2020-10-31T18:43:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:96F4F012692 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
Study of proteinase activity of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2083 M. Y. Marathe and J. S. Ghosh Full Length Research Paper Lactobacilli are important organisms used in several lactic acid fermentations. Lactobacilli cultured in milk perform activities like breaking down of lactose to simple sugars, proteolysis, lipolysis and lactic acid production. Lactobacillusdepends on proteolytic system for degradation of protein ndash; casein in milk from which they get their complex nutrient requirements for growth. This complex proteolytic system consists of proteinases, peptidases and amino and peptide carriers. Yogurt fermented milk having increased nutritive value, is more palatable, easily digestible and assimilable than milk. It has been observed that many people are sensitive to milk and cannot digest it easily. In developing nations this is an important cause for concern as such sensitive people suffers from protein-energy deficiency, more so if they are from the economically weaker section of the society. In this study an attempt has been made to understand the proteinase system from Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2083. The enzyme was found to be cell wall bound. It was active optimally at 30deg;C at pH 7.0. The peptides obtained after proteolysis were studied using SDS- PAGE, HPLC techniques and Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS). Key words: Proteinase, lactobacillus, yogurt, casein, peptides. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/96F4F012692 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000059 en Copyright © 2009 M. Y. Marathe and J. S. Ghosh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:77EE4812732 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
Delineation of pona complex of yam in Ghana using SSR markers E. Otoo, R. Akromah, M. Kolesnikova-Allen and R. Asiedu Full Length Research Paper Yam (Dioscorea spp.), a multi-species, polyploid, and vegetatively propagated tuber crop, is cultivated widely in the tropics and subtropics. Over 95% of the worldrsquo;s yam production occurs in West and Central Africa where white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) is the most important among cultivated species. The most popular landrace cultivar of yams on the market in Ghana is called lsquo;Ponarsquo;. Yam sellers often pass off any yam of good culinary characteristics as lsquo;Ponarsquo; and consumers are at a loss as to the genuine properties of the cultivar. Data from field characterization of several accessions suggest a cultivar group with significant morphological diversity. To determine the population structure of this yam group and the true genetic identity of lsquo;Ponarsquo;, an investigation was conducted on molecular variability and relationships among 72 accessions of D. rotundatacollected throughout Ghana. The experimental set included accessions classified as true lsquo;Ponarsquo; by experienced yam farmers as well as other varieties of yams available from local markets. The materials were screened with 21 microsatellite (SSR) markers available for yams. 13 (62%) of them were found to be polymorphic and used for genotyping of the full experimental set. Two-dimensional scatter diagram of the 1st and 2nd principal coordinates showed a wide dispersion among the accessions. To determine the similarity and relationships among the studied individuals, a neighbour-joining tree was constructed based on the shared allele distance (DAS) between individuals using Darwin, v. 5.0.153. Cluster analysis performed by Darwin v. 5.1.153, using unweighted the neighbour-joining method clearly separated the accessions into four main groupings: True Pona, Larebako, Muchumudu and Dente. The findings of this study prove the ability of microsatellite molecular markers to separate closely related groups within species due to their high specificity. The next steps in identifying the unique characteristics of Pona are discussed. Key words: Dente, Ghana, Larebako, Muchumudu, Pona, SSRs, yam. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/77EE4812732 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000015 en Copyright © 2009 E. Otoo, R. Akromah, M. Kolesnikova-Allen and R. Asiedu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:890DB522720 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
An environmentally induced adaptive (?) insertion event in flax Yiming Chen, Robin Lowenfeld and Christopher A. Cullis Full Length Research Paper Genomic changes in flax induced by the environment include the sequences encoding the ribosomal RNAs, many repetitive sequence families and a novel single copy insertion termed LIS-1, comprising a 5.7 kilobase (kb) DNA fragment. The variation in these sequences has been followed in the flax variety Stormont Cirrus under four different growth conditions. LIS-1 was observed to always become both homozygous and inherited in subsequent generations under two of the growth environments. In the third environment, LIS-1 sporadically appeared but was never transmitted to the progeny. Under non-inducing conditions, LIS-1 has been observed neither during growth nor in the next generation. Thus, LIS-1 reached a specific endpoint that depended only on the growth environment. The ribosomal RNA genes also altered during growth under inducing conditions but specific end points that correlated with specific nutrient treatments were not observed. None of these genomic changes were part of the normal developmental processes in flax. In a responsive flax variety that did not produce stable genotrophs, LIS-1 was subsequently lost unless the appropriate inducing conditions were maintained. The results show that the environment can act as both the inducer of targeted genetic variation and as the selective agent for advantageous mutations. Key words: Flax, adaptive variation, insertion events, environmental induction. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/890DB522720 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000007 en Copyright © 2009 Yiming Chen, Robin Lowenfeld and Christopher A. Cullis
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:7B2EB5C2753 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
Associations between prolactin gene polymorphism and milk production in montebeliard cows Nasrin Ghasemi, Mohammad Zadehrahmani, Ghodratollah Rahimi, Seyed Hassan Hafezian Full Length Research Paper Prolactin (PRL) is one of the multi-purpose hormones of the pituitary gland in terms of biological actions especially milk production. In this study associations were analyzed between polymorphisms of the prolactin gene (PRL-RsaI) and milk production traits of Montebeliard cows. PCR-RFLP method was used for identification of genotypes. Frequencies of genotypes were 0.81, 0.15 and 0.04 for A/A, A/B and B/B, respectively. The frequency of PRL A allele is 0.89. The results show AA cows yielded most milk in compared of other groups. Key words: Prolactin gene, montebeliard cows, PCR-RFLP. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/7B2EB5C2753 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000010 en Copyright © 2009 Nasrin Ghasemi, Mohammad Zadehrahmani, Ghodratollah Rahimi, Seyed Hassan Hafezian
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:3F4626C2787 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
Nutritional and therapeutic properties of camel and human milks S. M. Shamsia Full Length Research Paper Camel and human milk samples (twenty individualsrsquo; samples each) were analysed for fat, total protein (casein, whey protein), lactose, minerals as well as vitamins; B1, B2, niacin and C. Meanwhile, amino and fatty acid compositions and, antimicrobial factors namely; lysozyme (LZ), lactoferrin (LF) and total immunoglobulins (Igs) were determined. Results indicated that camel milk contained higher fat, protein (especially casein), ash, Ca, Mg, P, K, Na, Fe, and Cu but lower in whey protein, lactose and Zn than human milk. Vitamins C and niacin were higher in camel milk than human milk. Camel milk proteins contained satisfactory balance of essential amino acids. The ratio of essential to non-essential amino acids was 0.93 and 1.07 in camel and human milk proteins, respectively. Camel milk was characterized by higher ratio of Igs but lower in both LZ and LF than human milk. General pattern of camel milk fatty acids indicated that short chain fatty acids (C4 ndash;C12) were present in very small amount, but higher than in human milk fat. On the contrary the concentration of C14:0, C16:1 and C18:0are relatively high in camelrsquo;s milk fat as compared to human milk fat. Appreciable amounts of essential fatty acids were present in camel milk. It can be concluded that camel milk can be considered as a good food of high nutritive and therapeutic applications. Meanwhile, the high content of antimicrobial agents in camel milk may explain its potential as an antiviral activity specially against diarrhea-causing viruses. Key words: Human milk composition, camel milk composition, nutrition, lysozme, lactoferin, immunoglobulins, gel electrophoresis. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/3F4626C2787 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000048 en Copyright © 2009 S. M. Shamsia
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:37C7DE82803 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
Corticosteroid binding globulin and glucocorticoid receptor genotypes influence body composition in a male population Elodie Richard, Joseacute;-Manuel Fernandez-Real , Abel Lopez-Bermejo, Wifredo Ricart, Henri Deacute;chaud, Michel Pugeat and Marie-Pierre Moisan Full Length Research Paper Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) polymorphisms have been repeatedly associated with obesity and metabolic parameters in man. We have previously shown the genetic influence of a polymorphism in the gene encoding CBG on some obesity parameters in a small female population. In this study we have explored possible genetic associations between obesity and metabolic measures and CBG or GR polymorphisms in a new male population. Two hundred and ninety-five men with body mass index (BMI) ranging from 19 to 55 kg/m2 were studied. Serum CBG levels, CBG and GR gene polymorphisms in relation with anthropometric and biochemical parameters were analysed. GR BclI polymorphism was found to influence weight, BMI, waist circumference and glucose levels. CBG polymorphism showed a significant effect for BMI and waist circumference. The frequency of CBG allele 90 was markedly increased among men with morbid obesity compared to the rest of the population (30 versus 18%, p=0.02). The influence of GR BclI polymorphism is replicated in an additional population and CBG polymorphism has a small but significant influence on obesity in men. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism by which these polymorphisms impact on cortisol and obesity. Key words: Obesity, genetics, cortisol, transcortin, glucocorticoids. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/37C7DE82803 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000013 en Copyright © 2009 Elodie Richard, Joseacute;-Manuel Fernandez-Real , Abel Lopez-Bermejo, Wifredo Ricart, Henri Deacute;chaud, Michel Pugeat and Marie-Pierre Moisan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:67E6A462818 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
Low-cost method for streamlining marker-assisted selection and breeding line development in rice (Oryza sativa L.) Herry S. Utomo, Ida Wenefrida, Sterling B. Blanche and Steve D. Linscombe Full Length Research Paper Simple and economical microsatellite marker detection is important for successful and widespread adoption of marker technology in various breeding programs. A non-automated but fast, reliable and cost effective protocol for microsatellite marker detection is described that requires only standard molecular laboratory equipment. The protocol consists of a leaf sampling method for 96-well plates, tissue grinding using a bead-based grinder, DNA extraction using a modified heating method, and marker detection using polyacrilamid MegaGel dual vertical electrophoresis. At least 200 data points can be generated by one person in a single day from sample preparation to DNA extraction, PCR run, electrophoresis, and data recording. The cost of consumable chemicals for marker analyses was about U.S. $0.25 per data point. The protocol is adaptable for use in field settings to support marker-assisted selection and breeding line development, as well as for genotyping and mapping purposes. This relatively simple and inexpensive marker detection could expand the participation of small laboratories. Wider participation from various breeding programs in both developed and developing countries will benefit many crop improvement programs. Key words: High throughput, low cost, microsatellite marker, polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis, rice (Oryza sativa), marker-assisted selection, breeding line. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/67E6A462818 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000040 en Copyright © 2009 Herry S. Utomo, Ida Wenefrida, Sterling B. Blanche and Steve D. Linscombe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:3C562562894 2009-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
A cold-inducible modifier QTL affecting fertility restoration of WA CMS in rice A. Ahmadikhah and M. Alavi Full Length Research Paper The inheritance of pollen fertility restoration in 2 F2 populations of cross Neda-A X IR36, was studied in normal and cold conditions by means of QTL method. In cold condition the number of fertile plants was reduced in favor of sterility. The distributions of individuals in pollen fertility suggested that fertility restoration was mainly controlled by major genes. The population cultivated in normal conditions showed a 15 (F): 1(S) ratio; however, the one cultivated in cold condition deviated from 15 (F): 1(S) ratio, in which 2 QTLs were detected. The obtained results showed that one major QTL (qRf-1-1) localized on the short arm of 1st chromosome near RFLP marker RG140 and the other one (qRf-1-2) localized on the same chromosome between RM7180 and RM6100d. The detected QTLs explained 62 and 44% of the total variation of the trait, respectively. The minor QTL (qFer1-2) is expected to be a cold - inducible modifier QTL for fertility restoration. Key words: Rice, fertility restoration, cold condition, QTL Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/3C562562894 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000002 en Copyright © 2009 A. Ahmadikhah and M. Alavi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:5F416F02840 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
Designing polymorphic ISSR primers in order to study x and y types glutenin subunits in 1D locus controlling favorable baking quality of bread wheat M. T. Hallajian, M. Varasteh Mirshamsi, B. Naserian Khiabani, A. Majdabadi and N. Pirvali Biranvand Full Length Research Paper Baking quality is one of most important traits in qualitative improvement of bread wheat. Gluten prolamins determine wheat flour quality for different technological processes such as bread making. Among the gluten proteins, High Molecular Glutenin (HMW) group and specially, x-type and y-type subunits of d allele in 1D locus are very valuable in baking quality. In this study, amino acid sequences of x-type subunits [2.1, 2.2, 2.2*, 5] and y-type subunits [10, 12] related to 1D locus were searched and compared together using Genedoc software. After alignment of amino acid sequences of y-type subunits and x-type subunits, it was characterized that deletion, insertion (duplication) and point mutations in these subunits are involved in biological function of proteins. Finally, polymorph ISSR primers in repetitive domains were designed on similarities and differences in x and y types subunits. After performing PCR and DPAGE, it was found that these primers show good banding polymorphisms in elite mutant lines, standard commercial cultivars and F2 populations from crosses and are ideal for DNA polymorphisms detection in glutenin subunits of 1D locus. Key words: Alignment, DPAGE, glutenin subunits, ISSR, baking quality and wheat. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/5F416F02840 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000016 en Copyright © 2009 M. T. Hallajian, M. Varasteh Mirshamsi, B. Naserian Khiabani, A. Majdabadi and N. Pirvali Biranvand
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:A46EFAC2862 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
Somaclonal variation in submergence tolerant rice cultivars and induced diversity evaluation by PCR markers Raj Kumar Joshi and G. J. N. Rao Full Length Research Paper Submergence tolerance is an important agronomic trait for rice grown in eastern India; where flash flooding occurs frequently and unpredictably during the monsoons. Generation of somaclones for the two submergence tolerant rice cultivar FR13A and FR43B through gamma irradiation and molecular analysis of the somaclones for the variation in the pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) gene was investigated. FR43B showed a relatively higher frequency of callus induction than FR13A. However, the % regeneration of somaclones in both the genotypes gradually decreased with increase in the level of radiation dose. The somaclones of FR43B showed greater tolerance to submergence than FR13A. The doses/concentration of GR 20Kr and GR 25Kr irradiation increased the morphological and yield parameters over those in controls. All the somaclones with the pdc1 were tolerant to submergence irrespective of the gamma dose there by suggesting that pdc1 gene is directly linked to submergence tolerance in rice. Key words: Pyruvate decarboxylase, gamma irradiation, callus induction frequency, submergence. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/A46EFAC2862 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000058 en Copyright © 2009 Raj Kumar Joshi and G. J. N. Rao
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:93EA4562877 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
Molecular assessment of Ficus species for identification and conservation G. R. Rout and S. Aparajita Full Length Research Paper Ficus L. is widely distributed in all the climatic stages and is of great diversity. Molecular marker is used for identification of genetic resources. Inter-simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers was used to assess the identification of 23 important Ficus species / varieties and determination of the genetic relationships among these species. Out of twenty one ISSR primers tested, five primers produced 116 detectable fragments, out of which 106 were polymorphic across the species/varieties. Each of the five primers produced fingerprint profile unique to each of the species/variety studied and thus could be solely used for their identification. Thirteen unique bands specific to nine species were detected. These may be converted into species-specific probes for identification purposes. Genetic relationships among these species/varieties were evaluated by generating a similarity matrix based on the Dice coefficient and the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) dendogram. The results showed a clear cut separation of the 23 Ficus varieties/species and were in broad agreement with the morphology. Both molecular and morphological markers will be useful for preservation of the Ficus germplasm. Key words: Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR), phylogeny, Ficus species, fingerprinting. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/93EA4562877 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000042 en Copyright © 2009 G. R. Rout and S. Aparajita
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:0C078A52946 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
Full currarino syndrome associated to elhers danlos. One patient report at the hospital para El niño poblano Mexico J. M. Aparicio-Rodriacute;guez, R. Vargas-Gonzaacute;lez , M. Barrientos-Peacute;rez , L. De la Torre-Mondragoacute;n, G. Victoria-Morales, M. L. Hurtado-Hernaacute;ndez , E. Balbuena-Rosas and F. Lara-Hernaacute;ndez Full Length Research Paper The Currarino triad described in 1981 involves the association of partial sacral agenesis with intact first sacral vertebra (sickle-shaped sacrum), a presacral mass, and anorectal malformation. Gene map locus 7q36, some cases of this syndrome are caused by mutation in the HLXB9 homeobox gene and dominant inheritance has been observed. The patient in this study was diagnosed as Full Currarino syndrome, with the clinical features, (sacral agenesis, presacral mass, and anorectal malformation). The diagnosis is usually made in children (80%) and adults (20%). In 2007, it was found that prenatal diagnosis is possible. The patient had skin and bones articulation hyperlaxitud, where elastic fibers alteration was confirmed by skin biopsy. It has evidence of autosomal dominant inheritance. In 1995, it was associated to chromosome 7q36 and only hemisacrum is reported in 1998 by mutations in the HLXB9 gene. In 1994, it was described as association with partial trisomy of 13q and 20p. The caryotipe of the patient in this study was normal 46 X Key words: Sacral Agenesis, presacral mass, teratoma, anorectal malformation, homeobox genes, chromosome. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/0C078A52946 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000001 en Copyright © 2009 J. M. Aparicio-Rodriacute;guez, R. Vargas-Gonzaacute;lez , M. Barrientos-Peacute;rez , L. De la Torre-Mondragoacute;n, G. Victoria-Morales, M. L. Hurtado-Hernaacute;ndez , E. Balbuena-Rosas and F. Lara-Hernaacute;ndez
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:2C739FC3008 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
Antioxidants/antioxidative agents and superoxide: An electrochemical monitoring device M. Mohammad, A. Dar, M. Tahir Soomro, M. Tariq and M. Latif Full Length Research Paper A simple but elegant electrochemical (cyclic voltammetric) device was developed to detect antioxidative property of various substances (pure compounds, extracts of spices etc.). It was employed to investigate the presence of antioxidants / antioxidative agents, in some common herbal and medicinal plant products, for example saffron, clove, herbal tea etc. The concentration of such substances showing antioxidative property was estimated and they were categorized as per the voltammetric responses of some known antioxidants. The effectiveness / relative effectiveness of the antioxidants / antioxidative agents was also investigated. Key words: Antioxidants, superoxide, saffron, herbal tea, clove, cyclic voltammetry. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/2C739FC3008 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000008 en Copyright © 2009 M. Mohammad, A. Dar, M. Tahir Soomro, M. Tariq and M. Latif
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:8B075792999 2009-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
