianfeng Liu and Qian Liu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:F29658D40406 2011-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2011
Morphometric measurements and growth patterns of four species of the genus Synodontis (cuvier,1816) from Lower Benue River, Makurdi, Nigeria Akombo P. M., Atile J. I., Adikwu I. A. and Araoye P. A. Full Length Research Paper Relationship between basic morphometric measurements and growth pattern of four species of Synodontis from Lower Benue River was investigated bi-monthly from February toOctober, 2009 to determine variations and differences in the growth pattern of the different populations. Morphometric parameters of a total number of 195 specimens of Synodontisclarias, Synodontis membranaceus, Synodontis resupinatus and Synodontis schall were measured and evaluated by linear regression and correlation. There was a strong positive correlation between body weight and body girth, standard length and body weight, standard length and head length, standard length and body depth, standard length and snout length, standard length and eye diameter and body weight and eye diameter in S. clarias, S. membranaceus, S. resupinatus, and S. schall but the correlation between standard length and eye diameter and body weight and eye diameter in S. resupinatus were low. The growth pattern analysis depicts allometric growth in these species with their lsquo;brsquo; values less than 3. Key words: Synodontis, morphometric, Lower Benue River. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/F29658D40406 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.111 en Copyright © 2011 Akombo P. M., Atile J. I., Adikwu I. A. and Araoye P. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:33710CC5790 2012-01-09T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Effect of dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratios on growth, feed conversion, protein utilisation and body composition in climbing perch, Anabas testudineus M. Z. Ali, M. Zaher, M. J. Alam and M. G. Hussain Full Length Research Paper An 8-week feeding trial was conducted in a static indoor rearing system with 15 cylindrical fibre glass tanks (80 cm diameter, 75 cm deep, 70-L each) to investigate the optimum carbohydrate to lipid ratio (CHO:L ratio) in climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (2.15 plusmn; 0.07 g). Five isonitrogenous (40% crude protein) and isoenergetic (17.71 kJ g-1 gross energy (GE)) fishmeal based diets with varying carbohydrate to lipid (CHO: L g/g) ratios of 0.58, 0.99, 1.53, 2.29 and 3.00 diets 1 to 5, respectively were tested. These diets had a fixed protein to energy ratio (P : E ratio) of 22.60-mg protein kJ-1 GE. They were fed to triplicate groups of 50 fish at 5% body weight per day and the feed quantity was adjusted fortnightly. Diet 1, containing 11% carbohydrate and 17% lipid with a CHO: L ratio of 0.58 produced the poorest (Plt;0.05) growth rate, and feed and protein efficiency. Increasing dietary carbohydrate to 24%, concomitant with a reduction in lipid content to 10.50% that resulted in a CHO: L of 2.29 significantly improved (Plt;0.05) growth rate, and feed and protein efficiency. But, these did not differ from diets 2, 3 and 5, containing CHO:L ratios of 0.99, 1.53 and 3.00. Apparent net protein utilization (ANPU) in fish fed diet 5 was significantly higher (Plt;0.05) than those receiving diets 1 and 2, but did not differ from that of diets 3 and 4. Higher lipid deposition (Plt;0.05) in whole body was observed with decreasing dietary CHO: L ratios and increasing lipid levels. Whole body protein of fish fed varying CHO: L diets did not show any discernible variations among the dietary treatments. This study revealed that climbing perch, Anabas testudineus can perform equally well on diets containing carbohydrate ranging from 14.43 to 28.81%, with 9.60 to 14.64% lipid or CHO: L g/g ratios of 0.99 to 3.00. Key words: Climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, carbohydrate to lipid ratio, protein utilization, dietary lipid, carbohydrate level. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/33710CC5790 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.005 en Copyright © 2012 M. Z. Ali, M. Zaher, M. J. Alam and M. G. Hussain
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:E9222905804 2012-01-09T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
The sediment characteristic and benthic macro-invertebrate fauna of some fish ponds in Ife north local government area (LGA), Nigeria A. A. Adedeji, I. F. Adeniyi and O. R. Adetokunbo Full Length Research Paper This study investigated the sediment characteristics as well as the taxonomic composition of macrobenthic invertebrate faunae of some ponds in Ife north local government area,(LGA) Nigeria. The sediments were generally sandy, moderately acidic (pH range of 3.8 to 5.8) and well drained. The organic carbon of the sediment were within the usual range of 0.5 to 5% organic carbon while the nutrients (NO3-, PO43-, SO42-) varied from very low to moderate concentration in all the ponds. The failure for a buildup of organic material and nutrients to a very high level indicated that the wastes from the fish and exogenous feed were rapidly and completely broken down and thus does not develop to poor sediment characteristic. Macro-invertebrate fauna recorded were dominated by the molluscs typical of freshwater macrobenthic communities. Orders Architaeniaglossa and opisthobranchia were encountered with Melanoides (Melanoides) tuberculata of the order Architaeniaglossa being the most dominant taxon in the ponds. The abundance of pulmonates in these ponds showed that they were mesosaprobic ndash; eutrophic water bodies that are slightly polluted and nutrient rich. Key words: Poor sediment, organic carbon, acidic pH, nutrients, macrobenthic invertebrate. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/E9222905804 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA10.005 en Copyright © 2012 A. A. Adedeji, I. F. Adeniyi and O. R. Adetokunbo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:2B92C175848 2012-01-23T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Growth response and ionic regulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after chronic dietary copper exposure and recovery Ajani, E. K and Akpoilih, B. U Full Length Research Paper Effects of exposure of common carp juveniles (Cyprinus carpio L.) to dietary copper and its recovery rate were investigated with the aim of determining the growth and physiological impact. The fish were fed elevated copper diets (1000 and 2000 mgCukg-1 as diet 2 and diet 3 respectively) and control diet (5 mgCukg-, as diet 1) for 42days and were then fed the control diet for a further 21days. After 42days of exposure to elevated copper diets, growth performance examined showed that there was significant increase at (p lt;0.05) in feed intake, %body weight, weight gain and condition factor by fish fed diet 2 compared to diet 1 and diet 3. There was, however, no difference in specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, in all treatments (p gt;0.05). Hepatosomatic index increased significantly in fish fed both elevated diets compared to control diet (p lt;0.05). Recovery period on normal diet (control) showed no significant effect of copper recovery on fed intake, weight gain, %body weight, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio in all treatments (pgt;0.05), but, fish fed diet 2 showed a significant reduction in condition factor compared to other diets (p lt;0.05). Tissue Na+, Ca2+ K+ were disturbed throughout the experiment with sodium increasing from 257.82plusmn;2.50 to 388.14plusmn;1.32 mmol/g and calcium increasing from 499.54plusmn;6.81to 1025.94plusmn;9.16mmolg-1 reducing gill copper from 11.63plusmn;0.37to 0.00plusmn;0.00 mgCukg-1. Intestinal copper decreased from 14.93 plusmn;0.1 to 0.00plusmn;0.00 mgCukg-1 as a result of sodium increasing from 130.30plusmn;5.12 to 438.72plusmn;2.44 mmolg-1. Increased gill copper of the 1000 mgCukg-1 diet exposed fish during exposure compared to the control was due to copper induced decrease in plasma ion regulatory sodium (Na ATPase activity), which protected fish from direct toxicity effect and could also suggest another pathway other than the common Na/Cu apical channel shared between sodium and copper through which copper binds to fish gill; diet 2 fish showing significant increase at (plt;0.05) in haematocrit, red blood cell, white blood cell and neutrophil, and a significant reduction in lymphocyte and mean cell haemoglobin compared to diet 1 and diet 3, (p lt;0.05). This increase in blood indices is indicative of stress onset to which fish fed diet 2 is subjected. Fish fed diet 3 showed significant reduction in haematocrit, red blood cell, white blood cell and increased lymphocyte (p lt;0.05) and became anaemic with severe skin discoloration, indicative of a worsening effect of excess dietary copper exposure on the fish. There were no significant differences in moisture content of all tissues during and after copper exposure (p lt;0.05). Gills of fish fed diet 3 increased post-exposure, indicative of protection of the structural integrity of the gill to prevent hypoxia through oxygen supply from water. Key words: Chronic, dietary copper, growth, ionic regulation, exposure, recovery, common carp. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/2B92C175848 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.029 en Copyright © 2012 Ajani, E. K and Akpoilih, B. U
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:7CAA5595872 2012-01-23T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Effect of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate contents on the liver composition and enzyme activity of Cyprinus carpio communis fingerlings Muzaffar Ahmad., Qureshi T. A. and Singh A. B. Full Length Research Paper This study aimed to determine a feed formulation with best protein to energy ratio which would result in better liver composition and enzyme activity of Cyprinus carpio communis. Fingerlings having average weight 1.64 g plusmn; 0.13 and length 5.26 plusmn; 0.10 cm were fed on four different formulated feeds and a control feed (each in a triplicate set), 6% of their body weight, three times a day, during 90 days. Feeds were formulated using ground nut oil cake, mustard oil cake, rice bran, wheat bran, fish meal and soybean meal in order to suffice the balanced need of protein and energy of the common carp. Liver composition and acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of fingerlings were measured. There was a significant increase in liver lipid content with the increase in dietary carbohydrate level. The ACP and ALP activity was the maximum in the fingerlings fed on the diet having optimum protein to energy ratio of 20.54 mg protein/Kj. This work concluded that a diet containing 40% protein, 9.31% lipid and 10.08% carbohydrate is the best one for a more profitable and successful culture of the common carp. Key words: Protein to energy ratio, carp production, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/7CAA5595872 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.082 en Copyright © 2012 Muzaffar Ahmad., Qureshi T. A. and Singh A. B.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:41762715897 2012-02-09T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Effect of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate contents on the growth, feed efficiency and carcass composition of Cyprinus carpio communis fingerlings Muzaffar Ahmad, Qureshi T.A., Singh A.B., Susan Manohar, Kamlesh Borana and Salman Rouf Chalko Full Length Research Paper This study aimed to determine a feed formulation with best protein to energy ratio which would result in better growth, feed efficiency and carcass composition of Cyprinus carpiocommunis. Fingerlings having average weight 1.64 plusmn; 0.13 g and length 5.26 plusmn; 0.10 cm were fed on four different formulated feeds and a control feed (each in a triplicate set), 6% of their body weight, three times a day, during 90 days. Feeds were formulated using ground nut oil cake, mustard oil cake, rice bran, wheat bran, fish meal and soybean meal in order to suffice the balanced need of protein and energy of the Common carp. Growth, feed efficiency and carcass composition were measured. At the end of the study, the growth, feed efficiency and carcass composition of fingerlings was affected significantly (P lt; 0.05) with protein, lipid and carbohydrate contents in the feeds. Highest growth, best feed conversion ratio, best protein efficiency ratio, highest carcass dry matter, crude protein, crude lipid, ash and energy content, lowest moisture content and carbohydrate content were observed in fingerlings fed with Feed B which contained 40 plusmn; 0.21% protein, 9.31 plusmn; 0.25% lipid and 10.08 plusmn; 0.10% carbohydrate. The fingerlings fed with Feed C which contained 25.98 plusmn; 0.19% protein, 5.49 plusmn; 0.18% lipid and 34.63 plusmn; 0.19% carbohydrate showed least growth, poor feed conversion ratio, poor protein efficiency ratio, least carcass dry matter, crude protein, crude lipid, ash and energy content, highest moisture content and carbohydrate content. This work concluded that a diet containing 40% protein, 9.31% lipid and 10.08% carbohydrate is the best one for a more profitable and successful culture of the Common carp. Key words: Protein to energy ratio, carp production, growth, feed efficiency, carcass composition. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/41762715897 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.080 en Copyright © 2012 Muzaffar Ahmad, Qureshi T.A., Singh A.B., Susan Manohar, Kamlesh Borana and Salman Rouf Chalko
