2019-09-16T15:03:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:8E6DC251420 2009-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2009
Buffalo as a potential food animal G. Kandeepan, S. Biswas and R. S. Rajkumar Review Indian sub-continent is the home tract of world buffaloes. Buffalo is the only potential animal that can boost meat industry in India. Buffalo meat is the healthiest meat among red meats known for human consumption since it is low in calories and cholesterol. Buffalo meat is well comparable to beef in many of the physicochemical, nutritional, functional properties and palatability attributes. Meat from buffalo is called by various terminologies in different countries according to the age of slaughter. Buffaloes have a unique ability to utilise coarse feeds, straws and crop residues converting them into protein rich lean meat. The carcass composition varies with dressing percentage of buffalo carcasses. The dark buffalo meat possesses good binding properties and is preferred in product manufacture. Buffalo meat is the major item of Indian animal product export. Adequate nutrition and improved levels of hygiene at meat handling will enable India a quantum jump in meat production by utilizing the surplus male calves. Massive developmental programmes have to be launched to produce meat as the principal commodity from buffaloes for substantially increasing the livestock economy of the country. Key words: Buffalo, food animal, carabeef, black gold. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/8E6DC251420 en Copyright © 2009 G. Kandeepan, S. Biswas and R. S. Rajkumar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:17AD5A71461 2009-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2009
Effects of malate level and cassava hay in high-quality feed block on rumen ecology and digestibility of nutrients in lactating dairy cows raised under tropical condition Sittisak Khampa Full Length Research Paper Four, lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned according to a 2 x 2 Factorial arrangement in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate two levels as 500 and 1,000 g and cassava hay in high-quality feed block. The treatments were as follows T1 (supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 500 g); T2 (supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g); T3 (supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate at 500 g); and T4 (supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g), respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at a ratio to milk yield at 1:2 and ruzi grass was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and cassava hay supplementation. In conclusion, the combined use of cassava hay and malate at 1,000 g in high-quality feed block with concentrates containing high levels of cassava chip at 65% DM could highest improved rumen ecology and nutrients digestibility in lactating cows. Key words: Malate, cassava hay, high-quality feed block, rumen ecology, lactating cows. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/17AD5A71461 en Copyright © 2009 Sittisak Khampa
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:8CE0F501503 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2010
Effect of feeding crop residues of different cereals and legumes on weight gain of Yankassa rams B. B. Singh, A. Musa, H. A. Ajeigbe and S. A. Tarawali Full Length Research Paper Crop residues from maize (Zea mays L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are important livestock feed in the West African savannas particularly during the long dry season. The residues from cereal crops are relatively in abundance, but of low nutritive value compared to the leguminous crop residues, which are normally in short supply. This experiment was conducted to determine the most efficient combinations of feeding crop residues of major cereals and legumes with and without bran supplement to lsquo;Yankassarsquo; rams in confinement over a 70-day period and their effect on weight gains. Feeding the residues of cereals alone resulted in a mean weight loss of 14% for sorghum, 16% for maize and 11% for millet, while feeding the residues of cowpea or groundnut alone resulted in the weight gain of about 13 and 12%, respectively. Supplementing the cereals residues with about 300 g of legume residues per ram per day resulted in slight gain in weight. Addition of 300 g wheat bran and 300 g legume residues to the cereals in the daily diets of each ram resulted in about 19% mean weight gain. Thus, bran showed a small but significant additive effect on weight gain. From the 1.5 kg cereals or legumes residues offered per ram per day, the rams ate about 50% of cereals and 82% of the legumes. Thus, the cereals residues are not only less nutritious, but also less consumable compared to the legumes. Key word: Cowpea, crop residues, groundnut, livestock feeding, maize, millet, sorghum. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/8CE0F501503 en Copyright © 2010 B. B. Singh, A. Musa, H. A. Ajeigbe and S. A. Tarawali
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:F003A701430 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Quality and acceptability of duck patties stored at ambient and refrigeration temperature S. Biswas, A. Chakraborty, G. Patra and A. Dhargupta Full Length Research Paper Effect of storage periods at ambient and refrigeration temperature on duck patties was studied. pH of duck patties significantly increased (P lt; 0.01) at ambient temperature and decreased (P lt; 0.01) at refrigeration temperature. TBA and Tyrosine values increased significantly (P lt; 0.01) with increased storage period at both temperatures. A higher rate of increase in TBA values occurred at ambient temperature than refrigeration temperature. There was no significant difference in proximate composition except moisture content on different storage periods at both temperatures. TVC and TPSC values increased significantly (P lt; 0.01) with increase in storage period at both temperatures. A significant decrease in scores of organoleptic evaluation occurred with increase in storage period at both temperatures. A higher rate of decrease in sensory scores occurred at ambient temperature than that of refrigeration temperature. A significant correlation of physico-chemical changes with acceptability of duck patties was noticed. So, duck patties were acceptable upto 7 days at refrigeration temperature. Key words: Ambient and refrigeration temperature, duck, patties, quality, storage. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/F003A701430 en Copyright © 2011 S. Biswas, A. Chakraborty, G. Patra and A. Dhargupta
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:713ED791453 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Effect of clipping feathers, dietary ascorbic acid supplementation and season on performance of laying chickens A. A. Adeyemo, K. L. Ayorinde and D. F. Apata Full Length Research Paper Feathers may be problematic to chickens in thermoregulation during heat stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of clipping feathers, dietary ascorbic acid supplementation and season on performance of laying chickens. 180 lsquo;Isa Brownrsquo; (IB) layers of about 30 weeks old were subjected to a 2times;2times;2 factorial combination of feather conditions (intact and clipping), dietary ascorbic acid supplementation (0 and 300 ppm) and season (early dry, ED and late dry, LD) during a trial using a factorial design. The birds were randomly allotted to 8 treatments consisting of treatment one (basal diet and intact feathers); treatment two (basal diet and clipped feathers); treatment three (basal diet supplemented with 300 ppm ascorbic acid and intact feathers) and treatment four (basal diet supplemented with 300 ppm ascorbic acid and clipped feathers) in both ED and LD seasons. Results showed that clipping feathers significantly improved (Plt;0.05) hen-day production (HDP), feed consumption (FC), feed/dozen egg (F/Doz), egg mass (EM), egg weight (EW), egg shell thickness (EST) and % egg shell weight (%ESW). Dietary ascorbic acid supplementation at a dose of 300 ppm significantly improved (Plt;0.05) the performance of laying chickens in hen-day egg production, feed/bird/day, feed/dozen egg, egg mass, egg weight and eggshell thickness. Season significantly improved (Plt;0.05) HDP, water intake (WI), EM and EW. The effect of the interactions of the three factors were significant (Pgt;0.05) on HDP, WI, F/Doz., EW, and ESW. However, the effect of the interactions of the three factors were not significant (Pgt;0.05) on FC, EM, EST and %ESW. Finally, clipping of feathers alone; secondly, dietary ascorbic acid supplementation at 300 ppm alone; and thirdly, a combination of the two, can be efficient in condition of heat stress. Key words: Feathers, ascorbic acid, season. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/713ED791453 en Copyright © 2011 A. A. Adeyemo, K. L. Ayorinde and D. F. Apata
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:95FD7681486 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Sources and utilization of poultry production information among poultry farmers in Oyo State Oladeji, J. O. Full Length Research Paper The study was conducted to determine the sources and utilization of poultry production information among poultry farmers in Oyo state. A multi-stage random sampling procedure was used to select 120 poultry farmers who were interviewed for the study. Findings revealed that majority of the poultry farmers were male within the age bracket 31 to 50 years and were literate. The farmers did not belong to any poultry association and 57% of them operated on a large scale poultry production. Sources of information on poultry keeping recommended practices identified and available to the farmers were veterinary officers, television, poultry association, agricultural extension officers, workshops/seminars, journals and friends/family. Majority became aware of recommended practices on poultry keeping through veterinary officers. Fifty percent always had access to poultry information. Radio was the top among the sources of awareness on poultry production practices. Radio was also ranked the first as preferred source of poultry information. However, family/friends were the most accessible source of information to poultry farmers. Also, 88.7% of radio users as information source, made use of information obtained. Inadequate capital was considered a severe problem to the poultry farmers while the level of use of information among poultry farmers was very high with 39.8%. There was a significant relationship between age, educational qualification, scale of operation and source of information. Key words: Sources of information, utilization of information, poultry farmers. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/95FD7681486 en Copyright © 2011 Oladeji, J. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:5FF20E31537 2011-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Factors affecting the milk yield and composition of Rahmani and Chios sheep Julie Ann Luiz Adrian and Norman Q. Arancon Full Length Research Paper Milk production and milk constituents were studied in 74 ewes of two purebred groups, Rahmani and Chios at the Experimental Animal Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt. Milk yield was recorded at weekly interval starting from the second week of lambing till the 15th week using lamb-suckling technique plus hand milking. Milk samples were collected for chemical analysis during early lactation (1st month), mid lactation (2th month), and late lactation (3nd month) and pooled into one sample per ewe. Breed of ewe had an effect (Plt;0.01) on total and average daily milk yield and length of lactation. Chios ewes had the highest lactation (87.99 kg in 101.3 day) than Rahmani ewes (53.15 kg in 92.62 day). Ewes rearing twins produced more milk than those suckling singles and the differences were significant (Plt;0.01). Lambing season had a significant (Plt;0.01) effect on average daily milk yield (Plt;0.05) on total milk yield and lactation length. The effect of age of ewe within breed was non-significant on average daily milk yield, total milk yield and lactation length, although ewes aged 4 to 5 years showed relatively higher milk yields than younger or older ewes. Rahmani and Chios ewes reached a maximum yield at the 5th week of lactation. Milk fat, solids not fat (SNF) and milk energy were significantly (Plt;0.01) influenced by breed of ewes, while total solids (TS), protein, ash and acidity not influenced by breed. Ewes lambed in February to March had significantly higher (Plt;0.01) TS, pH and (Plt;0.05) SNF and significantly lower protein than ewes lambed in October to November season. Age of ewe had a significant effect on fat percentage followed by milk energy, while no significant differences in percentages of TS, SNF, protein, acidity, pH and ash were observed. It is concluded that Chios ewes in Egypt have an important potential for milk production and possibility of improving milk production of the Rahmani ewes through selection program or crossing with Chios sheep. Key words: Milk production, milk composition, Rahmani sheep, Chios sheep. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/5FF20E31537 en Copyright © 2011 Julie Ann Luiz Adrian and Norman Q. Arancon
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:0E06C2D1571 2011-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Effect of high forage oxalate and calcium consumption on goat urine characteristics Julie Ann Luiz Adrian and Norman Q. Arancon Full Length Research Paper Goat production in Hawaii has grown steadily in the past decade and this growth necessitated a more controlled diet to sustain production. Local goat pastures on the Big Island, Hawaii, are dominated by Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureumSchumach.), yellow foxtail (Seteria glauca L.), and guava trees (Psidium guajavaL.). These plants contain compounds such as calcium and oxalates that could have detrimental effects on growth and development of goats when consumed in large quantities. This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of grazing Napier grass and yellow foxtail with and without added guava tree parts using two groups of 14 female goats (Capra hircus L.) crossbred between Boer, Spanish, and Kiko breeds by analysis of some urine characteristics such as color, turbidity, specific gravity, pH, presence of bacteria, fungi, casts, as well as concentrations of nitrite, blood, urobilinogen, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Urinalyses were performed on four sampling periods over three months. All variables were subjected to Repeated Measures in General Linear Models and correlation analysis using SAS. Urinalysis results were similar for both the groups. Urine protein levels of the (-) guava group, however, were higher, but not statistically different than those of the (+) guava group; significant interactions existed with some of the variables with time. The increased concentrations of calcium or oxalates in guava tree bark, Napier grass, and yellow foxtail may cause calculogenic minerals to accumulate, over longer periods of grazing, causing uroliths with a calcium and (or) oxalate base in male goats. This could result in penile obstruction in male goats. Key words: Capra hircus, goat, guava, Napier grass, Pennisetum purpureum,Psidium guajava, Seteria glauca, urinalysis, yellow foxtail Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/0E06C2D1571 en Copyright © 2011 Julie Ann Luiz Adrian and Norman Q. Arancon
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:1B3ED951587 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