Monogenic lines resistance to blast disease in rice (Oryza sativa l.) in Vietnam Nguyen Thi Lang, Trinh thi Luy, Pham thi Thu Ha and Bui Chi Buu Full Length Research Paper Blast, caused by Pyricularia grisea Cav., is one of the major fungal diseases infected rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Vietnam. This disease occurs in Vietnam which cause the yield loss of up to 20% particularly in a year with long wet season. Local varieties have been considered as genetic sources of disease resistance among crops. The breeding program was aimed at improvement of blast resistant varieties. Six crosses of plants, OM 24/IR 64, IR 24/OM 2514, C 53/IR 64, C53/OM 2514, OM 1308/TeTep and IR 36/C 53 were obtained. Four crosses were mapped using molecular marker. The resistance genes are inherited dominant and located on chromosomes 6, 8 and 11. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker (RM 483) was used to detect 100 local varieties to find resistance with some race at Mekong delta. Phenotypic selection was used to compare with genotype in order to check how accurate the polymorphisms in varieties show that marker assisted selection (MAS) reached an accuracy of 100% in SSR marker with RM 483. These methods can be applied in practice to select varieties that have blast resistance genes for breeding rice, because of their high precision levels. Polymorphisms also show that MAS reached an accuracy of 100% in sequence tagged site (STS) marker with RG64 and 99.49% in SSR marker with RM21. Several blast resistant rice varieties [P(OM 1), OMP 2, OM P4, OMP 5, and OMP 6] have been reported by many researchers. These are considered as valuable material for pyramiding resistance genes to create durable resistant varieties. Keys words: Oryza sativa, blast resistance, polymerase chain reaction, simple sequence repeat, sequence tagged site (STS) marker Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/8B075792999 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000045 en Copyright © 2009 Nguyen Thi Lang, Trinh thi Luy, Pham thi Thu Ha and Bui Chi Buu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:01E61AD2951 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
Estimation of heritability and genetic advance of yield traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under drought condition Manal. H. Eid Full Length Research Paper Four varieties/lines of wheat and their crosses namely, Sakha8 , Sids1, line 1 Line3 and Line1x Sakha8, Line3x Sakha8, Line1x Sids1, Line3x Sids1 were evaluated to estimate heritability and genetic advance for yield traits. The experimental material was planted under irrigation as well as drought stress conditions. The mean average for plant height, spike length, number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, 50% heading date and 1000 grain-weight revealed highly significant differences among genotypes and crosses under both sowing conditions. Low, medium and high heritability was found in different yield traits under study. High heritability accompanied by high genetic advance was observed for spike length and 1000 grain-weight. Low heritability coupled with low genetic advance was for plant height and number of grains per spike. However, the heritability was generally found to be lower under drought stress conditions. Greater magnitude of heritability coupled with higher genetic advance in some traits under study provided that these parameters were under the control of additive genetic effects. This indicates that selection should lead to fast genetic improvement of the material. Moreover, the genetic correlations in study were high for most of the traits, suggesting a strong inherent association among these traits at the genetic level. These traits therefore deserve better attention in future breeding programs for evolving better wheat in stress environments. Key words: Wheat, heritability, genetic advance, yield traits. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/01E61AD2951 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000020 en Copyright © 2009 Manal. H. Eid
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:644B04B2983 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2009
Mapping Rf3 locus in rice by SSR and CAPS markers M. Alavi, A. Ahmadikhah, B. Kamkar and M. Kalateh Full Length Research Paper Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a common phenomenon that has been extensively used for production of hybrid seeds in various crops. Rf genes are needed for restoring fertility to CMS lines. Searching for and molecular tagging of restorer genes is of high importance where phonotyping is very time consuming and requires the determination of spikelet sterility in testcross progeny. In this study we attempted to map a fertility restorer gene using SSR and CAPS markers in rice line IR36 in a F2 population developed from the cross Neda-Atimes;IR36. The genetic linkage analysis indicated that thee SSR markers (RM1, RM3233, RM3873) and one CAPS marker (RG140/EcoRI) on the short arm of chromosome 1 were linked to Rf3. Rf3 flanked by tow SSR markers RM1 and RM3873 at distances of 5.6 and 14 cM, respectively. The use of identified markers give promise for their application in molecular Marker Assisted Selection (MAS). Key words: CMS, fertility restoration, SSR marker, Rf3 gene. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/644B04B2983 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000041 en Copyright © 2009 M. Alavi, A. Ahmadikhah, B. Kamkar and M. Kalateh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:0CE48283273 2010-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Genetic polymorphism of kappa-casein gene in indigenous Eastern Africa goat populations S. K. Kiplagat, M. Agaba, I. S. Kosgey, M. Okeyo, D. Indetie, O. Hanotte and M. K. Limo Full Length Research Paper Indigenous goat breeds kept by majority of smallholder rural farmers in Eastern Africa are adapted to the local environment. These goats are critical for nutrition and income of their keepers. Milk production per doe is extremely variable. The variation in milk yield in goats is due to varied management practices and variability in genetic make-up of the animals. The variation in kappa-casein gene and the distribution frequencies of its variants amongst indigenous Eastern Africa goat populations were investigated. A 458 base pairs sequence in exon 4 of 296 goat samples were amplified, sequenced and variation analyzed. Nine point mutations corresponding to base transitions were identified. Three sites were synonymous substitutions while the other six mutations were non-synonymous. All the amino acid substitutions were conservative. Analysis of the association of the mutations yielded nine haplotypes. The occurrence of these haplotypes in ten goat populations indicated that only one haplotype occurred at a rather high frequency. The prevalent kappa;-casein variant was CSN3*B with frequencies ranging from 0.750 to 0.953. The second most common allele was CSN3*A. Further studies on other casein loci are necessary to establish associations of all the casein mutations and the effects of the haplotypes to milk production traits. Key words: Goat, indigenous, k-casein, polymorphism. Indigenous goat breeds kept by majority of smallholder rural farmers in Eastern Africa are adapted to the local environment. These goats are critical for nutrition and income of their keepers. Milk production per doe is extremely variable. The variation in milk yield in goats is due to varied management practices and variability in genetic make-up of the animals. The variation in kappa-casein gene and the distribution frequencies of its variants amongst indigenous Eastern Africa goat populations were investigated. A 458 base pairs sequence in exon 4 of 296 goat samples were amplified, sequenced and variation analyzed. Nine point mutations corresponding to base transitions were identified. Three sites were synonymous substitutions while the other six mutations were non-synonymous. All the amino acid substitutions were conservative. Analysis of the association of the mutations yielded nine haplotypes. The occurrence of these haplotypes in ten goat populations indicated that only one haplotype occurred at a rather high frequency. The prevalent kappa;-casein variant was CSN3*B with frequencies ranging from 0.750 to 0.953. The second most common allele was CSN3*A. Further studies on other casein loci are necessary to establish associations of all the casein mutations and the effects of the haplotypes to milk production traits. Key words: Goat, indigenous, k-casein, polymorphism. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/0CE48283273 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000026 en Copyright © 2010 S. K. Kiplagat, M. Agaba, I. S. Kosgey, M. Okeyo, D. Indetie, O. Hanotte and M. K. Limo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:A1BDBCA3293 2010-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Genotyping of tamoxifen metabolizing enzyme (CYP2D6*4) and its clinical impact in breast cancer patients C. Kalyana Kumar, Mohan Reddy, Kaiser Jamil and Mohana Vamsy Full Length Research Paper Tamoxifen is a non-steroidal antiestrogen drug widely used in the treatment of breast cancer and metabolized by CYP2D6. In this study, we compared the patients who were receiving either tamoxifen or other chemo drugs, forming a two-arm study. We genotyped 140 tamoxifen treated postmenopausal women with breast cancer, 140 non-tamoxifen treated pre and postmenopausal women with breast cancer and 124 controls, using PCR-RFLP method. In arm-1 study CYP2D6 genotype frequencies of metabolizers were classified as extensive metabolizers (EM) 70% (n = 98), intermediate metabolizers (IM) 30% (n = 42) in tamoxifen treated cases and 85% (n = 118), 15% (n = 22) in non-tamoxifen treated cases respectively. Tamoxifen treated IM -carriers showed 24.32% (n = 9) recurrence. Recurrent cases were not found in non-tamoxifen treated group. CYP2D6*4 allele carriers were high but this allele carrier was found to reduce the risk of recurrence when treated with tamoxifen. In arm-2 study CYP2D6 genotype frequencies of EM, IM and Poor metabolizers (PM) were 79.57% (n = 113), 14.08% (n = 20), 6.33% (n = 9) in non tamoxifen treated breast cancer cases. In controls the EM, IM, and PM genotypes were 93.54% (n = 116), 5.64%) (n = 7) and 0.80% (n = 1) respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that p value of both IM (P- value 0.03) and PM (P- value 0.04) carriers were associated with the risk of breast cancer. PM showed poor therapeutic outcome, which may be due to low level of the tamoxifen metabolite-endoxifen. Key words: Breast cancer, Tamoxifen, CYP2D6*4, Poor metabolizers (PM), Extensive metabolizers (EM), Intermediate metabolizers (IM). Tamoxifen is a non-steroidal antiestrogen drug widely used in the treatment of breast cancer and metabolized by CYP2D6. In this study, we compared the patients who were receiving either tamoxifen or other chemo drugs, forming a two-arm study. We genotyped 140 tamoxifen treated postmenopausal women with breast cancer, 140 non-tamoxifen treated pre and postmenopausal women with breast cancer and 124 controls, using PCR-RFLP method. In arm-1 study CYP2D6 genotype frequencies of metabolizers were classified as extensive metabolizers (EM) 70% (n = 98), intermediate metabolizers (IM) 30% (n = 42) in tamoxifen treated cases and 85% (n = 118), 15% (n = 22) in non-tamoxifen treated cases respectively. Tamoxifen treated IM -carriers showed 24.32% (n = 9) recurrence. Recurrent cases were not found in non-tamoxifen treated group. CYP2D6*4 allele carriers were high but this allele carrier was found to reduce the risk of recurrence when treated with tamoxifen. In arm-2 study CYP2D6 genotype frequencies of EM, IM and Poor metabolizers (PM) were 79.57% (n = 113), 14.08% (n = 20), 6.33% (n = 9) in non tamoxifen treated breast cancer cases. In controls the EM, IM, and PM genotypes were 93.54% (n = 116), 5.64%) (n = 7) and 0.80% (n = 1) respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that p value of both IM (P- value 0.03) and PM (P- value 0.04) carriers were associated with the risk of breast cancer. PM showed poor therapeutic outcome, which may be due to low level of the tamoxifen metabolite-endoxifen. Key words: Breast cancer, Tamoxifen, CYP2D6*4, Poor metabolizers (PM), Extensive metabolizers (EM), Intermediate metabolizers (IM). Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/A1BDBCA3293 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000030 en Copyright © 2010 C. Kalyana Kumar, Mohan Reddy, Kaiser Jamil and Mohana Vamsy
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:49755412583 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Plasma sodium and potassium changes in sickle cell patients F. O. Agoreyo and N. Nwanze The aim of this study was to measure the body electrolytes (in plasma) such as sodium (Na+) and potassium (k+) in adult sickle cell patients with genotype (Hb SS) genotype and compare with controls normal with (Hb AA) genotype. The study involved a total of 38 individuals, both males and females in the age range of 16 - 40 years. There were 3 study groups; steady state group, crisis state group and control group. Flame photometry was used to analyze sodium and potassium. In the males there was a statistically significant reduction in the concentration of sodium in both the steady state (129.40 plusmn; 1.462) and crisis state (121.60 plusmn; 0.678) when compared with control group (134.40 plusmn; 2.040). Also, there was a statistically significant increase (P lt; 0.05) in the concentration of potassium in both the steady state (4.58 plusmn; 0.171 mmol/l) and crisis state (4.66 plusmn; 0.154 mmol/l) when compared with normal group (3.50 plusmn; 0.172 mmol/l). The regular measurement of plasma sodium and potassium is, therefore, necessary in the management of the sickle cell disease patients. Key words: Steady state, crisis state, plasma sodium, plasma potassium. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/49755412583 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000051 en Copyright © 2010 F. O. Agoreyo and N. Nwanze
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:572E5692594 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Ribin-like proteins expression in the chaetognath Spadella cephaloptera Roxane-Marie Bartheacute;leacute;my, Michel Grino, Jean-Paul Casanova and Eric Faure Full Length Research Paper In chaetognaths, a marine phylum of approximately 120 species, paralogous ribosomal protein genes and two classes of both 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences have been evidenced. Moreover, differential and specific expression of the rRNA genes has been demonstrated suggesting implications of regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of the ribosome constituents. Results of in situ hybridization of ribin-like mRNAs in Spadella cephaloptera were compared with immunofluorescence localization of the corresponding protein. Previous studies showed that in rat Ribin protein is encoded on the antisense strand of the 28S rRNA gene and known as rRNA promoteur binding protein. In chaetognaths, expression of ribin-like gene(s) is restricted to oocytes similarly to both18S and 28S class II genes and to gut, whereas Ribin-like proteins have been identified in the nervous system, oocytes and gut. Chaetognath nuclear regions, homologous to ratribin mRNA have been sequenced; however, no complete open reading frame can be reached. Analysis of DNA databases reveals that deduced sequences of several animal nuclear sequences exhibit a region having a great level of conserved amino-acids with the COOH-part of the rat Ribin, suggesting a high selection pressure in this region. Moreover, analysis of EST libraries shows that Ribin-like genes are expressed in both animals and plants. In addition, in invertebrates, these transcripts are principally found during the first stages of development or in nervous tissues or in infected/stressed organisms. The selective expression and translation of Ribin-like genes added to their large evolutionary distribution suggest important physiological roles of the corresponding proteins. Key words: Ribin, chaetognath, nervous system, oocytes, gut. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/572E5692594 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000056 en Copyright © 2010 Roxane-Marie Bartheacute;leacute;my, Michel Grino, Jean-Paul Casanova and Eric Faure
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:62582FE2603 2010-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Y-Chromosome evidence of an African origin of Dravidian agriculture Clyde Winters Full Length Research Paper Y-linked markers provide loci to investigate genetic connections between human populations that can offer abundant anthropological information. Ancestry informative markers for Dravidian speaking populations in India that cultivate African cultigens were analyzed. The frequency of shared Y-chromosomes and HLAs between Dravidian and African populations is consistent with a possible African origin for millet, the principal food staple of Dravidian speakers in India. The evolutionary and epidemiological implications of these findings are reported herein. Key words: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA), sickle cell anemia, haplotype, Y-chromosome, haplogroup, mtDNA. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/62582FE2603 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000068 en Copyright © 2010 Clyde Winters
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:B29768A2615 2010-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Inheritance of resistance to septoria tritici blotch (STB) in some Iranian genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Shahrbanou Vakili Bastam, S. Sanaz Ramezanpour, Hassan Soltanloo, Shaban Kia, Mehdi Kalate and Mohammad Hadi Pahlevani Full Length Research Paper Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph S. tritici) is currently the most serious foliar disease of wheat worldwide. Understanding of mechanisms for resistance inheritance in genotypes would potentially lead to more efficient deployment of host plant resistance. As part of our effort to improve STB resistance, inheritance of seedling STB resistance was investigated by an eight-parent half diallel set of crosses in Iranian wheat genotypes. Parents and F1 crosses were planted in plastic pot at greenhouse in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Plants at the second-leaf stage were inoculated with an isolate of S. tritici. Infection response and Picnidia density ratings of the first and second leaves and their AUDPC used for diallel analysis. Significant GCA and SCA were observed in the analysis of variance. The ratio of GCA sum of squares relative to SCA sum of squares suggested that GCA was more important than SCA. Additive alleles effects played the major role in host response to STB in studied varieties. Significant values of both D and H components suggested that all traits were under the control of both additive and dominance gene effects. For all traits high narrow and broad sense heritabilities observed. Recessive genes in infection response, iAUDPC, pAUDPC and dominant alleles in Picnidia density led to decreasing level of traits and increasing resistance to STB. Genotypes Line#10 and N-81-18 had high negative GCA effects and should be promising parents in breeding programs for enhancement of STB resistance. Key words: Septoria tritici blotch, wheat, diallel, GCA, SCA. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/B29768A2615 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000035 en Copyright © 2010 Shahrbanou Vakili Bastam, S. Sanaz Ramezanpour, Hassan Soltanloo, Shaban Kia, Mehdi Kalate and Mohammad Hadi Pahlevani
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:7C7501B2630 2010-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
MTHFR polymorphisms in Puerto Rican children with isolated congenital heart disease and their mothers Lourdes Garciacute;a-Fragoso, Ineacute;s Garciacute;a-Garciacute;a, Gloria Leavitt, Jessicca Renta, A.Miguel Ayala and L. Carmen Cadilla Full Length Research Paper Congenital heart defects (CHD) are among the most common birth defects. There is evidence suggesting that polymorphisms in folate metabolism could alter susceptibility to CHD. The MTHFR 677TT genotype has been associated with the development of structural congenital heart malformations. The objective of this study was to identify common polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene in children with isolated CHD and their mothers. The DNA analysis for the C677T and A1298C mutations was performed. The study group included 27 mothers, 27 children with CHD and 220 controls. The prevalence of the TT polymorphism was higher in mothers (22%) than in controls (10%). Compound heterozygosity for both polymorphisms was 3.7 times more common in children with CHD than in the newborn controls. Mothers of children with CHD were more likely to be compound heterozygotes. The higher prevalence of C677T polymorphisms in mothers of children with CHD and of compound heterozygosity for both polymorphisms suggests the possible role of folic acid in the prevention of CHD. Due to the relation of this enzyme to folate metabolism, current folate recommendations for women in childbearing age in Puerto Rico to reduce neural tube defects may need to be extended to the prevention of CHD. Key words: Congenital heart disease, folic acid, MTHFR polymorphisms. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/7C7501B2630 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000047 en Copyright © 2010 Lourdes Garciacute;a-Fragoso, Ineacute;s Garciacute;a-Garciacute;a, Gloria Leavitt, Jessicca Renta, A.Miguel Ayala and L. Carmen Cadilla
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:AF09B572650 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Sequence variability in the BLB2 region among guinea fowl and other poultry species S. K. Singh, Jose Mathew, S. Mehra, A. Tiwari, Vinay Kumar, G. Goyal and Deepak Sharma Full Length Research Paper The BLB2 gene is a predominantly expressed MHC class II gene in chicken and has not been characterized in guinea fowl. In view of the resistance of guinea fowl to most of the chicken diseases, nucleotide sequence variability in b1 and b2 domains of BLB2 gene was studied between guinea fowl and other poultry species such as chicken, quail, pheasant and duck. The b1 and b2 domain of BLB2 gene in guinea fowl was 270 and 282 nucleotides in size and showed no size variation with other poultry species. Between-species percent nucleotide variability ranged from 24.07 to 30.00% in b1 domain, while inb2 domain percent nucleotide variability was 8.16 - 10.99%. Between the species, guinea fowl showed low and similar genetic distances (0.149 - 0.159) with all other poultry species, except with duck (0.287). The phylogenetic tree, based on nucleotide variability in b1 and b2 domains from these poultry species clearly revealed that duck MHC are clustered separately. Among other poultry species (chicken, quail, pheasant and guinea fowl), the guinea fowl, branched out separately within the cluster comprising of galliformis species. Key words: BLB2, guinea fowl, nucleotide variability, genetic distance Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/AF09B572650 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000057 en Copyright © 2010 S. K. Singh, Jose Mathew, S. Mehra, A. Tiwari, Vinay Kumar, G. Goyal and Deepak Sharma
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:75777D32664 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Amplification and sequencing of Rosaceae expressed sequence tags (ESTs) as a resource for functional genomics databases Haddad El Rabey and Francesca Barale A total of 30 successful ESTs (expressed sequenced tags) were amplified and sequenced to be intended as a resource for Rosaceae functional genomics data base. 23 EST were isolated from the amplification of Earlygold peach (Prunus persica) cultivar DNA, 5 ESTs were isolated from the amplification of Texas almond cultivar and two ESTs were isolated from the amplification of F1 DNA of their hybrid. All the sequences were tested for similarity using blast in the nbci database. Because these sequence data are new, only 13 sequences found similarity (10 belong to Earlygold peach cv., two belong to Texas almond cultivar and one belongs to their F1 hybrid), whereas the other 17 (13 belong to Earlygold peach cv., three belong to Texas almond cultivar and one belongs to their F1 hybrid) found no significant similarity. The resulting database can be used as a resource of data and links related to peach and almond EST sequences. Key words: Peach, almond, expressed sequence tags, functional genomics. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/75777D32664 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000006 en Copyright © 2010 Haddad El Rabey and Francesca Barale