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:390E1B95909 2012-02-09T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Selectivity and fish catches of gillnets in stratum VII (Yeji sector) of Lake Volta for sustainable management Daniel N. Akongyuure, Patrick K. Ofori-Danson and Francis K. E. Nunoo Full Length Research Paper The study was conducted in Stratum VII (Yeji sector) of Lake Volta where commercial fishermen arbitrarily use gillnets, from June, 2009 to March, 2010. The catches of monofilament gillnets, the most dominant gear used in Stratum VII were investigated for dominant fish species composition and selectivity parameters. The study revealed the dominance of two fish species (Synodontis membranaceus and Schilbe mystus) which together contributed about 45% by number of gillnet catches. The optimum selection length (total length) of the 5 cm mesh size gillnet for S. membranaceus was 19.7 cm and S. mystuswas 18.2 cm. The result showed that using monofilament gillnets with mesh sizes 3 and 5 cm could have increase pressure on juvenile population. The mean monthly catch for the study period was estimated to be in the range of 0.3961 times; 10-3 ndash; 3.2427 times; 10-3 (standard deviation, delta;=1003.9) metric tonnes. With reference to precautionary approach to fisheries management, a legal minimum mesh size of gillnets of 8 cm may be appropriate for conservation and sustainable exploitation in Stratum VII. Key words: Catch, gillnet, management, selectivity, species. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/390E1B95909 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.067 en Copyright © 2012 Daniel N. Akongyuure, Patrick K. Ofori-Danson and Francis K. E. Nunoo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:0274B065919 2012-02-09T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Diversity of the edible fishes of the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria and the public health concerns based on their Lead (Pb) content F. E. Ajagbe, A. O. Osibona and A. A. Otitoloju Full Length Research Paper In this study, a total of eighteen fish species were recorded in the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria during a one year survey. Among the animals species recorded, the following, Galeoidesdecadactylus, Dentex gibbosus, Elops lacerta, Scomber japonicus, Ethmalosa fimbriata, Lutjanus agennes, Caranx senegallus, Callinectes amnicola, Paeneus notialis and Mytilus edulis were considered to be abundant in the Lagos lagoon based on the frequency of occurrence in fishermen catches. The analysis of the lead content in muscles of the edible fisheries revealed that the animals accumulated measurable quantity of lead in the edible parts. The level of lead detected in most (12 out of 18 species) of the fisheries species were found to be lower than the daily allowable concentration of 2.0 g/g standard recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Fishes species with high level of lead in their edible parts include Senegal jack, C. senegallus (2.188 g/g), Bobo croaker, Pseudotolithus elongatus (2.024 g/g), Cassava croaker, Pseudotolithus senegalensis (3.157 g/g), crayfish, Penaeus notialis (25.46 g/g), edible mussel, Mytilus edulis (17.69 g/g) and crab,Callinectes amnicola (10.19 g/g). The mean levels of lead in Mytilus edulis, Penaeus notialis, and Callinectes amnicola collected from the Lagos lagoon were about 8 to 24 times higher than the WHO daily allowable standards for lead in sea foods and are therefore unsafe for human consumption. The need for regular monitoring of the levels of metals and other contaminants in edible fisheries resources and collaboration between environmental, health and food agencies to avert human tragedies due to lead accumulation are discussed. Key words: Bioaccumulation, lead, industrial pollution, aquatic ecosystem, biomonitoring. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/0274B065919 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.040 en Copyright © 2012 F. E. Ajagbe, A. O. Osibona and A. A. Otitoloju
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:1FB802A5940 2012-03-09T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Economic analysis of fish hatchery operations in Ogun State, Nigeria Olaoye Olalekan Jacob and Oke Abdulfatai Olubukola Full Length Research Paper This paper examines the cost and returns, and the determinants of fish hatchery operations in agricultural extension zones of Ogun state. The simple random sampling method was used in selecting 120 fish hatchery operators out of 388 registered ones using multi-stage sampling techniques. The primary data were collected in 2010 production season with the aid of well-structured, validated and pre-tested interview guides, administered through face to face interview and direct observations so as to elicit information from the fish breeders. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The mean total income of N1,088,933.3, N1,072,133.3, N1,122,166.7 and N976,151.3 were generated on sales of fish seeds in the zones, respectively. The Benefit-Cost ratio of 1.4, 2.1, 2.6 and 2.8 in the four zones, respectively indicated that fish hatchery operations were profitable and viable enterprises. Poor marketing, poor genetic brood stocks, high inflation rate in the economy, poor infrastructural facilities and lack of finance were the major constraints hindering fish seeds production and development. Hence, hatchery operations are profitable and viable enterprises. There is a need for the establishment of brood stock banks to ensure genetically improved fish seed availability, provision of infrastructural facilities by the government and improve marketing strategy for fish seed. Key words: Fish hatchery operations, fish seed, cost, profitability, Ogun State. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/1FB802A5940 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.013 en Copyright © 2012 Olaoye Olalekan Jacob and Oke Abdulfatai Olubukola
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:E15D7635951 2012-03-09T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Bioactivity of venom extracted from the sea anemone Anthopleura asiatica (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Toxicity and Histopathological studies Ramkumar S., Arun Sudhagar S. and Venkateshvaran K. Full Length Research Paper The bioactivity of the venom from a locally available sea anemone, Anthopleura asiaticacollected from the Mumbai coast was studied. The crude venom from sixty sea anemones (Sixty numbers) was extracted in aqueous medium. The protein content of the crude venom was 4.3459plusmn;0.027 mg/ml. The crude venom was found to be lethal at 1ml when injected intra-peritoneal to kasuali strain male albino mice (20plusmn;2 g). The crude venom was partially purified by anion exchange chromatography using a step-wise gradient of 0.1-1.0M NaCl and 10 fractions each of 15 ml, F1 ndash; F10 were collected. Fractions F8, F9 and F10 exhibited lethality to mice, upon envenomation. The symptoms of toxicity observed in the mice indicated that the venom affected the central nervous, cardiovascular and urinary systems. Histopathological study revealed accumulation of polymorphic nuclear cells with necrosis in brain, hemolysis in heart, occlusion with hemolysed blood in kidney and necrosis, vacuolation with pleomorphic nuclear material and hemolysis in liver. Key words: Sea anemone, venom, toxicity, histopathology. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/E15D7635951 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.019 en Copyright © 2012 Ramkumar S., Arun Sudhagar S. and Venkateshvaran K.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:1612B6A5957 2012-03-09T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Nitrite intoxication of Clarias gariepinus at different water temperatures Ajani Funmilola and Adeyemo Olanike Kudirat Full Length Research Paper Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) of mean weight 320plusmn;11.2 g and total length 60.0plusmn;1.0 cm were exposed to nitrite (0.2 mg/l NO2) for 48 h at 27 and 35deg;C in order to investigate the effects of nitrite poisoning at these water temperatures. The effects of nitrite exposure on fish was assessed on selected haematological and biochemical indicators of the blood. The test was performed in a semi-static assay for 48 h. Fish were kept in thermostart ndash;controlled water baths each containing 15 L of test solution. Four groups each containing 8 specimens of 3 month old C. gariepinus were exposed to nitrite at the different water temperatures. Nitrite exposed fish showed lower haematocrit value (PCV) at both experimental temperatures compared with controls. Significantly higher PCV values were recorded in fish with nitrite at 27deg;C (36.67plusmn;0.57%) when compared with fish at 35deg;C (33.33plusmn;0.57%). A significant difference was also recorded for haemoglobin level and the erythrocyte counts. Leucocyte count in fish with nitrite at 270 C was significantly higher (Plt;0.05) compared to the count at 35deg;C. For Plasma Biochemical parameters, significant differences were observed between the 2 groups for K+ concentration (27deg;C, 4.9plusmn;0.10 mmol/l; 35deg;C, 4.1plusmn;0.12 mmol/l). Statistically significant differences were observed in plasma CI- and Na+ concentrations in fish at both temperatures. It has been established from this study that nitrite is more toxic at higher temperature. Key words: Haematology, plasma biochemistry, Clarias gariepinus, temperature. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/1612B6A5957 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.064 en Copyright © 2012 Ajani Funmilola and Adeyemo Olanike Kudirat
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:8DAA2955970 2012-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Evaluation of experimental infection with Aeromonas hydrophila in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) (Holmberg, 1887)* Silvia Patriacute;cia Carraschi, Claudinei da Cruz, Joaquim Gonccedil;alves Machado Neto, Flaacute;vio Ruas de Moraes, Oswaldo Durival Rossi Juacute;nior, Antonio Nader Neto and Neida Lucas Bortoluzzi Full Length Research Paper The aim of this work is to determine the concentration of Aeromonas hydrophila to be inoculated in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), so as to induce bacterial infection but not death during a period of at least ten days and, therefore, enable the development of treatment protocols. The tested concentrations were established through the Mac Farland scale and fish were subjected to three A. hydrophila infection concentrations (1.2 times; 107, 2.4 times; 107 and 1.5 times; 108 UFC.mL-1) through intracoelomic, intramuscular and subcutaneous injections. The clinical exam was done 24 h after inoculation, and the clinical signs suggested aeromonosis in all three groups. In the lowest concentration, animals demonstrated few clinical signs of disease, and in the highest concentration, all animals died within 24 h of aeromonosis induction with acute infection. In the intermediate concentration (2.4 times; 107 UFC.mL-1), all animals presented clinical signs of aeromonosis and kept living at the beginning of the time of treatment. Therefore, 2.4 times; 107 UFC mL-1 concentration was defined as viable for the study of experimental infection in pacu by A. hydrophila, as thefishes were kept alive at the beginning of the time of treatment protocol with pharmochemicals. Key words: Bacterial infection, fish, disease, antibiotics. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/8DAA2955970 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.008 en Copyright © 2012 Silvia Patriacute;cia Carraschi, Claudinei da Cruz, Joaquim Gonccedil;alves Machado Neto, Flaacute;vio Ruas de Moraes, Oswaldo Durival Rossi Juacute;nior, Antonio Nader Neto and Neida Lucas Bortoluzzi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:2CA1FC95985 2012-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