A prevalence of parasites in black bengal goats in Chittagong, Bangladesh M. M. Hassan, M. A. Hoque, S. K. M. A. Islam, S. A. Khan, K. Roy and Q. Banu Full Length Research Paper An investigation was carried out to measure the prevalence of ecto- and endopatasites in semi-scavenging black bengal goat (Capra hircus) at Pahartali Thana under Chittagong district, Bangladesh during the period of February to May/2006. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in goat were 63.41% (N=317). In these positive samples, Strongyloides spp. (51.74%) was more prevalent and Moniezia sp. and Capillaria sp. were least prevalent (n=201). The gastrointestinal parasitic load of goats varied from egg per gram (epg) 0 to 1600. Faecal sample evaluation shows, 36.95% and 13.56% goats were loaded epg 0 and 300, respectively. Age was evident as risk factor where older goats (gt; 24 month) were more infected by endoparasites than younger ones (lt; 24 month) in this study (p lt; 0.05). Irrespective of factors, the prevalence of ecto- and endoparasites has been quite high. So, the preventive measurement should be adopted for this goat population. As goats are infected with ecto- and endoparasites, broad spectrum anthelmintics might be judicious choice. As older goats are more susceptible than younger ones for endoparasites, the grazing habit should be restricted. Key words: Black bengal goat, prevalence survey, ecto-and endoparasites. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/1B3ED951587 en Copyright © 2011 M. M. Hassan, M. A. Hoque, S. K. M. A. Islam, S. A. Khan, K. Roy and Q. Banu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:DD895FC1599 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Dietary fibers as functional ingredients in meat products and their role in human health A. K. Biswas, V. Kumar, S. Bhosle, J. Sahoo and M. K. Chatli Full Length Research Paper The article evaluates the effect of dietary fibers as functional ingredient in meat products and their physiological role in human health. Fibers are naturally occurring compounds present in variety of vegetables, fruits, cereal flours etc in abundance, and act through their solubility, viscosity, gel forming ability, water-binding capacity, oil adsorption capacity, fermentability, and mineral and organic molecule binding capacity which affect product quality and characteristics. Beside these, high-fiber intake tends to reduce risk of colon cancer, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and several other disorders. Moreover, based on their physiochemical properties, many fibers can help to improve colour, texture and sensorial characteristics instead of nutritional benefits. Fiber inclusions could help in diminution of calorie content in foods. Key words: Dietary fiber, functional food, colour, texture, health. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/DD895FC1599 en Copyright © 2011 A. K. Biswas, V. Kumar, S. Bhosle, J. Sahoo and M. K. Chatli
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:139ADA91626 2011-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
A case of diprosopus monauchenos in a day old calf (White Fulani × Friesian cross) in an integrated dairy farm Salami O. S., Okaiyeto S. O., Danbirni S., Ibe C., Allam L. and Kudi A. C. Case Report A rare case of lsquo;diprosopus monauchenosrsquo; is reported in a newborn calf that died soon after birth. The lsquo;diprosopusrsquo; consisted of four eyes (tetraophthalmus), two pairs of nostrils, two mouths, each with a tongue and two pinae. The two faces were fused caudally by a single parietal bone and joined ventrally by the medial rhami of the mandible. It was delivered from a five year-old multipara cow. Necropsy revealed normal thoracic and abdominal viscera. The limbs were also normal. Key words: Cranial duplication, diprosopus monauchenos, cow, calf. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/139ADA91626 en Copyright © 2011 Salami O. S., Okaiyeto S. O., Danbirni S., Ibe C., Allam L. and Kudi A. C.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:AFB5D891639 2011-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Determination of the critical period for cattle farming in Cameroon Deffo V., Pamo E. T., Tchotsoua M., Lieugomg M., Arene C. J. and Nwagbo E. C. Full Length Research Paper The study was carried out between 2006 and 2009 to determine the critical period for cattle farming in Cameroon. Data were collected on-farm using diachronic observations of cattle herds and pastures for 24 months. These data analysed with descriptive and Duncan multiple range test statistics, permitted to show that the period from December to April was critical. This period was characterized by poor forage quality in the pastures: 33.3 g crude protein/kg DM (dry matter), 72.8 g minerals/kg DM and 364.9 g crude cellulose/kg DM against 61.3, 93.1 and 326.7 g/kg, respectively found in the rainy season (considered as a better cattle farming period); continuously decreased animals performances: An average monthly weight loss of 13.25 kg against an average weight gain of 14.45 kg in the rainy season and an average monthly calving rate of 2.31% against 5.21% in the rainy season. It was found that this drop in animalrsquo;s performances was equivalent to an economic loss of 247,682,998,000 FCFA (378,141,982 euros) per year. These results could serve as decision making tools for livestock sector improvement in Cameroon and other African countries. Key words: Critical period, diachronic observation, poor forage quality, decreasing performance, economic loss. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/AFB5D891639 en Copyright © 2011 Deffo V., Pamo E. T., Tchotsoua M., Lieugomg M., Arene C. J. and Nwagbo E. C.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:F396FAE1660 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Laying performances and egg quality characteristics of F1 crossbred hens resulting from Label Rouge (T55XSA51) and two local ecotypes as parental lines Youssao A. K. I., Senou M., Dahouda M., Idrissou N. D., Amoussou-Sydol E., Tougan U. P., Ahounou S., Yapi-Gnaoreacute; V. , Kayang B., Rognon X.,Tixier-Boichard M. and Kpodeacute;kon M. T. Full Length Research Paper The laying performances and the egg quality characteristics of hens of different genotypes were studied, namely: the; local hens of savannah ecotype (Es) , the local hens of forest ecotype (Ef), the Label Rouge (Lr or T55xSA51) and its crossbred products with local ecotypes: LrxEs, EsxLr and EfxLr. In family poultry farms, the hatching rate (HR), the fertility rate (FR), the average brood size (ABSH) at hatching and at the weaning (ABSW), the egg weight (EW) and the chickrsquo;s body weight (BWC) were significantly higher (Plt;0.05) in local hens of savannah typethan those obtained in local hens of forest ecotype. The highest laying rate (RL) was obtained on station with the hens of Lr breed (41%) followed by the LsxLr crossbred (36%) and the Ls hens. The most fertile hens were those of the local ecotypes (Es, Ef) with a fertility rate (FR) ldquo;taken from 88 to 90%rdquo;followed by the hens of genotypes EsxLr and EfxLr (82 to 84%), the Lr hens (77%) and the LrxEs (68%). At the laying, the eggs of the Label Rouge were significantly heavier (Plt;0.001) than those of the crossbred hens. The lightest EW was obtained in the local hens of the two ecotypes. A significant (plt;0.05) negative heterosis effects was found for the traits egg weight, egg yolk and egg white in the crosses involving females Lr. In crosses involving males Lr, a significant (plt;0.01) heterosis was observed only for egg weight. The crossing EsxLr is the best adapted for the genetic improvement of local chickens of Benin. Keys words: Hens, laying performance, egg quality, genotypes, ecotypes, heterosis. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/F396FAE1660 en Copyright © 2011 Youssao A. K. I., Senou M., Dahouda M., Idrissou N. D., Amoussou-Sydol E., Tougan U. P., Ahounou S., Yapi-Gnaoreacute; V. , Kayang B., Rognon X.,Tixier-Boichard M. and Kpodeacute;kon M. T.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:BBCD17B1689 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Six novel PCR-RFLP loci in milk quality candidate genes in Bubalus bubalis R. Javed, S. K. Gautam, R. K. Vijh and M. S. Tantia Full Length Research Paper Prolactin receptor (PRLR) and Peroxisome Proliferator Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1 Alpha (PPARGC1A) are candidate genes associated with milk protein and fat yield in dairy cattle. These genes were sequence characterized to identify exonic SNPs in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Six novel buffalo specific SNPs were identified and novel PCR-RFLP loci for these SNPs were developed and validated. These loci can effectively be used for genotyping PRLR and PPARGC1A genes in recorded buffalo population for association studies with milk protein and fat yield. Key words: Bubalus bubalis, PRLR gene, PPARGC1A gene, PCR-RFLP, genotyping. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/BBCD17B1689 en Copyright © 2011 R. Javed, S. K. Gautam, R. K. Vijh and M. S. Tantia
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:D8F54671700 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Genetic parameter estimates of pre-weaning weight of Horro (Zebu) and their crosses with Holstein Friesian and Jersey cattle breeds in Ethiopia Habtamu Abera, Solomon Abegaz and Yosphe Mekasha Full Length Research Paper The study was carried out between 2006 and 2009 to determine the critical period for cattle farming in Cameroon. Data were collected on-farm using diachronic observations of cattle herds and pastures for 24 months. These data analysed with descriptive and Duncan multiple range test statistics, permitted to show that the period from December to April was critical. This period was characterized by poor forage quality in the pastures: 33.3 g crude protein/kg DM (dry matter), 72.8 g minerals/kg DM and 364.9 g crude cellulose/kg DM against 61.3, 93.1 and 326.7 g/kg, respectively found in the rainy season (considered as a better cattle farming period); continuously decreased animals performances: An average monthly weight loss of 13.25 kg against an average weight gain of 14.45 kg in the rainy season and an average monthly calving rate of 2.31% against 5.21% in the rainy season. It was found that this drop in animalrsquo;s performances was equivalent to an economic loss of 247,682,998,000 FCFA (378,141,982 euros) per year. These results could serve as decision making tools for livestock sector improvement in Cameroon and other African countries. Key words: Critical period, diachronic observation, poor forage quality, decreasing performance, economic loss. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/D8F54671700 en Copyright © 2011 Habtamu Abera, Solomon Abegaz and Yosphe Mekasha
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:40E7C551724 2011-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Assessment of past and current status of large dairy farms to assist future management concerns and as a model for expanding dairies worldwide Kalynn D. Baldock, Alexandra D. Brooks and Darron L. Smith Full Length Research Paper In order to predict future management needs the dairy industry needs to constantly assess the past and the current status of the industry. The objectives of this study were to: (1) Identify the past changes and current status of large well-managed dairies, (2) To provide management goals and identify areas of concerns for dairies that are stable or expanding, worldwide (3) assist in identifying and developing areas for future research to increase the efficiency and sustainability of the dairy industry worldwide. The data for this study were questionnaires from 17 dairy producers in Roosevelt and Curry Counties, the twenty-second and thirtieth largest United States dairy counties, respectively. The questionnaires were mailed to dairy farms throughout Roosevelt and Curry Counties in February of 2006. The respondentsrsquo; herds account for 38% of the dairy cows in Roosevelt and Curry Counties. The average herd size of respondents was 2,926. Respondents were asked to answer questions pertaining to their dairy farm management practices and concerns about the industry. Reproductive performance was found to be a top reason for culling while, the main health concern for producers was mastitis. Therefore reproduction and mastitis are two areas for future research and further improvement. Key words: Dairy producer, survey, management, large dairy herd. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/40E7C551724 en Copyright © 2011 Kalynn D. Baldock, Alexandra D. Brooks and Darron L. Smith
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:B04CA0D1719 2011-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Performance and economic efficiency of browsing Arsi-Bale goats supplemented with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) vines as replacement for concentrate Tesfaye Kebede, Tekalign Gutu and Estifanos Tadesse Full Length Research Paper A total of forty Arsi-Bale male goats weighing on average (plusmn;SE) 16.8 plusmn; 0.61 kg were used over a 132-day feeding period to determine the optimum level for substitution of concentrate with fresh sweet potato vines (SPV), having dry matter of 92%, crude protein of 19% and gross energy of 15.6 KJ/g DM for both biological and economic benefits. Five SPV substitution treatments in percentage: SPV0 as control, SPV25, SPV50, SPV75, and SPV100 were tested. The concentrate was a mixture of 78.4% wheat bran, 20.6% noug seed cake, and 1% salt with CP 20.5% and ME 2.16 MJ/kg DM. The animals took about 56 days to adapt to the SPV and recorded increasing DM intake with increasing inclusion of SPV in the ration. There were significant differences (P lt; 0.05) in body weight changes (ADG), body measurements and feed conversion ratio (FCR) that were lower after the recorded optimum 50% SPV substitution level. Economic analysis from the substitution treatments showed that SPV50 gt; SPV25 gt; SPV100 gt; SPV75 gt; SPV0, and 50% SPV substitution having most profitable with an average net return of 41.73 (ETB)/head. Therefore, it can be concluded that 50% SPV substitution for concentrate can be used for growing Arsi-Bale male goats with acceptable weight gain, feed intake, body measurements and economic returns. Key words: Economic feasibility, feed conversion, feed intake, sweet potato vines Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/B04CA0D1719 en Copyright © 2011 Tesfaye Kebede, Tekalign Gutu and Estifanos Tadesse
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:0924C701733 2011-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Effect of long-term heat stress on key enzyme activities and T3 levels in commercial layer hens A. Melesse, S. Maak, R. Schmidt and G. von Lengerken Full Length Research Paper High environmental temperatures are the most important inhibiting factors to poultry production in hot regions. The objective was to test adaptive responses of different chicken genotypes to long-term high temperature and identify suitable indicators of physiological parameters. Forty eight female chickens from each genotype of Lohmann Brown (LB), Lohmann White (LW), New Hampshire (NH), White Leghorn selected for improved feed efficiency (WL-FE) and dwarf White Leghorn (WL-dw) were randomly assigned either to the control group (18 to 20deg;C) or to the experimental group (30 to 32deg;C). Blood samples were collected from randomly selected 12 birds of each genotype at three age points. Levels ofglutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3,5,3#39;-triiodothyronine (T3) were determined in plasma. The results indicated that compared to controls, the GPT activity in heat stressed chickens significantly increased by 29.2% in all genotypes. The CK activity in heat stressed chickens was only significantly higher at 22 weeks old. Activities of GOT and LDH were variable in all heat stressed chickens. The T3 concentration significantly reduced by 41% in all heat stressed chickens and the WL-dw had the lowest value. We concluded that T3 could be considered as reliable indicator of long-term heat stress. Moreover, LW and WL-dw genotypes demonstrated better heat tolerant. Key words: Layer hens, long-term heat stress, enzyme activities, T3concentration. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/0924C701733 en Copyright © 2011 A. Melesse, S. Maak, R. Schmidt and G. von Lengerken