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:229663F2688 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Rapid detection of Salmonella species in newborne calves by polymerase chain reaction I. M. Moussa, M. H. Ashgan, M. S. Mohamed, K. H. F. Mohamed and A. A. Al-Doss Full Length Research Paper Fecal samples collected from 85 diarrheic calves and 65 apparently healthy contact calves were examined for the presence of Salmonella species using bacteriological examination and fimA gene amplification assay (PCR). Salmonella were isolated from 43.53% of diarrheic calves and from 27.69% of apparently healthy contact calves.Salmonella typhimurium were isolated from diarrheic and contact calves in percentages of 17.65 and 15.38% respectively; whereas Salmonella entertidis were isolated in percentages of 11.76 and 7.69%, respectively. Salmonella dublin were isolated from the diarrheic calves in a percentage of (8.24%) and contact calves in a percentage of (4.62%), but Salmonella anatum were isolated from diarrheic calves only in a percentage of (5.88%), The sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 100 and 95.8%, respectively during examination of fecal samples obtained from diarrheic calves, while during the examination of those obtained from contact calves the percentages were 100 and 89.4%, respectively. Key words: Salmonella, fimA gene, diarrheic calves, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella entertidis. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/229663F2688 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000054 en Copyright © 2010 I. M. Moussa, M. H. Ashgan, M. S. Mohamed, K. H. F. Mohamed and A. A. Al-Doss
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:C590B3C2725 2010-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Lack of association between - 308 tumor necrosis factor polymorphism and susceptibility to cerebral malaria among Central Sudanese children Adil Mergani, Ammar H. Khamis, Ali Babikir Haboor, Elfatih Hashim, Mohammed Gumma, Bella Awadelseed, M. M. Magzoub, Ahmed Al Tahir and Nasreldin M. A. Elwali Full Length Research Paper Up to 500 millions are affected by malaria parasite each year and only 1% of them develop severe clinical forms of the disease. No full satisfactory explanation for the fact that only small proportion of malaria infected individuals develops severe clinical phenotypes while others donrsquo;t. The aims of the present study is to assess the role of TNF-alpha; - 308 Ggt;A in predisposing to cerebral malaria in children in Central Sudan. 109 children admitted with cerebral malaria (CM) were enrolled in this study (Mean age 6.1plusmn; 3.3 years old). The onset of cerebral malaria in the study subjects started in the first two years of life with no gender effect and the highest incidence of the disease was at the age group (4 - 6 years old). The allele frequencies in control group (n= 109) were 0.91 for TNFalpha;-308G (TNF1) and 0.09 for TNFalpha;-308A (TNF2) and the allele frequencies in 93 CM subjects were 0.95 for TNFalpha;-308G (TNF1) and 0.05 for TNFalpha;-308A (TNF2). The distribution of TNFalpha; -308 genotypes in normal group was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No TNF2 homozygote was observed among CM subjects. However, the distribution of TNFalpha;-308 genotypes and alleles did not differ significantly between CM patients and controls (P = 0.271). These data suggest that TNF2 is not associated with predisposition to CM in Central Sudanese children. Further studies for confirmation of this finding in other regions of Sudan are required. Key words: Cerebral malaria, genetic susceptibility, cytokine, TNF. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/C590B3C2725 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000038 en Copyright © 2010 Adil Mergani, Ammar H. Khamis, Ali Babikir Haboor, Elfatih Hashim, Mohammed Gumma, Bella Awadelseed, M. M. Magzoub, Ahmed Al Tahir and Nasreldin M. A. Elwali
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:04DC3E12755 2010-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Theileria parva genome and CTL candidate vaccine antigens: An overview Nyerhovwo J. Tonukari Full Length Research Paper The availability of complete genome sequences for a variety of organisms, coupled with genome-wide analyses that allow evaluation of the functions of thousands of genes in parallel, have the potential to greatly impact on cell biology research. The lymphocyte-transforming Theileria parva parasite nuclear genome (8.3 Mbp in length consisting of four chromosomes) available in GenBank reveals genes with strong similarity to other known apicomplexan homologs. Mining of sequence data has proved useful in the search for candidate vaccine antigens. Genome mining and cDNA library screening identified six antigens targeted by CD8 T cells from T. parva-immune cattle of different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotypes. These antigens are being evaluated for the development of a subunit vaccine. Key words: Theileria parva, apicomplexan homologs, genome mining, cDNA library screening. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/04DC3E12755 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000066 en Copyright © 2010 Nyerhovwo J. Tonukari
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:A69E9002781 2010-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Physical properties and biological applications of novel substituted biphenyl-sulfonamides E. S. Hanan Ali, F. Ibrahim Nassar, A. M. Badawi and S. Ahmed Afify Full Length Research Paper This study explores the effect of the structural change of novel sulfonamide based-surfactants on the surfactantrsquo;s behavior and antimicrobial activity. In order, to meet this as our primary goal, three different series, biphenyl-4,4#39;-disulfonamides (Series A, A1-4), amine acid salts of 2,2`-[biphenyl-4,4#39;-diylbis(sulfonylimine)] dianiline (Series B, B1-4) and their corresponding copper and cobalt complexes (Series C, C1-2), were prepared. The structures of the desired compounds were confirmed by using elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and UV-Vis spectral analysis. In addition to these spectroscopic measurements, compounds C1 and C2 (Series C) were subsequently characterized extensively by atomic absorption methods. Also as our secondary goal, we have measured some physical properties as surface tension (gamma;), critical micelle concentration (cmc), the surface excess concentration (Gamma;max) and the cross-sectional area per adsorbed surfactant head group (Amin). Finally, the investigation has been continued to cover the antibacterial and antifungal screening for all synthesized compounds as well as the antitumor activity for some of them. Key words: Sulfonamide based-surfactants, surface properties, antimicrobial screening and antitumor activity. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/A69E9002781 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000050 en Copyright © 2010 E. S. Hanan Ali, F. Ibrahim Nassar, A. M. Badawi and S. Ahmed Afify
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:5F946F82808 2010-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Genetic variation within and among three invasive Prosopis juliflora (Leguminosae) populations in the River Nile State, Sudan Nada Babiker Hamza Full Length Research Paper The species of Prosopis (Leguminosae) are trees or shrubs well adapted to grow in arid and semi arid regions. In Sudan Prosopis juliflora was introduced in 1917. Currently, it has become a noxious weed spreading aggressively in natural and managed habitats. The structure of genetic diversity within and among P. juliflora populations infesting three forests in the River Nile State were assessed by RAPD technique. A total of 56 bands were obtained from seven primers. The mean percentage of polymorphic loci over all populations was (55.36%). Kulhuda population had the highest percentage of polymorphic loci (64.29%) and the highest number of private alleles (3). Makabrab population had the lowest percentage of polymorphic loci (46.43%) and two private alleles. Mean expected heterozygosity was (0.218). High genetic differentiation was found among populations (PhiPT = 0.328, P = 0.001). There was a genetic variation of 33% among the populations and within them 67% (AMOVA, P lt; 0.001). The mean Shannon information index was (I = 0.319, SE = 0.023). UPGMA clustering did not precisely reflect the geographic position of the populations. The results show the current structure of the populations and the similarities between groups of populations, might be due to the recent introduction of the species into Sudan, the limited seed source, the extensive endozoic dispersal seed system and limited pollen dispersal. Key words: Prosopis juliflora, invasive, genetic variation, RAPD, Sudan. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/5F946F82808 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000027 en Copyright © 2010 Nada Babiker Hamza
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:1FE9EC12857 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Colorectal cancer, TGF-β signaling and SMADs A. Syed Sameer, Safiya Abdullah, Mujeeb Z. Banday, Nidda Syeed and Mushtaq A. Siddiqi Full Length Research Paper Colorectal cancer (CRC) being the commonest cancer, is the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. TGF-beta; pathway is one of the important pathways that play a prominent role in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Smad dependent TGF-beta; signaling cascade is responsible for the regulation and expression of almost 500 odd genes, which in turn play important role in the proper development of intestinal mucosa. Here in this review we have discussed the overall machinery of theTGF-beta; pathway and the advances in the mutational research on SMAD4 gene in cancers with special look on our own research in CRC cases of Kashmiri population. Key words: Colorectal cancer, Kashmir, SMADs, mutations, PCR-SSCP. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/1FE9EC12857 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000012 en Copyright © 2010 A. Syed Sameer, Safiya Abdullah, Mujeeb Z. Banday, Nidda Syeed and Mushtaq A. Siddiqi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:6224F722878 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Allozyme variations in leaf esterase and root peroxidase isozymes and linkage with dwarfing genes in induced dwarf mutants of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Dibyendu Talukdar Full Length Research Paper Genetic basis of different leaf esterase and root peroxidase isozymes was investigated by analyzing their zymogram phenotypes in selfed and intercrossed progenies of two local varieties (used as control) and three induced true breeding dwarf mutant lines of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). Two non-allelic genes, df1/df2 and df3 controlling dwarfism in grass pea were included in the present linkage studies with different isozyme loci. The dwarf mutants could be distinguished from one another and also from control varieties by the presence of unique allozyme/s coded by allele/s in different loci. A good fit to 1: 2: 1 in F2 and 1:1 in back cross indicated monogenic segregation of isozyme loci with co-dominant expression of different alleles and the isozymes were functionally monomeric. Linkage analysis revealed closely linked associations among Est-1, Est-2and df3 loci and also between Est-3 and Prx-1 loci. All five genes, however, assorted independently with df1/df2 as well as with prx-3. Locus prx-2 was monomorphic in all five parents. Key words: Dwarf mutants, isozymes, linkage, Lathyrus sativus L. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/6224F722878 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000005 en Copyright © 2010 Dibyendu Talukdar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:6EB65CC2913 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Lack of DLAD mutations in age-related nuclear cataract Nitza Goldenberg-Cohen,, Bat Chen R. Avraham-Lubin, Dorina Calles, Olga Dratviman-Storobinsky, Rita Ehrlich, Boris Paritiansky, Yoram Cohen and Dov Weinberger, Full Length Research Paper DNase II like acid DNase (DNase IIbeta;, DLAD) is expressed in human and murine cells in the lens. Studies in mice have reported that abnormal degeneration of cellular organelles by DLAD reduced lens transparency and that the DLAD gene may be involved in cataract formation. The aim of the present study was to search for possible genetic alterations in the DLAD gene in human senile cataract. Anterior lens capsule material was collected during surgery from 55 patients with senile cataract, with or without a subcapsular component. Total DNA was extracted, amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced for exon 3 (n = 51) exon 4 (n = 40) and all 6 exons of the DLAD gene (n = 27). No mutation was found. There were genomic polymorphisms in all exons except 3 and 4. Non-synonymous genomic polymorphisms were detected in exon 1 (rs738573) and exon 2 (rs3754274) and synonymous polymorphisms were detected in exon 5 (rs7511984) and exon 6 (rs3768250). In contrast to findings in mice, based on the limited samples analyzed, this study suggests that human age-related nuclear cataract is not associated with DLAD mutations. Key words: DNAase II like acid DNAase- DNAse IIbeta;- DLAD- senile cataract-nuclear cataract. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/6EB65CC2913 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000039 en Copyright © 2010 Nitza Goldenberg-Cohen,, Bat Chen R. Avraham-Lubin, Dorina Calles, Olga Dratviman-Storobinsky, Rita Ehrlich, Boris Paritiansky, Yoram Cohen and Dov Weinberger,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:2F25ED82938 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
A rare event of maternal UPD in a proband with congenital non-syndromic hearing impairment with homozygosity for gjb2 p.w24x mutation G. Padma, P. V. Ramchander, U. V. Nandur and T. Padma Full Length Research Paper In the present study, the authors reported a family of a male proband with prelingual, profound non-syndromic hearing impairment homozygous for p.W24X mutation in GJB2gene, arising as a result of maternal uniparental disomy of a part of chromosome 13q. Key words: Hearing impairment, p.W24X mutation, uniparental disomy. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/2F25ED82938 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000004 en Copyright © 2010 G. Padma, P. V. Ramchander, U. V. Nandur and T. Padma
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:C2FA5312972 2010-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Molecular phylogeny of Bulinus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) reveals the presence of three species complexes in the Albertine Rift freshwater bodies A. Nalugwa, A. Joslash;rgensen, S. Nyakaana and T. K. Kristensen Full Length Research Paper In this study, partial mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) sequences (612 bp) of Bulinus snails sampled from 31 freshwater bodies in the Albertine Rift were analyzed to investigate the extent of genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships. Bayesian phylogenetic inferences clustered the samples into three species groups;Bulinus truncatus/ tropicus, Bulinus forskalii and Bulinus africanus. Twenty-two haplotypes were identified within the B. truncatus/tropicus species group which clustered into two well-differentiated lineages; with 2.7% sequence divergence between them. Significant genetic variation was also observed within the B. forskalii group, with the Maramagambo forest haplotype being separated by 55 mutational changes from the rest of the haplotypes. The B. truncatus/tropicus species group showed early divergence from the two B. forskalii and B. africanus species groups which were more closely related. A single species B. globosus in the B. africanus species group was identified in the Albertine Rift. We report the presence of five Bulinus species in the Albertine Rift; two in the B. truncatus/tropicus group, two in the B. forskalii group (one species yet to be identified) and one species in the B. africanus group. The findings of this study highlight the limitations of relying solely on shell characteristics to delineate snail species within the genus Bulinus. Key words: Bulinus species, cytochrome oxidase c subunit I, mitochondrial DNA, phylogenetic relationships, Albertine Rift. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/C2FA5312972 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000044 en Copyright © 2010 A. Nalugwa, A. Joslash;rgensen, S. Nyakaana and T. K. Kristensen
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:E1071E52991 2010-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Iron starvation induces expression of a putative xylanase gene in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis mini-transposon5 lacZ1 mutants Kazhila C. Chinsembu and Andreacute; Faul Full Length Research Paper In this study, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis mini-transposon5 lacZ1 mutant strains induced under iron starvation were analyzed. Inverse polymerase chain reaction (IPCR) was used to isolate iron starvation-induced DNA fragments upstream of mini-Tn5 (containing a promoter-less lacZ gene) insertion in S. entericasubsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis mutants showing beta;-galactosidase activity during growth in Fe3+-deprived media. Out of ten mutant strains analyzed, four (Ez188, Ez477, Ez1819 and Ez2508) were induced during growth in the presence of the iron chelator, 2,2rsquo;-dipyridyl. IPCR products of Ez188 and Ez2508 were reamplified by nested PCR. Sequence analysis of the Ez188 PCR product revealed that a putative xylanase gene was induced under iron starvation conditions. Key words: Salmonella mutants, iron starvation, induced, genes, putative xylanase. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/E1071E52991 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000037 en Copyright © 2010 Kazhila C. Chinsembu and Andreacute; Faul
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:5D10F803010 2010-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
The frequency of Y chromosome microdeletions in infertile men from Chennai, a South East Indian population and the effect of smoking, drinking alcohol and chemical exposure on their frequencies V. G. Abilash, Radha Saraswathy and K. M. Marimuthu Full Length Research Paper The aims of the study were to estimate the frequency of Y chromosome microdeletion in infertile men from a new geographical ethnic region, Chennai, South East India, to explore the effect of smoking, alcohol drinking, chemical exposure and cellular chromosomal aberration on the frequency of infertility in 34 azoospermia and 55 oligospermia patients. The frequency of Y chromosome microdeletion was estimated using 12 STS markers and the chromosomal aberrations were estimated in leukocyte cultures. In azoospermia the frequency of microdeletions in AZFa, AZFb, AZFc and AZFd were 27, 4, 56 and 13% respectively. In oligospermia they were 33, 7, 48 and 12% in the same order. These frequencies of Y chromosome microdeletion are significantly higher than that of European population. The chromosome aberrations per cell in azoospermia and oligospermia were higher than that of the control at the level of p gt; 0.001. The percentage of microdeletion observed in unexposed azoospermia had 15%, azoospermia smokers 22%, azoospermia smokers and alcoholics 25%; whereas the unexposed oligospermia had 7%, oligospermia smokers 12%, oligospermia smokers and alcoholics 37%. It seems that the etiology of male infertility may differ between ethnic populations and smoking, alcohol drinking and chemical exposure may have deleterious effect on human fertility. Key words: Y chromosome microdeletion, sequence-tagged site (STS), chemical exposure, chromosomal aberrations, ethnic region. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/5D10F803010 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000063 en Copyright © 2010 V. G. Abilash, Radha Saraswathy and K. M. Marimuthu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:C46159E3032 2010-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Deletion of derivative ABL, BCR or ABL-BCR fusion gene is associated with shorter disease free survival in CML patients Beena P. Patel, Pina J. Trivedi, Manisha M. Brahmbhatt, Sarju B. Gajjar, Ramesh R. Iyer, Esha N. Dalal, Shilin N. Shukla and Pankaj M. Shah Full Length Research Paper Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by formation of the BCR/ABL fusion gene, usually as a consequence of the Philadelphia (Ph) translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22. However, deletions of the derivative 9 chromosome [der (9)] in10 - 15% of CML patients with a standard Ph translocation as well as gt; 30% of CML patients with a variant Ph translocation may have verse prognosis. The study shed light on prognostic effect of submicroscopic deletions of the derivative chromosome 9 in CML in untreated patients and their follow up samples to correlate with survival. The study included blood and/or bone marrow (BM) samples of 65 untreated CML patients (PT) and 76 follow-up samples classified as cytogenetic responders (CyR, n =42), non-cytogentic responders (NCyR, n = 25) and partial cytogenetic responder (PCyR, n = 9). Karyotype analysis was performed on metaphases obtained through short term cultures of BM and blood. Detection of BCR-ABL fusion gene was performed using dual colour dual fusion (D-FISH) translocation probes. Data were analysed using SPSS statistical software. CyR showed significantly elevated hemoglobin (p = 0.0001) and decreased in total WBC (p = 0.0001) and Platelet counts (p = 0.0001) as compared to pretreatment levels. 61.5, 30.8 and 7.7% of the PT showed CyR, NCyR and PCyR respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed the patient with CyR, NCyR and PCyR as well as patients with different stage of the disease did not find difference in survival time. ABL-BCR deletion on derivative 9 was seen in 9.2% of PT, while ABL-BCR, ABL or BCR deletion on derivative 9 was found around 7.7% of PT. Patients with deletion of ABL-BCR on derivative 9 and deletion of ABL or BCR and/or ABL-BCR on derivative 9 have significantly reduced survival (log rank = 14.54; p = 0.001) than non deleted patients. Deletion in ABL, BCR orABL-BCR on derivative 9 could predict over the survival of all CML patients. Key words: CML, BCR-ABL fusion Gene, FISH, derivative 9 deletion. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/C46159E3032 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000014 en Copyright © 2010 Beena P. Patel, Pina J. Trivedi, Manisha M. Brahmbhatt, Sarju B. Gajjar, Ramesh R. Iyer, Esha N. Dalal, Shilin N. Shukla and Pankaj M. Shah