The effects of replacement of soybean meal by shrimp shell meal on the growth of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus) reared under brackish water Jean Fall, Yi-Theng Tseng, Diegane Ndong and Shin-Shyn Sheen Full Length Research Paper To evaluate the effects of complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) protein by shrimp shell meal (SSM) on the growth performance of hybrid tilapia (O. niloticus x O. aureus), five approximately isoenergetic and isonitrogenous (30% crude protein) diets containing 0, 33, 50, 67 and 100% SSM were fed to triplicate groups of ten fry with an initial mean weight 1.54 plusmn; 0.03 g/fish under brackish water (15 ppt) for sixty (60) days. Fish fed diet containing 100% SSM exhibited the lowest specific growth rate (SGR). There was no significant difference of SGR in the fish fed 0, 33, 50 and 67% SSM. The fish fed 0, 33 and 50% SSM had better feed conversion rate (FCR) value than those fish fed with 67 and 100% SSM supplement. The survival of juveniles ranged from 97 to 100%, being 97% for 0, 50, 67% SSM and 100% for 33 and 100% SSM. The weight gain was highest in fish fed diet without SSM, intermediate in fish fed diets with 33, 50 and 67% SSM, and lowest in fish fed diet with 100% SSM. The highest body protein content was observed in fish fed diets with 50 and 67% SSM compared to the initial fish. The lowest body protein content was obtained with the fish fed diet with 100% SSM. The tilapia fed diet containing 33 and 67% SSM had the highest body lipid content compared to the initial fish. There were no significant differences in body lipid content among the fish fed diet with 0, 50 and 100% SSM. No difference in body ash content was observed among treatments. Key words: Hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus, soybean meal, shrimp shell meal, brackishwater. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/2CA1FC95985 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.028 en Copyright © 2012 Jean Fall, Yi-Theng Tseng, Diegane Ndong and Shin-Shyn Sheen
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:683B87B6021 2012-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Aspects of the biology of trap caught Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede: 1803) from the New Calabar River, Nigeria A. Francis and U. Elewuo Full Length Research Paper Length and weight measurements of a population of 513 specimens of trap-caughtChrysichthys nigrodigitatus harvested between January and July (excluding May), 2010 were analyzed using the following softwares; FiSAT (Fish Stock Assessment Tool) and Popdyn JFB.xls. Results of the sampled population gave a total length range of 18 to 95 cm, Lmax (113.8 cm), Linfin; (116.8 cm), Lm (60 cm), Lopt (75.9 cm), and weight; 100 to 12,000 g indicating the promising nature of this trap fishery to make significant contribution to food security and socio-economic development if effective management of the fishery can be developed and enforced. The high percentage of occurrence (76%) of length at first maturity Lm is suggestive of the need for more confirmatory research that can lead to the enactment of a limited access fishery law in the form of closed season and closed area along this river system. The negligible occurrence of small sized individuals from catches indicated the appropriateness of this cylindrical metal trap as gear for the sustainable exploitation of C. nigrodigitatus fishery. Key words: Chrysichthys, trap, population parameter. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/683B87B6021 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.087 en Copyright © 2012 A. Francis and U. Elewuo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:024C3A56037 2012-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Microplanktic assemblages (sarcodines and alveolates) in the central and southeastern Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean) H. Miliou, K. Kapiris and I. Castritsi-Catharios Full Length Research Paper Spatial changes in the structure of microplanktic assemblages (sarcodines and alveolates) in the surface waters of coastal regions in the central and southeastern Aegean Sea were estimated during late summer to early autumn. Tintinnidae (Ciliophora), as well, Acanthometridae (Radiolaria) and Globiderinidae (Foraminifera) exhibited a higher abundance in the central Aegean Sea, compared to that in the more oligotrophic southeastern area of the same sea. Multivariate analysis revealed that the samples from the eastern Cretan Sea (South Aegean Sea) were highly distinguished from all the others and showed the highest densities of polycystines (Radiolaria), specifically of the families Thalassicollidae, Thalassosphaeridae, Sphaerozoidae (Collodaria), as well as of Actinommidae (Spumellaria) and Theoperidae (Nassellaria). In addition, the families Ceratiaceae and Prorocentraceae (Dinoflagellata) were more abundant in the southeastern than in the central Aegean Sea. It is indicated that the hydrographic conditions prevailing in the eastern Cretan Sea affected the structure of the microplanktic community in the surface layer. It is proposed that the assemblage of the identified radiolarian families belonging to Collodaria, Spumellaria (S) and Nassellaria (N), with a high S/N ratio, could be used as biological proxy of weak upwelling systems in the warm stratified waters of the oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean. Key words: Eastern Mediterranean, microplankton, sarcodines, alveolates, abundance, oligotrophic ecosystems. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/024C3A56037 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.093 en Copyright © 2012 H. Miliou, K. Kapiris and I. Castritsi-Catharios
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:3D9AB834061 2012-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Effect of repeated partial cropping on population dynamics and yield of Oreochromis niloticus (L.) during polyculture with Heterobranchus longifilis (Val.) Chukwuma O. Ofor, Udo I. Udo and Michael O. Udoidiong Full Length Research Paper The effect of repeated cropping of half the number of young and large adults on productivity and dynamics of Oreochromis niloticus was investigated during polyculture with Heterobranchus longifilis. Mixed-sex, large-sized and young adult tilapia of 841plusmn;0.3 g and 841plusmn;0.23 g were cultured with 40 catfish fingerlings in triplicate 36 m2 earthen ponds in 1 and 2 treatments respectively. At the 4th, 6th, 12th, 26th and 32nd week, cropping was done in treatment 2 and the weights of the crop were used to enrich supplementary feed, by displacing an equal weight of ingredients in treatment 1. Realized supplementary feed crude protein level was 12.9 and 18.3plusmn;5% in treatments 1 and 2 respectively. Feeding was at 1% body weight thrice daily. Weight data were analyzed with ANOVA and t-test. Surplus production of O. niloticus from treatment 2, calculated as sum of periodic harvest + final harvest minus final harvest in treatment 1, was 249plusmn;25 g per week. Treatment 2 had significantly higher H. longifilis harvest mean weight and growth rate (percentage per day) (plt;0.01), with densities (plt;0.05). It also has higher numbers of zooplankton and phytoplankton species, cyanophyceae and diatoms, as well as O. niloticus size susceptible to catfish predation. Chlorophyceae dominated the phytoplankton in both treatments. The implication of tilapia surplus production for catfish-tilapia polyculture is thus discussed. Key words: Oreochromis niloticus, partial harvest, population dynamics, compensatory growth, standing crop, surplus production, food availability, earthen pond. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/3D9AB834061 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA.9000013 en Copyright © 2012 Chukwuma O. Ofor, Udo I. Udo and Michael O. Udoidiong
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:B0646426070 2012-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Macroinvertebrates in streams: A review of some ecological factors Qazi A. Hussain and Ashok K. Pandit Review Macroinvertebrates are an important component of stream ecosystems and are a link in the transfer of material and energy from producers to top level consumers and also act as excellent bioindicators of stream health. This review discusses some of the factors whichregulate the occurrence and distribution of stream macroinvertebrates namely water current, temperature, substrate, drainage basin land use/land cover, vegetation, pH of water, drought, flood, food, shade and stream geomorphology. Key words: Macroinvertebrates, bioindicator, current speed, substratum, temperature, vegetation, flood. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/B0646426070 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.045 en Copyright © 2012 Qazi A. Hussain and Ashok K. Pandit
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:49264F76088 2012-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Attitudinal analysis of women involvement in fish processing and marketing in Ondo State S. D. Yomi Alfred, O. O. Odefadehan and M. E. Ukut Full Length Research Paper Generally, it is believed that attitude, to an extent, determines participation in any vocation. This study sets out to investigate and analyze the attitude of women involved in fish processing and marketing in Ilaje Local Government Area (LGA) of Ondo state. The study also determined the profitability and constraints faced by the respondents in the business. The influence of selected respondentrsquo;s socio-economic characteristics on fish processing and marketing were also determined. Data were collected with structured questionnaires. A total of 83 respondents were randomly selected across the wards in the LGA. The study revealed that the involvement of respondents in fish processing and marketing was significantly affected by age, marital status, household size and educational level. Furthermore, the study confirmed that women have negative attitude towards fish processing and marketing. The womenrsquo;s negative attitude was significantly determined by their perception that, fishing activities were stressful and repulsive and also by the use of crude methods of processing. Key words: Attitudinal, women, involvement, fish, processing. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/49264F76088 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.043 en Copyright © 2012 S. D. Yomi Alfred, O. O. Odefadehan and M. E. Ukut
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:52773376096 2012-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Toxicity of Parkia biglobosa pod extract on Clarias gariepinus juveniles R. O. Ojutiku, E. P. Avbarefe, R. J. Kolo and F. P. Asuwaju Full Length Research Paper The toxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Parkia biglobosa pods (95, 85, 75, 65 and 55 mg/l) on Clarias gariepinus was investigated under laboratory condition over a 96 h exposure period. Fish exposed to both extracts exhibited clinical signs including eventual death but was not observed in the control fish. Weight change in fish was observed as well as the effect of the plant on the water parameters. However, clinical signs and death were more in fish exposed to the ethanolic extract. It was concluded that aqueous and ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa pods are toxic to C. geriepinus juveniles with the ethanol extract being more toxic, which shows that apart from the bark of P. biglobosa, the pods has piscicidal property and can be put into use in the control and management of fish ponds to eradicate predators by farmers. Key words: Parkia biglobosa, pod, Clarias gariepinus, toxicity. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/52773376096 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.118 en Copyright © 2012 R. O. Ojutiku, E. P. Avbarefe, R. J. Kolo and F. P. Asuwaju
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:65093CA6100 2012-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Socio-economic characteristics of fish workers in Western Kenya Edward Olale and Spencer Henson Full Length Research Paper This paper analyzes and discusses the socio-economic characteristics of fish workers, with a focus on those based on the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. In particular, the paper considers the characteristics of fish workers in general and by type of fish work, beach location and income diversification strategy. Although, many characteristics of the fish workers were identified, six characteristics stood out: (1) 20% of the fish workers had secondary education, while 80% had primary or no formal education; (2) a fish worker had an average of seven dependents; (3) 98% of the fishers were males, while 83% of fish traders were females; (4) around 26% of fish workers had diversified their income; (5) 64% of the fish workers lived below the poverty line; and (6) fish workers who diversified income had lower incidence and depth of poverty. The results implied that income diversification is a potential way out of poverty among fish workers. Key words: Fish workers, socio-economic characteristics, poverty, income diversification. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/65093CA6100 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.122 en Copyright © 2012 Edward Olale and Spencer Henson
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:8581CEA7793 2012-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