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:DCC48CD1739 2011-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Nutritional and managemental control of ascites syndrome in poultry P. K. Singh, Pallav Shekhar and Kaushal Kumar Review Ascites or pulmonary hypertension is a multifactorial syndrome, caused by interactions among genetic, environmental, dietary and physiological factors. Forced selection to achieve faster growing chickens has improved genetic potential; but, due to some anatomical and physiological limitations, the same improved potential could have adverse effects on bird health. Impaired oxygen supply to sustain a continuous fast growth rate may increase the risk for a higher incidence of ascites syndrome. The impaired oxygen supply will stimulate the development of many compensatory mechanisms in cardiopulmonary systems, which, in turn, bring ascites syndrome. Management practices to provide thermoneutral environment, limit growth rate (such as: feed restriction, nutrient density and diet form), use of antioxidants and omega three fatty acids normalize red blood cell structure and function to match the demand of oxygen requirement, which in turn can reduce the chance of ascites. Key words: Broiler chicken, ascites syndrome, nutrition, genetic, management. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/DCC48CD1739 en Copyright © 2011 P. K. Singh, Pallav Shekhar and Kaushal Kumar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:7FF140A1747 2011-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Introduction and evaluation of modified hay-box brooder, Fayoumi chicken and layers housing, addressing small-scale semi- intensive poultry farming at Beresa Watershade, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia Simeamelak Mekonnen, T/Yohanse Berehanu and Amare Argaw Full Length Research Paper The study was conducted in two peasant associations at Meskan Woreda of Gurage Zone, Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to introduce and evaluate Fayoumi chicken, two types of hay-box brooders and small-scale poultry houses at the farmers condition. Twelve farmers were selected for the study and separated into two groups. One group undertook chicks rearing using one box brooder (modified hay-box brooder) while the other group two box brooder type. All households were provided with 20 day old Fayoumi breed chicks and starter ration. It was assigned that, women should be responsible for the given chicks and in handling them. Small scale layer houses were constructed to all household using a participatory approach. The study showed that both type of hay-box brooders (one box brooder or two box brooder type) had similar effect on chicken growth and survival rate, however due to low cost of purchase and smaller space requirement one box type brooder had a significant benefit for farmers. Layers housing got best acceptance by farmers and appreciated by concerned stakeholders with its merits of protection from predators, disease, thefts and easy collection of eggs. On the other hand, due to hardy nature, alert behavior and above all, their high egg production performance and remarkable adaptive fitness, Fayoumi breed had got higher acceptance by farmers. Key words: Fayoumi chicken, growth, mortality, cost of purchase, households, farmers. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/7FF140A1747 en Copyright © 2011 Simeamelak Mekonnen, T/Yohanse Berehanu and Amare Argaw
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:AC2C7C61754 2011-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Standardization and production of traditional Indian milk product ‘Ujani basundi’ from buffalo milk Gaikwad, S. M., Hembade, A. S. Full Length Research Paper A study on the standardization of ldquo;Ujani basundirdquo; was carried out by using buffalo milk. Milk was standardized to 6% fat and 9% SNF. The attempts have been made to study the effect of different levels of sugar (6, 8 and 10% w/w of original milk) and rate of concentration (2.5, 3.0 and 3.5X including sugar) on sensorial and chemical quality of Ujani basundi. The results have indicated that the product prepared with 8% sugar level and 3.0X concentrated had optimum consistency, brown colour, pleasant flavour, with small flakes hence scored highest among all the treatments. Key words: Ujani basundi, traditional milk product, caramel flavour Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/AC2C7C61754 en Copyright © 2011 Gaikwad, S. M., Hembade, A. S.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:4918DBA1764 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Genetic analyses of generation means for a cross between two local breeds of chickens: Ш-inheritance of egg quality in F3 and backcross generations Abou El-Ghar, R. Sh Full Length Research Paper External and internal egg quality traits are the primary selection objectives of breeders to maximize the return of saleable eggs. In order to help for developing an effective improvement program for egg quality traits, performances of F3 and backcrosses generations, derived from crossing Gimmizah with Bandarah developed strains, were used to estimate the components of genetic variability of egg quality traits in this experiment. The current results revealed that the differences between genetic groups were highly significant for all traits studied. Also the variations between F3 and backcrosses were highly significant differences for egg weight, shell weight, yolk weight, albumin weight and yolk index, while shell thickness, egg shape index and Haugh unit were not differ significantly in the same trend. Moreover, the results revealed that most of egg quality characteristics had negative estimates of additive sup2;A and dominance sigma;sup2;d genetic variations. This may be due to the parental strains were closely related, what caused presence of many deleterious recessive genes, were expressed largely and resulted a very little genetic variations in egg quality traits. The degree of dominance (ĥ) was varied from no dominance in shell weight to complete dominance of the low parent in yolk index and from complete dominance of the high parent in albumin weight and egg weight to over dominance of the low parent in Haugh unit. Contrarily, over dominance of the high parent was found in shell thickness, egg shape index and yolk weight, respectively. Key words: Backcross generations, no dominance, parental strains, additive genetic variance, egg quality, egg weight. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/4918DBA1764 en Copyright © 2011 Abou El-Ghar, R. Sh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:94AFAAE1769 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Abattoir survey on the prevalence and monitory loss associated with Fasciolosis in sheep and goats Dawit Kifle and Adem Hiko Full Length Research Paper Study was conducted to assess the prevalence and economic loss associated to Fasciolosis in small ruminants slaughtered at Modjo Modern Export Abattoir (MMEA) Modjo in East Shawa, Oromia regional State, central Ethiopia. A total of 1000 animals (500 sheep and 500 goats; 250 animals each from 4 origins) were examined for the presence of Fasciola sp. Species, age and origin of animals was taken in to consideration. Liver incision, observation and species identification on the basis of size and morphology of adult worm were applied. An overall prevalence of 3.2% was registered. The prevalence was 5.6 and 0.8% sheep and goats, respectively. It was 1.25% in young and 4.5% in adult by age groups. The prevalence of 7.6, 0.8, 2.4 and 2.0% was observed in animals from Arsi, Borana, Jinka and Yabello in respective origin. Significant difference (Plt;0.05) was observed in occurrences of Fasciolabetween animals species and age as well as among origin of the animals. The prevalence of 1.9% Fasciola hepatica and 1.6% Fasciola gigantica was identified from positive cases. Significant difference (Plt;0.05) was observed in prevalence of F. hepatia in animal species, age and origin. Although insignificance difference (Pgt;0.05) in F. gigantica among animal origin, significant difference (Plt;0.05) was observed between animal species and age groups. The current study also shows annual monitory loss of $3784.52 from liver condemnation as result of fasciolosis and other associated pathological and parasitological conditions. Therefore further studies on the epidemiology, seasonal dynamic of the disease, the snail intermediate host and impacts of the disease in animal production with implementations of fruitful intervention strategies in the animal origin areas necessary. Key words: Fasciolosis, prevalence, goat, sheep, abattoir. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/94AFAAE1769 en Copyright © 2011 Dawit Kifle and Adem Hiko
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:7C0D46E1773 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Performance of broiler chicken in early life on methionine deficient feed with added choline and betaine Majed Rafeeq, Talat Naseer Pasha, Muhammad Masood Tariq and Masroor Ahmad Bajwa Short Communication The experiment was designed and conducted to evaluate the availability of betaine (betaine anhydrous 97%) as methionine sparing for broilers. Two hundred and fifty day old chicks were randomly divided into five treatment groups which were divided into five replicates of ten chicks each. Primarily, a single starter ration deficient in methionine was formulated using NRC standards. The five treatment groups were; (A) Positive control supplemented with methionine, (B) Low Methionine (LM), (C) LM supplemented with choline at 0.17%, (D) LM supplemented with Betaine (0.14%) and (E) LM with Betaine at 0.07% in the starter ration. Choline was added at 700 mg/kg to Treatments A and B. Weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) data was collected on a weekly basis from 0 to 28 days. Statistical analyses of data revealed significant differences among the treatment groups in FI, WG and FCR (Plt; 0.05). Supplementation of choline and betaine to Treatment Groups B, C, D and E respectively did not show results as per Treatment A supplemented with methionine. However, betaine supplementation showed better WG and FCR to Treatments B and C (Plt;0.05). Inclusion rate of betaine had no significant effect (Pgt;0.05). Key words: Betaine, broiler, choline, methionine, performance. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/7C0D46E1773 en Copyright © 2011 Majed Rafeeq, Talat Naseer Pasha, Muhammad Masood Tariq and Masroor Ahmad Bajwa
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:FC65E8B1776 2011-10-05T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Economywide impact of Avian influenza in Ghana – A dynamic computable general equilibrium (DCGE) model analysis Xinshen Diao Full Length Research Paper A dynamic computable general equilibrium (DCGE) model is used to quantitatively assess the economywide impact of HPAI in Ghana. The likely effect of an Avian influenza outbreak is modeled as demand or supply shocks to the poultry sector. The analysis shows that while the chicken sector is quite a small sector of the Ghanaian economy, the shock in chicken demand due to consumersrsquo; anxieties is the dominant factor causing the fall of chicken production. The indirect effect on soybean and maize that are used as chicken feed is also large. Under the worst-case scenario, soybean production will fall by 37% and maize by 6.4%. However, the economywide impact on both agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and GDP is very small. In the worst-case scenario, in which chicken production falls by 70% in 2011, agricultural GDP falls by only 0.47% and GDP is almost unchanged. However, the livelihood impacts of a HPAI outbreak could be significant for some sections of the population in Ghana particularly those involved in the poultry sector. Micro-level analysis of chicken producersrsquo; livelihood, therefore, is necessary. Key words: Avian influenza, general equilibrium, Ghana. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/FC65E8B1776 en Copyright © 2011 Xinshen Diao
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:1819FAD1779 2011-10-05T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Preweaning growth performance of Lagune cattle in Benin A. B. Gbangboche, T. I. Alkoiret, C. A. A. M. Chrysostome, S. Salifou and J. L. Hornick Full Length Research Paper The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the birth weight (BW, kg) and weaning (WW, kg) weight and the corresponding average daily gain (ADG, g) of Lagune cattle reared in the Samiondji breeding farm of Benin. A total of 1,414 records from 707 calves, born from 1997 to 2003, were analysed using a general linear procedure (proc GLM). Fixed factors were sex, calving number and year of birth. The weaning age (WAGE) was used as variable. Results of present evaluation showed that BW and WW ranged respectively from 11.65plusmn;0.20 to 17.40plusmn;0.33 kg and from 70.21plusmn;0.17 to 117.00plusmn;0.20kg while the ADG from 141.18plusmn;4.80 to 248.90plusmn;6.25g. All fixed effects significantly affected the growth traits, except sex for ADG, and year of birth for BW. The WAGE showed a significant linear relationship with ADG. Key words: Growth, weaning, weight, Lagune, cattle. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/1819FAD1779 en Copyright © 2011 A. B. Gbangboche, T. I. Alkoiret, C. A. A. M. Chrysostome, S. Salifou and J. L. Hornick
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:F69C40C1783 2011-10-25T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Susceptibility to natural gastro-intestinal nematode infection during different physiological stages in goat and sheep in the semi arid tropics Chauhan K. K., Rout P. K., G. Das, Singh S. K., Shukla S. N.and Roy R. Full Length Research Paper The study was undertaken in Barbari, Jamunapari goats and Muzaffarnagari sheep to evaluate the variability in resistance during periparturient rise in faecal egg counts and the impact of periparturient rise on animalrsquo;s weight at kidding and birth weights of their progenies. The investigation was carried out in 169 Barbari does, 107 Jamunapari does and 82 Muzaffarnagri ewes distributed over two breeding seasons. The individuals were monitored from dry period to late stage of lactation for faecal egg count (FEC) measurement. The rise in faecal egg count (FEC) was observed from dry period to early lactation and thereafter it decreased in both goat and sheep. The present study confirmed the periparturient rise in response to natural nematode infection in both sheep and goat in semi arid climatic region in India. The variability in resistance was observed as Jamunapari goats were more prone to infection as compared to Barbari and Muzaffarnagari breed during the late pregnancy and early lactation stage. A significant peri-parturient rise (Plt;0.01) in lamb fecal egg count(LFEC) occurred at 2 to 4 weeks before kidding/lambing (late pregnancy) and peaked at 4 weeks post-parturition (early lactation) in Barbari, Jamunapari and Muzaffarnagari breeds. The present study also showed that there was no significant effect of periparturient rise on birth weight of kids and damrsquo;s weight at kidding. Barbari goats were more tolerant to periparturient rise as compared to Jamunapari and Muzaffarnagari sheep. Key words: Goat, sheep, peri-parturient rise, semiarid. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/F69C40C1783 en Copyright © 2011 Chauhan K. K., Rout P. K., G. Das, Singh S. K., Shukla S. N.and Roy R.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:3C509191787 2011-10-25T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of candidate genes involved in milk production traits in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Aditi Sharma, S. S. Kanwar, M. S. Tantia and R. K. Vijh Full Length Research Paper Domestic buffalo and cattle are two extremely important livestock species in worldwide agricultural production. Despite some similarities with respect to morphologic and genetic characters, cattle and buffalo are divergent evolutionarily and are classified as different genera within the subfamily of Bovinae (Bos and Bubalus). The present study aimed at partial bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction of bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae) from cDNA of 7 autosomal genes. Divergence times between cattle and buffalo were estimated using a relaxed molecular clock using calibration points based on best estimates of divergence times in the fossil record for Suina-Ruminantia and Laurasiatheria-Euarchontoglires splits. In the present analysis two calibration points were accessed. The two bovine subtribes consistently resolved themselves as a dichotomous group with strong support for a bifurcation between representatives of bovina and bubalina subtribes. Based on the molecular calibrations divergence time of buffalo and cattle was estimated to be 10.4 MYA. The mouse and rat split was estimated to be 36.6 MYA. The results are in agreement with the previous studies being carried out different research groups. Key words: Phylogenetics, molecular calibration, bovidae, bovinae, divergence time, buffalo, cattle, laurasiatheria, ruminantia, euarchontoglires. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/3C509191787 en Copyright © 2011 Aditi Sharma, S. S. Kanwar, M. S. Tantia and R. K. Vijh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:73FABDE1790 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Buffalo population (Bubalus bubalis) characteristics in Kosovo Bytyqi Hysen, Muji Skender, Jahja Ardita and Aliu Sali Full Length Research Paper Buffalo population in Kosovo belongs mainly to Mediterranean type, which is spread inmany countries of the Balkan Peninsula. The basic aim of this study was tocharacterize the buffalo population in Kosovo and focus on their breedingcharacteristics. In the past (up to years 80th), this specie played significant role in theKosovo rural families, mainly used for its products (milk and meat) and work. In thelast decade, the number of buffaloes has dropped rapidly for about 20 times less.Now, it is considered that population size is gt; 400 heads, in total. Buffaloes in Kosovoare characterized by black color, long and rare hair, curved horns, the average ear,shining eyes, and developed udder. The live body weight varies from 500 to 700 kg permature animal. For the period of about 240 days of lactation, produce approximately950 kg milk. Females enter in the first lactation after 30 months of age. Under ratherextensive environment compared to some countries in Europe, milk production waslower in Kosovo for approximately 66.8%. The fertility traits to a large extent werepoorer comparing them on indicators to achieving a 15 month calving interval, as idealscenario in dairy buffalo breeding. However, there is an indication that this animal wasless sensitive to an extensive environment and balanced ratio and a bettermanagement may have significantly improved overall traits. Design of theconservation program for this animal and study of the components of their productsfor their economic effects, and their importance in relation to genetic biodiversityrequire immediate attention of all stake holders in Kosovo. Key words: Buffalo, population, identification, breeding, genetic biodiversity Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/73FABDE1790 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP11.016 en Copyright © 2011 Bytyqi Hysen, Muji Skender, Jahja Ardita and Aliu Sali