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:07A17893079 2010-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Four novel mutations detected in the exon 1 of MBL2 gene associated with rheumatic heart disease in South Indian patients Radha Saraswathy, V. G. Abilash, G. Manivannan, Alex George and K. Thirumal Babu Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variations associated with the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene in rheumatic heart disease (RHD) patients in the Vellore region, South India. This study included 50 patients with RHD and equal number of age and sex matched healthy controls. The genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, to find out the genetic variations if any in MBL2 gene. The exon 1 of MBL2 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then screened with Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. DNA sequencing was carried out in ABI PRISMreg; 3730 DNA analyzer. The sequence data were edited as required using the sequence analysing software and sequences were aligned using Autoassembler version 2.0 software. Four novel mutations in four RHD patients in exon 1 of MBL2 gene were observed, (1) 46 G/A (Heteroplasmic mutation) (2) 47 G (deletion), 3) 67 G rarr; A (serine to phenyl alanine) and (4) 96 G (insertion). This is the first report of these novel mutations detected in exon 1 of MBL2 gene of RHD patients in South India. The clinical importance of the study is understanding the genomic nature of every population may show variation in its degree of susceptibility to any environmental insults. Key words: Rheumatic heart disease, RHD, MBL2 mutation, mannan-binding lectin. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/07A17893079 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000023 en Copyright © 2010 Radha Saraswathy, V. G. Abilash, G. Manivannan, Alex George and K. Thirumal Babu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:AC228973116 2010-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Healthy carrier parents in partial 7 and 9 chromosome trisomy in two pediatric patients: Report cases at the Hospital para el Niño Poblano, Mexico J. M. Aparicio-Rodriacute;guez, M. L. Hurtado-Hernaacute;ndez, M. Barrientos-Perez, S. I. Assia-Robles, N. C. Gil-Orduntilde;a, R. Zamudio-Meneses, J. S. Rodriacute;guez-Peralta, S. M. Brieke-Walter, F. Almanza-Flores and C. Silva-Xilotl Full Length Research Paper Two pediatric cases are reported in this study, a one year and five months old male patient with partial trisomy for the long arm of chromosome 9 due to chromosome segregation error in the father 46 XY, del (9q-)/46 XY dup (10q+), and a seven years old male patient with partial trisomy for the long arm of chromosome 7 due to chromosome segregation error in the mother 46 XX, ins (10; 7) (q21; q23q35) are described. The major abnormalities in both cases are reported and compared, where both syndromes have defects including central nervous system disorders as mental retardation, hypotonia, craniofacial anomalies, micrognatia, poor feeding and xyphoescoliosis. Key words: Central nervous system, partial trisomy, translocation, chromosome, healthy carriers. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/AC228973116 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000031 en Copyright © 2010 J. M. Aparicio-Rodriacute;guez, M. L. Hurtado-Hernaacute;ndez, M. Barrientos-Perez, S. I. Assia-Robles, N. C. Gil-Orduntilde;a, R. Zamudio-Meneses, J. S. Rodriacute;guez-Peralta, S. M. Brieke-Walter, F. Almanza-Flores and C. Silva-Xilotl
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:B93A36D3134 2010-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Interleukin-1b gene polymorphism and its association with chronic periodontitis in South Indian population P. S. G. Prakash and D. J. Victor Full Length Research Paper Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1b) is a potent inflammatory mediator and an important polymorphism in the locus +3954 (C/T) of the human IL1B gene has been shown to affect the levels of this cytokine. This functional polymorphism has been associated with the establishment of inflammatory diseases, including periodontal disease, in European, Asian and North American populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the IL1B (+3954) gene polymorphism and the occurrence of different clinical forms of periodontitis in South Indian population. This study employed a cross-sectional design involving individuals from the State of Tamil Nadu in the Southern region of India. Genomic DNA was obtained from 5 ml of venous blood and amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers flanking the locus +3954 of IL1B. PCR products were submitted to restriction endonuclease digestion and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, to distinguish alleles T and C of the IL1B gene, allowing for the determination of the genotypes and detection of the polymorphism. The chronic periodontitis group displayed a higher percentage of the T allele (28%) than C allele (8.7%). Our data suggested that the polymorphism in the locus +3954 of IL1B gene could be a risk factor for chronic periodontitis in South Indian population. Key words: Gene polymorphism, interleukin 1 beta, periodontitis, allele. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/B93A36D3134 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000036 en Copyright © 2010 P. S. G. Prakash and D. J. Victor
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:08821BC3161 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Tissue specificity in breast cancer: A mini review Preetha J. Shetty, Bhavani Vedicherlla, Yog R Ahuja and Qurratulain Hasan, Review Cell proliferation by estrogen in the absence of BRCA1 protein may lead to a high mutation rate, thereby increasing the risk of acquiring cancer causing mutations (Scully and Livingston, 2000). The breast tissue is the target for estrogen and other hormones that are shown to endow antiapoptotic survival function upon cells sometimes in a non-autonomous manner. BRCA1 regulates DNA repair and apoptosis. In the absence of BRCA1 protein apoptosis does not occur to check the proliferation induced by estrogen leading to tumors (Forgez et al., 2000; Scully and Livingston, 2000). BRCA1 has also been implicated in the regulation of transcription, and it is possible that it may regulate genes expressed only in the breast. The altered expression of these transcripts would lead to an increase in neoplastic transformation through as yet undefined mechanisms. BRCA1 plays an inhibitory role in ER signaling that could explain the tissue specificity since breast tissue is a major target of ER action. A fact relevant to this is that most BRCA1 tumors lack ER expression (Fan et al., 2001; Vincent-Salomon et al., 2007). Decreased amount of BRCA1 protein resulting from either mutations or promoter hypermethylation has been associated with both familial and sporadic breast cancer. Keyword: Tissue specificity, breast cancer, BRCA1, hormones, 17beta; HSD. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/08821BC3161 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000067 en Copyright © 2010 Preetha J. Shetty, Bhavani Vedicherlla, Yog R Ahuja and Qurratulain Hasan,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:38DB2183175 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Genotoxic effects of low 2.45 GHz microwave radiation exposures on Sprague Dawley rats M. A. Aweda, M. R. Usikalu, J. H. Wan, N. Ding and J. Y. Zhu Full Length Research Paper This paper investigates the genotoxic effects of 2.45 GHz microwave (MW) radiation exposure at low specific absorption rates (SAR). 200 Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to SAR values between 0.48 and 4.30 W.kg-1 and the DNA of different tissues extracted, precipitated and quantified. Induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damages were assessed using the methods of DNA Direct Amplification of Length Polymorphisms (DALP) and the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE). Densitometric gel analysis demonstrated distinctly altered band patterns within the range of 40 and 120 bp in exposed samples and in the tail DNA of the same animals before exposure compared with control. Results were re-affirmed with SCGE (comet assay) for the same cells. Different tissues had different sensitivities to exposures with the brains having the highest. DNA damages were sex-independent. There was statistically significant difference in the Olive moment and % DNA in the tail of the exposed tissues compared with control (p lt; 0.05). Observed effects were attributed to magnetic field interactions and production of reactive oxygen species. We conclude that low SAR 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposures can induce DNA single strand breaks and the direct genome analysis of DNA of various tissues demonstrated potential for genotoxicity. Key words: Microwave radiation, single strand break, genotoxicity. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/38DB2183175 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000028 en Copyright © 2010 M. A. Aweda, M. R. Usikalu, J. H. Wan, N. Ding and J. Y. Zhu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:1A497BC3068 2010-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Inheritance of ß-carotene in cassava (Manihot esculenta crantza) M.G. Akinwale, R. D. Aladesanwa, B. O. Akinyele, A. G. O. Dixon and A. C. Odiyi Full Length Research Paper A study on the inheritance pattern of beta-carotene in cassava was carried out in the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria, using four parental lines of cassava, namely two yellow flesh and two white flesh colour genotypes. Crosses of yellow x white and white x yellow were made. The resulting progenies were screened and placed into distinct phenotypic classes and the data obtained were subjected to Chi-square test to determine the goodness of fit to various genetic ratios. The segregation in both crosses fitted into 9:3:3:1 ratio. The quantitative variability of root colour observed in the segregating progenies suggests that two or more genes are involved in the accumulation process. There are no reciprocal differences with respect to the trait studied when the F1 progenies of yellow x white parents were compared with those of the reciprocal cross (white x yellow). This implies that there were no maternal or cytoplasmic effects in the inheritance of the trait. Consequently, either of the genotypes could be used as the female parent in crossing. The appearance of extreme segregation with very high carotene contents beyond the upper limit of yellow flesh parent (deep yellow) in the crosses between 01/1368 x 98/0505 and the reciprocal indicates transgressive segregation, a promise for future recombination strategies. The negative correlation observed between dry matter and flesh colour revealed that the deeper the flesh colours (carotene) the lower the dry matter contents. Key words: Inheritance, vitamin A, beta-carotene, yellow fleshed cassava. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/1A497BC3068 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000034 en Copyright © 2010 M.G. Akinwale, R. D. Aladesanwa, B. O. Akinyele, A. G. O. Dixon and A. C. Odiyi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:3208E6C3085 2010-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Rapid targeting and isolation of the β-like globin gene cluster fragment from AA, AS and SS genotypes using BamHI restriction enzyme Aimola Idowu Asegame, Inuwa Hajia Mairo, Nok Andrew Jonathan and Mamman I. Aisha Full Length Research Paper The beta;-globin gene cluster contains the beta;-globin gene on which the substitution of the 17thnucleotide gives rise to sickle cell anemia and other beta;-globin gene variants with varying severity. Recent therapy measures focus on understanding the structure and mechanism of expression of the beta;-globin gene. In this study, we attempted to isolate a gene fragment containing the complete set of the human beta;-globin gene cluster from AA, AS and SS blood types, using the restriction enzyme BamHI which has a recognition site within the 19-kb 3rsquo; cluster region downstream the beta;-globin gene cluster. DNA fragment size of 69.65 kb was generated by the enzyme from the genome of AS and SS blood types while the fragment generated from the AA blood type was 70.28 kb. Fragments generated using Bam HI was all comparable and close to the documented size of the beta;-globin gene cluster. In addition to the 69.65 kb fragment generated from the DNA from SS blood type, a novel 5.73 kb fragment was also visualized which was absent in the lanes containing restricted DNA from the AA blood type. Key words: BamHI, beta-globin, genotype, isolation. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/3208E6C3085 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000055 en Copyright © 2010 Aimola Idowu Asegame, Inuwa Hajia Mairo, Nok Andrew Jonathan and Mamman I. Aisha
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:64333393102 2010-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2010
Disorders of sexual development in genetic pediatrics: Three different ambiguous genitalia cases report from Hospital Para el Nino Poblano, Mexico Aparicio-Rodriacute;guez J. M., Cuellar-Loacute;pez F, Hurtado-Hernaacute;ndez ML, Barrientos-Peacute;rez M, Reynoso de Mendoza S., Vargas-Gonzaacute;lez R., Camacho-Gutieacute;rrez S. F., Marroquin-Garcia I., Chatelain-Mercado S.and Sierra-Pineda F. Full Length Research Paper Five pediatric patients with three different disorders of sexual development are reported in this study; the first three male patients (16 years, 4 years and 2 months old, respectively) were diagnosed as having diphallia. These 3 patients had real diphallia, well developed penises, urinarious meatus, and both testicles and one of the case, vessel duplication was reported by urology. All the patients have normal cytogenetic analysis, 46XY. The fourth patient was 2 years old, with hyperplasic clitoris, hyperpigmented tissue similar to labia major (large lips) and internal female organs identified as vagina, uterus and both ovaries. A chimera with two different cells lines [46,XX (48%) and 46,XY (52%)] by cytogenetic studies was reported. And the last child was 2 years 8 months old patient with chromosome translocation, between chromosome Y and 7 chromosomes t(7;Y). Hypospadias pene-escrotal, unilateral cryptorchidism, urinary meatus stenosis and malformed scrotum were diagnosed together with vessel duplication. Key words: Ambiguous genitalia, diphallia, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, chromosome translocation and chimera. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/64333393102 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000017 en Copyright © 2010 Aparicio-Rodriacute;guez J. M., Cuellar-Loacute;pez F, Hurtado-Hernaacute;ndez ML, Barrientos-Peacute;rez M, Reynoso de Mendoza S., Vargas-Gonzaacute;lez R., Camacho-Gutieacute;rrez S. F., Marroquin-Garcia I., Chatelain-Mercado S.and Sierra-Pineda F.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:7E28E892573 2011-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Chromosome complement and C-banding patterns in 6 species of grasshoppers Pooja Chadha and Anupam Mehta Full Length Research Paper Chromosomes with detailed karyotypic information (nature, number, size, relative length, length of X-chromosome, nature of X-chromosome) and C-banding patterns of six species of grasshoppers belonging to sub-families- Tryxalinae, Oedipodinae and Catantopinae are discussed. The karyotypes comprises of acrocentric chromosomes with complement number 2n=23 (male). Constitutive heterochromatin distribution was found at centomeric, interstitial, terminal sites along with thick and thin bands among all the species except inAcrida turrita, which possessed only centromeric C-bands. The number and location of C-bands in Acridids exhibit both intra ndash; and interspecific variations. In the present communication the chromosome complement and C-banding patterns are analyzed for further differences between congeneric species and among genera belonging to the same sub-family. Key words: Acrididae, Orthoptera, chromosome complement, C-banding Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/7E28E892573 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000011 en Copyright © 2011 Pooja Chadha and Anupam Mehta
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:66B54EE2576 2011-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Genetic polymorphism BMP15 and GDF9 genes in Sangsari sheep of Iran Mohammad mehdi kasiriyan, Seyed Hassan Hafezian and Nosratollah hassani Full Length Research Paper Different mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and the Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF9) genes cause increased ovulation rate and infertility in a dosage-sensitive manner in sheep. In this study, blood samples (140 ewes and 10 rams) were initially taken from 150 Sangsari sheep breed in Damghan animal breeding Centre using venojects treated with the anti-clot substance (EDTA) and subsequently their DNA content were salted out and extracted. Using two pairs of specific primers, two DNA fragments were amplified from exon 1 of GDF-9 (462 bp) and exon 2 of BMP15 (141 bp) genes. The resulted PCR products were digested using HhaІ and HinfI restriction enzymes for GDF9 and BMP15 genes, respectively. Digested PCR products with HhaІ enzyme showed a G to A substiuation in GDF9 locus. The wild type allele of this gene (G/+) with two restriction site resulted DNA fragments of 156.52 and 254 bp while the mutant allele (G/-) with one restriction site resulted two DNA fragments with the size of 52 and 410 bp. Genotype frequencies for G (+/+),G (+/-) and G (-/-) were 70.72, 36.88 and 1.40%, respectively. Restriction digested of PCR products for BMP15 locus with Hinf I enzyme showed C to T transition. BMP15 luci was not polymorphic. From studied luci, only GDF9 was polymorphic in Iranian Sanghsari sheep. Key words: PCR, polymorphism, GDF9, BMP15, Sangsari sheep. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/66B54EE2576 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000025 en Copyright © 2011 Mohammad mehdi kasiriyan, Seyed Hassan Hafezian and Nosratollah hassani
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:F4DEC262567 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Molecular docking study of tripeptides VPP and IPP inhibiting angiotensin I converting enzyme to alleviate high altitude pulmonary edema Uma Maheswari Full Length Research Paper High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) remains the major cause of death related to high altitude exposure with a high mortality in absence of emergency treatment. Due to the deprival of oxygen in higher altitudes, the blood vessels constricts and squeezes blood in the vessels. This makes pressure to go up which in turn forces blood into air pockets in lungs that can kill people with HAPE. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) is found in lung capillaries. It catalyses conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II which is a potent vasoconstrictor and inactivates bradykinin which is a potent vasodilator thereby causing HAPE. Tripeptides Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) act as ACE inhibitors, that reduce vasoconstriction and facilitate vasodilation, so that they can be used in the treatment of HAPE. Enzyme-inhibitor docking is performed between Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme ACE and two natural inhibitors, tripeptides Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) using the Patchdock Software. The docking study provided a quantitative energetic measure (Atomic Contact Energy) of 262.56 and 147.73 for ACE inhibition by VPP and IPP respectively. This ensures that the tripeptides Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) are able to inhibit the activity of the ACE which in turn can induce decreased formation of Angiotensin II and decreased inactivation of bradykinin thereby it can alleviate HAPE. Key words: High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), angiotensin converting enzyme, Val-Pro-Pro, Ile-Pro-Pro, patchdock Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/F4DEC262567 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000043 en Copyright © 2011 Uma Maheswari
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:C6603782570 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Application of subspecies-specific marker system identified from Oryza sativa to Oryza glaberrima accessions and Oryza sativa × Oryza glaberrima F1 interspecific progenies Isaac Kofi Bimpong, Joong Hyoun Chin, Joie Ramos and Hee-Jong Koh Full Length Research Paper Interspecific hybrids (F1#39;s) between Asian rice (Oryza sativa 2n=24 AA) and African rice (Oryza glaberrima 2n=24 AA) are almost completely sterile. This hybrid sterility barrier is mainly caused by an arrest of pollen development at the microspore stage. Intersubspecific F1 hybrid sterility is mainly caused by cryptic chromosomal aberrations and allelic interaction between indica and japonica. To identify O. glaberrima specific loci, 67 subspecies-specific (SS) sequenced-tagged site (STS) marker were used to evaluate 30 O. glaberrimaaccessions, which could be classified into sub eleven groups. SPI (subspecies-prototype index) of O. glaberrima accessions ranged from 51.67 to 60.00, suggesting intermediate subspecific type based on whole-genome. Some informative markers for classifying O.glaberrima accessions, called reference markers, S01054, S01160, S02085, S02140, S03041, and S08107, showed indica allele, which might have contributed to genomic diversification of O. glaberrima. Ten (14.9%) SS markers generated glaberrima-specific allele, implying loci adjacent with these markers could be a key for interspecific hybrid sterility. Only 40 (59.7%) SS markers might be useful in O. glaberrima analysis, as other markers did not amplify heterozygous allele in F1 of O. sativa times; O. glaberrima. Key words: Oryza glaberrima, Oryza sativa, sequenced-tagged site, subspecies-specific,interspecific progenies Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/C6603782570 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000009 en Copyright © 2011 Isaac Kofi Bimpong, Joong Hyoun Chin, Joie Ramos and Hee-Jong Koh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:CEA13662581 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
The differential expression of Rhopalosiphum padi resistance in sibling wheat-rye amphiploids Zongxiang Tang and Zhenglong Ren Full Length Research Paper Thirteen amphiploids were synthesized by chromosome doubling of an F1 plant of a cross between Triticum aestivum Mianyang11 times; S. cereale Kustro, which shows resistance to Bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi). The amphiploids were confirmed by GISH analysis and tested for their reaction to R. padi. Eleven amphiploids exhibited resistance to R. padiand two of them exhibited high level of susceptibility. The PCR analysis using rye-specific markers provided evidence for the elimination of W-box elements from the susceptible amphiploids. The possible mechanism of loss resistance in some amphiploids was discussed. The resistant amphiploids can be exploited in wheat breeding programs to transfer R. padi resistance to susceptible wheat varieties. Key words: Rhopalosiphum padi, amphiploid, wheat, rye. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/CEA13662581 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000062 en Copyright © 2011 Zongxiang Tang and Zhenglong Ren
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:5764DD32587 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Optical microscope gross characterization of rat neonatal testicular germline stem cell expansion in vitro Osunkwo, U. A., Ezeunala, Mercy N., Akuodor, G. C., Giwa-Amu, Judith Osunkwo, Damaris, A., Duru, M. O., Idris-Shehu, Maryam, Odo, Eucheria, Ugwu, Theresa C., Nwalozie, C., Mgbemere, Chidimma and Agonsi, Chinyere Full Length Research Paper Neonatal testicular germline stem cell suspension prepared from twenty 3-5 day old albino rats were incubated in normal saline or in NC-01in triplicate groups. A control group of saline alone (without cell suspension) was also prepared. The cell-containing groups and control were incubated for 21 days at room temperature, stained with 50% Mezo (organic) and visually studied daily with a view to histological characterizing the changes in cellular aggregation, morphology and coloration during incubation. Images of dense oval cells and cellular developmental transformation into mixed populations of these testicular cells showed clearly identifiable patterns of clump formation. Saline alone (control) did not show the presence of any cells during the period of incubation. In vitro expansion of neonatal germline stem cells within 21 days of incubation was associated with multiple divisions into numerous structurally similar cells and transformation into clusters of multi-colored component rod-like cells. A many-fold increase in the number of dense oval cells was observed in the NC-01 culture medium than in the normal saline. Using these morphological criteria and functional characteristics, we suggest a many-fold increased presence of rat neonatal spermatogonial stem cells capable of cellular division in NC-01 culture medium than in normal saline. Key words: Rat, neonatal germline stem cell, Mezo stain, cell suspension, NC-01 Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/5764DD32587 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000049 en Copyright © 2011 Osunkwo, U. A., Ezeunala, Mercy N., Akuodor, G. C., Giwa-Amu, Judith Osunkwo, Damaris, A., Duru, M. O., Idris-Shehu, Maryam, Odo, Eucheria, Ugwu, Theresa C., Nwalozie, C., Mgbemere, Chidimma and Agonsi, Chinyere