The biology of Parachanna obscura (Osteichthyes: Channidae) in Anambra River, Nigeria Odo, Gregory E., Onoja S. U. and Onyishi Grace C. Full Length Research Paper The biology of a commercially important teleost, Parachanna obscura was studied for a period of twelve months. Monthly samples of the species were randomly collected from fishermen in the lower reaches of Anambra River, Southeastern Nigeria for the twelve months. The haematological profile established were mean haematocrit of 22.5%, mean blood haemoglobin concentration of 7.23 g/dl, mean red blood cell sedimentation rate 31.25 m, mean red blood cell count 3.72 (106/L), white blood cell count 2.81times;104/L, mean cell volume 60.75 m3 and mean corpuscular haemoglobin 19.5 pg. The blood groups are O+(10%), O- (90%), genotype AA (88%) and AS (12%). Digestive enzymes assays in the different gut regions of P. obscura revealed an array of glycosidase, proteases and lipases. The pattern of distribution and relative activity of the enzymes is consistent with its predatory diet. Total length (TL) ranged from 23.4 to 28.5 cm and weight from 86.0 to 140 g; males were not longer or heavier than females. Maturity occurred earlier in males than females; 50% of both sexes matured at 24.7 cm TL. Fecundity ranged from 126 to 1580 oocytes (mean 896 plusmn; 477 oocytes). Total length was a better predictor of fecundity than ovary weight. Index of food significance (IFS) showed that insect (51.67%) was the dominant food group, followed by fish (15.66%) and frog eggs (8.02%). Food items of primary importance were ephemeroptera nymphs, chiromomidae, unidentified insects and fishes. Key words: Anambra River, Parachanna obscura, digestive enzymes, haematological profile, blood groups. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/8581CEA7793 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.022 en Copyright © 2012 Odo, Gregory E., Onoja S. U. and Onyishi Grace C.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:12DD0037797 2012-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Evaluation of physicochemical parameters of waste water from rainbow trout fish farms and their impacts on water quality of Koohrang stream – Iran Firooz Fadaeifard, Mehdi Raissy, Mostafa Faghani, Alireza Majlesi and Gholamhossein Nodeh Farahani Full Length Research Paper Physicochemical parameters of rainbow trout farm water were evaluated to assess the potential of fish farm effluents on stream water quality. Seven fish farms were selected at Rostamabad region located on 70 km at south-west of Shahrekord-Iran. Water samples were collected from fish farms inlet and outlet at first and second sampling point. Significant differences were observed in some water factors such as total hardness, total dissolved solid, total suspended solid, COD, BOD5, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrite, nitrate and total ammonia between inlet and outlet water of fish farms where as there were no significant changes in pH, sodium chloride and water temperatures. All of the water factors because of self-purification potential of the stream were in desirable amounts in third sampling point. Feasibility study carried out to assess the distance for making consecutive fish farm along the stream. It was observed that it is possible to make consecutive fish farms at around 1500 m distance but it is depended on stream water discharge and self-purification of the stream. Key words: Water pollution, trout farm effluents, environmental impact, Koohrang stream. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/12DD0037797 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.007 en Copyright © 2012 Firooz Fadaeifard, Mehdi Raissy, Mostafa Faghani, Alireza Majlesi and Gholamhossein Nodeh Farahani
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:5BC81047805 2012-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Effects of feeding fry of Oreochromis niloticus on different agro-industrial by-products Emmanuel Delwin Abarike, Felix Yao Klenam Attipoe and Elliot Haruna Alhassan Full Length Research Paper This study was conducted at the Aquaculture Research and Development Centre at Akosombo, to observe the growth and economic performance of fry of Oreochromis niloticusfed on different dietary treatments. In the experiment, four isonitrogenous (36% crude protein) and isoenergetic (physiological fuel value gross energy (GE), 18 MJ/kg) diets were formulated to contain agro-industrial by-products including: wheat bran (diet 1), pito mash (diet 2), rice bran (diet 3) and groundnut bran (diet 4) and fed to fry of O. niloticus (average weight 0.11 plusmn; 0.01 g) stocked at 50 fish/m3 in out-door hapas for 8 weeks. The results showed that the growth performance was similar (P gt; 0.05) for fry of O. niloticus among all treatments. However, the incidence cost was highest (P lt; 0.05) for diet 4 and lowest for diet 2. Also, fishes fed on diet 2 had the highest (P lt; 0.05) profit index, while those fed on diet 4 had the lowest. It was therefore recommended that diet 2 be used in feeding fry of O. niloticus. Key words: Pito mash, rice bran, groundnut bran, wheat bran, incidence cost. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/5BC81047805 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.028 en Copyright © 2012 Emmanuel Delwin Abarike, Felix Yao Klenam Attipoe and Elliot Haruna Alhassan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:8E0E8027820 2012-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Oomycete infections in freshwater fishes S. A. Mastan, M. Radha Krishna Reddy and D. Sri Lakshmi Full Length Research Paper Mycological studies were carried out on fishes with fungal infection. A total of seventeen isolates of fungi were obtained from diseased fishes which belongs to five species namelySaprolegnia diclina, Saprolegnia ferax, Saprolegnia hypogyana, Saprolegnia parasitica andAchlya americana. All these fungi were isolated from six different species of fishes viz.Channa striatus, Channa punctatus, Clarias batrachus, Labeo rohita, Heteropneustis fossilis and Mystus cavasius. The parasitic ability of all the seventeen fungi was confirmed by conducting pathogenicity tests under laboratory conditions using healthy fishes of the same species. All the species of fungi were found to be pathogenic to fish, but Saprolegnia parasitica was more virulent showing infection within eight hours. Key words: Oomycetes infection, pathogenicity, freshwater fishes. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/8E0E8027820 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.054 en Copyright © 2012 S. A. Mastan, M. Radha Krishna Reddy and D. Sri Lakshmi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:558CEDF7829 2012-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Chemical composition of five marine microalgae that occur on the Brazilian coast Giselle S. Costard, Rodrigo R. Machado, Elisabete Barbarino, Ricardo C. Martinoand Sergio O. Lourenccedil;o Full Length Research Paper Five native species of marine microalgae were batch cultured and their chemical composition was measured in different growth phases. The highest cell yield was recorded in Chlorellasp. Chlorella sp. and Bellerochea sp. showed a reduction of the mean cell volume throughout growth. All microalgae showed protein as the main chemical component, with peaks in the exponential growth phase. The same was found for chlorophyll. Carbohydrates (Chlorella sp.), ash (Bellerochea sp. and Chlorella sp.), and lipids (Rhodomonas sp. andThalassiosira sp.) were relatively high in some of the species, at least in one of the growth phases. The carbohydrate content increased throughout growth, but no clear relationship among growth, total lipid and ash content was identified. Total saturated fatty acids were higher in the exponential growth phase of all species, decreasing throughout growth.Rhodomonas sp. showed high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), but low percentages of some essential fatty acids. Bellerochea sp., Chaetoceros sp. and Chlorellasp. showed low percentages of total PUFA, but all essential fatty acids were present, except for the green alga. Current results may contribute to selecting strains that possess suitable chemical composition and fast growth, useful characteristics for the sustainable use of native species in aquaculture. Key words: Microalgae, chemical composition, native species, growth, mariculture. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/558CEDF7829 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.092 en Copyright © 2012 Giselle S. Costard, Rodrigo R. Machado, Elisabete Barbarino, Ricardo C. Martinoand Sergio O. Lourenccedil;o
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:DA4340D7845 2012-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Serum protein pattern in interspecific and intergeneric hybrids of Heterobranchus longiflis, Clarias gariepinus and Clarias anguillaris in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) Akinwande A. A., Fagbenro O. A. and Adebayo O. T. Full Length Research Paper Electrophoretic characterization of Heterobranchus longifilis, Clarias gariepinus, Clarias anguillaris and their intergeneric and interspecific hybrids were carried out using 12% sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Twenty seven fish samples (three from each mating combination) were used and a total of 16 electrophoretic protein bands were scored. There were variations in the protein banding patterns especially among the hybrid mating combinations. The 14th, 2nd and 9th band resolved in H. longilis, C. gariepinus and C. anguillaris respectively are the only differentiating electrophoretic bands for their biochemical identification using SDS-PAGE. The interspecific and intergeneric hybrids also resolved the 6th and the 7th band respectively which were however absent in their putative parental species. Only the intergeneric hybrids resolved the 14th protein band also found in the parental H. longiflis in addition to the 2nd and 9th bands resolved in C. gariepinus and C. anguillaris, thus showing they are true fusion of two different species. Visual scoring of the protein bands shows that the hybrids resolved more of the maternal protein bands. The molecular phylogenetic tree constructed by Unweighted Pair-group Method with Arithmetic means (UPGMA) revealed that the various mating combinations generally have high genetic similarity. The similarity coefficients were 0.96 and 0.84 for the interspecific hybrids and the putative Clarias species, respectively. The parental H. longifilis was the most divergent with the least similarity coefficient of 0.75. This study recorded for the first time, the use of fish blood serum analysed using SDS-PAGE in the identification of H. longifilis, C .gariepinus, C. anguillarisand their various hybrid combinations. Key words: Electrophoresis, Heterobranchus longilis, Clarias gariepinus, Clarias anguillaris, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/DA4340D7845 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.012 en Copyright © 2012 Akinwande A. A., Fagbenro O. A. and Adebayo O. T.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:B54E4847856 2012-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Rheological and structural properties of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus during different heating temperature Lianfeng Liu, Zhaohui Zhang, Qian Liu, Bofeng Yang, Jinfa Huang and Xin Gao Full Length Research Paper Changes in tissue structure and rheological properties of sea cucumber meat during different heating temperature were studied. Tissue structure was observed using an optical microscope and scanning electron micrograph, and its characteristic values (Wm, Dm, Rm, C*) were enumerated using image processing and analysis technique. Rheological properties (E0, tau;1, eta;1, rupture strength) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters were obtained by stress-relaxation experiment and texture profile analysis experiment. The results indicated that the structure in heated samples had greatly changes comparing with the raw sample. Muscle fibers in heated samples shrank and subsequently reassembled, and the voids in muscular tissue tended to expand with heating temperature. The characteristic values (Dm and C*) gradually increased with heating temperature, however the Wm and Rm showed irregular change. Rheological properties (E0 and rupture strength) in heated samples were smaller than those in the raw samples and expressed the largest value at 70deg;C; however tau;1 and eta;1 gradually increased with heating temperature. Rheological properties (E, tau;, eta; and rupture strength) are mainly correlated with the characteristic values (Dm and C*). These results confirmed that the changes in texture and rheological properties of sea cucumber meat were caused by thermal denaturation of proteins. Key words: Sea cucumber, structure, rheological properties and thermal denaturation. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/B54E4847856 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.027 en Copyright © 2012 Lianfeng Liu, Zhaohui Zhang, Qian Liu, Bofeng Yang, Jinfa Huang and Xin Gao