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:52B3E191791 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Presence of antibiotics in Panicum maximum and soil around poultry manure dumping site in derived savannah zone of Nigeria Aderinola O. A., Akinwumi A. O., Ojebiyi O. O., Sodehinde F. G., Tona G. and Arowoogun A. B. Full Length Research Paper The presence of antibiotics in Panicum maximum and soil around poultry manure dumping site was investigated. The antibiotics investigated were Penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. P. maximum and soil samples were collected at distance of 0, 30 and 60 m from the dumping site. Qualitatively, these antibiotics were found positive in all the samples. Decreases in values (quantitatively) were observed for penicillin (38.80-18.46times;10-7 g/kg), streptomycin (20.84-3.86times;10-7 g/kg) and tetracycline (31.58-24.47times;10-7 g/kg) as the distance increased for the Panicum maximum around Poultry manure dumping site. Similar decrease in penicillin (19.52--12.26times;10-7 g/kg), tetracycline (20.53-11.19times;10-7 g/kg) and chloramphenicol (16.89-3.38times;10-7 g/kg) as the distance increased in soil around poultry manure dumping site were also observed. The pH of the soil collected was between the ranged of 6.10-6.30. The organic matter ranged from 1.91 to 2.38% and organic carbon was also between 1.11 to 1.38%. The study however confirmed that up to 60 m distance from the dumping site antibiotics (tetracycline, chloramphenicol, penicillin, and streptomycin) were present in both P. maximum and soil. Key words: Panicum maximum, soil, poultry manure, antibiotics. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/52B3E191791 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP11.032 en Copyright © 2011 Aderinola O. A., Akinwumi A. O., Ojebiyi O. O., Sodehinde F. G., Tona G. and Arowoogun A. B.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:C71B29A1792 2011-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Therapeutic potential of Johne’s disease vaccine: A follow up post vaccination study in a goatherd of endangered Jamunapari breed, naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis S. V. Singh, P. K. Singh, M. K. Singh, A. V. Singh and J. S. Sohal Full Length Research Paper The study evaluated lsquo;therapeutic potentialrsquo; of lsquo;Indigenous Johnersquo;s Disease Vaccinersquo; in a goat herd (important endangered Jamunapari breed) endemically infected withMycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). A total of 526 goats from this herd were vaccinated subcutaneously. Therapeutic potentialrsquo; was evaluated on the basis of physical improvement, change in body weights, shedding of MAP in feces, sero-conversion rates, mortality rates, growth performance, reproductive performance, milk production, population growth rate, feed and fodder consumption, body weight profile of kids born to vaccinated goats after vaccination and compared with preceding year. Following vaccination, rapid and remarkable reduction in production losses along with improvement in health was recorded. Goats exhibited recovery from symptoms and lesions of sub-clinical, clinical and advanced clinical Johnersquo;s disease and improvement in productivity (growth rate, milk production, reproductive efficiency etc.). By decreasing the severity of clinical symptoms, herd incidence, inter-herd transmission of MAP lsquo;indigenous vaccinersquo; helped to salvage majority of 526 vaccinated Jamunapari goats from imminent culling due to weakness, debility and loss of productivity caused by Johnersquo;s disease and contributed to the conservation of this endangered breed (Jamunapari) of native goats. Key words: Goats, therapeutic vaccine, Mycobacterium avium subspeciesparatuberculosis, Johnersquo;s disease. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/C71B29A1792 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP10.023 en Copyright © 2011 S. V. Singh, P. K. Singh, M. K. Singh, A. V. Singh and J. S. Sohal
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:4E897941793 2011-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2011
Effect of storage temperature on shelf life of standardized buffalo milk Ujani basundi Gaikwad S. M. and Hembade A. S. Full Length Research Paper The effects of storage of buffalo milk Ujani basundi, incorporated with or without potassium sorbate (0.1% w/w) and with or without cardamom (0.1% w/w) under ambient (30plusmn;1deg;C) and refrigerated temperature (5plusmn;1deg;C) over a period of 20 days were studied. The physicochemical as well as sensory quality of stored product samples were studied. The stored product samples at refrigerated and ambient temperature with potassium sorbate gave shelf life up to 20 and 10 days respectively. The product stored with cardamom gave best flavor score in both the temperature. Key words: Shelf life, Ujani basundi, flavor, cardamom, refrigerated temperature. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/4E897941793 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP10.026 en Copyright © 2011 Gaikwad S. M. and Hembade A. S.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:8E0003D1805 2012-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2012
Association of transferrin polymorphism with different economic traits of Garole sheep D. K. Yadav, S. Taraphder, K. C. Dhara , S. Batabyal, I. Samanta and M. Mitra Full Length Research Paper The present study was carried out on 52 apparently healthy adult ewes of Garole sheep reared at Sheep and Goat Breeding Farm of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences , during April to September 2009 to investigate the association of transferrin polymorphism with different economic traits. The nine transferrin genotypes were identified by Vertical Sodium Dodecyl sulfate Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique. Four (Transferrin AA, BB, CC and DD ) of these were homozygous and the remaining five (Transferrin AD, BC, BD, CD and DE ) heterozygous. The performance of different economic traits in respect of different genotypes of transferrin was analysed. The analysis of data revealed that Garole sheep at this farm produced 2.05plusmn;0.23 lambs per lambing. Sheep with TfAD genotype showed the best performance with respect to lamb production (2.71plusmn;0.28 lambs per lambing) and type TfDE genotype is least productive (1.57plusmn; 0.28 lambs per lambing) in the analyzed ewe flock. Average number of lambs born in heterozygous and homozygous ewes was 2.16plusmn;0.18 and 1.99plusmn;0.25 in overall lambing, respectively. It was found that the overall mean of age at first lambing was 479.88plusmn;4.27days. Maximum value of age at first lambing (522.25 plusmn;22.56 days) corresponds to sheep having TfAA genotype. Lowest age at first lambing (447.00plusmn;13.00 days) was shown by animal having TfAD genotype. On an average, the heterozygous ewes at the transferrin locus had shorter age at first lambing (471.323plusmn;5.26 days) with respect to homozygous ewes at transferrin locus (492.52plusmn;6.39 days). Overall lambing interval was found to be 256.44plusmn;9.51days in the herd. The results of lambing interval showed that ewes having TfBB genotype had 237.86plusmn;7.37 days while ewes having TfCC genotype had 265.75plusmn;9.75 days. Analysis of variance showed that transferrin polymorphism had significant effect on number of lambs born in second (**Plt;0.01) and overall lambing (*Plt;0.05). Analysis of variance showed that between genotype analysis had significant (*Plt;0.05) effect on average number of lamb produced in overall lambing. Between genotype, analysis of variance that transferrin genotypes had significant (**Plt;0.01) effect on age at first lambing. Analysis of variance showed that transferrin genotypes had significant effect (*Plt;0.05) in first lambing interval. The heterozygous ewes tended to have a better production performance than the homozygous ewes. This genetic information of transferrin gene could be useful in marker assisted selection to improve production performance. Key words: Sheep, Garole, transferrin, polymorphism, prolificacy, age at first lambing and lambing interval Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/8E0003D1805 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP11.013 en Copyright © 2012 D. K. Yadav, S. Taraphder, K. C. Dhara , S. Batabyal, I. Samanta and M. Mitra
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:EFBBBFB1806 2012-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2012
Laying chickens’ response to various levels of palm kernel cake in diets Zanu H. K., Abangiba J., Arthur-Badoo W., Akparibo A. D. and Sam R. Full Length Research Paper The response of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens which were fed on graded levels of palm kernel cake (PKC) meal was studied. Four dietary treatments incorporating 0, 5, 10 and 15% of PKC meals were used and the birds were randomly assigned in equal members in a completely randomized design. The diets were isocaloric and iso-nitrogenenous and were fed ad libitum. Water was also provided free choice. The study revealed that inclusion of PKC at 15% reduced (Pgt;0.05) daily body weight gain (DBG) by about 400% when compared with control while, lower inclusion levels of PKC (5 and 10%) reduced (Plt;0.05) DBG by about 8.6 and 13.6% respectively. Feeding PKC at 15% adversely affected egg production though feed intake was not significantly affected. Additionally, PKC had no significant effect on hematological parameters assessed except mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The results indicated that inclusion of PKC can reduce the cost of feed. It was also revealed that PKC, if included up to 15% of the diet of laying hens could reduce egg production. Key words: Palm kernel cake, laying hensrsquo;, production performance, hematology. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/EFBBBFB1806 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP11.022 en Copyright © 2012 Zanu H. K., Abangiba J., Arthur-Badoo W., Akparibo A. D. and Sam R.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:A3C8ECD1804 2012-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2012
The effect of PGF2α on persistent corpus luteum in Sahiwal cows Mushtaq H. Lashari and Zahida Tasawar Full Length Research Paper In dairy animals, there are so many different conditions, which affect reproductive performance, and persistent corpus luteum (PCL) is one of those. It was suggested that this condition was difficult to treat and consequently result in lengthening of service period and calving interval. If this condition was not diagnosed and treated timely, it may result into permanent infertility and thereby huge loss to the breeders. The commercial availability of PGF2alpha; and its analogues had promoted management and treatment of PCL in other part of the world on different breeds of cows with variable rates of success. This study was designed to determine the response of treatment of Sahiwal cows identified as having PCL with PGF2alpha; (Dalmazin: Fatro Pharmaceutical). The present investigation has been conducted on Sahiwal cows maintained at Livestock Experimental Station, Bahadurnagar, Okara (Pakistan). The cows after 70 to 90 days post-partum were examined per rectum to check the condition of genitalia for PCL and this was also confirmed by progesterone assay in weekly blood samples for three weeks. All cows (n=20: mean weight, 402.0 plusmn; 6.1 kg) sufferings from PCL were treated with 2 ml of Dalmazin intramuscularly on the same day. It was found that 85% of animals as determined by the examination of reproductive tracts and confirmed by progesterone analysis became normal and consequently 60% were pregnant at first service whereas 25% were repeat breeder. In conclusion, the treatment of Sahiwal cows, which were suffering from PCL, withPGF2alpha; may correct this condition successfully. Key words: Sahiwal cow, persistent corpus luteum, progesterone, PGF2alpha; Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/A3C8ECD1804 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP10.012 en Copyright © 2012 Mushtaq H. Lashari and Zahida Tasawar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:1A91B651807 2012-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2012
Milk production performance of Black Bengal goats in West Bengal K. C. Dhara, N. Ray, S.Taraphder and S. Guha Full Length Research Paper This study was conducted to investigate the milk production performance of Black Bengal goats in different parities reared in a semi-intensive system. The 112 female Black Bengal goats were selected on the basis of their phenotypic characteristics and ancestral history from Goat Farm, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India. Milk production records of the Black Bengal goat were recorded in the 9th week of kidding from September, 2007 to August, 2008. The overall milk production of 112 goats in the 9th week was within the range of 0.240 to 1.73 kg. On an average, the initial yield, peak yield, average peak yield, days to attain peak yield, total milk yield and daily milk yield was 0.250 kg, 0.380 kg, 0.310 kg, 11.35 days, 7.21 kg and 0.210 kg, respectively. The milk production increased in the fourth week of lactation and then decreased afterwards. Milk production of those goats which gave birth to more than three kids was highest, followed by those that gave birth to two and one kids. Milk production performance of Black Bengal goat in the third parity was better than that of the first and second parities. In conclusion, Black Bengal goats tend to have a potentiality of milk production. Key words: Black Bengal goat, milk production, parity and litter size. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/1A91B651807 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP10.035 en Copyright © 2012 K. C. Dhara, N. Ray, S.Taraphder and S. Guha
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:EA295561809 2012-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2012
Reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows under smallholder condition in Ethiopia Hunduma Dinka Full Length Research Paper A study was carried out to assess the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows under smallholder conditions in Asella town, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. A total of sixty crossbred dairy cow farmers that owned 3 to 5 cows were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to collect information on age at first service, age at first calving, days open and calving interval. Simultaneously, reproductive performances of 250 crossbred dairy cows of the selected farmers were studied. The overall estimated mean values for age at first service, age at first calving, calving interval, days open, and number of service per conception were 24.9plusmn;3.8 months, 34.8plusmn;4 months, 372.8plusmn;5.9 days, 85.6plusmn;5.6 days and 1.52plusmn;0.9, respectively. In this study, 35% of the respondentsrsquo; came across return rate after the first service in their crossbred dairy cows. In general, the overall observed reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows was found to be promising considering the management situation and limited supplemental feed utilized in the area. Thus, a sustainable extension service should be established in order to improve animal feed resources management, efficient artificial insemination service and animal health care to bridge the existing gaps. Key words: Ethiopia, cattle, production, reproduction. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/EA295561809 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP11.055 en Copyright © 2012 Hunduma Dinka
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:52703D41810 2012-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2012
Improving dairy production in Bangladesh: Application of integrated agriculture and ecohealth concepts David C. Hall, Md. Golam Shah Alam and Shankar K. Raha Full Length Research Paper This work investigates the management and veterinary health interventions for dairy cattle in an integrated agricultural system practiced by 1,500 poor villagers living in 300 households in the Jamuna River Chars (Bogra, Jamalpur and Sirajganj Districts) of Bangladesh. The average production after one lactation for indigenous cattle was 2.53 L/cow/day (229 day lactation) and for cross-bred cattle was 7.72 L/cow/day (270 day lactation) respectively. The services per conception were 1.38 and 1.97 respectively. The dairy profit per lactation (Taka/cow) in Bogra, Jamalpur and Sirajganj respectively was 2320, 3582, and 2076; ratio of milk revenue to feed costs was 1.76, 2.83, and 1.60; returns on investment was 1.06, 0.92 and 1.07. The strong economic equity as well as the land holdings of the studied households may have been a factor that determined which households were able to select dairy cattle. The participants in this research requested for further management training, delivery of health services and market development. The research reflects five of the six pillars of ecohealth (transdisciplinarity, community participation, gender and economic equity, sustainability, and knowledge for action), but failed to assess complexity and systems thinking. Further research is needed to support the suggestion that dairy production provides more than enough economic support to the Chars community since it sustains resilience in a vulnerable ecosystem. Key words: Bangladesh, ecohealth, food security, dairy, complexity Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/52703D41810 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.005 en Copyright © 2012 David C. Hall, Md. Golam Shah Alam and Shankar K. Raha
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:AD3C98A1811 2012-04-29T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2012
Effect of diets fortified with garlic organic extract and streptomycin sulphate on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers Dieumou F. E., Teguia A., Kuiate J. R., Tamokou J. D., Doma U. D., Abdullahi U. S. and Chiroma A. E. Full Length Research Paper An experiment was carried out to study the comparative effects of garlic organic extract and streptomycin sulphate on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers. Forty-eight Hubbard line day-old chicks with equal numbers of males and females were randomly allocated to eight (8) treatment combinations to conduct a 4times;2 factorial experiment in a completely randomised design. The diets were supplemented with: no supplement (control), garlic organic extract at 40 ppm/kg (GOE 40 ppm), garlic organic extract at 60 ppm/kg (GOE 60 ppm) and streptomycin sulphate at 30 ppm/kg (SS 30 ppm) administered by oral gavages from day 13 to day 47 of experiment. The results showed that the growth performance attributes of birds on supplementation with streptomycin sulphate and garlic organic extract did not differ, but were significantly better (Plt;0.05) than the values obtained from birds on control. The same observation was made for the carcass characteristics. Male broilers yielded heavier (Plt;0.001) carcasses (1748.50 vs 1533.50 g), higher (Plt;0.05) relative heart weight (0.43 vs 0.40% body weight), and deposited less (Plt;0.001) abdominal fat compared with the females (0.27 vs 0.76% body weight). Treatment and sex interaction significantly affected all the parameters studied except for the heart, pancreas and head. In summary, diets supplemented with garlic organic extract at 40 ppm could be used as an alternative to antibiotic additives for broiler production. Key words: Broilers, carcass characteristics, garlic organic extract, growth performance, streptomycin sulphate, supplementation. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/AD3C98A1811 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP11.026 en Copyright © 2012 Dieumou F. E., Teguia A., Kuiate J. R., Tamokou J. D., Doma U. D., Abdullahi U. S. and Chiroma A. E.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:0A93CF51812 2012-04-29T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2012
Grading of table eggs as a marketing strategy for Nigerian smallholder farmers O.T.F. Abanikannda and A.O. Leigh Full Length Research Paper The major challenges of marketing livestock products are appropriate pricing, preservation and storage. The usual practice on smallholder poultry farms is to sell eggs unsorted. This result in loss of income, decreased marketability and increased wastages. This study aimed at assessing the profitability of sorting eggs and its implication on the farmerrsquo;s revenue. A total of 100 trays of unsorted eggs derived from layers of different age groups were weighed and measurements of its width and length were taken. The eggs were then sorted and graded using the American classification system into peewee (P), small (S), medium (M), large (L), extra large (X) and jumbo (J) sizes. About 15% increase in revenue was realized after sorting and grading. With the classification of eggs into fairly homogenous sizes, it was possible to appropriately price the eggs and consumersrsquo; preference for sorted eggs increased marketability of eggs. It was concluded that sorting and grading of eggs could ensure appropriate pricing of eggs, reduce wastage and ultimately increase accruable income to the smallholder farms. Key words: Egg, sorting, pricing, wastage. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/0A93CF51812 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP11.038 en Copyright © 2012 O.T.F. Abanikannda and A.O. Leigh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:B0E176C1813 2012-04-29T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2012
Genetic analysis of growth and feed conversion efficiency of Muzaffarnagari lambs under intensive feeding system A. Mandal, G. Dass and P. K. Rout Full Length Research Paper Data on 534 Muzaffarnagari lambs, maintained under intensive feeding management system at the Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India were recorded between 1989 to 2002, so as to study the growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of lambs and their genetic control. The overall least-squares means for 3-month weight, 6-month weight and average daily weight gain during 3 to 6 months of age of lambs were 16.11 plusmn; 0.34 kg, 26.84 plusmn; 0.51 kg and 119.23 plusmn; 4.35 g, respectively. The average Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) of lambs during this stage of development was 16.24 plusmn; 0.47%. Significant (Plt;0.01) differences among sires existed for all the growth traits and feed conversion efficiency of lambs. There were marked period-wise differences of all the traits under study but no definite pattern was observed among different birth periods. The parity of dam had only significant (Plt;0.01) influence on 3 and 6-month body weights of lambs. Season of birth significantly (Plt;0.01) affected the 3 month weight and average daily weight gain during 3 to 6 months of age of lambs in this study. Male lambs excelled (Plt;0.01) over their female counterpart in respect of 3 and 6 months weights, average daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency of lambs during this stage of growth. Single kids had a distinct advantage over those born in multiple births for weights at 3 and 6 months of age. The regression of weight of dam at lambing showed significant (Plt;0.01) effect on all the traits under study. The heritabilities of 3 and 6 month weight, average daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency during 3 to 6 months of age were moderate in magnitude ranging from 0.17 to 0.32. Genetic correlations among 3 and 6 month weight, average daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency of lambs obtained in this study were medium (0.51 plusmn; 0.32) to high (0.97 plusmn; 0.24) except the correlation between average daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency (0.10) of lambs. Key words: Average daily weight gain, growth traits, feed conversion efficiency, heritability, Muzaffarnagari sheep Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/B0E176C1813 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.007 en Copyright © 2012 A. Mandal, G. Dass and P. K. Rout
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:535229D1814 2012-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2012
Effect of vitamin AD3E supplementation for haemorrhagic septicaemia vaccine in laboratory mice Priyantha M. A. R., Siriwardhana B. A. M. P., N. Liyanagunawardana and A. A. Vipulasiri Full Length Research Paper Haemorrhagic septicemia is a fatal disease in tropical countries and annual vaccination is carried out in endemic areas. It is a killed vaccine with mineral oil as the adjuvant. The protection level of animal against infectious agent can be improved by the maintenance of proper nutrient status and vitamin supplementation. This method is followed by many vaccines both in animal and human medicine to enhance both cell mediated and humoral immunity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the logarithmic protection values of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) vaccine by vitamin AD3E supplementation in laboratory mice model. Active mouse protection test was performed by Reed and Muenchrsquo;s method to calculate the logarithmic protection value in HS vaccine using mice model. The logarithmic protection value of non-supplemented group was 6.33 and supplemented groups were 6.73 and 6.75; and was found to be significant in treatment. It was concluded that the logarithmic protection level of vaccine can be significantly improved by the addition of vitamin AD3E in mice and presumption may be the same with livestock in field situation. Key words: Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), immunity, vitamin AD3E. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/535229D1814 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP11.046 en Copyright © 2012 Priyantha M. A. R., Siriwardhana B. A. M. P., N. Liyanagunawardana and A. A. Vipulasiri
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:973FC811815 2012-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2012
Abundance and distribution of the raptors in Bangladesh Ashraful Kabir Full Length Research Paper In Bangladesh, are were a total of seventeen types of raptors including species and sub species. These raptors only belongs to one order of Falconiformes and three different families- Falconidae (5), Accipitridae (11) and Pandionidae (1). Among these numbers, they are divided into eight categories, namely, merlin, kestrel, hobby, falconet, baza, vulture, kite and eagle. There are some differences among these birds. The merlin catches their prey in the time of dawn or twilight and its tail narrow during flight. Pointed wing were found in kestrel and broad tail. In case of hobby, their body was almost streamlined and wing is scythe-shaped. Falconets are small in size than the falcon and it differs from falcon; only their swallow-shrike like flying. The tail of baza was exceptional which is equaled tetragonal. Vultures are now endangered species in Bangladesh, its hind tow is reduced and their perforate nostril is their distinguishable characteristic. In sitting condition, the wing of kite is crossed order and larger than the tail; and finally, eagles showed the excess feather in flank, and when it flies, the middle portion of the wing is broad and feathers are loosely arranged. Key words: Abundance, birds of prey, Bangladesh, distribution. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/973FC811815 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP11.058 en Copyright © 2012 Ashraful Kabir
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:5CD38241816 2012-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2012
Relationship between phenotypic and sperm traits of South African indigenous cockerels Makhafola, M. B., Umesiobi, D. O. and Nedambale, T. L., Full Length Research Paper The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body measurements such as body weight, shank, comb and wattle length and semen traits. A total of 33 Indigenous cockerels (Naked Neck, Ovambo and Potchefstroom Koekoek) were used in this experiment. Semen was collected by abdominal massage technique from each individual cockerel. Semen was analysed macroscopically (colour, volume, and pH) and microscopically (sperm concentration and sperm motility) by Computer Aided Sperm Analysis. There were no significant differences on the shank length (SL), comb length (CL) and wattle length (WL) of Naked Neck, Ovambo and Potchefstroom Koekoek cockerels. However, the body weight of Ovambo was significantly (P lt; 0.05) higher compared to the Naked Neck and Potchefstroom Koekoek cockerels. Semen volume of the Naked Neck was significantly higher (P lt; 0.05) compared to Ovambo but similar to Potchefstroom Koekoek cockerels. Shank and wattle length were positively correlated with semen volume, sperm concentration and semen pH but negatively correlated with total motility. Furthermore, comb length was positively correlated with semen volume, sperm concentration, semen pH and total motility. In conclusion, South African indigenous cockerelrsquo;s body weight and comb length of all three indigenous breeds were positively correlated with total sperm motility, sperm concentration, semen pH and percentage of live normal sperm. However, shank and wattle length were negatively correlated with total sperm motility. Key words: Ovambo, naked neck, potchefstroom koekoek, phenotypic traits, sperm quality. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/5CD38241816 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.033 en Copyright © 2012 Makhafola, M. B., Umesiobi, D. O. and Nedambale, T. L.,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:588CAF01817 2012-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2012
Effect of direct-fed microbial and antibiotics supplementation on the health status and growth performance of broiler chickens under hot humid environmental conditions F. R. K. Bonsu, A. Donkoh, S. A. Osei, D. B. Okai and J. Baah Full Length Research Paper The effect of dietary direct-fed microbial (DFM) and antibiotics supplementation on health status and growth performance of broiler chickens under hot humid environmental conditions was studied. A total of 600 one-day-old Cobb hybrid broilers were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments. Three hundred and twenty (320) birds were selected out of the 600 after phase 1 and allotted to four dietary treatments: (i) Basal diet (BD) control, ii) BD plus DFM at the rate of 1.5 ml/kg, (iii) BD plus antibiotics at the rate of 100 mg/kg and (iv) BD plus DFM and antibiotics at the same rate as earlier described. In phase 1, birds fed DFM diet had lower feed intake (Plt;0.05) which did not affect weight gain but were more efficient in converting feed to gain. In phase 2, increased feed intake, improved weight gain and feed efficiency was observed for birds fed DFM diet. Growth performance of birds fed DFM diet was similar to that of antibiotic diet. Mortality reduced in both phases in favour of DFM and was least susceptible to disease occurrence. Increased intestinal acidity from a pH of 5.79 in control to 5.05 was recorded for birds fed DFM diet. A reduction in serum cholesterol was recorded from 110.25 mg/dl in control to 91.25 mg/dl in DFM fed group. It was more economical rearing broilers on DFM diet. It was concluded that DFM can be a suitable alternative natural feed additive to conventional antibiotics as growth and health promoter in a hot humid environment. Key words: Direct-fed microbial, antibiotics, cholesterol, broiler. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/588CAF01817 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.019 en Copyright © 2012 F. R. K. Bonsu, A. Donkoh, S. A. Osei, D. B. Okai and J. Baah