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:FB1B3FE2595 2011-04-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Effect of genotype, explant source and medium on in vitro regeneration of tomato Praveen Mamidala, and Rama Swamy Nanna Full Length Research Paper For the present investigations, five cultivars including PKM-1, Moneymaker, Microtom, Micro-MsK and White Cherry of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were selected. The explants cotyledon, hypocotyl and leaf of all the cultivars of tomato were cultured on MS medium fortified with different concentrations of Benzyl amino purine (BAP) (1.0 to 3.0 mg/L)and 0.1 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Adventitious shoot buds were induced at the cut ends of the explants after three weeks of culture. Adventitious shoots were induced from hypocotyl, cotyledon and leaf explants on MS medium fortified with 1.0 mg/l BAP + 0.1mg/l IAA (Medium A); 2.0 mg/l BAP+0.1 mg/l IAA (Medium B) and 3.0 mg/L BAP + 0.1 mg/L IAA (Medium C). Of the five genotypes tested, PKM-1 showed highest number of shoots per explant followed by Micro-MSK, Microtom and Money maker on MS medium augmented with different concentrations of growth regulators used (A, B amp; C). The lowest regeneration efficiency was observed from all the explants used in White Cherry. More number of adventitious shoots was induced from leaf explants compared to cotyledon and hypocotyl explants in all the genotypes of tomato studied. Among the three media tested, mediumlsquo;Brsquo; showed superiority in cotyledon and leaf explants compared to medium lsquo;Arsquo;. Whereas medium lsquo;Crsquo; had shown poor response on regeneration ability of all the explants tested irrespective of genotypes. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium augmented with 0.1 mg/L NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid) in all the genotypes. Thus the plant regeneration was found to be influenced by the genotype, explant and type of medium. Key words: Tomato, cotyledon, hypocotyl, leaf, regeneration, plantlet formation Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/FB1B3FE2595 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000019 en Copyright © 2011 Praveen Mamidala, and Rama Swamy Nanna
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:4AC9B0E2600 2011-04-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Plasmid-mediated transformation of Escherichia coli having a dependence on the heat-shock protein GroEL Pulakesh Aich, Arijit Kumar Chatterjee, Monobesh Patra and Tarakdas Basu Full Length Research Paper When the cells of Escherichia coli mutant in heat-shock regulator protein sigma-32 were transformed with plasmid pUC19 DNA, the transformation efficiency (TRE) of the mutant strain was about 10% of the wild type (wt) strain, indicating the role of heat-shock protein(s) in the transformation process. In order to search for the protein(s), when three different E. coli mutants in three important heat-shock proteins (DnaK, DnaJ and GroEL) were studied, TRE of dnaK and dnaJ mutants was similar to that of their wt strain; but TRE of groEL mutant was drastically less, that is, it is almost 10% of the TRE of its wt counterpart. On transformation of the groEL mutant with a groEL-bearing plasmid, the transformed cells elicited higher TRE like wt cells. Over-expression of GroEL by the brief heat-shock step of the transformation procedure was also evident from immuno-precipitation, as well as western blot studies. All these results suggested that GroEL had a positive role in the transformation phenomenon. Key words: Escherichia coli, transformation, pUC19 DNA, sigma-32, GroEL Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/4AC9B0E2600 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000052 en Copyright © 2011 Pulakesh Aich, Arijit Kumar Chatterjee, Monobesh Patra and Tarakdas Basu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:D0108A72617 2011-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Genotype × environment interaction in NH47-4 variety of okra – Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench B. O. Akinyele and O. S. Osekita Full Length Research Paper Sixty lines of NH47-4 variety of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), obtained from the National Institute of Horticultural Research and Training (NIHORT), Ibadan, Nigeria, were grown in two different locations (Akure and Ilara-Mokin, Ondo State, Nigeria) under rain-fed conditions using the Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. The plantsrsquo; genotypic coefficients of variation and correlations were analysed for eleven quantitative traits, namely days to flowering, days to maturity, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, height at flowering, final height, pod length, pod width, number of seeds per pod, weight of 100 seeds and seed yield. The number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant and seed yield showed high genotypic coefficient of variation. Plant height at flowering, final plant height and number of seeds per pod showed positive direct genotypic effect on the number of branches per plant. Number of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod showed very high direct genotypic effect on seed yield. For a reliable selection index, number of pods per plant was a prime character. This was closely followed by height at flowering and then number of seeds per pod. Therefore, greater attention should be given to these traits in variety development. Key words: Genotype, environment, interaction, correlation coefficient, variation, okra,selection. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/D0108A72617 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000029 en Copyright © 2011 B. O. Akinyele and O. S. Osekita
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:9E694652633 2011-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Morphological and molecular variation in Ethiopian lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) varieties Edossa Fikiru, Kassahun Tesfaye and Endashaw Bekele Full Length Research Paper Phenotypic and genetic diversity of ten improved lentil varieties of Ethiopia were assessed using nine agro-morphological characters and four ISSR primers. ANOVA of phenotypic data showed highly significant variation among the varieties for all traits. Number of pods and seeds, hundred seed weight, and number of secondary and primary branch showed high phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV), while days to flowering, seed yield, plant height and days to maturity revealed low PCV. Adarsquo;a, Chalew and R-186 were late in flowering and maturity, while Gudo was early flowering, but late maturing variety. Alemaya, Alemtena and Assano were early in flowering and maturity, while Chekol, EL-142 and Teshale were intermediate in flowering but early in maturity. The Euclidian distance between Adarsquo;a and Assano was high, while the distance between Alemtena and Teshale was the least. Clustering analysis based on phenotypic data classified the varieties into two groups. ISSR analyses revealed that 75.93% of the amplified bands were polymorphic with average gene diversity () of 0.2734. Inter-varietal genetic distance between Gudo and Chekol was high, while that between Gudo and Alemaya was low. Clustering analysis based on ISSR marker also classified the varieties into two groups. The correlation (=0.334) between morphological and ISSR dissimilarity matrices was significant. Results of the present study reveal the genetic variation between Ethiopian lentil varieties which would help in selection of varieties for specific agro-ecology and/or purpose, and for further breeding activities. Key words: ISSR marker, genetic diversity, lentil varieties, morphological variation, correlation. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/9E694652633 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000046 en Copyright © 2011 Edossa Fikiru, Kassahun Tesfaye and Endashaw Bekele
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:D9430F22641 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
T-DNA direct repeat, vector backbone and gene trap counter selection by a new vector (pNU435) for high throughput functional genomics R. S. Bhat, S. S. Biradar, R. V. Patil, V. U. Patil and M. S. Kuruvinashetti Review The nature of T-DNA/Ds insertion decides the utility of launch pad lines for iAc/Ds based insertional mutagenesis. Direct or inverted T-DNA/Ds repeats and insertions with vector backbone lead to poor recovery of flanking sequences; whereas T-DNA/Ds insertion leading to gene trap would limit the use of such launch pad lines. A new Ds tagging/trapping vector, pNU435 containing two copies of intron-interrupted barnase was used in tomato to counter select such T-DAN/Ds insertions. T1 and T2 plants generated in this study were devoid of direct repeats, vector backbone and gene traps as evidenced by the lack of barnase expression. Further evidence based on the LB flanking sequence recovered through TAIL-PCR did not show any vector backbone or direct repeats. But two out of six plants showed inverted repeats. Genome search with LB flanking sequence indicated that the insertions were not in genic region, and hence not led to gene traps. pNU435 with features for counter selecting undesirable T-DNA/Ds insertions can be employed for high throughput functional genomics. Key words: pNU435 vector, T-DNA/Ds insertion, barnase, tomato, flanking sequence, functional genomics. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/D9430F22641 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000060 en Copyright © 2011 R. S. Bhat, S. S. Biradar, R. V. Patil, V. U. Patil and M. S. Kuruvinashetti
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:47BC0E12651 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling: Detailed mechanistic insights Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Syed Shoaib, Ali Nawaz, Asma M Riaz, Shahzeray Mukhtar, Sehrish Minhaj, and Shahzad Bhatti Review It is worth mentioning that large body of experimental evidence interconnects the deregulation of specific platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) functions to cellular transformation, yet complete picture of determinants of molecular mechanisms through which PDGF contributes to tumorigenesis remain indefinable. In this review, we have summarized current comprehension concerning PDGF functions, and attempted to understand its multifaceted and contradictory activities in the perspective of both normal cellular homeostasis and molecular disorders. Furthermore, PDGF is tightly buffered at multiple levels by downstream components and effectors, which have turned this linear signaling pathway into an integrated one. In support of this notion, PDGF and its downstream components in turn cross-talk with a number of other pathways, consequently leading to an intricate network of signals that may have derailed activities when perturbed. Here, we evaluate the current status of the PDGF transduction cascade with particular emphasis on the most current data on targets and regulation of the PDGF axis. We also bring to limelight, molecular details of PDGF signal transduction cascade, endocytosis and membrane trafficking, as well as interactions with the actin cytoskeleton which may add to the recently appraised multifunctionality of PDGF. This provides novel therapeutic implications based on the targeted modulation of PDGF-cross-talking signals with minimal off target effects. Key words: Platelet-derived growth factor, cancer, cellular transformation. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/47BC0E12651 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000053 en Copyright © 2011 Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Syed Shoaib, Ali Nawaz, Asma M Riaz, Shahzeray Mukhtar, Sehrish Minhaj, and Shahzad Bhatti
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:EC5B8CB2675 2011-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Evaluation of the association between ICAM-1 gene polymorphisms and sICAM-1 serum levels in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Southeast Iran Nima Sanadgol, Abbas Nikravesh, Gholamreza Motalleb, Fariba Roshanzamir, Toktam Balazade, Nourollah Ramroodi and Hamideh Khajeh Review Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune nervous system disorder characterized by leukocytes recruitment into nervous system and demyelination. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mediates the extravasation of leukocytes and their accumulation in inflamed tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the probable association of ICAM-1 Exon 4 (G241R) and Exon 6 (E469K) gene polymorphisms with circulating levels of sICAM-1 in MS patients (n=78) and consecutive unrelated healthy controls (n=123). Analysis of ICAM-1 polymorphisms was performed by PCR with sequence-specific primers (SSP) and concentration of sICAM-1 in serum was performed by ELISA techniques. No significant differences were detected for allele frequencies of ICAM-1 Exon 4 and Exon 6 in MS patients than in the controls respectively (ns-P gt; 0.05). Moreover, baseline serum sICAM-1 concentrations to be significantly increased among patient carriers of K allele as compared with the respective non-carriers of these variants (P lt; 0.001). This study illustrates that K allele of the ICAM-1 codon 469 mutation might contribute to the pathogenesis of MS through increase levels of sICAM-1 and establish inflammation. Our result invites further investigation relevant to understanding the mechanisms underlying the immunopathogenesis of this autoimmune disease. Key words: Polymorphism, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, heterogeneity, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/EC5B8CB2675 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000021 en Copyright © 2011 Nima Sanadgol, Abbas Nikravesh, Gholamreza Motalleb, Fariba Roshanzamir, Toktam Balazade, Nourollah Ramroodi and Hamideh Khajeh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:367A3742697 2011-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Five opitz G/B.B.B syndrome cases report with two chromosomal abnormalities; x chromosome duplication (47, XXY) and translocation 46XX t(3q;4q) Juan Manuel Aparicio-Rodriacute;guez, Ma. De Lourdes Hurtado-Hernandez, Isabel Marroquiacute;n-Garcia, Guadalupe Araceli Rojas-Rivera, Patricia Saacute;nchez-Meza, Salvador Rodriacute;guez-Peralta, Rigoberto Zamudio-Meneses, Walter san Martin-Brieke, Eduardo Urzaiz-Rodriguez and Enrique Huitzil-Muntilde;oz Full Length Research Paper Opitz G/BBB syndrome is a genetic condition that affects several structures along the midline of the body. The most common features of this condition are wide-spaced eyes (hypertelorism) with structural defects of the larynx, trachea, and/or esophagus causing breathing problems and difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). Some times in males, the urethra opening on the underside of the penis (hypospadias) is observed. Mild intellectual disability occurs in 30% approximately of patients with Opitz G/BBB syndrome (GBBBS), most likely caused by structural defects in the brain. About half of affected individuals also have cleft lip with or without a cleft palate as in this study. Some have cleft palate alone. Heart defects, imperforate anus, and brain defects such as absence of the corpus callosum. Facial abnormalities that may be seen in this disorder include a flat nasal bridge, thin upper lip, and low set ears. There are two forms of Opitz G/BBB syndrome, which are distinguished by their genetic causes and patterns of inheritance. The X-linked form of Opitz G/BBB syndrome is caused by a mutation in a specific gene, MID1, on the X chromosome. Autosomal dominant Opitz G/BBB syndrome is caused by a mutation in an as-yet unidentified gene on chromosome 22. Two chromosomal aberrations in this study were observed in two patients; chromosome duplication 47,XXY and translocation 46,XX t(3;4). However one patient with oral encephalocele presented normal karyotype 46,XY. Key words: Hypertelorism, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, chromosomes, klinefelter syndrome, chromosomal translocation Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/367A3742697 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000022 en Copyright © 2011 Juan Manuel Aparicio-Rodriacute;guez, Ma. De Lourdes Hurtado-Hernandez, Isabel Marroquiacute;n-Garcia, Guadalupe Araceli Rojas-Rivera, Patricia Saacute;nchez-Meza, Salvador Rodriacute;guez-Peralta, Rigoberto Zamudio-Meneses, Walter san Martin-Brieke, Eduardo Urzaiz-Rodriguez and Enrique Huitzil-Muntilde;oz
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:C10C17E2743 2011-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of petroleum ether extract (oil) and bio-assays of crude extract of Iris germanica Syeda Farina Asghar, Habib-ur-Rehman, M. I. Choudahry and Atta-ur-Rahman Full Length Research Paper Iris plants have immense medicinal importance and are therefore used in the treatment of cancer, inflammation, bacterial and viral infections (Nadkarni, 1976). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the petroleum ether extract (oil) of the plant have resulted in the identification of eleven compounds, 9-hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester, 8-octadecenoic acid methyl ester, 11-octadecenoic acid methyl, 10-octadecenoic acid methyl ester, 13-octadecenoic acid methyl ester, 16-octadecenoic acid methyl ester, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diisooctyl ester, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, methyl 6-methyl heptanoate and nonanoic acid, 9-oxo-methyl ester. The bioassay of petroleum ether extract (oil) showed that, it is potent against for antimicrobial and antioxidantactivities. Key words: Iris germanica, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, identification of compounds, bioassay Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/C10C17E2743 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000024 en Copyright © 2011 Syeda Farina Asghar, Habib-ur-Rehman, M. I. Choudahry and Atta-ur-Rahman
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:FCAD1D22756 2011-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Influence of risk factors on onset of hyperlipidemia in patients with cerebrovascular insult Gordana Petrovic-Oggiano, Vlasta Damjanov, Vesna Vucic, Mirjana Gurinovic, Tamara Popovic, Jasmina Debeljak Martacic, Marina Nikolic, Nemanja Avramovic, and Marija Glibetic (Not Available) Full Length Research Paper Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/FCAD1D22756 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000033 en Copyright © 2011 Gordana Petrovic-Oggiano, Vlasta Damjanov, Vesna Vucic, Mirjana Gurinovic, Tamara Popovic, Jasmina Debeljak Martacic, Marina Nikolic, Nemanja Avramovic, and Marija Glibetic (Not Available)
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:490F9E52796 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Durable resistance in wheat Priyamvada, M. S. Saharan and Ratan Tiwari Review Several rust resistance genes have been identified and used in breeding for resistance but new variants of the pathogen (referred to as races) overcome the resistance over a period of time. Most plant breeders and pathologists now advocate durable resistance to rusts based on multiple genes as best source of resistance as breeding for this type of resistance tends to produce long-lasting solutions. Wheat breeders are now increasingly focusing on the identification and incorporation of race non-specific resistance genes that may provide only partial resistance but when used in combination with other genes can condition highly effective resistance. Molecular markers are becoming available for many genes and their use in marker-assisted selection will certainly have a remarkable impact in practical breeding. Key word: Durable resistance, molecular markers, wheat, pathogen, Lr34 gene Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/490F9E52796 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000018 en Copyright © 2011 Priyamvada, M. S. Saharan and Ratan Tiwari
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:F82EFD22813 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
TAP2 polymorphisms in Iranian patients with type I diabetes mellitus Jalil Tavakkol Afshari, Seyed Morteza Taghavi, Seyedeh Seddigheh Fatemi, Houshang Rafatpanah, Fatemeh Gheybi and Narges Nezamdoost Full Length Research Paper Type I diabetes (T1D) is an immune mediated disease characterized by immune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta cells. This disease is associated with the human major histocompatibility complex (HLA) region of the genome. The presentation of self peptides by HLA class I molecules is defective in individuals with this disease and both TAP1 and TAP2 are potential contributors to this defect. The aim of this study was to identify the correlation between TAP2 polymorphisms and T1D in Iran. Five known coding regions of TAP2 gene (sites 379, 565, 651, 665 and 687) were typed in a case-control study of 87 Iranian patients with T1D and 104 control subjects by using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR technique. The polymorphisms examined in codon 379 and 687 differed in frequencies between patients and controls and there is not any significant difference in frequencies between diabetic patients and control subjects in other three examined sites. TAP2 A was the most frequent allele in Iranian subjects (51.9% in healthy subjects and 47.1% in diabetic patients). The next frequent alleles in our subjects were TAP2 G and B and the frequencies of other alleles (TAP2 C, D, E and F) were usually lesser than 10%. TAP2 D allele was not present in our population and TAP2 E allele was not present in our diabetic patients. In conclusion, the polymorphisms examined in codon 379 and 687 differed in frequencies between patients and controls. We can consider these polymorphisms in all suspected individuals with diabetes under 30 years old. Key words: Type I diabetes (T1D), transporter associated with antigen processing 2 (TAP2), human major histocompatibility complex (HLA), amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/F82EFD22813 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000061 en Copyright © 2011 Jalil Tavakkol Afshari, Seyed Morteza Taghavi, Seyedeh Seddigheh Fatemi, Houshang Rafatpanah, Fatemeh Gheybi and Narges Nezamdoost
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:62BB12D2827 2011-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