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:E030A2D7866 2012-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Evaluation of a fast and simple method for measuring plasma lactate levels in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (L.) Rosa M. Serra-Llinares, Helge Tveiten, Boslash;rge Damsgaring;rd and Oslash;yvind Aas-Hansen Full Length Research Paper The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of measuring circulatory lactate levels in plasma from Atlantic cod using Lactate ProTM, a portable meter described for measuring whole blood lactate in this species. Atlantic cod were either unstressed or subjected to short- or long-term crowding stress. Whole blood was analyzed on site, and a strong positive relationship was evident between lactate concentrations measured in whole blood and 5 months later in frozen and thawed plasma. Our results indicate that the portable meter can be effectively used also to detect differences in plasma lactate in this species. Key words: Blood, exercise, portable meter, stress. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/E030A2D7866 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.068 en Copyright © 2012 Rosa M. Serra-Llinares, Helge Tveiten, Boslash;rge Damsgaring;rd and Oslash;yvind Aas-Hansen
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:2BDA2BF7884 2012-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2012
Histomorphological and anatomical study of kidney in berzem (Barbus pectoralis) Hassan Morovvati, Mahmood Khaksary Mahabady and Saied Shahbazi Full Length Research Paper The kidney of the vertebrate is the main organ which balances the body fluid homeostasis.Barbus pectoralis (Cyprinidae) inhabit Karoon River (Southwest Iran). There was no available report on anatomy and histology analysis of B. pectoralis. So in this study, the morphologic and microscopic features of kidney of B. pectoralis were recognized. A total number of 10 young fish freshly prepared from Karoon River in Khouzestan was used. After removing the kidney, it was immediately fixed in Bouinrsquo;s solution. Then, 5 to 6 m sections were made using paraffin embedding techniques and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and Periodic Acid Schiff. The results reveal that the kidney of B. pectoralis consisted of two lobes that are slender and long. Microscopic studies showed that the kidneys consisted of excretory portion and hematopoietic-lymphoid tissues. Excretory portion of kidney parenchyma consisted of renal corpuscle and urinary tubules. The neck segment consists of a single layer of ciliated cuboidal or low columnar epithelial cells. The proximal tubules consisted of tall columnar cells with well-developed brush border. Two proximal tubule segments were distinguished by the different height of the cells and brush border. The distal tubules had pale columnar epithelial cells and oval nuclei situated in basal area without brush border. The collecting tubules lined with high cuboidal epithelium. The result shows that although the kidney structure of B. pectoralis has many similarities to other fish species kidney like Cetenopharyngodon idella and Barbus sharpeyi, it also has considerable structural differences. Key words: Histology, anatomy, Barbus pectoralis, kidney, hematopoietic, renal corpuscle. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/2BDA2BF7884 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.082 en Copyright © 2012 Hassan Morovvati, Mahmood Khaksary Mahabady and Saied Shahbazi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:2F4C7E55878 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Toxic effect of potassium permanganate on Oreochromis niloticus based on hematological parameters and biomarkers of oxidative stress Ranzani-Paiva, Julio V. Lombardi, Solange de Carvalho, Francisco Filipak-Neto and Ciro A. Oliveira-Ribeiro Full Length Research Paper Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is an oxidizing agent used in aquaculture for many years. Despite its known efficacy for the treatment and prevention of fish diseases, information about their potential toxicity in non-target organisms is still very limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sublethal effects of potassium permanganate (1.0 and 4.0 mg L-1) on Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, using hematological analysis and oxidative stress (reduced glutathione concentration, glutathione S-transferase activity, catalase and lipid peroxidation) as biomarkers. Fish exposed to a concentration at 1.0 mg L-1 had no significant variations in blood parameters. At 4.0 mg L-1, the changes in hematological parameters of the exposed animals indicated hemolysis as a result of the oxidizing action of potassium permanganate. Regarding the oxidative stress analyses, only the reduced glutathione presented significant increase in fish exposed to potassium permanganate, indicating adaptive and protection responses against the oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that concentrations of potassium permanganate (1.0 to 4.0 mg Lminus;1) usually recommended for the treatment of fish diseases, can be toxic to Nile tilapia (O. niloticus). Key words: Potassium permanganate, Nile tilapia, hematology, oxidative stress. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/2F4C7E55878 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.050 en Copyright © 2013 Ranzani-Paiva, Julio V. Lombardi, Solange de Carvalho, Francisco Filipak-Neto and Ciro A. Oliveira-Ribeiro
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:A701B805906 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Comparative survey of helminth parasites of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) and Clarias pachynema (Boulenger, 1903) from the Ogun River and Asejire Dam in south-west Nigeria Jakeline G. Franccedil;a, Maria J. T. Salawu M. T., Morenikeji O. A., Sowunmi A. A. and Odaibo A. B. Full Length Research Paper A total of 250 randomly selected fish specimens consisting of 72 Clarias gariepinus and 51Clarias pachynema from Ogun River around the cattle market, Isheri, Ogun State. 73 C. pachynema and 54 C. gariepinus from Asejire Dam (which has not been reported to be polluted) in south-west Nigeria were sampled for helminth infection between September 2008 and February 2009. All helminthic infections observed and recorded were restricted to the stomach, intestine and gill chamber. The helminths recovered included three cestodes,Wenyonia sp., Polyonchobothrium sp. and Pleurocercoid larva, a nematode, Procamallanussp. and one digenean, Clinostomum sp. Prevalence and mean intensity of parasitic infectionwere higher in specimens from the Ogun River than those from the Asejire Dam. Overall, parasite prevalence of 75 and 45.1% were recorded for C. gariepinus and C. pachynema from the Ogun River, respectively, while 25.9 and 31.5% were recorded for C. gariepinus and C. pachynema, respectively, for the Asejire Dam. Male C. gariepinus from the Ogun River had the highest infection rate (76.5%), while those from Asejire Dam had the lowest (21.43%). No significant difference in the prevalence of parasitic infection in relation to the host sizes (P gt; 0.05) was recorded; however, largest size fishes had no parasitic infection. Clinostomum sp.was found only in C. gariepinus and C. pachynema from Ogun River. Key words: Sharptooth catfish, Clarias pachynema, helminth parasites, south-west Nigeria. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/A701B805906 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.072 en Copyright © 2013 Jakeline G. Franccedil;a, Maria J. T. Salawu M. T., Morenikeji O. A., Sowunmi A. A. and Odaibo A. B.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:9C533ED5927 2013-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Production and marketing systems of farmed tilapia in China Matlala Moloko P., Kpundeh Mathew D., and Yuan Yongming, Review Tilapia has become one of the major species of aquatic products in close link with both domestic and international markets. Nowadays, the demand for fish and fisheries product has being exacerbated by the continued increase in human population the world over. This was due to the fact that global captured fishery was declining following the increased human exploitation for the commercially important fishes. Aquaculture or fish farming has become one of the solutions to maintaining the continuous supply of fish to commercial markets. China was by far the largest producer and exporter of tilapia products irrespective of some constraints such as soaring production costs, price and weather fluctuations. In the country, tilapia production was mostly carried out in the southern and southeastern coastal areas where subtropical conditions favored the growth and reproduction of the species. This paper reports on production and marketing systems of tilapia in China. Tilapia products produced in China had to pass through different channels before reaching their final consumers. Major international markets for tilapia products produced in China included among others, the United State, European Union and Russia. This work will guide potential investors and competitors for tilapia market in China and the world at large. Key words: Tilapia production, marketing system/channels, export, China. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/9C533ED5927 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.084 en Copyright © 2013 Matlala Moloko P., Kpundeh Mathew D., and Yuan Yongming,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:B50B78D5937 2013-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Utilization of the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae in the diet of Heteroclarias fingerlings C. O. Monebi and A. A. A. Ugwumba Full Length Research Paper The earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae was cultured for 12 weeks and its meal utilized as a replacement for fish meal in the diet of fingerlings of the mud catfish hybrid (Heterobranchus longifilis X Clarias gariepinus) called Heteroclarias. Two hundred and seventy adult E.eugeniae were cultured in three substrates: Soil, cellulose, or a mixture of cellulose and soil. The worms were harvested at the end of the culture period, processed by oven-drying and grounded into powdery form as earthworm meal. Cellulose substrate was the best for E.eugeniae culture with the highest weight gain and relative growth rate. The earthworm meal produced was used to replace commercial fish meal in five compounded diets at levels of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 or 100%. The diets were fed to Heteroclarias fingerlings to evaluate the effect of earthworm meal in comparison with fish meal on the growth and nutrient utilization of the fingerlings. The feeding experiment was carried out in 40 L plastic tanks using 5 tanks per treatment and 15 fingerlings per tank, and the fingerlings were fed 5% of their body weight on a daily basis for 10 weeks. Highest mean weight gain was in fish fed 75% earthworm meal, while relative and specific growth rates were highest in fish fed 25% earthworm meal and lowest in fish fed the control diet. Food conversion ratio was lowest in fish fed 50% earthworm meal and highest in fish fed 100% earthworm meal. These results indicate that replacement of fish meal with earthworm meal at 50 to 75% inclusion level is suitable for optimal growth performance and nutrient utilization in Heteroclarias fingerlings. Key words: Eudrilus eugeniae, culture substrates, Heteroclarias, growth rate. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/B50B78D5937 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.092 en Copyright © 2013 C. O. Monebi and A. A. A. Ugwumba
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:FD614155984 2013-03-21T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Evaluation of soybean meal as protein source for Argyrosomus Regius (Asso, 1801) (Sciaenidae) Jorge Velazco-Vargas, Silvia Martiacute;nez-Llorens, Miguel Jover Cerda and Ana Tomaacute;s-Vidal Full Length Research Paper The meagre (Argyrosomus regius) is a carnivorous fish which requires diets with higher protein content, causing an increment in diets cost. A way to diminish this cost is to use vegetable meals like soybean meal (SB). So the aim of this trial was to determine the optimum inclusion level of defatted soybean meal in experimental diets for this species. 800 fishes (165 g) were distributed in 8 tanks, two replicates per treatment. Four isoproteic (50% CP) and isolipidic (17% Cl) diets were formulated with four levels of soybean meal inclusion, 0, 15, 30 and 45%. The trial lasted 107 days. Meagre fed diets 15 and 30% obtained the highest final weight. There were no significant differences among treatments in the feed conversion rate (FCR) and the protein efficiency (PER). According to the quadratic regression, the optimum SB inclusion to maximize thermal growth coefficient (TGC) was 26.4% and for FCR was 27.6%. No significant differences were observed in energy, protein and amino acid retention among diets. The inclusion of SB in meagre diets can generate a decrease in the use of fish meal and in turn reduce the cost of producing meagre Mediterranean aquaculture industry. Key words: Argyrosomus regius, fish meal replacement, defatted soybean meal, economic analysis. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/FD614155984 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.062 en Copyright © 2013 Jorge Velazco-Vargas, Silvia Martiacute;nez-Llorens, Miguel Jover Cerda and Ana Tomaacute;s-Vidal