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:B7E529A1818 2012-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2012
Influence of non-genetic factors on growth traits of Horro (Zebu) and their crosses with Holstein Friesian and Jersey cattle Habtamu Abera, Solomon Abegaz and Yoseph Mekasha Full Length Research Paper The present study was carried out to determine non-genetics effects on the growth performance (birth, weaning, one year weight and weight gains) of Horro cattle and their crosses (Friesian-Horro (FH) and Jersey-Horro (JH)) at Bako Agricultural Research center. The data used in the study included weight records of animals born between 1980 and 2008. Least squares means were analyzed using General Linear Model (GLM) of Statistical Analyses System (SAS). Apart from Breed effects, sex, year of birth and parity were the main non genetic effects that influenced birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), one year weight (YW), pre-weaning average daily gain (DG) and post-weaning average daily gain (PDG). The overall mean of birth, weaning and one year weight and pre-weaning and post-weaning average daily gains of Horro and their crosses were 19.6plusmn;0.16 kg, 43.8 plusmn;8.5 kg and 84.8plusmn;21 kg, 407.4plusmn;20.6 g and 263.7plusmn;54.3 g, respectively. The least squares means birth weight, weaning weight and one year were: 18.34plusmn;0.14 kg, 39.8plusmn;0.39 kg and 70.5plusmn;1.14 kg for Horro, 22.13plusmn;0.14 kg, 47.5plusmn;0.38 kg and 94.7plusmn;1.14 kg for Friesian-Horro and 19.1plusmn;0.19 kg, 42.9plusmn;0.5and kg, 85.5plusmn;1.5 kg for Jersey-Horro breeds, respectively. From the results suggests that birth weight of the calves doesnrsquo;t affect the weaning weight and the subsequence growth performance. This could point to an opportunity for much improved weaning and one year weight by improving the management practices of calves. The higher growth performance observed for the crossbred calves in comparison with the purebred Horro (Bos indicus) cattle. Key words: Crosses, fixed, growth, Horro, non genetic, traits. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/B7E529A1818 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP11.015 en Copyright © 2012 Habtamu Abera, Solomon Abegaz and Yoseph Mekasha
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:09B264A1819 2012-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2012
Effects of feed supplementation period on some reproductive parameters of female cane rats (Tryonomys swinderianus) F. Ngoula, F. Ajiahoung Kemassong, H. Defang Fualefac, A. Kenfack, A. Teacute;guia and J. Tchoumboueacute; Full Length Research Paper Cane rat is a wild histricomorph rodent hunted in Africa for its meat. Domestication attempts have not been as successful as desired due to paucity of informations on its reproduction and fertility. In the present study, we investigated the effects of feed supplementation period on some reproductive parameters of cane rats. For this purpose, two experimental diets: Control diet (40% wheat brand and 60% maize) commonly used by cane rat farmers and complete diet (13% maize flour, 18% wheat bran, 16% cassava flour, 30.25% palm kernel meal, 5% soya bean cake, 13% cotton cake, 3% palm oil and 1.75% oyster shell) prepared in the laboratory, were randomly distributed into four groups of six cane rats each. Four treatments were considered: T0, control diet; T1, complete diet; T2, T0 diet until the positive pregnancy test and then supplemented with T1 diet, and T3, T0 diet up to 50 days after the positive pregnancy test and then supplemented with T1 diet. Primiparous female cane rats that received treatments T1 and T2 registered the highest fertility rate (100%). For multiparous, fertility rate was significantly higher (plt;0.05) with T3 (83.3%) compared to T2. Generally, litter size in primiparous rats was significantly higher in treatment T1 compared to other treatments. The mortality rate of females at birth was significantly (plt;0.05) higher in primiparous 41.1plusmn;16.4% compared to multiparous (8.3plusmn;14.4%). The pre-weaning mortality was significantly (plt;0.05) higher in multiparous pups compared to primiparous ones during the same period. It could be concluded thatsupplementing the diet of cane rat increased fertility rate and litter size in primiparous females. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/09B264A1819 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.042 en Copyright © 2012 F. Ngoula, F. Ajiahoung Kemassong, H. Defang Fualefac, A. Kenfack, A. Teacute;guia and J. Tchoumboueacute;
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:B6F39941487 2013-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Socio-economic and policy issues determining sustainable fish farming In Nigeria Oluwasola Oluwemimo and Ajayi Damilola Full Length Research Paper A major agricultural sub-sector where achieving food security has become elusive in Nigeria is the fish production subsector. Demand for fish in Nigeria stands at about 1.5 million metric tonnes per annum while domestic production is just 511,700 metric tonnes. The wide gap between demand and supply is attributed to increasing population, improved nutrition, underdeveloped local fish farming potentials and depletion of artisanal sources resulting from unsustainable fishing. The nation spends about N150 billion (US$1billion) annually to bridge the gap between supply and demand. This huge amount spent annually constitutes enormous strain and drain on the nationrsquo;s foreign reserves especially when the potentials for local production to meet the domestic market and for export exist in abundance. Consequently, several policy measures have been put in place to stimulate local fish farming. Till date, the results from the colossal investment and policy have not yielded the desired results. Hence, this study attempted to examine the factors determining the sustainability of fish farming in Nigeria with a view to stimulating private investment in the sector, meet national market demand through domestic production and export the excess to enhance the income of farmers. Regression and budgetary analyses were used to analyze data obtained from 100 fish farmers in ten local government areas of Osun State. The result showed that the average net income in the study area was N318,640.75 while the gross margin was N457,327.95. The benefit-cost ratio was 1.5 indicating that for every N100 invested, the enterprise yields additional N50. The regression analysis showed that experience of farmers in fish farming, quantity of feed used, access to credit and size of pond were significant determinants of fish farm production in Nigeria. Major challenges confronting fish farming in the study area are lack of access to credit, high cost of inputs and poor extension services. Key words: Fish farming, inland waters, nutrition, employment, poverty, sustainable, pond. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/B6F39941487 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.013 en Copyright © 2013 Oluwasola Oluwemimo and Ajayi Damilola
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:5149FF21513 2013-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Estimates of phenotypic and genetic parameters for ewe productivity traits of Lohi sheep in Pakistan Shakeel Nouman and Yasir Abrar Full Length Research Paper The aims of the study were to investigate the fixed effects which are considered to influence ewe productivity and to estimate the genetic parameters for ewe productivity traits of Lohi sheep. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure using the GENSTAT program. The effects of year and age of ewe were significant for fertility, litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), litter weight at birth (LWB) and litter weight at weaning (LWW). The least squares means of fertility, LSB, LSW, LWB and LWW were 0.904, 1.422, 1.358, 6.689 kg and 41.577 kg, respectively. The means of total number of lambs born (TLB), total number of lambs weaned (TLW), total birth weight of lambs (TWB) and total weight of lambs weaned (TWW) per ewe over four lambing opportunities were 5.48, 5.25, 25.61 kg and 162.47 kg, respectively. Estimates of heritability for fertility, LSB, LSW, LWB and LWW were 0.0250, 0.0533, 0.0430, 0.0462 and 0.0255, respectively; and estimates of repeatability for these traits were 0.1242, 0.0787, 0.0772, 0.0882 and 0.0715, respectively. The low estimates of heritability and repeatability obtained in the current study for ewe productivity traits indicate that selection based on the ewe#39;s own performance may result in slow genetic improvement. Key words: Genetic parameter, litter size, ewe productivity. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/5149FF21513 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.028 en Copyright © 2013 Shakeel Nouman and Yasir Abrar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:AC185B21531 2013-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Multiple and stepwise regression of reproduction efficiency on linear type traits in Sahiwal cows Shakeel Nouman and Yasir Abrar Full Length Research Paper Data on some production performance traits of 1000 milch Sahiwal cows from 3451 cows maintained at the Livestock Experiment Station, Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan during the period from 2000 to 2009 were selected to study the relationship between 12 linear type traits and reproductive performance of the Sahiwal cows. The reproductive efficiency (RE) was measured in terms of calving interval from the first five lactations. The type scores were standardized for stage of lactation, age at first calving and scoring. The mean scores of linear type traits (rump width, stature, chest and body, suspensory ligament) varied from 72.6plusmn;0.78 to 81.1plusmn;0.83 points. The estimates of heritability (h2) for most of these type traits were medium 0.31plusmn;0.22 to high 0.82plusmn;0.31 and indicated the existence of large additive genetic variability for these traits in this breed. The phenotypic correlations of linear type traits with RE ranged between -0.1.6 plusmn; 0.08 and 0.10 plusmn; 0.09. All the 12 linear type traits accounted for 92.96% of the variability in RE of Sahiwal cows. Step-wise regression analysis revealed that 75% of the variation accounted by all linear type traits in RE could be predicted by a sub-set of four type traits (TT) which included stature, chest and body, pelvic angle and udder depth. It was concluded that in the case of absence of records, the reproductive performance of Sahiwal cows can be predicted at an early age using some linear type traits. Key words: Reproductive efficiency, type traits, heritability. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/AC185B21531 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.029 en Copyright © 2013 Shakeel Nouman and Yasir Abrar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:60631BB1600 2013-02-27T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Seroprevalence of two Important viral diseases in small ruminants in Marawi Province Northern State, Sudan K. A. Enan, K. S. Intisar, M. A. Haj, M. O. Hussien, K. M. Taha, A. M. Elfahal, Y. H. Ali and A. M. El Hussein Full Length Research Paper A survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and sheep pox (SP) as the most economically important viral diseases of small ruminants in Marawi province at Northern state, Sudan. A total of 254 sera samples (164 ovine and 90 caprine) were collected from various localities in Marawi province during May, 2008. All collected sera were examined for PPR antibodies using competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (cELISA) and for SP antibodies using passive Haemagglutination test. 42 (25.6%) ovine and 17 (18.8%) caprine sera were positive for PPR antibodies while 51 (31%) ovine and 34 (37.7%) caprine sera were positive for sheep pox antibodies. Keywords: PPR, Sheep pox, cELISA, PHA, Sudan. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/60631BB1600 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP11.048 en Copyright © 2013 K. A. Enan, K. S. Intisar, M. A. Haj, M. O. Hussien, K. M. Taha, A. M. Elfahal, Y. H. Ali and A. M. El Hussein
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:635CA971623 2013-02-27T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
The effect of effective microorganisms on production and quality performance of Rhode Island Red layers M. Simeamelak, D. Solomon and T. Taye Full Length Research Paper Rhode Island Red (RIR) breed of chickens are reported to be capable of acclimatization to the Ethiopian rural production environment. However, there have been serious complaints that the reproduction performance of RIR breeds of chicken is low. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Effective Micro-organisms (EM) on reproduction performance of Rhode Island Red (RIR) layers. A total of 96 RIR pullets of 16 weeks old were divided into 8 groups, each with 12 pullets. These were randomly assigned to 4 treatments containing 0, 4, 8 and 12 ml of EM/liter of drinking water in completely randomized design with 2 replications for a study period of 22 weeks. Feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency, egg production, egg quality, fertility, and hatchability were used as evaluation parameters. The results obtained showed that there was no significant difference among all the treatment groups in feed consumption, sexual maturity, survival rate and feed conversion efficiency (Pgt;0.05) to an age of pullets, whereas the mean body weight gain of the groups of 24 weeks placed on the treatment containing 8 to 12 ml of EM/liter of drinking water were significantly (Plt;0.05) higher than the control groups. The results obtained also showed that there was no significant (Pgt;0.05) difference between all the treatment groups of layers in feed consumption, fertility and hatchability (Plt;0.05) to an age of 37 weeks. On the other side, the mean weekly egg production and feed conversion efficiency during the laying period were significantly higher (Plt;0.05) for the groups of layers placed on the treatment containing 4 to 12 ml of EM/liter of drinking water compared to that of the groups placed on the control treatments. In summary, the results of this study showed that inclusion of 4 to 12 ml of EM/liter of drinking water resulted in significant improvement in survival and growth rate, egg production, feed conversion efficiency and egg quality parameters. Extending EM technology to indigenous chickens could be the future direction of research. Key words: Egg production and egg quality, effective micro-organisms, feed conversion, Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/635CA971623 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.015 en Copyright © 2013 M. Simeamelak, D. Solomon and T. Taye
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:4F58BFF1808 2013-02-27T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Salmonella control in poultry breeder farms in Sri Lanka: Effects of oral antibiotic treatment on whole blood agglutination test with Salmonella pullorum antigen M. A. R. Priyantha, A. A. Vipulasiri and G. A.Gunawardana Full Length Research Paper Salmonella pullorum is a common disease in local poultry industry, which causes severe economic impact on the industry. Whole blood agglutination test (WBAT) is a screening test done to individual birds in a poultry breeder flock. It is compulsory to maintain a free status of this disease in line with the regulation declared by the Department of Animal Production and Health (2010). It is believed that of all the different methods used for reading whole blood agglutination tests, which can be misleading, prolonged treatment with antibiotics was the most. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of antibiotics on the results of whole blood agglutination tests in commercial chicken. This study was carried out with different antibiotics which are widely used in the field, such as Enrofloxacillin, Amoxycillin, Sulpa-Trimethoprim combination and Enro-Amoxycillin combination. The result indicated that antibiotics had no direct and significant effect on the reading of WBAT, although they were indirectly involved in the reading. In the field, antibiotics may flush out microflora, including Salmonella, from the GIT and prevent the development of high antibody titer in chicken. The study concluded that the isolation of S. Pullorum from the organs failed when the birds were infected at adult stage. Key words: Salmonella, antibiotic, agglutination test. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/4F58BFF1808 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP11.045 en Copyright © 2013 M. A. R. Priyantha, A. A. Vipulasiri and G. A.Gunawardana