A questionnaire survey on infectious disease among hospital patients in Kushtia and Jhenaidah, Bangladesh Abdur Razzak Full Length Research Paper A study on infectious disease is a qualitative study that used framework analysis to examine in-depth interviews among hospitalized patients. A pre-coded questionnaire was developed to obtain relevant information regarding socio-demographic status such as age, weight, family size, income per month, education, disease, health condition, dietary pattern, housing etc. The questionnaire was pre-tested before finalization. We visited hospitals, which are located in the Jhenaidah and Kushtia district in Bangladesh for the collection of data from the patient. We used statistical program for social science (SPSS) software for data analysis. During the recruitment period (from February to March, 2009), there were 540 individuals in the hospital studied both indoor and outdoor. Among them 364 were infectious disease patients. The subjects were randomly chosen. All participants were interviewed by using standard questionnaires that evaluated infectious disease. Among the infectious disease, 11.3% were pneumonia and 6.9% asthma. Among the gastrointestinal infections, 2.7% were diarrhea not otherwise specified and 2.7% jaundice. The frequency of patients being diagnosed with respiratory or gastrointestinal infections varied considerably among the hospitals. Other disease including infectious disease are mild, such as bleeding 1.4%, general cold 4.1%, diabetes 1.4%, dysentery, 5%, fever 4.4%, gastric 12.6%, heart disease 5.2%, injury 20.3%, kidney disease 1.4%, pain 4.9%, skin disease 2.5%, strock 1.9% and urinary problem 1.4%. We can also determine correlations between two variables, such asage and disease, income and disease, weight and disease, education and disease etc.From this study, it is concluded that the people of Kushtia and Jhenaidah suffering from some infectious disease such as asthma, pneumonia, diarrhea etc., suffer from heart disease, fever, jaundice and skin disease. We have found injury, delivery patients and also suicide patients (psychiatric). Data shows that there is not much difference in food habit among the patients. We have found in our study that the occurrence of disease is less frequent in male than the female. However, the prevalence of food and water born disease is grater among the patients of Kushtia and Jhenaidah in Bangladesh. Key words: Systolic blood pressure (BP), waist to hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/62BB12D2827 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000003 en Copyright © 2011 Abdur Razzak
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:2EFBF6D2842 2011-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
IL 10 promoter polymorphism and gastric cancer risk in A+ve blood group patients in Kashmiri population Syed Irtiza, Niyaz A. Naykoo, Imtiyaz A. Bhat, Amat Us Samie, Inayat S. Fazili, Sameer H. Naqash, Iqbal Qasim, Dil-Afroze, Shakir Ali and Mushtaq A. Siddiqi Full Length Research Paper Within the past few years, there has been increasing evidence that the genetic variation in the genes coding pro- and anti-inflammatory markers may play an important role in the pathogenesis of various human cancers, including gastric cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of Interleukin- 10 (IL-10)-1082 G/A and -592 C/A promoter polymorphism with gastric cancer in a North Indian population from Kashmir valley, using a PCR-RFLP approach. In this study, 102 gastric cancer patients and 156 age, sex, dwelling and blood group matched healthy controls were included. Association between genotypes and gastric cancer was examined by odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and Chi-square analysis. In our study, it was observed that significant difference exists between the patients and healthy controls, in genotypic distribution as well as allelic frequency (p lt; 0.05) in case of -1082 and not with -592 polymorphism. We also found significant association of the IL 10-1082 with EGD biopsy, blood group (A+ve), hot salt tea consumption, sex and dwelling. Dwelling showed highest association (Pgt;0.0001) with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that A allele of IL-10 gene is an important genetic risk factor for Gastric cancer in the North Indian population from ethnic Kashmiri population. However, this is a preliminary study and the results need to be confirmed in a larger cohort. Key words: Gastric cancer, inflammation, Kashmir valley, polymorphism Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/2EFBF6D2842 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000032 en Copyright © 2011 Syed Irtiza, Niyaz A. Naykoo, Imtiyaz A. Bhat, Amat Us Samie, Inayat S. Fazili, Sameer H. Naqash, Iqbal Qasim, Dil-Afroze, Shakir Ali and Mushtaq A. Siddiqi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:7CA93BA2866 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
The molecular aspects of oral mucocutaneous diseases: A review S. Sangeetha and Dhayanand John Victor Review Most of the mucocutaneous diseases are confined to the stratified squamous epithelium and thus may involve skin, oral and other mucosae like the nasal, ocular, genital mucosa. Some patients present with oral lesions only whereas in others there may be involvement of skin and other mucous membranes. An understanding of the basic molecular aspects of these disorders is essential for proper diagnosis. Once a definitive diagnosis is determined, treatment is focused upon the alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms, referral for consultation with other specialists to assess the extent of the disease process, and the prevention of recurrence. Key words: Mucocutaneous disease, desquamative gingivitis, vesiculobullous disorder, pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigoid. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/7CA93BA2866 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000065 en Copyright © 2011 S. Sangeetha and Dhayanand John Victor
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:F46EF332889 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
The Genetic variants of IL1RAPL2 gene associated with non-specific mental retardation in Chinese children Zhang Kejin, He Bo, Gong Pingyuan, Gao Xiaocai, Zheng Zijian, Huang Shaoping and Zhang Fuchang, Full Length Research Paper The present study investigated the association between the genetic variants of IL1RAPL2 gene and Non-syndromic mental retardation (NSMR) in the children of QinBa region of China. Five common SNPs (rs5962434, rs5916817, rs3764765, and rs5962298 and rs9887672) of IL1RAPL2 were chosen and examined their individual genotype frequencies using the conventional polymerase chain reaction single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method, and evaluated the association between these genetic polymorphisms and NSMR with the suitable bio-statistic software. Two SNPs (rs5962298 and rs9887672), whose alleles and genotypes distribution showed a significant differences between the control and NSMR groups (alleles: p = 0.020 and 0.017; genotypes: p = 0.025 and 0.053, respectively). Furthermore, the different gender effect was found out, when stratified the data set by the sex. Taken together, we provided substantial evidence that IL1RAPL2 conferred a NSMR susceptibility to children of Qinba region in China, and further work should been done. Key words: Non-syndromic mental retardation, molecular genetics, association analysis, genetic variants Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/F46EF332889 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB.9000064 en Copyright © 2011 Zhang Kejin, He Bo, Gong Pingyuan, Gao Xiaocai, Zheng Zijian, Huang Shaoping and Zhang Fuchang,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:A3C9FB32916 2011-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Uraemic neuropathy: A review Basilio Vagner Ramiacute;rez, and Paula Andrea Bustamante Goacute;mez Review Uraemic neuropathy is an increasingly common condition, it is therefore important to understand its pathophysiology as well as its clinical manifestations. The objective of this study is to make a clear diagnostic approach and to provide treatment following the patientrsquo;s condition. Key words: Uraemia, dialysis, renal transplantation, kidney failure, chronic kidney disease (CKD) Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/A3C9FB32916 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB11.022 en Copyright © 2011 Basilio Vagner Ramiacute;rez, and Paula Andrea Bustamante Goacute;mez
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:115435E2937 2011-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2011
Main chromosome aberrations among 4617 chromosomal studies at a third level pediatric Mexican hospital in 19 years period of time Aparicio-Rodriacute;guez J. M., Hurtado-Hernaacute;ndez M. D. L., Marroquiacute;n-Garciacute;a I., Rojas-Rivera G. A., Barrientos-Peacute;rez M., Gil-Orduntilde;a N. C., Flores-Nuacute;ntilde;ez A. , Ruiz-Gonzaacute;lez R., Goacute;mez-Tello H., Rodriacute;guez-Peralta S., Zamudio-Meneses R., Cuellar-Loacute;pez F., Cubillo-Leoacute;n M. A., Sierra-Pineda F., Palma-Guzmaacute;n M. Chavez-Ozeki H. and Chatelain-Mercado S. Full Length Research Paper Mutations or chromosome aberrations are considered alterations in the chromosome number or structure. They are mainly considered due to gametogenesis inborn error (meiosis) or during the zygote first cellular divisions. All these alterations might be observed during metaphase from the cellular cycle, where DNA loses are seen (clastogenic processes) due to DNA repair processes deficiency o total absence, among others. 4617 chromosomal studies were performed at Hospital Para El Nintilde;o Poblano (Pediatric Hospital) in Mexico. During 19 years period of time (from 1992 to 2011) were 34.6% (1596 patients) showed different chromosomal alterations. Among the studies population, male and female pediatric patients with different genetic diseases were chosen. These chromosome changes are classified as numeric or structural alterations, respectively. Another group of genetic alterations are known as mutations and can be inherited among generations. A wide variety of pediatric patients with genetic diseases due to chromosome aberrations are described in this study analyzing their clinical characteristics, medical or surgical treatments and their medical evolution according to the genetic disease. Key words: Chromosome, mutation, chromosome aberration, numeric and structural changes, karyotype and DNA Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/115435E2937 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB11.022 en Copyright © 2011 Aparicio-Rodriacute;guez J. M., Hurtado-Hernaacute;ndez M. D. L., Marroquiacute;n-Garciacute;a I., Rojas-Rivera G. A., Barrientos-Peacute;rez M., Gil-Orduntilde;a N. C., Flores-Nuacute;ntilde;ez A. , Ruiz-Gonzaacute;lez R., Goacute;mez-Tello H., Rodriacute;guez-Peralta S., Zamudio-Meneses R., Cuellar-Loacute;pez F., Cubillo-Leoacute;n M. A., Sierra-Pineda F., Palma-Guzmaacute;n M. Chavez-Ozeki H. and Chatelain-Mercado S.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:337F9792562 2012-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2012
Acute myeloid leukaemia associated to chromosome 6: Clinical and phenotypical implications in two pediatric patients with chromosome trisomy and translocation Aparicio-Rodriacute;guez J. M., Hurtado-Hernaacute;ndez M. L., Marroquiacute;n-Garciacute;a I., Rojas-Rivera G. A., Cuellar-Loacute;pez F., Cubillo-Leoacute;n M. A., Garrido-Hernaacute;ndez M. A.and Chatelain-Mercado S. Full Length Research Paper Chromosome aberrations are considered alterations in the chromosome number or structure. They are mainly considered due to gametogenesis inborn error or during the zygote first cellular divisions. Among 4617 chromosomal studies performed during 19 years (from 1992 to 2011), at Hospital Para El Nintilde;o Poblano in Meacute;xico, 34.6% (1596 patients) had chromosomal alterations. Among these study populations, a male and a female pediatric patient were described, with 6;9 translocation and trisomy of chromosome 6, where chromosome changes are classified as structural or numeric alterations respectively, and a number of leukemias has been associated with specific chromosomal translocations. Both cases were described in this study analyzing their hematological, clinical features, medical treatments and prognosis. Key words: Chromosome, karyotype, leukemia, numeric and structural chromosome changesa Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/337F9792562 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB11.023 en Copyright © 2012 Aparicio-Rodriacute;guez J. M., Hurtado-Hernaacute;ndez M. L., Marroquiacute;n-Garciacute;a I., Rojas-Rivera G. A., Cuellar-Loacute;pez F., Cubillo-Leoacute;n M. A., Garrido-Hernaacute;ndez M. A.and Chatelain-Mercado S.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:A2E80622565 2012-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2012
Evaluation of genetic heterogeneity in glutamate carboxypeptidase II (H475Y) and reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1) gene variants increased risk factor for the development of neural tube defects in eastern region of India Ajit Kumar Saxena, S. Pandey and L. K. Pandey Full Length Research Paper In humans, neural tube failure to close during the 4th week of gestation leads to the development of severe congenital malformations of the central nervous system because of an error in maternal folate metabolism associated gene variants. The frequency of genotypic variants of GCP II (H475Y) and folate carrier RFCI (SLC19A1) gene polymorphism (80 G rarr;A) were evaluated as potential candidate gene(s) and also assess their clinical association to increase ldquo;riskrdquo; in neural tube defects (NTDs). In the present study, blood samples (0.5 ml) were collected from NTD cases, mother and their respective controls and genomic DNA was isolated to evaluate the impact of GCP II and RFCI genotypic variants as risk factor using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Significant differences (plt;0.05) were observed between case mothers and control for GCP II genotype using Fischerrsquo;s exact two tailed probability test. The odd ratio was calculated to determine the risk factors at 95% C.I. (1.56-87.60), which seems to be very high, suggesting significant involvement of GCP II gene in the development of NTDs. The significant (p = 0.03) risk factor was also calculated (OR=4.85: 95%, C.I. 1.33-17.36) forRFCI gene between heterozygote (GA) and homozygote (AA) mothers having NTDs child. The present finding strongly suggests that genotype variants of GCPII and RFCI gene, in heterozygous condition, are responsible for increasing as independent risk factor for the development of NTDs like meningomyelocele (MMC) susceptibility in this region. Key words: Glutamate carboxy peptidase, reduced folate carrier, gene polymorphism, neural tube defects, meningomyelocele. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/A2E80622565 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB12.003 en Copyright © 2012 Ajit Kumar Saxena, S. Pandey and L. K. Pandey
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:3CE9A682588 2013-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2013
Clinical features in a pediatric population due to chromosome deletions at a third level pediatric Mexican hospital in 19 years period of time: Five case reports Aparicio-Rodriacute;guez J. M., Hurtado-Hernaacute;ndez M. D. L., Barrientos-Peacute;rez M., Zamudio-Meneses R., Palma-Guzmaacute;n M., Chavez-Ozeki H. and Chatelain-Mercado S. Chromosome aberrations are considered as alterations in the chromosome number or structure. They are mainly due to gametogenesis inborn error (meiosis) or occur during the zygote first cellular divisions where DNA repair processes are deficient. Two Wolf Syndrome patients and two criduchat patients or patients with deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 and 5, respectively, and deletion of chromosome 9 in one patient, were observed among 4617 karyotype studies performed from 1992 to 2011, at the Hospital Para El Nintilde;o Poblano (Pediatric Hospital) in Mexico. These chromosome structural alterations or deletions at chromosomes 4, 5 and 9, observed among five patients from three different families were chosen to analyze their clinical characteristics, medical or surgical treatments and their medical evolution according to the genetic disease. Key words: Chromosome, deletion, chromosome aberration, structural changes, karyotype. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/3CE9A682588 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2012.0063 en Copyright © 2013 Aparicio-Rodriacute;guez J. M., Hurtado-Hernaacute;ndez M. D. L., Barrientos-Peacute;rez M., Zamudio-Meneses R., Palma-Guzmaacute;n M., Chavez-Ozeki H. and Chatelain-Mercado S.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:D015C6B2590 2013-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2013
Genetic variability, heritability and correlation in some faba bean genotypes (Vicia faba L.) grown in Northwestern Ethiopia Tafere Mulualem, Tadesse Dessalegn and Yigzaw Dessalegn Full Length Research Paper A study was conducted at Dabat, Northwestern Ethiopia, during 2010 cropping season. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability and correlation coefficients were performed for yield and its contributing parameters in 10 faba bean genotypes. Analysis of variance for traits studied showed significant (Plt;0.01) differences among the genotypes. Phenotypic coefficient of variation values for most characters was closer than the corresponding genotypic coefficient of variation values showing little environment effect on the expression of these characters. The estimated values of broad-sense heritability were found to be between 27 (stand count at emergence) and 81% (grain yield). Heritability values determined were 72, 67, 65, 46, 44, 53, 58 and 45% for 100 seed weight, biological yield, number of pods per plant, number of pods per node, disease status, days to flowering, days to maturity and plant height, respectively. High heritability indicated that selection based on mean would be successful in improving these traits. Positive and significant correlation coefficients were also obtained between number of pods per node and each of plant height (r = 0.676**), number of pods/plant (r = 0.636**) and number of nodes per plant (r = 0.421*). Pods per plant had a significant positive correlation with plant height (plt;0.01) in this study. Key words: Correlation, faba bean, grain yield, genetic variability, heritability. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/D015C6B2590 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB12.006 en Copyright © 2013 Tafere Mulualem, Tadesse Dessalegn and Yigzaw Dessalegn
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:43348FE2602 2013-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2013
Karyotype and meiosis analysis of four species of Cameroonian Pyrgomorphidae (Orthoptera) Seino Richard Akwanjoh, Dongmo Alain, Dongmo Tonleu and Manjeli Yacouba Full Length Research Paper In this article, the karyotypic features (chromosome number, morphology, size and length and length of X chromosome), and meiosis in Atractomorpha lata, Dictyophorus griseus,Taphronota thaelephora and Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae: Pyrgomorphinae) were analysed in order to determine similarities and differences amongst them. All four species were cytogenetically similar in relation to chromosome number, morphology and sex mechanism. They revealed karyotypes that comprised of acrocentric chromosomes with complement number 2n = 19 (male) and the XX♀ndash;XO♂ sex mechanism. Chromosomes in the four species occurred in size groups of long, medium and short. The number of chromosomes in the size groups varied with species. Cluster analysis revealed chromosomes 4, 5 and 9 to be comparable in length in all four species and it is suggested that these chromosomes could be marker chromosomes for the subfamily Pyrgomorphinae. The meiotic process in the four species was normal and chiasmate. Similar bivalent shapes were recognized for both Diplotene and first meiotic Metaphase in the four species. Mean chiasma frequency was not significantly different (Pgt;0.05) for A. lata,D. griseus, T. thaelephora but was significantly higher (Plt; 0.05) for Z. variegatus compared to the other three species. Key words: Pyrgomorphidae, Pyrgomorphinae, Comparative Karyotype, Comparative Meiosis. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/43348FE2602 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2013.0065 en Copyright © 2013 Seino Richard Akwanjoh, Dongmo Alain, Dongmo Tonleu and Manjeli Yacouba
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:1F17AA82618 2013-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2013
Interaction between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) -344C/T polymorphisms in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus risk in Emiratis Habiba Al-Safar, Sarika S. Pillai, Luhaib Jalal Abood, Amrita Singh Chandhoke,Shahina K. Usman, Ahmed Hassoun and Naushad Rais Full Length Research Paper Polymorphism in Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) genes have been studied extensively in various ethnic groups and largely with inconsistent findings on relationship with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we investigated the association of Insertion/Deletion (I/D) polymorphism of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and -344 C/T polymorphism of aldosterone synthase [cytochrome P450 (CYP11B2)] with T2DM in an Emirati population and interactive effects between these two gene polymorphisms on T2DM risk. A total of 243 Emirati subjects (133 healthy control and 110 T2DM patients) were selected for the study. The ACE genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The CYP11B2 genotyping was performed by PCR- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis(RFLP). ACE genotypes were not associated with T2DM risk. The frequencies of D allele were 0.68 and 0.64 in the patients and healthy group respectively and the differences were not statistically significant. For CYP11B2 -344C/T polymorphism, CC genotype was found significantly higher in healthy subjects than in T2DM patients (22.1 Vs 9.8%, p=0.016). The subjects with CC genotype were at decreased T2DM risk in the recessive model [Odd ratio 0.38 (0.17-0.84)]. An interactive effect on T2DM risk was found between ACE-ID and CYP11B2 -CC genotypes. In the subjects with combination of ID + CC genotypes, risk of T2DM was further reduced (odd ratio 0.05 vs 1.12). The association of CC with T2DM was independent of age and gender. To date, this study is the first report on association of CYP11B2 -344C/T with T2DM and its possible interaction with ACE I/D polymorphism in an Emirati population. The results suggest that ACE I/D polymorphism does not affect T2DM risk independently however, subjects with CC genotypes either alone or in combination with ACE I/D heterozygote would be at decreased risk of developing T2DM. Key words: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, CYP11B2, Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, angiotensin converting enzyme, genetic polymorphism Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/1F17AA82618 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2013.0068 en Copyright © 2013 Habiba Al-Safar, Sarika S. Pillai, Luhaib Jalal Abood, Amrita Singh Chandhoke,Shahina K. Usman, Ahmed Hassoun and Naushad Rais
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:94824242606 2013-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2013