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:5402A7B5948 2013-03-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Comparative growth performance of male and female freshwater prawn Macrobrachium tenellum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) cultured in tropical earthen ponds Jesuacute;s T. Ponce-Palafox, Fermiacute;n Loacute;pez Uriostegui, Mario Alfredo Beniacute;tez Maldujano, Sergio Castillo Vargasmachuca, Aurelio Beniacute;tez Valles, Julio Goacute;mez Gurrola and Joseacute; Luis Arredondo-Figueroa Short Communication The purpose of the present study was to determine the performance growth and yield of male and female Macrobrachium tenellum, cultured in earthen ponds. A total of 6 earthen ponds containing 1,400 plusmn; 50.0 m2 of water and a depth of 0.85 m were used. A total of 19,600 juvenileM. tenellum were introduced into each pond to a stocking density of 14 org m-2. The final length, final weight, specific growth rate, weekly growth rate and yield presented significant differences (P lt; 0.05) between sexes, with the males exhibiting higher values of these indicators. The survival rate was higher in females (65.0%). The total yield obtained in this culture reached 1,603 kg ha-1. Key words: Macrobrachium tenellum, specific growth rate, weekly growth rate, survival rate, feed conversion. rate. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/5402A7B5948 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.093 en Copyright © 2013 Jesuacute;s T. Ponce-Palafox, Fermiacute;n Loacute;pez Uriostegui, Mario Alfredo Beniacute;tez Maldujano, Sergio Castillo Vargasmachuca, Aurelio Beniacute;tez Valles, Julio Goacute;mez Gurrola and Joseacute; Luis Arredondo-Figueroa
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:3D2177B5967 2013-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Effects of smoke-drying temperatures and time on physical and nutritional quality parameters of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Idah, Peter Aba and Nwankwo, Ifannyi Full Length Research Paper Effects of smoke-drying temperatures and duration of drying on the quality of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) samples were investigated by smokendash;drying Tilapia fish under three different temperatures (50, 60 and 70deg;C) and three drying times (5, 10 and 15 h) using modified drum kiln dryer. The proximate compositions of the fresh and dried fish were evaluated and the sensory evaluation of the organoleptic parameters was assessed. The drying temperatures and duration of drying have different effects on the quality of the smoke-dried fish. The moisture contents of the samples were reduced from the initial value of 75.11% to average safe storage values of 15.30 and 17.95% after smoke-drying at 60deg;C for 15 h and at 70deg;C for 10 h, respectively. The results showed that the crude protein, crude fibre, crude lipid and ash contents of the dried fish generally increased from the initial values as the moisture content decreased. It can be concluded from the results of this study that the best smoked fish with good quality parameters in terms of nutrient and organoleptic parameters were the products dried at 60deg;C for 15 h and 70deg;C for 10 h. Key words: Fish, smoke-drying, drying temperatures, drying time, proximate composition, organoleptic parameters. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/3D2177B5967 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.078 en Copyright © 2013 Idah, Peter Aba and Nwankwo, Ifannyi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:F73DE686041 2013-04-21T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Temperature-dependent egg development rates, hatchability and fry survival rate of Lake Malawi Tilapia (Chambo), Oreochromis karongae (Pisces: Cichlidae) Valeta J. S., Likongwe J. S., Kassam D. and Maluwa A. O. Full Length Research Paper A study was conducted to assess the effect of temperature on egg development in an attempt to improve hatching success and fry production in Oreochromis karongae. Temperature-dependent development rates and hatching period for fertilized eggs stripped from O. karongae, a mouth brooder, were determined in a recirculating system set up in a hatchery at the National Aquaculture Center, Domasi, Malawi. Three treatments namely; 25, 27 and 29C, were replicated thrice in 2-L Macdonald type incubation jars stocked with 265 fertilized stage 1 eggs of O. karongae, at water flow rate of 0.15 L/s. There was a curvilinear relationship between temperature and egg development, which was best described by a logarithm regression function. Hatching period decreased with increase in incubation temperature. The shortest hatching period was 7.3 days, which was observed at the highest incubation temperature (29deg;C) while the longest hatching period was 14.7 days, observed at the lowest temperature (25deg;C). Hatchability and fry survival were higher at higher temperatures. The study has, for the first time, ably described O. karongae egg development rates which suggest that increasing incubation temperature holds the potential to increase fry production, which is currently a bottleneck. Key words: Oreochromis karongae, temperature-dependent, egg development rates, hatchability, survival, hatching period. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/F73DE686041 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.056 en Copyright © 2013 Valeta J. S., Likongwe J. S., Kassam D. and Maluwa A. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:CA4F4FA6014 2013-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Recent changes in fish communities of the equatorial Lake Naivasha, Kenya Aloo P. A., Oyugi D. O., Morara G. N. and Owuor M. A. Full Length Research Paper Changes in fish species composition and abundance in Lake Naivasha were investigated monthly for a period of 12 months. Data were obtained both from experimental surveys as well as commercial fish landings. The structure metrics considered included species abundance and composition, length- frequency and physico-chemical attributes. Results of the study showed that the fishery is currently dominated by the recently introduced common carp,Cyprinus carpio accounting for over 95% of the total fish landings, with the naturalized fish populations performing dismally both in terms of abundance as well as health conditions. The entry of the common carp into Lake Naivasha may have completely transformed the lakersquo;s ecosystem integrity, driving the initially abundant tilapiine species to near local extinction. The study also confirms a restricted distribution of Micropterus salmoides to rocky-bottomed habitats of Hippo Point and Crescent Lake. Conversely, the long-fin barb, Barbus paludinosus,initially confined to the north swamp and the mouth of River Malewa, currently exhibits a lake-wide distribution. The changing climatic conditions as manifested in the lake level recessions may be a real threat to the fish stocks in the lake. Human activities in the catchment areas may also have contributed to the recent ecological changes witnessed in Lake Naivasha. This study proposes a number of recommendations with a view to ensuring ecosystem integrity and consequent sustainable fisheries of Lake Naivasha. Key words: Ecosystem integrity, habitat preference, species introductions, sustainable fisheries, fish population, equatorial lake. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/CA4F4FA6014 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.037 en Copyright © 2013 Aloo P. A., Oyugi D. O., Morara G. N. and Owuor M. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:5F617A546107 2013-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
The effects of replacement of fish-meal with crab-meal on growth and feed utilization of African giant catfish Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings Reginald Inodu Keremah Full Length Research Paper A feeding experiment was conducted in plastic aquaria (46 acute; 38 acute; 28 cm3) to investigate the effect of replacing fish-meal (FM) with crab-meal (CM) on growth, feed utilization and body composition of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings with body weight, 3.11 plusmn; 0.56 - 8.48 plusmn; 1.70 g and total length, 73.07 plusmn; 4.99 - 98.69 plusmn; 7.64 mm. Fish and crab-meal were separately used to produce feeds containing 30, 35 and 40% crude protein (CP) and fed to fish for 10 weeks at 5% body weight. The results show that fish fed with 40% CP fish-meal diet had the best growth as indicated in mean weight gain, 6.99 plusmn; 1.70 g; specific growth rate, 4.05 plusmn; 0.19% day-1; feed conversion ratio, 1.12 plusmn; 0.06 and protein efficiency ratio of 2.28 plusmn; 0.12. Diets with FM performed better than CM diets. Percentage survival rate for FM and CM containing diets varied between 91.0 plusmn; 1.63 and 100% and the condition of fish was not significantly different (P gt; 0.05). Apart from whole body levels of CP in FM fed fish, moisture and fat contents were unaffected by dietary treatments. Deficiency in some essential amino acids and higher dietary ash levels in CM probably impaired effective utilization of these diets compared to FM. Crab-meal diets show appreciable performance and could have potential use as a partial replacer of FM at a particular level. Key words: Heterobranchus longifilis, fish-meal, replacement crab-meal, growth, food utilization. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/5F617A546107 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA2013.0332 en Copyright © 2013 Reginald Inodu Keremah
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:95506BB7767 2013-05-23T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Evaluation of the nutritional quality of four unexplored wild food plants from Arunachal Himalayas for the formulation of cost effective fish feeds Kalita Pallabi, Hui Tag and A. K. Das Full Length Research Paper Wild food plants used by the tribes of Arunachal Himalaya (Northeast India) found to be highly nutritious to maintain general balance diet. A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional potential of four commonly found, unexplored wild food plants namely, Angiopteris evecta,Amaranthus viridis, Celosia argentea and Monochoria vaginalis used by the tribes of Arunachal Himalaya to ascertain their feasibility for the formulation of cost effective commercial fish feeds. Study revealed that M. vaginalis and A. evecta stood to be the most promising species in terms of nutritional content out of the four wild food plants investigated for low cost and balanced fish diet. Key words: Wild food plants, cost effective fish feeds, nutritional potential, antinutrient, Arunachal Himalaya Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/95506BB7767 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.078 en Copyright © 2013 Kalita Pallabi, Hui Tag and A. K. Das
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:96E4C006091 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
First ever record of a threatened onespot barb fish, Puntius terio (Hamilton) from Arunachal Pradesh, India: A biodiversity hot spot Keshav Kr. Jha, Onong Tamuk, Tapan Kr. Ghosh and Vibhash Ch. Jha Full Length Research Paper Arunachal Pradesh is geographically the largest state in North-East region of India with rich lentic and lotic water resources. The state has more than 7000 ha of lentic water and 2000 km of lotic water resources. Arunachal Pradesh is the 18th hot spot of the world in view of the richness of biological diversity. It constitutes high endemism and comparatively higher incidence of rare and threatened taxa. Available literature suggests that Puntius terio has not been reported earlier from the aquatic habitat of Arunachal Pradesh except in West Bengal, Assam, Manipur and Tripura in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. This fish has incomplete lateral line with 22 to 24 scales on the lateral line, barbels absent, dorsal fin spine smooth and osseous and round golden-edged black blotch on 16th to 18th scales. The present finding of the threatened fish, P. terio requires its conservation in the water system of the biodiversity hot spot, Arunachal Pradesh. Key words: First ever record, threatened, Puntius terio, Tango Epong stream, Arunachal Pradesh. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/96E4C006091 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA2012.0003 en Copyright © 2013 Keshav Kr. Jha, Onong Tamuk, Tapan Kr. Ghosh and Vibhash Ch. Jha