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:05DCDD61794 2013-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Carcass and physiological response of broilers fed dry heat treated mango (Magnifera indica) kernel based diet AMAO Emmanuel Ayodele and SIYANBOLA Mojisola Funmilayo Full Length Research Paper This study examined the replacement of dry heat treated mango kernel at different levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%) in the diet of 120 Anak broiler birds. The birds were allotted to four treatments of 10 birds each and the experiment was replicated 3 times. They were fed ad libitum and data were collected on performance [feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR)], blood and serum parameters (packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count total protein and albumin] and carcass parameters (thigh weight, drumstick weight, breast weight, back weight and wing weight). Average final weight and average weight gain were significantly (p lt; 0.05) high in birds placed on 0 and 30% dry heat treated mango kernel, while FCR was significantly low in birds fed with 30% heat treated mango kernel. Birds on 0% heat treated mango kernel had significantly high thigh, drumstick breast, back and wing weights (p lt; 0.05), followed by birds on 30% heat treated mango kernel. PCV and RBC shows significant differences (p lt; 0.05) in favour of birds on 0 and 20% heat treated mango kernel. Total protein and albumin were significantly high (p lt; 0.05) in birds fed with 10% heat treated mango kernel; urea was significantly high in birds fed with 10 and 20% heat treated mango kernel. Alanine transaminase (ALT) also shows high significant difference (p lt; 0.05) in birds fed with 30% heat treated mango kernel, but all values falls within the normal range for broilers. This study reveals that dry heat treated mango kernel can be used in broiler diet up to 30% maize replacement without any adverse effect. Key words: Mango kernel, heat, broiler, carcass. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/05DCDD61794 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.011 en Copyright © 2013 AMAO Emmanuel Ayodele and SIYANBOLA Mojisola Funmilayo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:269B0821795 2013-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
The effect of feeding different levels of dried tomato pomace on the performance of Rhode Island Red (RIR) grower chicks Melkamu Bezabih Yitbarek Full Length Research Paper This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding dried tomato pomace (DTP) with commercial ration on the performance of Rhode Island Red (RIR) grower chicks. A total of one hundred RIR grower chicks at eight weeks of age were grouped into 20 pens of 5 chicks each, and randomly assigned to five treatments (control; 5% DTP; 10% DTP; 15% DTP; 20% DTP) according to a completely randomized design (RCD). Birds fed on 5, 10, 15 and 20% DTP had higher dry matter intake (72.93, 72.75, 72.98 and 73.15 g/bird/day) than the control group (72.10 g/bird/day). The daily body weight gain of birds ranged from 13.3 to 15.3 g/day, the highest being on birds fed on 5% DTP; The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of birds were 5.3, 4.8, 5.0, 5.3 and 5.5 for the control and for birds that consumed 5, 10, 15, and 20% DTP, respectively, with significant difference observed between 5 and 20% DTP. The economic efficiency of the experimental diets was 1.35, 1.79, 1.80, 1.78 and 1.82 for a group fed on the control, 5, 10, 15 and 20% DTP, respectively. There was a higher significant (plt;0.05) difference on a group fed on DTP and the control diet. 20% DTP brought the highest economic efficiency among the groups. Based on this, it could be concluded that dried tomato pomace could be incorporated in grower chick rations at the level of 20% without any adverse effect on growth performance in order to increase the economic efficiency. Key words: Dried tomato pomace (DTP), feed conversion ratio (FCR), dry matter (DM) intake, weight gain, economic efficiency Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/269B0821795 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.034 en Copyright © 2013 Melkamu Bezabih Yitbarek
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:EE3D8E31796 2013-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Reproductive potentials of rabbit does fed diets containing processed cassava peel/blood meal mixtures Ojebiyi O. O., Farinu G. O., Babatunde G. M., Togun V. A., Oseni S. O., Shittu M. D. and Amao O. A. Full Length Research Paper A study was conducted for 12 weeks using sixty crossbred (Newzealand white x Chinchilla) female rabbits to investigate the effect of feeding cassava peel/blood meal (CPBM) mixture (3:2) on their performance. Ten experimental diets were formulated with diets 1 serving as control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 had 10, 20 and 30% inclusion of ash treated CPBM mixture (ATD+BM); diets 5, 6 and 7 had 10, 20 and 30% parboiled CPBM mixture (PAB+BM) while diets 8, 9 and 10 consist of sun dried CPBM mixture (SUD+BM) at 10, 20 and 30% inclusion level, respectively. The rabbits were divided into 10 treatments group of six rabbits each with each rabbit serving as a replicate in a Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial arrangement. Age and attainment of puberty shows that SUD+BM had the highest number of does attaining puberty at 4 and 6 weeks, ATD+BM had the highest number at 8 weeks while PAB+BM had the highest number at 10 and 12 weeks. The effect of levels of inclusion of CPBM shows that the 10% levels of inclusion had the highest number of does attaining puberty at the 6th week and 8th week while 20% had highest number of rabbits attaining puberty at 4th and 10th week while at the 12th week rabbits on 20% had the highest number. It can be concluded that rabbits on PAB+BM performed better than others and 20% inclusion level was optimum for the attainment of puberty. Key words: Reproductive potential, rabbit does, cassava peel, blood meal. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/EE3D8E31796 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP11.059 en Copyright © 2013 Ojebiyi O. O., Farinu G. O., Babatunde G. M., Togun V. A., Oseni S. O., Shittu M. D. and Amao O. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:233A96E1797 2013-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
The application of animal welfare standards in intensive production systems using the assessment protocols of Welfare Quality®: Fattening pig husbandry in Northwest Germany D. Otten, E. Annas and H. F. A. Van den Weghe Full Length Research Paper The increased requirements for animal welfare have raised the need for a comprehensive on-farm assessment system. This paper is a first step to analysing the reliability and feasibility of the on-farm welfare assessment with regard to the animal-related measures of Welfare Qualitycopy; in intensive fattening pig husbandries. Based on the 2009 Welfare Qualityreg; assessment protocols for pigs, six analyses were undertaken by one observer on three farms. It became apparent that the system in essence, fulfils the requirements of a sound assessment of animal welfare under intensive production with low on-farm variability. The behaviour-based measurements had a higher degree of within-farm variability than clinical- and resource-based measurements as the assessment involves a greater degree of subjectivity. Some measurements seemed to be of low sensitivities as there were no or very low variations in many of the indicators being assessed. Despite this, this preliminary study indicates that the assessment system is a reliable and feasible tool for the evaluation of animal welfare status in intensive pig production for fattening pig. Key words: Welfare Qualitycopy;, animal welfare, intensive livestock production Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/233A96E1797 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.037 en Copyright © 2013 D. Otten, E. Annas and H. F. A. Van den Weghe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:9FDB99A1798 2013-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Nitrogen and phosphorus management on pig farms in Northwest Germany – nutrient balances and challenges for better sustainability D. Otten and H. F. A. Van den Weghe Full Length Research Paper The study analyses the nutrient flow of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on six intensive pig farms in Northwest Germany over a period of 5 years. The study investigated the farmersrsquo; management of nutrient flows associated with intensive pig farming, focusing especially on the management of manure. It could be shown that in intensive pig production, high performance and performance-related feeding positively affects nutrient flow efficiency. However, on the crop production side of the farms, there existed a great disharmony between the farmersrsquo; perception of manure used as (N, P) fertiliser on their crops and the real quantity of nutrients produced by their intensive pig farming. The farmers were unable to estimate the fertiliser effect of their manure correctly [underestimation N = 7.6% (10.6 kg/ha), P = 33.6% (11.6 kg/ha)]. The application of nutrients by mineral fertiliser was underestimated also [N by 4.1% (8.1 kg/ha), P by 12.7% (1.5 kg/ha)] and were inadequately attuned to the large amount of manure produced by their intensive pig production. As a result, the farms had large nutrient losses (104.5 kg N/ ha; 11.7 kg P/ha) and were unable to fulfil the minimum German legal requirements for fertiliser application. The study evaluated the critical aspects of nutrient management and discusses possible improvements for the future. Key words: Nutrient management, intensive pig production, Northwest Germany Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/9FDB99A1798 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.038 en Copyright © 2013 D. Otten and H. F. A. Van den Weghe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:B8F1EB91799 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Feasibility of household broiler production with the use of hay box brooder in Ethiopia A. Getinet, D. Solomon and D. Tadelle Full Length Research Paper In Ethiopia, chicks are raised by broody hen, the success of which depends on the prevalence of predators. Hay box brooder was successfully used to raise layer type chicks. In this study, a total of 270 cobb, 500 broiler chicks were used to evaluate the brooding performance of electric, modified and existing hay-box brooders of 30 chickrsquo;s capacity, in completely randomized design. Chick mortality, growth, economic return and weight of internal organs were used as evaluation parameters. The results showed that, 98% of each of the electric and modified hay box groups survived to an age of 56 days. The electric, modified and existing hay box groups attained body weight of 2.3, 2.1, and 1.6 kg/head, respectively at an age of 56 days. It was calculated that Birr 74, 71 and 96 was required to raise day old broiler chicks to an age of 56 days with the use of electric, modified and existing hay box brooder respectively. The in-put and out-put analysis indicated net profit/head of Birr 51, 37 and 2.6 for the electric, modified and existing hay box groups respectively at an age of 56 days. The results obtained clearly showed that modified hay box brooder is equally productive as an electric brooder in raising broilers in Ethiopia where there is no electric power. However, study into setting up of proper input supply system (feed, vaccination, market linkage etc) is the future direction of research in the area of initiation of household broiler production with the use of hay box brooder. Key words: Broilers, brooding performance, survival rate, hay box brooder. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/B8F1EB91799 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.022 en Copyright © 2013 A. Getinet, D. Solomon and D. Tadelle
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:B9141021800 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Non-linear growth models for Beetal goats Shakeel Nouman and Yasir Abrar Full Length Research Paper The data were taken from the ldquo;Enhancing of Mutton Production through goat breedingrdquo; a Project run at Livestock Production Research Institute Bahadurnagar (Okara); the growth performance of Beetal goats were compared by statistical non-linear models, like Exponential, Gompertz and Logistic models. These models were based to obtain the best fitted model by following the criteria of mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Run test were used to check the independence and normality of the models and residuals were checked by Shapiro - Wilk test. Errors were found to be normal and independently distributed. Body weights of Beetal goats and Bucks were examined by shape of the curves and it revealed that the values of alpha;, beta; and gamma; of Gompertz model were higher than that of exponential and logistics in both the district of Okara and Sahiwal. Also, values of MAE, RMSE and MAPE of Gompertz model were lower than the logistic and exponential. Key words: Bodyweight of Beetal, Gompertz, least value. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/B9141021800 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.030 en Copyright © 2013 Shakeel Nouman and Yasir Abrar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:7CEB61A1801 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Evaluation of the fertility of broiler breeder cocks fed on diets containing differently processed sweet potato tuber in a humid tropical environment Etchu K. A., Egbunike G. N. and Woogeng I. N. Full Length Research Paper The high cost of poultry feedstuffs has led to the use of tropical root and tuber crops to formulate the balanced and low cost poultry diets. However, utilization of feeds compounded from roots and tubers has been low due to some identified anti-nutritional factors such as cyanide in cassava and high sugar levels in sweet potato which cause diarrhea in chicken. Furthermore, the few studies done on them have been on animalsrsquo; performance in terms of feed intake/weight gain, with little or no emphasis on the effect of such feeds on the animalsrsquo; reproductive performance. A completely randomized block experimental design was carried out to evaluate the effect of diets containing differently processed sweet potato tuber on the fertility and reproductive performance of broiler breeder cocks. Though, the values for semen characteristics were lower in sweet potato-based diets than the maize-based diet, they fell within the recommended levels for the tropics. Grated sweet potato (GP25) had the least semen volume (0.16 plusmn; 0.04 cm3) while least sperm concentration (2.68 plusmn; 0.44 times; 109/cm3) and sperm output (0.44 plusmn; 0.14 times; 109/ml) were obtained in thinly sliced sweet potato (SP25). Percentage of eggs fertilized was highest in GP25 and least in Fermented sweet potato (FP25). Thus, breeder cocks are potentially fertile when fed on diets formulated with sweet potato tuber and that sweet potato tubers may be used as a good substitute for maize in poultry feed when grated or when fermented. Key words: Breeder cocks, fertility, semen characteristics, sweet potato Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/7CEB61A1801 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0159 en Copyright © 2013 Etchu K. A., Egbunike G. N. and Woogeng I. N.