Two genotypes of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae virulence identified in West Africa Onasanya Amos, M. M. Ekperigin, A. Afolabi, R. O. Onasanya, Abiodun A. Ojo and I. Ingelbrecht Full Length Research Paper Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is a very destructive rice disease worldwide. The aim of the present study was to examine if the Xoo virulence pathotypes obtained using phenotypic pathotyping could be confirmed using molecular approach. After screening of 60 Operon primers with genomic DNA of two Xoo isolates (virulent pathotype, Vr and mildly virulent pathotype, MVr), 12 Operon primers that gave reproducible and useful genetic information were selected and used to analyze 50 Xoo isolates from 7 West African countries. Genetic analysis revealed two major Xoo virulence molecular type (Mt) which were Mta and Mtb with Mta having two subgroups (Mta1 and Mta2). Mta1 (Vr1) subgroup genotype has occurrence in six countries and Mta2 (Vr2) in three countries while Mtb genotype characterized mildly virulence (MVr) Xoo isolates present in five countries. The study revealed possible linkage and correlation between phenotypic pathotyping and molecular typing of Xoo virulence. Durable resistance rice cultivars would need to overcome both Mta and Mtb Xoo virulence genotypes in order to survive after their deployment into different rice ecologies in West Africa. Key words: Bacterial leaf blight, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), Xoo virulence pathotype, molecular typing, genomic DNA, Operon primer, Xoo virulence genotype, Xoo pathogen migration, West Africa. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/94824242606 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2013.0070 en Copyright © 2013 Onasanya Amos, M. M. Ekperigin, A. Afolabi, R. O. Onasanya, Abiodun A. Ojo and I. Ingelbrecht
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:8DE2EC82624 2013-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2013
The genetic relatedness of drug resistant E.coli isolates of human and animal origin in Nigeria Chijioke A. Nsofor, Christian U. Iroegbu, Douglas R. Call and Margaret A. Davies Full Length Research Paper Molecular epidemiology of human and animal ecovariants of Escherichia coli from different regions of Nigeria were studied using their antibiotic susceptibility patterns, plasmid profile and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). E. coli was isolated using eosin methylene blue agar (EMB) and identified by conventional microbiological technique. The isolates were tested against 14 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. PFGE was performed using XbaI as restriction enzyme according to pulse net protocol. Overall, 42 different antibiotics resistance clusters were observed, with each isolate showing resistance to at least four or more drugs tested. Fingerprinting of 140 isolates by PFGE technique and subsequent cluster analysis revealed a diverse E. coli population belonging to 47 distinct subtypes. Cluster analysis of the 120 KB plasmid bearing isolates indicated that these isolates belonged to one unique clonal group with ge;80% genetic similarity to each other, their animal or human origin, geographical distribution and clinical or non-clinical source notwithstanding. The sharing of drug resistant strains between human and animal population has shown that identical clones are circulating among human and animal population in the study area. Key words: Escherichia coli, epidemiology, animal ecovariants, cluster analysis. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/8DE2EC82624 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2013.0077 en Copyright © 2013 Chijioke A. Nsofor, Christian U. Iroegbu, Douglas R. Call and Margaret A. Davies
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:A8C167E2637 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2013
Inheritance of primary yield component traits of common beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.): Number of seeds per pod and 1000 seed weight in an 8 × 8 diallel cross population Mulugeta Atnaf, Hussein Mohammed and Habtamu Zelleke Full Length Research Paper Thirty six (36) genotypes (eight parents and 28 F1 diallel crosses) were grown in randomized complete block design with two replicates during 2006 at Mandura, North western Ethiopia. The experiment was executed to study the inheritance of two primary yield component traits: number of seeds per pod and 1000 seed weight. Statistical significant difference was observed between genotypes, parents and crosses for the traits considered. The mean square due to general combining ability was significant for the two traits. However, specific combining ability mean square was significant only for number of seeds per pod. Thus, both additive and non-additive types of gene actions were important in the inheritance of number of seeds per pod. Significant b1 component was obtained for number of seeds per pod. The b2 and b3 components however, were insignificant, suggesting the absence of gene asymmetry. From Wr/Vr graph, inheritance of seeds per pod was governed by partial dominance with additive gene action. Key words: Diallel crosses, general combining ability, Phaseolus vulgaris L., specific combining ability. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/A8C167E2637 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2013.0076 en Copyright © 2013 Mulugeta Atnaf, Hussein Mohammed and Habtamu Zelleke
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:E5085462648 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2013
Molecular characterization of cotton using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and application of genetic analysis Ambreen Ijaz, Sadia Ali, Usman Ijaz, Smiullah and Tayyaba Shaheen Full Length Research Paper Cotton is grown worldwide for the production of fiber and an important oil seed crop. Genetic diversity and correlation between varieties are of great importance for cotton breeding. To find out polymorphism and genome changeability, DNA markers are most comprehensively used. The current work was conducted to study the genetic relatedness among 20 cotton genotypes using simple sequence repeats markers using 31 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) belonging to BNL series. These 31 DNA markers amplified fragments of 80 to 340 bp in size through SSR profiling. Seven markers out of 31 were found to be polymorphic. A total of 41 loci were amplified out of these, 17 loci were informative showing 41% polymorphism. On average, 1.3 loci per primer were amplified. A dendrogram was constructed using pair group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA) method comprising eight main groups that is, A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H. Genotypes MNH-147 and GOHAR-87 emerged as genetically most similar with a value of 97% followed by 97% similarity between the genotypes CIM-443 and FVH-53. The genotypes CIM-1100 and BH-136 were found most divergent showing 58% genetic similarity. Dissimilarity coefficient of the generated information obtained on genetic relatedness would be supportive in further breeding of cotton, the selection of parents for crossing and will also be helpful in widening the genetic base of breeding materials. Key words: Genetic diversity, simple sequence repeat (SSR). Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/E5085462648 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2013.0066 en Copyright © 2013 Ambreen Ijaz, Sadia Ali, Usman Ijaz, Smiullah and Tayyaba Shaheen
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:2E494E417303 2013-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2013
Role of apoptosis-related factors in follicular atresia Basak Gumus, Sevtap Kilic and Ebru Zulfikaroglu Review Follicular atresia is the term used for the fate of follicles which undergo degenerative changes before rupturing during ovulation. Recent studies suggest that granulosa cell apoptosis play a major role in follicular atresia. The factors which lead the cell to apoptosis and which protect the cell death, still remain complicated and more studies are needed to elucidate the whole process. Here in this review, we aimed to simplify the factors and mechanisms taking place in granulosa cell apoptosis, to make the process more understandable. Key words: Granulosa cell, apoptosis, follicular atresia. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/2E494E417303 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB11.020 en Copyright © 2013 Basak Gumus, Sevtap Kilic and Ebru Zulfikaroglu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:EF2907517317 2013-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2013
Effects of organic insecticides, Kingbo and Azdar 10 EC, on mitotic chromosomes in root tip cells of Allium cepa Mona S. Al-Ahmadi Full Length Research Paper In this study, two organic insecticides (Kingbo and Azdar 10EC) extracted from plants and used as agricultural pesticides were investigated for cytotoxic and genotoxic effects using root tips of Allium cepa assay. Three different concentrations (0.625, 1.62 mL.L-1 and 2.5 mL.L-1) were used for different periods of time (8, 16 and 24 h). A single treatment of the effects of the two organic insecticides was used. The tested concentrations decreased the mitotic index compared to the control; 0.625 mL.L-1 of Kingbo treatment was statistically significant, while that of 1.62 mL.L-1 for 16 h and 2.5 mL.L-1 for 8 and 16 h increase the mitotic index. This increase was significant. Single treatment of Azdar 10EC decreased the mitotic index and its effect was non-significant compared to the control, while 2.5 mL.L-1 treatment for 24 h increased the mitotic index and was statistically significant. In addition, the different treatments caused diverse types of chromosome abnormalites during metaphase, anaphase and telophase stages, and they were statistically significant after treating with 0.625 and 1.62 mL.L-1 Kingbo for 8 and 16 h and 0.625 mL.L-1 Azdar 10 EC for 8 h. The chromosomes abnormalites were stickiness, disturbance, c-metaphase, c-anaphase, stare metaphase, chromosome bridges in anaphase and telophase, lagging chromosome and micronuclei appearing in interphase cells. The result indicates that both organic insecticides had cytotoxic and genotoxic activities on mitotic index and chromosomal aberration. Key words: Organic insecticides, mitotic chromosomes, root tips, Allium cepa. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/EF2907517317 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2013.0074 en Copyright © 2013 Mona S. Al-Ahmadi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:E57519E41334 2013-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2013
Low genetic diversity of Hypophthalmus marginatus from the Tocantins River based on cytochrome b sequence data Emil Joseacute; Hernaacute;ndez-Ruz, Evonnildo Costa Gonccedil;alves, Artur Silva and Maria Paula Cruz Schneider Full Length Research Paper In this study, we used a portion of mitochondrial cytochrome b to evaluate the current genetic structure of the Hypophthalmus marginatus Valenciennes 1840, from the Tocantins River in the eastern Amazonia. Genetic diversity was measured in two downstream (Abaetetuba and Cametaacute;), and two upstream (Tucuruiacute; and Itupiranga) stocks under influence of the Tucuruiacute; Hydroelectric Dam. Additionally, one stock from the Araguaia River system was included in the analysis. Our findings provide evidence for the existence of reduced levels of genetic diversity in H. marginatus of the Tocantis basin. The pattern of distribution of haplotypes observed in the present study appears to reflect the migratory characteristics of H. marginatus (short distance migratory), suggesting gene flow mainly in the upstream to downstream. Alternatively, presence of rare sequences only in Cametaacute; and Abaetetuba may result from recent mutations, since they differ from connecting haplotypes by only one nucleotide substitution. Key words: Hydroelectric dam impact, Hypophthalmus marginatus, population genetic structure. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/E57519E41334 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2013.0071 en Copyright © 2013 Emil Joseacute; Hernaacute;ndez-Ruz, Evonnildo Costa Gonccedil;alves, Artur Silva and Maria Paula Cruz Schneider
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:3F2905B41335 2013-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2013
Multivariate analysis of some Ethiopian field pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes Seboka Habtamu and Fikreselassie Million Full Length Research Paper The information on the nature and degree of diversity in the genotypes is crucial for efficient utilization of existing genetic resources. Thirteen (13) field pea genotypes along with two standard and one local checks were evaluated in triplicate randomized complete block design for three consecutive years to estimate the genetic variability and identify superior genotypes that generate putative transgressive segregates. Genotypes differed significantly in respect to phonological, yield and some yield related traits, and were highly influenced by the environment. Large magnitude of variability among the genotypes contributed to pod length and reaction to Ascochyta blight. High heritability was observed for days to flower (39.11%) and moderate for seed yield (15.98%). Genetic gains that could be expected from selecting the top 5% of the genotypes was 17.36% for seed yield. Four of the twelve principal components accounted for more than 89% of the total variations. The sixteen (16) genotypes were grouped into five clusters based on D2 values for which the maximum distance was found between cluster three and five. Thus, crossing of Tegengech with col 26 and col 23 would result high magnitude of heterosis that would produce superior breeding materials that can be utilized in future breeding program. Key words: Field pea, genetic variability, multivariate analysis, principal component, cluster. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/3F2905B41335 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2013.0080 en Copyright © 2013 Seboka Habtamu and Fikreselassie Million
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:8642D7541831 2013-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2013
Insilico docking studies and evaluation of volatile oil of Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Aripiprazole for antidepressant activity Sibi P. Ittiyavirah and Meera Paul Full Length Research Paper The objective of the study was to evaluate the volatile oil of Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Aripiprazole for antidepressant activity and to carry out the docking studies for their respective binding sites. Argus Lab 4.0.1 software (Mark A. Thompson, Planaria Software LLC, and Seattle, WA, USA) was used to perform the docking studies and the elevated plus maze, forced swim test, learned helplessness and open field tests were used for assessing the antidepressant activity. Imipramine (20 mg/kg, orally) was administered to Albino wistar rats as reference drug. Docking results reveal that the gingerol, aripiprazole and imipramine actively interacted with 5HT1A receptor with high docking score (shogoal: -9.0267, gingerol: -8.41044, aripiprazole: -8.73428 and imipramine: -8.21131 Kcal/mol).The volatile oil of Z. officinale Rosc. (14 mg/kg, orally) and aripiprazole (10 mg/kg, orally), was able to increase the time and number of entries in the open arm in elevated plus maze, as well as to decrease the immobility time of rats subjected to forced swimming test, and to decrease the number of failures to escape when subjected to learned helplessness test. Volatile oil of Z. officinale Rosc. and aripiprazole showed a significant increase in the locomotor and exploratory behavior in open field test. The volatile oil of Z. officinale Rosc. and aripiprazole showed significant antidepressant activity compared to that of standard drug. Key words: Zingiber officinale Rosc., Aripiprazole, Docking, Antidepressant, 5HT1AR. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/8642D7541831 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2013.0073 en Copyright © 2013 Sibi P. Ittiyavirah and Meera Paul
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:1CAE18841832 2013-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2013
Application of multiple displacement amplification in detection of five events of genetically modified organisms Xi Zhou, Hongwei Gao, Liqing Zhao, Wenda Liu, Min Sun and Shubai Wang Full Length Research Paper In this study, multiple displacement amplification (MDA) was used for transgene detection, and proved to effectively improve the sensitivity of most fluorescence polymerase chain (PCR). Five events of genetically modified plants were chosen for detection in different plant species by MDA and real-time PCRs. Individual primer/probe systems based on each transgene target were used. The extracted DNA of each sample was diluted and used as a template for MDA. All extracted DNA and diluted mdaDNA were detected by real-time PCR. The results were evaluated with respect to DNA quantity, DNA purity and difference of Ct values of the isogenetic DNA extract before and after MDA (D-values). The MDA amplifying effects were largely different among genes and plants. Organelle DNA has more copies than genomic DNA by MDA. Key words: Multiple displacement amplification, genetically modified organisms, detection, events. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/1CAE18841832 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2013.0078 en Copyright © 2013 Xi Zhou, Hongwei Gao, Liqing Zhao, Wenda Liu, Min Sun and Shubai Wang
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:C8D39EE42914 2014-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2014
Partitioning and distribution of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) variation among eggplant Solanum L. in Southwest Nigeria Sifau, Mutiu Oyekunle, Ogunkanmi, Liasu Adebayo, Adekoya, Khalid Olajide, Oboh, Bola Olufunmilayo and Ogundipe, Oluwatoyin Temitayo Full Length Research Paper Solanum L., the largest genus of the Solanaceae family, vary morphologically, is diverse in number and is ecogeographically distributed. In Nigeria, previous studies had focused mainly on chromosome morphology, genome description and medicinal values, which are insufficient for genetic affinities. This study used four highly polymorphic random amplified polymorphic DNA primers to describe both the genetic relatedness and variability among 25 accessions of eggplant from Southwestern Nigeria. At a truncated line of 65%, five clusters and two ungrouped samples are distinguishable from the dendrogram. The data reveals that Solanum dasyphyllum Schum. amp; Thonn. is more closely related to Solanum macrocarpon L. than to Solanum melongena L. The relatedness between Solanum incanum L. and Solanum melongena, a probability of being progenitors from a common ancestral lineage was also shown. Occurrence of Solanum scabrum L. and Solanum nigrum L. in the same clusters different from S. melongena, is an indication of distant relatedness to S. melongena but close relatedness between them. High level of polymorphism was observed in this study going by the coefficient of variation which exhibited a good separation from a conserved region of the genome. This study, therefore, reveals a wide and diverse genetic base in Nigerian eggplant Solanum. Key words: Eggplant, genome, synonymy, polymorphism, phylogenetic. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/C8D39EE42914 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2013.0089 en Copyright © 2014 Sifau, Mutiu Oyekunle, Ogunkanmi, Liasu Adebayo, Adekoya, Khalid Olajide, Oboh, Bola Olufunmilayo and Ogundipe, Oluwatoyin Temitayo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:1CC329042915 2014-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2014
Variability assessment of seed traits in Jatropha curcas L. for improvement of oil yield Sanjeev Kumar and Sanjay Singh Full Length Research Paper Jatropha curcas has received considerable attention from researchers as a potential source of non-edible vegetable oil which is eminently suitable for production of liquid bio fuel, meeting international standards. For any tree improvement and breeding programme, study of variation among the populations is prerequisite as it helps in the detection of relative performance of various traits of economic value. 28 candidate plus trees were selected from the states of Jharkhand, West Bengal and Bihar in Eastern India. Nine seed parameters were measured and their genetic values and correlation was calculated to serve as base information for further improvement and breeding of J. curcas in Eastern India. Significant genetic differences exist in all the seed characteristics among the different candidate plus trees of J. curcas. Positive direct effect of seed width and protein content was observed on seed oil content. Indirect effect of seed traits via seed width was positive. Thus, seed width can be taken as a criterion for selecting trees with good oil yield. The variations in most studied parameters were under genotypic control among seed sources. Highest coefficient of variation was found for seed oil content emphasizing the need of wide scale screening and selection of superior genotypes to capture the existing variability. Key words: Candidate plus trees, correlation, genetic gain, heritability, seed oil. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/1CC329042915 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2013.0079 en Copyright © 2014 Sanjeev Kumar and Sanjay Singh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:C4C255E47129 2014-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2014
Heliclobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis: Endoscopic and pathological findings, comparative study Awwad K. A. Alenezy and Taha M. M. Hassan Full Length Research Paper Helicobacter pylori have been established as a major etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and in the development of gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. This study was conducted on 100 patients. All underwent upper endoscopy, and antral and corpus, and duodenal biopsies were taken. Findings of endoscopic gastritis were observed in 83 patients (p ˂0.001). Histologically mononuclear inflammatory cellular infiltrates were seen in 95 cases, majority of them showed grade 1 gastritis (64), whereas grade 2 and grade 3 gastritis found in 16 and 15 biopsies. The relationship between endoscopic and histological findings was significant (p ˂0.001). H. pylori colonization was found in the majority of the biopsies (92) (p ˂0.001). This study concluded that accurate endoscopic and histopathological examination of gastritis according to the Sydney grading system is valuable indicator of H. pylori infection. Endoscopical abnormalities suggesting gastritis were significantly correlated with the histopathologic findings. Finally, chronic active gastritis with lymphoid follicles was significantly correlated with H. pylori infection (p ˂0.001). Key words: Chronic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori, endoscopic and histological grading. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/C4C255E47129 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2014.0096 en Copyright © 2014 Awwad K. A. Alenezy and Taha M. M. Hassan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:DE9B5EB47127 2014-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2014