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:5560FF87752 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Influence of dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization and carcass composition of snakehead, Parachanna obscura (Günther, 1861) fingerlings Diane N. S. Kpogue, Grace A. Ayanou, Ibrahim I. Toko, Guy A. Mensah and Emile D. Fiogbe Full Length Research Paper Five isoenergetic semi-purified diets were formulated to evaluate the effects of dietary crude protein levels on growth and feed utilization of snakehead, Parachanna obscura (4.08 plusmn; 0.07 g). Experimental diets were formulated to contain graded levels of crude protein (CP; 30, 40, 45, 50 and 60 g/100 g of diet). Fish feed on the tested diet in triplicate for 45 days. Seventy fingerlings were stocked per a 225 L cement tank. Growth performances and nutrient utilization parameters of fingerlings fed different diets varied significantly (P lt; 0.05) and the highest growth performance and nutrient utilization were obtained with fish fed on a 50% CP diet. The relationship between the dietary CP and specific growth rate (SGR) indicated that protein requirements of P. obscura fingerlings ranged from 42.5 to 53.5% of diet. Key words: Parachanna obscura fingerlings, protein requirements, growth performances, nutrient utilization. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/5560FF87752 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.074 en Copyright © 2013 Diane N. S. Kpogue, Grace A. Ayanou, Ibrahim I. Toko, Guy A. Mensah and Emile D. Fiogbe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:167203C7756 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
An assessment on red tilapia stocks in Malaysia using microsatellite markers K. V. Karuppannan, I. Noraida and S. Oyyan Full Length Research Paper Tilapia is an important farmed freshwater fish in Malaysia. Freshwater aquaculture production statistics showed that tilapia topped the list for several years. On the choice of colour, the Malaysian aquaculture industry has always preferred the red hybrids. Statistically, red tilapia represented 86% of the total local tilapia production. One of the constraints faced by the industry is seed stock quality. There are quite a number of private hatcheries in Malaysia producing tilapia fingerlings and not much is known about their quality with respect to their genetic variability. There are self-claims by certain hatcheries that their red tilapia fingerlings have better growth performance than others. It is believed that these strains were sourced from outside the country. Thus, we have attempted to evaluate stocks used for a genetic improvement program by assessing their relationship using microsatellite markers. Twenty pairs of primers were tested on four study populations and one standard population, which were PKPS (PS), Bentong (BT), Enggor (EG), Negeri Sembilan (NS), and Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) Tilapia (GT) as the standard population. The GIFT population referred to is a Nile tilapia stock. Their dendrogram relationship showed that the heterozygosity value was the highest at more than 50% which indicated the presence of high genetic variability. Moreover the Bentong populations clustered the furthest with the highest genetic distance in relation to the other four populations. Key words: Tilapia, microsatellite, population genetics Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/167203C7756 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.037 en Copyright © 2013 K. V. Karuppannan, I. Noraida and S. Oyyan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:5DF9CF37774 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Essentiality of calcium supplement in the diets of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerlings I. A. Adebayo and B. O. Omitoyin Full Length Research Paper An 84-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of calcium (Ca) supplemented diets on growth and body mineral composition of Heterobranchus bidorsalis, initial mean weight (5.05 plusmn; 0.31 g). Glass aquaria (70 times; 45 times; 40 cm) each filled up to 70 L of its volume with Ca -free water were used for the experiment. Eleven practical diets were formulated to contain graded levels of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) at 0 (Control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0%, respectively. Each diet was fed twice daily (08:00 and 16:00) to triplicate groups of fish at 15 fish per replicate. Fish fed DVI (2.5% CaCO3) had the best growth response in terms of final mean weight gain (MWG) (16.3 plusmn; 1.30) g; specific growth rate (SGR) (1.15 plusmn; 0.12) and feed conversion ratio (1.43 plusmn; 0.20). Protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein utilization (NPU) values were significantly (P gt; 0.05) highest (3.69 plusmn; 0.10; 3.07 plusmn; 0.15) in fish fed DVII and DVIII, respectively. Highest values of magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) (13.9 plusmn; 0.12; 36.98 plusmn; 0.21) mg/g were recorded in fish fed DVI and DXI, respectively. The feeding trial confirmed that Ca supplementation would be necessary in the diet of H. bidorsalis for maximum growth and body mineralization. Key words: Heterobrachus bidorsalis, calcium supplement, growth performance, body mineral. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/5DF9CF37774 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA2012.0327 en Copyright © 2013 I. A. Adebayo and B. O. Omitoyin
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:293C2059385 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Ichthyofauna characteristics of a tropical low brackish open Lagoon in South-western Nigeria Emmanuel, B. E. and Osibona, A. O. Full Length Research Paper The fish fauna of Lekki lagoon in south-western part of Nigeria was studied from March 2006 to February 2008. Sampling was carried out once a month using different fishing gears and the market was visited to confirm the fish species diversity from the lagoon. A total of 16,960 specimens made up of juveniles and adults caught were identified and classified. They comprised of eighty-one species belonging to 40 families, 56 genera and 14 orders. Variation in the mesh of fishing gears used greatly influenced fish catch in the lagoon. The fish species encountered were of three ecological origin and seasonal occurrence in the Lekki Lagoon. There were eleven fishes of euryhaline origin which occurred mostly throughout the year, fifty-six fishes of freshwater origin and ten fishes of marine origin. The dominant fish species in the catches of the fisher folks between March 2006 and February 2008 were Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Chrysichthys filamentosus, Tilapia guineensis, Tilapia zillii, Gymnarchus niloticus, Mormynus rume, Elops lacerta, Liza falapinnis, Clarias agboyiensis, Polydactylus quadrifilis, Synodontis clarias and Cynolossus senegalensis. The high number of species (81) recorded for Lekki lagoon in this study confirms the fact that the lagoon is a transition zone between brackish and freshwater systems. Key words: Ichytofauna, low brackish, fishing gears, Lekki lagoon. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/293C2059385 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.016 en Copyright © 2013 Emmanuel, B. E. and Osibona, A. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:4AE7B859381 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Economic analysis of polder based freshwater prawn farming systems in Kuttanad, India K. Ranjeet and B. Madhusoodana Kurup Full Length Research Paper Techno-economic analysis of different farming systems prevalent for Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Kuttanad, a wetland ecosystem of India was carried out. Results showed considerable variation in production cost and profitability among the farming systems. Cobb-Douglass production function model suggested that optimization of input cost along with adoption of appropriate management strategies as prerequisites for economic sustainability of freshwater prawn farming. Based on the above result a threshold grow-out system suitable for Kuttanad was developed and trial run. The marketable yield, cost and profitability from the new system was compared against the existing farming systems. Net profitability from the new system was higher compared to existing extensive and semi-intensive systems. The present study emphasizes the need for following appropriate management procedures to reduce size disparity among prawns, increasing survival rate, reduction of additional expenditure on operational cost and increasing the percentage of marketable prawns for farming to be profitable in Kuttanad. Key words: Macrobrachium rosenbergii, production, marketable yield, farming system, sustainability, wetland ecosystem Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/4AE7B859381 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA09.038 en Copyright © 2013 K. Ranjeet and B. Madhusoodana Kurup
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:F93859E9393 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Comparison of experimentally elaborated food from regionally available products with commercial foods of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Mexican highlands Rosario Rivera Meneses, Juan Suaacute;rez Saacute;nchez, Luz del Carmen Peacute;rez Gonzaacute;lez, Johannes C. Van der Wal, Hipoacute;lito Muntilde;oz Nava and Salvador Morales Moreno Full Length Research Paper Aquaculture increasingly contributes to human nutrition, but the expansion of semi-intensive systems is limited by the high cost of commercial food. This is the case of the semi-intensive production of carp (Cyprinus carpio) in artificial lakes and reservoirs in the state of Tlaxcala in the Mexican highlands. 24% cheaper alternative food from duckweed (Lemna sp.) (37%), soya (Glycine max) (36%), corn (Zea mays) (9%), wheat grain and bran (Triticum vulgare) (9% each) was elaborated on. The increased weight of carps fed with this cheap alternative food and the commercially available food was compared as well. The contents of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids were 35, 41, and 4% respectively for both kinds of food. Two hundred carps were evenly distributed over 4 concrete tanks of 100 m2. Two tanks were assigned for feeding, each tank with one kind of food during 84 days at a rate of 5% of carp weight per day. The alternative food performed better than the commercial food. We conclude that the cost of food for carp production in the Mexican highlands can significantly be reduced by switching to the alternative food. Key words: Common carp, experimental food, Lemna, Mexican highlands. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/F93859E9393 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.060 en Copyright © 2013 Rosario Rivera Meneses, Juan Suaacute;rez Saacute;nchez, Luz del Carmen Peacute;rez Gonzaacute;lez, Johannes C. Van der Wal, Hipoacute;lito Muntilde;oz Nava and Salvador Morales Moreno
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:2962BF39397 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Food habits of two species of Pseudotolithus (Sciaenidae) off Benin (West Africa) nearshore waters and implications for management F. K. E. NUNOO, E. SOSSOUKPE, A. ADITE and E. D. FIOGBE Full Length Research Paper Food habits of Pseudotolithus senegalensis and Pseudotolithus typus in Benin nearshore waters were investigated for 18 months because of the importance of croakers in artisanal catches. Frequency of occurrence, numerical abundance and gravimetric composition were utilized in computing the percent index of relative importance of each food item. The major dietary components of the two species were shrimps. The food composition of P. senegalensis and P. typus did not show any variation with season. The diet composition of the two species of Pseudotolithus portray them as specialized feeders depending on similar food sources with low number of dietary prey items. Shrimps and to some extent juvenile fishes which constitute the important preys of Pseudotolithus spp., remain an essential link of the trophic system off Benin nearshore waters. Therefore, the dynamics of the abundance of these shrimps and juvenile fishes must be assessed for sustainable production of their predators. Key words: Benin, diet composition, feeding intensity, food habits, Pseudotholithus, shrimps. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/2962BF39397 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.076 en Copyright © 2013 F. K. E. NUNOO, E. SOSSOUKPE, A. ADITE and E. D. FIOGBE
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:7F8DC5E9408 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Length-weight relationships and condition factors of Alestes baremoze, Brycinus nurse and Schilbe intermedius from the lower reaches of white volta river (Yapei), Ghana Seth Mensah Abobi and Werner Ekau Full Length Research Paper A study to assess the length-weight relationships and the condition factors of 3 abundant and commercial fish species namely Alestes baremoze, Brycinus nurse and Schilbe intermediusin the lower reaches of the White Volta River (Yapei) was conducted from October 2011 to March 2012. Using W = aLb, the length-weight relationships of the species were calculated. Condition factors of the species were obtained using the formula: W*100/Lb. A total of 284 A. baremoze were measured with total mid length size range of 10.5 to 44.5 cm. A total of 197 B. nurse were measured and ranged from 6.5 to 27.5 cm total mid-length whereas 175 of S. intermedius were measured and had total mid length size range of 8.5 to 26.5 cm. The slope bof the length-weight relationships of the 3 species were within the acceptable range of 2.5 to 3.5 and can be used to approximate the weight for the 3 species in the lower reaches of the White Volta River. The condition factors variation of A. baremoze and B. nurse showed a pronounced change in December 2011, when the surface water temperature was lowest. S.intermedius had no significant changes in the condition factors over the study period. Key words: White Volta River, total mid-length, size range, species, surface water temperature. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/7F8DC5E9408 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA2012.0001 en Copyright © 2013 Seth Mensah Abobi and Werner Ekau
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:48ED5539379 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Polyculture of seabass with tilapia for the utilization of brown fields in the coastal areas of Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh Md. Mostafa Monwar, A. K. M. Ruhul Amin Sarker and Nani Gopal Das Full Length Research Paper Disease outbreak in shrimp culture sector has abandoned the vast coastal areas of Bangladesh. These abandoned areas treated as lsquo;brown fieldsrsquo; could be utilized for finfish culture using low cost inputs. This type of culture practice has the potential to be successful in the coastal waters due to having seasonally fluctuating salinity of 0 to 15 ppt. The present study was conducted to determine the growth and survival of seabass (Lates calcarifer) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using different stocking ratios without giving any supplementary feed to seabass. Tilapia was stocked at 1 individual/m2. Tilapia fry was expected to provide food for seabass in the selected culture ponds. The stocking ratio of tilapia and seabass were 4:1, 5:1 and 6:1 in ponds with three replicates for each treatment. During 3 months culture period, the highest harvest weight of seabass and tilapia was recorded as 74.3 and 49.1 g/m2, respectively and the highest survival rate of seabass and tilapia was recorded as 78.3 and 61.9%, respectively. The highest growth rate of seabass was recorded as 14.67 g/day and the highest biomass of seabass and tilapia (collectively) was found as 116.9 g/m2. The present study reveals that seabass-tilapia polyculture may be a good solution to utilize the coastal brown fields of Coxrsquo;s Bazar, Bangladesh. Key words: Polyculture, seabass (Lates calcarifer), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), brown fields. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/48ED5539379 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA2013.0347 en Copyright © 2013 Md. Mostafa Monwar, A. K. M. Ruhul Amin Sarker and Nani Gopal Das
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:385599310195 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Inclusion effect of graded levels of molases in the diet of Clarias gariepinus juvenile Aderolu, Ademola Zaid, Aarode, Oluwaseun Olasunkanmi and Bello, Rafiat Ajoke Full Length Research Paper The effect of molasses as dietary energy replacement for indomie waste in the diet of African catfish was tested on 120 juveniles for 56 days. The fish were evenly distributed over twelve experimental tanks (52.5 33.5 21 cm); feeding was done by hand to satiation and the water changed every other day to maintain good water quality. Four experimental diets were formulated; the control, without the test ingredient and the other three diets (diets 2, 3 and 4) contained 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% molasses inclusion respectively. The mean weight gain (MWG) significantly increased (Plt;0.05) from 1 to 1.5% before declining at 2% inclusion of test ingredient. Diet 3 recorded the highest MWG (117.47plusmn;6.17 g), followed by the control diet (106.75plusmn;6.49 g). Similar pattern was recorded for the specific growth ratio. There was no significant difference (Pgt;0.05) in the feed conversion ratio. The packed cell volume and the hemoglobin significantly increased (Plt;0.05) from 1 to 2% inclusion, while the carcass proximate composition for dry matter, crude protein and ether extract did not record any significant difference (Pgt;0.05). The inclusion of molasses in African catfish diet up to the level tested would not have any negative effect on growth and health of fish. Key words: Molasses, African catfish, molasses replacement, catfish diet Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/385599310195 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.055 en Copyright © 2013 Aderolu, Ademola Zaid, Aarode, Oluwaseun Olasunkanmi and Bello, Rafiat Ajoke
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:D13D2CC10174 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Nutritive value of cultured white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Gunalan B, Nina Tabitha S., Soundarapandian P. and T. Anand Full Length Research Paper Biochemical assays play a major role in recent years. The biochemical composition is the yardstick to measure and assess the nutritional quality of food sources. In the present study, protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture and ash in Litopenaeus vannamei was 35.69, 3.20, 19, 76.2 and 1.2% respectively. Calcium content was maximum (154.5 mg) followed by sodium (67.7 mg) and potassium (56.7 mg). Manganese was reported to be minimum (0.898 mg). Copper and chromium were observed in trace. Totally 18 amino acids were detected, among these, argentine, histamine, isoleucine ,leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, lysine and valine are essential amino acids and alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline, serine and tyrosine are non-essential amino acids. In individual essential amino acids, valine (23.72%) was maximum, followed by lysine (13.42%) and methionine (13.06%). Histidine was minimum (1.08%). Glycine (9.8%), cystine (5.56%) and proline (4.26%) contributed as major non-essential amino acids. Ten individual fatty acids were identified, which includes both unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. Three saturated fatty acids (SFA) were recorded (Palmitic acid, Margaric acid and Stearic acid). The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were the most dominant common fatty acids (38.5%) with the higher levels of linoleic acid (16.3%) and alpha-linolenic acid (11.2%). Oleic acid is the only monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) contributed 12.48% of total fatty acids. At the same time the Omega ndash; 6 and omega - 3 fatty acids accounted for 16.3 and 35.4% of the total PUFA (51.7%). the present study confirming that based on the results, L.vannamei species can be considered as a good source of fatty acid as well as protein. Key words: Litopenaeus vannamei, proximate composition, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, shrimp nutrition. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/D13D2CC10174 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA2013.0333 en Copyright © 2013 Gunalan B, Nina Tabitha S., Soundarapandian P. and T. Anand
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:9F7B02810220 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Effects of rotifer, Brachionus rotundiformis in enhancing some digestive enzyme activities into glucose on somatic growth, RNA/DNA contents and some digestive enzyme activities of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus larvae O-Nam Kwon, Kie-Young Park, and Heum-Gi Park, Full Length Research Paper We investigated the effects of enzyme enhanced rotifer (EER), Brachionus rotundiformis on growth, RNA/DNA contents and digestive enzyme activities in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus larvae. Digestive enzyme activities of rotifer were enhanced by putting glucose in culture medium, and then rotifers (NR, rotifer not supplied the glucose during culture, and EER) was supplied to 10 rotifers/ml in larval rearing tank twice daily. The length-daily growth rate (DGR) showed a sudden decrease at 7 days post hatch (dph), and the weight DGR showed two times decreasing at 5 and 8 dph. The larvae in the NR treatment underwent two times the decrease of daily growth rate of body weight, while those in the EER treatment underwent only the first decrease of that. The DNA content for both treatment increased constantly. The RNA content increased in the larvae measuring up to 3.7 mm in the NR treatment. However, the RNA content of the EER treatment increased in the larvae until the end of the experiment. Therefore, supplement of rotifer enhanced the digestive enzyme activities for early olive flounder larvae prevented the decrease of RNA contents related with a protein synthesis and body weight growth after 7 dph, because NR is not enough for early larvae. Key words: Enzyme enhanced activity, nucleic acid content, somatic growth, critical period, flounder larvae, Paralichthys olivaceus, rotifer. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/9F7B02810220 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.022 en Copyright © 2013 O-Nam Kwon, Kie-Young Park, and Heum-Gi Park,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:907124210236 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
Effect of clove (Eugenia aromatica) powder anaesthetic on some haematological parameters in hybrid catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis ♀ x Clarias gariepinus ♂) juveniles Okey B., Keremah R. I. and Ofem B. O. Full Length Research Paper This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of clove powder as anaesthetic and its effect on some haematological parameters of hybrid (Heterobranchus bidorsalis x Clarias gariepinus ) juveniles. Different concentrations of 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, and 130 mg/L were exposed to 108 healthy fish of mean weight 20.38 plusmn; 3.30 g and total length 14.33 plusmn; 2.50 cm for 30 min at the Fisheries Laboratory CRUTECH, Obubra campus. The fish behaviour was observed, the time to become completely immobilized and recovery from anaesthesia were recorded at the various stages with a stopwatch. Fish that were exposed to less than 100 mg/L clove powder reached Stage 3, but did not reach Stage 4 (complete immobilization) during the 30 min evaluation period. At the highest concentration of clove powder of 130 mg/L fish are anaesthetized (Stage 4) in less than 3 min and regained their normal position in more than 24 min. Fish exposed to higher concentrations above 100 mg/l took longer time to achieve recovery. The time to achieve recovery had a positive response to dose. The value of Red blood cell (RBC) shows a significant decrease while White blood cell count (WBC) with increase in the concentration of clove powder, then the haematological indices showed a significant increase in the values of (MCV) and Mean corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) while MCHC was not significantly different from the control (p lt; 0.05). The mean values of lymphocytes significantly increased whereas, neutrophil, monocytes, basophil, and eosinophil did not differ from the control. Result from this study suggests that, the use of clove powder at the concentration of 120 mg/L will completely induced deep anaesthesia without significant changes in the haematological parameters. Key words: Clove powder, anaethesia, recovery, haematological parameter, catfish hybrid Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/907124210236 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA12.087 en Copyright © 2013 Okey B., Keremah R. I. and Ofem B. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJFA:E60236010318 2013-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJFA IJFA:2013
A new species of Tylocephalum (Cestode: Lecanicephalide, Braun, 1900) from marine fish at Ratnagiri, India D. M. Pathan and D. B. Bhure Full Length Research Paper The present investigation deals with systematic observation of the cestode parasitesTylocephalum Linton, 1890, that is, T. damodarae n.sp. of marine fish Dasyatis walga Muller and Henle, 1841 from West Coast of Maharashtra which is most pathogenic. The present worm comes closer to all the known species of the genus Tylocephalum in general topography of organ but differs due to scolex globular anteriorly and quadrangular posteriorly, presence of short neck, mature proglottids three to four times longer than broad, testes 60 to 70 in numbers and pre-ovarian, cirrus pouch oval, elongated placed below the middle of the proglottids, cirrus straight, vas deferens long coiled, genital pores are large, sub-marginal, irregularly alternate, vagina anterior to cirrus pouch, ovary lsquo;Ursquo; shaped and vitellaria are granular in shape. Key words: Parasites, Tylocephalum, Dasyatis walga. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJFA/article-abstract/E60236010318 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJFA11.063 en Copyright © 2013 D. M. Pathan and D. B. Bhure
2022-12-08T15:04:33Z|100|oai_dc|ijfa