Challenges in conserving and utilizing plant genetic resources (PGR) Ogwu, M. C., Osawaru, M. E. and Ahana, C. M. Review The problems of food and income security are of global significance and are further compounded by precedential increase in world population resulting in overexploitation of natural resources and by extension plant genetic diversity. Plant genetic resources (PGR) refer to the heritable materials contained within and among plant species of present and potential value. In the recent past, genetic diversity found in landrace, weedy and wild cultivars have been reported to savage animal and plant population diseases, pest and environmental changes. Nevertheless, these resources are lost at alarming rates due to anthropogenic product and by products such as climate change, pollution, genetic erosion, gross mismanagement of these resources and population growth. Hence, the need for conservation and sustainable utilization of these resources. PGR conservation is the management of varietal diversity in plant occasioned by interaction between genes and the environment for actual or potential and present or future use. A complimentary application of in situ and ex situ conservation technique is recommended for their effective conservation. Efficient survey, collection and documentation is also pertinent. International, national and individual appreciation of the value of this vast genetic diversity would facilitate their sustainable utilization. PGR utilization refers to the use value of these genetic resources. There is need to create avenues through which these can be easily accessed and enact effective policies for their protection especially in their hotspot and regions of high endemism. Key words: Plant genetic resources (PGR), conservation, utilization, environmental changes, population growth, genetic erosion. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/DE9B5EB47127 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2013.0083 en Copyright © 2014 Ogwu, M. C., Osawaru, M. E. and Ahana, C. M.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:DD0F75D48246 2014-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2014
Use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to establish genetic relationships among cassava cultivars released by different research groups in Ghanaian Peter Twumasi, Eric Warren Acquah, Marian D. Quain and Elizabeth Y. Parkes Full Length Research Paper Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important staple crop widely cultivated in Ghana. The crop also has diverse industrial applications including starch, beer and alcohol productions. Knowledge about the state of the Ghanaian cassava genetic diversity and population structure is paramount in breeding programmes aimed at cultivar improvements or breeding of new cultivars for specific purposes. This study focused on the use of 36 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) to produce SSR allelic polymorphisms for estimation of inter- and intra-population genetic diversity among Ghanaian cassava cultivars from five Ghanaian released and local cassava populations consisting of 11 released and two local cultivars. The results show high diversity among the studied cultivars with an average of seven (7) alleles per locus. Polymorphic loci varied from 68.6 to 100% with an average of 88.58%. A strong genetic diversity was observed within populations (HS =0.552) and therefore suggesting a low rate of inter-population gene flow among the individuals constituting the populations. This high genetic variability among the cultivars provides valuable genetic resource to support any future breeding programmes aimed at establishing new cassava varieties for domestic and industrial purposes. Key words: Cassava, DNA fingerprinting, genetic diversity, simple sequence repeat (SSR). Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/DD0F75D48246 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2014.0097 en Copyright © 2014 Peter Twumasi, Eric Warren Acquah, Marian D. Quain and Elizabeth Y. Parkes
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:597D74D48718 2014-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2014
Multivariate analysis of genetic divergence among Ethiopian mustard (Brassica Carinata A. Braun) landraces in Ethiopia Tesfaye Walle Mekonnen and Adugna Wakjira Full Length Research Paper Characterization of existing genetic variability is a prerequisite for further crop improvement activity. This study was designed to assess genetic variability among randomly selected Ethiopian mustard (Brassica Carinata A. Braun) genotypes from different agro ecology of Ethiopia. The present study was undertaken to determine nature of association of agronomic traits of 36 Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata) genotypes at Adet Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. The experiment was laid out in simple lattice design with two replications. Cluster analysis revealed that the 36 genotypes were grouped in 14 distinct clusters. The maximum average intra cluster D2 was obtained in cluster VI (D2=492.03), whereas the lowest D2 was recorded in cluster XII (D2=159.94), which shows the presence of less genetic variability or diversity within these clusters; principal component analysis revealed that ten PCs (PC1 - PC10), which are extracted from the original data and having latent roots greater than one, accounted for just about 90.5% of the total variation. Key words: Cluster analysis, Ethiopian mustard, genetic divergence, principal component analysis. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/597D74D48718 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2014.0102 en Copyright © 2014 Tesfaye Walle Mekonnen and Adugna Wakjira
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:7B22AC448721 2014-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2014
Genetic polymorphism of blood potassium in goat belonging to the different breeds in Mongolia Myagmarsuren Purevdorj, Battsetseg Badgar, Dungu Dorjsuren and Myagmardulam Uherch Full Length Research Paper In goats belonging to the different breeds and sub breed, the genetic polymorphism at the determinant locus of blood potassium was revealed by flame spectrophotometer method. The kalemic systems in those breeds were characterized by a polymorphism of middle level due to the existence of the two phenotypes and of three genotypes. The polymorphic character of this system is given by the distributional discontinuity of potassium ions in whole blood; the discontinuous space range were 10-34 m eq/L in the Mongolian native, 0.38-20.3 m eq/L in the Govigurbansaihan and 10.27-15.8 m eq/L in the AltainUlaan breeds.The animals with potassium ion concentration below the discontinuity space are of LK type (with low potassium) and those with ionic concentration above the discontinuity space are of HK type (with high potassium). The blood potassium level is determined by two alleles; KL and Kh, being in incomplete dominance relationship; the allele KL, responsible for low potassium, is dominant compared to its recessive Kh allele which causes high levels of blood potassium. These two alleles at the Ks locus, located on an autosomal chromosome, determine three genotypes; dominant homozygote (KLKL), heterozygote (KLKh), and recessive homozygote (KhKh). In the Mongolian native breed, the allele Kh was less frequent (20%) than its dominant KL (80%), in the Govi Gurban Saihan breed,and the frequency of the alleles were also 5 and 95%, respectively. The phenotype LK (80-100%) achieved a much higher frequency than the phenotype HK (5-20%) in those breeds. Consequently, the recessive homozygosis and heterozygosis recorded an equal frequency (50%, 50%) in the Mongolian native breed, and the frequency of recessive homozygosis were slightly higher than heterozygosis (66%gt;34%) in the Govi Gurban Saihan. Key words: Blood potassium, genetic polymorphism, adaptation, goat. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/7B22AC448721 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2014.0101 en Copyright © 2014 Myagmarsuren Purevdorj, Battsetseg Badgar, Dungu Dorjsuren and Myagmardulam Uherch
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:8E4460450921 2015-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2015
Evidence of over-dominance for sickle cell trait in a population sample from Buenaventura, Colombia Diana Carolina Ortega Cristian Fong, Heiber Caacute;rdenas and Guillermo Barreto Full Length Research Paper Sickle cell disease is a hereditary disease caused by a hemoglobin variant, known as hemoglobin S. This hemoglobin variant has a high frequency in areas where malaria is prevalent, because heterozygous genotype has a protective action against malaria infection. We evaluated evidence of over-dominance or deviation from Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium for the HbS gene in Buenaventura, an afro-descendent population with actual medium endemicity of malaria, located in the Colombian Pacific Coast. 820 healthy individuals were analyzed (from eight months to 80 years old) from Buenaventura, Colombia, and the beta; -globin locus was genotyped by PCR-RFLP. It was analyzed to establish deviation from Hardy ndash; Weinberg and selection coefficient. Hemoglobin S frequency was 3.1% and the population was found in Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium. However, the selection coefficient for allele S decreased its value of 1 (under 12 years old) to 0.625 (13 to 17 years old), similar to the selection coefficient of allele A (s1=0.61). Although the total population found in H-W equilibrium, there was a decrease in the coefficient of selection on hemoglobin S in the range of 13 to 17 years old, which is within the age range of the greatest malaria infection in this population. This may be an indication of a selection to the S over-dominance hemoglobin possibly, at least in this age group of the population. Keys words: Hemoglobin S, Buenaventura, malaria resistant, over-dominance, fitness, selection coefficient. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/8E4460450921 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2014.0106 en Copyright © 2015 Diana Carolina Ortega Cristian Fong, Heiber Caacute;rdenas and Guillermo Barreto
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:B8D441352705 2015-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2015
Effects of cytokinin types and their concentration on in vitro shoot induction and multiplication of korarima Rahiel Hagos and Hailay Gebremdhin Full Length Research Paper Korarima (Aframomum corrorima (Braun) P.C.M. Jansen) is a herbaceous perennial plant that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae in which lack of a steady supply of quality planting material is one of the bottlenecks for the exploitation of the export potential. Thus, the use of micropropagation is suggested to alleviate these problems. In micropropagation, in vitro seed germination and multiplication of hypocotyls/shoot tips to regenerate shoots is preferred because it minimizes sterilization cost. So far, there was no available efficient protocol optimization on in vitro propagation of korarima in Ethiopia. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the optimum concentration of Kinetin (KIN) and N-6-benzyladenine (BA) on in vitro regenerating of korarima explants from hypocotyls/shoot tips. Multiplied shoots were subcultured on hormone free medium for four weeks to avoid carryover effect. The different concentrations of KIN (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l) and/or BA (0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 mg/l) were arranged in randomized complete design (CRD) with four replications. Results indicate that medium containing 6.0 mg/l of BA alone was found to be optimum for shoot induction after six weeks. High level of BA alone was found the best for excess shoot proliferation, but high level of KIN mostly enhances longer shoots and regenerates minor roots. Generally, it can be concluded that Korarima can successfully induce shoot from hypocotyls that originated from seeds without any contamination on the initial inoculation of the explants and higher concentration of BA (6.0 mg/l) could be used to obtain desirable shoot regeneration of korarima. Key words: Cytokinins, N-6-benzyladenine (BA), hypocotyls, kinetin (KIN), shoot induction, shoot Multiplication, in vitro. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/B8D441352705 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2015.0108 en Copyright © 2015 Rahiel Hagos and Hailay Gebremdhin
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:C473A1B52813 2015-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2015
Isolation and sequence analysis of a putative MerR-type-transcriptional regulator and a multidrug efflux protein of Bacillus circulans ATCC 21588: As potential targets of therapeutics Khaled Mohamed Anwar Aboshanab and Mostafa Mahmoud Elshafey Full Length Research Paper Mercury-type transcriptional regulators (MerR-transcriptional regulator) and major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters usually form an important sensor-response transport system in many microorganisms. This system has been shown to be involved in the regulation and transport (efflux) of a wide and diverse array of secondary metabolites including antimicrobial agents, dyes, chemicals, metals and evem harmful oxygen radicals. Inhibition or inactivation of this transport system is considered a promising approach for controlling microbial resistance, and thus may become a promising target of therapeutics particularly for the clinically relevant pathogens. However, the genetic and proteomics of this system have not been fully studied. In this work, a DNA segment (1.926 kb) from Bacillus circulans ATCC 21588 harboring the two genes, bciR and bciT arranged in an operon was amplified using PCR, analyzed and submitted into the GenBank database (accession code, KR049081). A two open reading frames (ORFs), namely BciR and BciT were found to encode a putative MerR-transcriptional regulator (BciR; 153 aa) and a putative MFS transporter (BciT; 392 aa), respectively. Analysis of the conserved domains and modeled tertiary structures revealed that, BciR possesses an N-terminal H-T-H motive (HTH type) region with possible transcriptional related activity and a conserved metal binding site at the C-terminal end. BciT was likely an MFS protein with nine transmembrane helices. This is the first report about detection of a bciR/bciT operon that putatively encode a sensor-response transport system in Bacillus circulans ATCC 12588. Key words: MerR-type transcription regulator, multidrug efflux protein, major facilitator superfamily MFS, Bacillus circulans ATCC 21588. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/C473A1B52813 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2015.0112 en Copyright © 2015 Khaled Mohamed Anwar Aboshanab and Mostafa Mahmoud Elshafey
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:9A64CD553946 2015-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2015
Estimation of genetic parameters for first-lactation test-day milk yield in Holstein Friesian cows fitting random regression models Meseret S., Tamir B. and Negussie E. Full Length Research Paper In this study, the effects of varying order of Legendre polynomials (LP) for permanent environmental (Pe) variance structure on the estimates of genetic parameters for first-lactation milk yield were evaluated fitting random regression (RR) test-day animal models. The total data set included 6850 test-day milk yield records from 800 first-lactation Holstein Friesian cows that calved between 1997 and 2013 and the pedigree file with total of 1779 animals. Four different random regression models (RR1, RR2, RR3 and RR4) all with second order LP for additive genetic effects but with varying order (intercept, 1st, 2nd and 3rd, respectively) of LP for modelling the Pe variances structure were tested for estimation of variance components and corresponding genetic parameters for milk yield. Variance components were estimated by average information restricted maximum likelihood method. The performances of competing RR models in the estimation of variance components were compared using estimates of log-likelihoods and the size of residual variances. Results showed that the estimates of log-likelihoods were higher and residual variances were lower for models that fitted second (RR3) and third order (RR4) LP for Pe effects. Heritability (h2) and genetic correlations from RR3 and RR4 models ranged from 0.13 to 0.29 and 0.45 to 0.98, respectively. Models with lower order fits (RR1 and RR2) with either a constant or a linear term for Pe resulted in oscillatory trend for variance components and highly erratic h2 estimates ranged from 0.18 to 0.52. Genetic correlations from these models were also implausible biologically indicating that models with lower order fits for the Pe effects were not robust enough to accurately model the variance structure at different stages of lactation. It is therefore suggested that at least a second or higher order polynomial fits are needed to model the Pe variance structure for the accurate estimation of genetic parameters for milk yield in first-lactation Ethiopian Holsteins. Key words: Dairy cows, milk yield, random regression model, genetic parameters, test-day. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/9A64CD553946 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2015.0111 en Copyright © 2015 Meseret S., Tamir B. and Negussie E.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:4B7B0FD54198 2015-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2015
Bael, Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa, an Indian medicinal plant protects V79 cells against the genotoxic effect of doxorubicin Ganesh Chandra Jagetia and Ponemone Venkatesh Full Length Research Paper Alleviation of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity by leaf extract of bael also known as Aegle marmelos (AME) was studied in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells. The optimum protective dose of AME was determined by treating V79 cells with different concentrations of AME before exposure to 10 g/ml DOX and then by evaluating the cell survival and micronuclei frequency in the cytokinesis blocked V79 cells. MTT assay results revealed that AME pretreatment resulted in a concentration dependent elevation in the cell survival up to 25 mu;g/ml, whereas a further increase in AME concentration reduced the cell survival. Assessment of DNA damage by micronuclei assay showed that 25 g/ml AME reduced the micronuclei frequency to a maximum extent. Therefore, 25 mu;g/ml AME was considered as an optimum chemo-protective concentration and further studies were carried out using this concentration, where V79 cells were treated with 25 mu;g/ml AME before exposure to different concentrations of DOX. The results of MTT assay at various post-DOX treatment times showed a time and concentration dependent decline in the cell survival with a maximum decline at 72 h post-DOX treatment. The IC50 values of 122, 108, 88 and 47 g/ml DOX was observed at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-DOX treatment, respectively. Treatment of V79 cells with 25 mu;g/ml AME before DOX exposure to different concentrations of resulted in a rise in the IC50 by 60, 24, 44 and 41 g/ml at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. These results were corroborated by clonogenic assay where DOX-treatment caused a concentration dependent decline in the cell survival; whereas treatment of V79 cells with 25 g/ml AME before DOX exposure arrested the DOX-induced decline in the cell survival. The micronuclei frequency increased in a concentration dependent manner in cells exposed to DOX, whereas AME pretreatment significantly reduced the DOX-induced micronuclei formation. Our results suggest that AME did reduce the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of DOX and may be useful in clinical setup to reduce DOX-induced toxicity. Key words: V79 cells, Aegle marmelos, doxorubicin, MTT, cell survival, micronuclei. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/4B7B0FD54198 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2011.014 en Copyright © 2015 Ganesh Chandra Jagetia and Ponemone Venkatesh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:72AEE3A54716 2015-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2015
DYS459, DYS391, DYS388 and DYS19 genetic loci have high allelic frequency in patients with prostate cancer Hasanain Khaleel Shareef, Noran Jameel Ibraheem, Imad Hadi Hameed and Muhanned Abdulhasan Kareem Full Length Research Paper Prostate cancer is a significant disease in men, and a large number of individuals would benefit if risk factors that increase the susceptibility to develop prostate cancer could be established, which could aid in the early detection of the disease which is crucial for successful treatment. The first objective of this study was detection of allele frequencies of 12 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat loci from Iraqian prostate cancer patients and normal control males. The second objective was to evaluate the importance of these loci to develop prostate cancer. Blood samples were collected from 70 patients unrelated males living in middle and south of Iraq. FTAreg; Technology was utilized to extract DNA from blood collected on FTAtrade; paper. Post PCR amplification was detected by using ABI Prism1 3130xl Genetic Analyzer 16-capillary array system, with POP-7trade; Polymer and Data Collection Software, Genemapper version 3.5 software. A higher incidence of disease was found among males who had either allele 10 of DYS391 or allele 9 of DYS459. It is likely that Iraqi males who belong to Y-lineages with either allele 10 or allele 9 are more susceptible to develop prostate cancer, while those belonging to lineages with allele 17 of DYS456 and DYS19 are more resistant to the disease. This study shows the influence of genetic elements on prostate cancer, and it seems that DYS391 and DYS459 locus comprising with other loci have the potential to be used as a screening method for prediction of susceptibility to prostate cancer in Iraqi population. Key words: DYS459, DYS391, DYS388, DYS19, high allelic frequency, prostate cancer, STR DNA typing. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/72AEE3A54716 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2015.0110 en Copyright © 2015 Hasanain Khaleel Shareef, Noran Jameel Ibraheem, Imad Hadi Hameed and Muhanned Abdulhasan Kareem
oai:academicjournals.org:IJGMB:256FA4B57039 2016-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJGMB IJGMB:2016
Association of the extracellular superoxide dismutase Ala40Thr polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications in Lebanese population Nahed Saad, Mohamed E. Moustafa, and Hala A. Chamieh, Full Length Research Paper Free radical-induced damage plays a significant role in the development of type 2 diabetes and its complications. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) or SOD3 is one of the important scavenger enzymes that protects against oxidative damage and the formation of free radicals. EC-SOD is a copper- and zinc-containing secretory enzyme located in tissues and primarily in the extracellular matrix. EC-SOD has been proposed to protect against pancreatic beta-cell damage, insulin resistance and vascular function in diabetic patients. The association between EC-SOD gene polymorphism and Type 2 diabetes mellitus is not completely understood. The aim of the study is to investigate the EC-SOD gene polymorphism in the exon 3 region and the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications among Lebanese patients. For this purpose, a genotype analysis involving 60 Type 2 Diabetes patients and 46 control subjects was carried out using PCR-based direct DNA sequencing. Results showed that the frequency of the Ala40Thr polymorphism of EC-SOD gene was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients compared to control group. Evaluation of clinical parameters of diabetic patients with their relative genotypes showed that patients with the Thr allele have higher HbA1c levels and fasting blood glucose compared to their Ala genotypes indicating a poor diabetes control in these patients. When diabetic complications including retinopathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular complications were correlated with Ala40Val polymorphism, a significant association was detected for complications and particularly for cardiovascular diseases in diabetic patients. Key words: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress, extracellular superoxide dismutase, genetic biomarker. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJGMB/article-abstract/256FA4B57039 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJGMB2015.0115 en Copyright © 2016 Nahed Saad, Mohamed E. Moustafa, and Hala A. Chamieh,
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