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:B20445A1802 2013-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Causes of village chicken mortality and interventions by farmers in Ada’a District, Ethiopia Selam M. and Kelay B. Full Length Research Paper The research was conducted in Adarsquo;a district of the Eastern Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. This study was undertaken to investigate the major causes of chicken mortality under village production system and the intervention measures by farmers against the major causes of chicken mortality under village conditions. Data were collected through structured questionnaire from 180 households. Simple random sampling method was used to select the peasant associations and the households. The majority of the respondents put predation (91.9%) and disease (86.4%) as major causes of mortality in chicken older than 7 days. More than half of hatched chicks are lost due to mismanagement (29.4%), predation (67.8%) and other causes were also mentioned by less than 10% of the respondents. Significant proportion of the respondents (48.3%) did not provide modern medicine and those using, utilize mainly broad spectrum medicines without consulting veterinarians. The traditional medicaments included different medicinal plant species. As a conclusion, chicken in the study areas are highly affected by mortality due to predation and diseases. Appropriate management should be taken, therefore, to control the incidence of disease and reduce the loss of chicken kept under village chicken production systems due to predation and mismanagement. Key words: Chicken, disease, loss, mismanagement, predation, village. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/B20445A1802 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.021 en Copyright © 2013 Selam M. and Kelay B.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:C6BCF1C1803 2013-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Market weight and carcass characteristics of intact yearling afar goats under semi-intensive feeding management Endashaw Terefe, Yibra Yaqob, Kidanie Dessalegn, Abebe Tafa, Ashebir Kifle, Weldegebrel Gebregziabher and Weldegebrel Tesfamariam Full Length Research Paper This study was conducted at Werer Agricultural Research Center with the objective to investigate the effect of diets on growth and carcass characteristics and to identify the economic ration and duration required to meet the market body weight (25 to 30 kg) of Afar goats under semi- intensive feeding management. Grazing goat kids were supplemented with a concentrate mix composed of 75% Leucaena leaf (LL) hay (300 g/day per head): 25% wheat bran (WB) (100 g/day per head) for T1, 50% LL hay (200 g/day per head): 50% WB (200 g/day per head) for T2 and 25% LL hay (100 g/day per head): 75% WB (300 g/day per head) for T3. No supplementation provided for goats in the control group (T4). Accordingly, goats that received T2 had significantly higher (Plt;0.05) total dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intake than supplemented goats in the remaining dietary treatments. As a result, the average daily weight gain of goats maintained under T2 found significantly higher (Plt;0.001) than those of treatments and control groups. Moreover, supplementation after grazing with WB and LL hay mixture tend to have increased live weight (Plt;0.001), carcass yield (Plt;0.01) and carcass characteristics (Plt;0.01) of experimental goat kids. Supplemented yearling goats attained slaughter weight in a range of 28 to 30 kg within about 168 days from the start of the experiment period as compared to the 24 kg weight recorded for goat kids managed as control group. Besides, 25 and 50% WB concentrate supplementation after grazing provides more profit than 75% WB and grazing without supplementation of yearling Afar goat. Key words: Afar goat, semi-intensive, wheat bran, leucaena leaf, supplement feeding, carcass yield. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/C6BCF1C1803 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.023 en Copyright © 2013 Endashaw Terefe, Yibra Yaqob, Kidanie Dessalegn, Abebe Tafa, Ashebir Kifle, Weldegebrel Gebregziabher and Weldegebrel Tesfamariam
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:B67FCA040599 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Evaluation of Binjharpuri cattle of India in the native tract S. K. Dash, B. P. Sethi and P. K. Rao Full Length Research Paper Physical characterization of Binjharpuri cattle was done under a project, funded by Orissa Livestock Resources Development Society (OLRDS). This was done by collecting information on herdrsquo;s structure, prevailing management practices, body conformation, production and reproduction performance of recently registered breed of cattle viz. Binjharpuri and socio-economic profile of the farmers rearing these cattle. Average body weight, height at withers, body length, heart girth, punch girth, tail length and horn length in males were 254.71plusmn;7.32 kg, 121.4plusmn;1.76, 126.32plusmn;2.32, 144.2plusmn;2.32, 143.2plusmn;2.31, 95.7plusmn;3.23 and 21.17plusmn;2.86 cm, respectively. The corresponding figures in females were 207.05 plusmn;5.32 kg, 107.3plusmn;2.16, 115.1plusmn;1.14, 136.2plusmn;2.84, 146.3plusmn;3.5, 97.9plusmn;3.71 and 12.7plusmn;1.31 cm, respectively. Key words: Characterization, native tract, body conformation, performance. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/B67FCA040599 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP10.005 en Copyright © 2013 S. K. Dash, B. P. Sethi and P. K. Rao
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:4CA3FDA40607 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Effect of non-genetic factors on milk production of Holstein Friesian × Deoni crossbred cows Zewdu Wondifraw, B. M. Thombre and D. V. Bainwad Full Length Research Paper Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/4CA3FDA40607 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0173 en Copyright © 2013 Zewdu Wondifraw, B. M. Thombre and D. V. Bainwad
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:F72566940626 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Enhancing the productivity of livestock production in highland of Ethiopia: Implication for improved on‐farm feeding strategies and utilization Mesay Yami, Bedada Begna and Teklemedihin Teklewold Full Length Research Paper The feed assessment tool (FEAST) was used to characterize the farming and livestock system. Prior to data collection, a sustainable livelihoods framework (SLF) approach was used in August 2012. The result of the study depict that the contribution of grazing to dry matter (DM), metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) content was relatively high for the above average group farmers who reserve more land for the growth of grazing pasture and crop residue (barley and wheat) through land renting. Due to limitations of grazing and crop residue resources farmers in the below average group were forced to use the purchased feeds and it contributes more to the CP, ME and DM of the total diet of their livestock in the order of importance. The problems that were raised by the farmers encompass shortage of feed, unavailability of credit services, shortage of veterinary service and lack AI service. The study recommends the development of herbaceous forage legumes and fodder trees species which can mitigate the constraints of feed scarcity. Training on cost effective livestock ration formulation techniques to reduce the feed shortages observed and to supply the livestock with quality and palatable feeds requires due attention. Key words: Feed, livestock, crude protein, dry matter, metabolizable energy. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/F72566940626 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2012.0145 en Copyright © 2013 Mesay Yami, Bedada Begna and Teklemedihin Teklewold
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:F7B4DB740634 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Farmers’ perceived livestock production constraints in Ginchi watershed area: Result of participatory rural appraisal Belay D., Getachew E., Azage T. and Hegde B. H. Full Length Research Paper A study was conducted in Ginchi watershed area, Dandi district of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to identify farmersrsquo; perception and ranking of the most important constraints to livestock production, and their perceived strategies to alleviate the problems. Data were collected and analyzed by participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools for this study. The most important problems of livestock production perceived by the farmers in the study area were feed shortage (100% of the key informants), animal disease (73%) and water shortage and poor quality during dry season (27%), respectively. Farmers ranked feed shortage as key constraint to livestock production. Farmersrsquo; perception, ranking, reasons and strategies to alleviate the constraints to livestock production were discussed. In conclusion, there is need for technical and institutional intervention to alleviate the identified problems to livestock production through improved feed production and conservation, veterinary health care and services, increased availability of water and quality during the dry season. Key words: Constraints, feed, disease, livestock, water, participatory rural appraisal. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/F7B4DB740634 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0164 en Copyright © 2013 Belay D., Getachew E., Azage T. and Hegde B. H.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:EA8729C41449 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Metabolic status and oestrous cycle in dairy cows K. Danowski, J. J. Gross, K. Gellrich, T. Petri, H. A. Van Dorland, R. M. Bruckmaier, H. D. Reichenbach, R. Zimmer, H. H. D. Meyer, F. J. Schwarz and H. Kliem Full Length Research Paper A study with 40 multiparous high yielding dairy cows was conducted to investigate the influence of an induced negative energy balance (NEB) on reproductive performance. Energy restriction of 49% was performed for 3 weeks beginning on oestrous cycle day 12 of first oestrous cycle after day 85 post partum (pp). From day 20 to day 150 pp animals were monitored for ovary activity three times weekly using rectal palpation and transrectal ultrasound scanning and were inseminated around day 150 pp. Additionally, milk progesterone and milk hydrocortisone were analyzed twice a week. Body condition score and body weight as well as blood glucose, plasma nonesterified fatty acids and plasma beta;-hydroxybutyrate were recorded weekly. According to oestrous cycle activity before (Period 1 = natural energy deficiency), during (Period 2) and after (Period 3) induced energy restriction animals were assigned to the following groups: Delayed first ovulation until day 45 pp, normal oestrous cycle, prolonged oestrous cycle and shortened oestrous cycle. Sporadic significances, but no clear effect of the metabolic state on reproductive performance could be found during Periods 1 and 2. Service success and conception rate were also not influenced. Our results demonstrate a remarkable adaptation of reproductive activity to metabolic challenges. Animals were able to compensate natural NEB in Period 1 as well as induced NEB (Period 2) for preventing metabolic disorders and maintaining reproductive activity. Therefore dietary energy availability had no effect on reproductive performance at more than 85 days in milk in the present study. To understand reproductive failures in dairy cows focus should be laid on genetic disposition of high yielding individuals that cope successful with metabolic challenges. Key words: Ovarian cycle, negative energy balance, dairy cows. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/EA8729C41449 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.006 en Copyright © 2013 K. Danowski, J. J. Gross, K. Gellrich, T. Petri, H. A. Van Dorland, R. M. Bruckmaier, H. D. Reichenbach, R. Zimmer, H. H. D. Meyer, F. J. Schwarz and H. Kliem
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:CF3DC5941450 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Biometrical multivariate study of the Zambian indigenous Fat-tailed sheep Pareacute;s-Casanova, Pere M., Mwaanga, E. S., Caballero, M., Sabateacute;, J. and Valenzuela, S. Full Length Research Paper Body weight and twelve body measurements taken on fifteen ewes and five rams of the Zambian indigenous Fat-tailed were analysed. The sheep were extensively managed in the Southern and driest part of Zambia. The aim of the study was to achieve a preliminary assessment of type and function of the breed based on zoometrical indices produced from combinations of different morphometric values obtained from the field. The body measurements used were body length, cannon perimeter, chest depth, head width and length, heart (thoracic) girth, hip length and width, rump height, head width and lenght, and withers height. From these linear measurements there were derived eleven indices: Body, cephalic, cranial, dactylndash;thoracic, depth, foreleg length, height, height slope, pelvic, relative cannon-thickness, rump-length and weight indexes. The tested indices showed that Zambian indigenous Fat-tailed sheep are mildly productive meat animals. The respective coefficient of variation between breeds (flocks/herds) indicates the amount of opportunity available for improving the breed through selection. The need for further investigations is presented but as a matter of fact a separation of Zambian fat-tailed sheep breed from the others could be suspected. Key words: Body measurements, indices, correlations, ewe, ram. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/CF3DC5941450 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.010 en Copyright © 2013 Pareacute;s-Casanova, Pere M., Mwaanga, E. S., Caballero, M., Sabateacute;, J. and Valenzuela, S.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:224BBC742035 2013-12-02T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Effect of feeding Leucaena pallida with concentrate and antihelmentic treatment on growth performance and nematode parasite infestation of Horro ewe lambs in Ethiopia Chala Merera, Temesgen Ayana and Tegegn Gudeta Full Length Research Paper The study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing Leucaena pallida in reducing gastrointestinal parasite load and to evaluate growth response of Horro ewe lambs to supplementation and antihelmentic treatment. A total of 32 Horro ewe lambs were randomly assigned to four treatments: Grazing, grazing + antihelmintics only, grazing + 500 g dried Leucaena pallida leaves + 200 g ground maize grain per head/day, and grazing + 200 g noug cake + 200 g ground maize grain per head/day with eight replicates. Feeding L. pallida leaves increased (P lt; 0.05) growth rates and reduced (P lt; 0.05) nematode parasite egg counts (Eggs per gram of faeces (EPG)) compared with un-supplemented Horro ewe lambs. Packed cell volume (PCV) was significantly increased (P lt; 0.05) in Horro ewe lambs supplemented with L. pallida and concentrate and treated with antihelmentic compared to the animals assigned to grazing alone. The results revealed that supplementation of L. pallida with concentrate have beneficial anti-parasitic properties and improved the growth performance of Horro ewe lambs. Key words: Eggs per gram of faeces (EPG), packed cell volume (PCV), nematode, Leucaena pallida, Horro ewe lambs. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/224BBC742035 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0176 en Copyright © 2013 Chala Merera, Temesgen Ayana and Tegegn Gudeta
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:C68676242039 2013-12-02T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
In vitro usage of various non-organic compounds to subdue acidogenic value and enhance the fermentation of alfalfa hay based diets by mixed rumen microbiota M. Danesh Mesgaran, J. Amini and M. Paktinat Full Length Research Paper Batch cultures of mixed rumen microorganisms were used in a randomized complete block design to study the effects of alfalfa hay-to-concentrate ratio and various non-organic buffering compounds on Acidogenic Value (AV), in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD), medium pH, and AV: IVDMD ratio. Alfalfa hay was included in the experimental diets as: 80% (F80), 60% (F60), 40% (F40), and 20% (F20) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Buffering compounds were added to the experimental diets as: Sodium bicarbonate [SB; 5 or 10 mg.g-1 DM], magnesium oxide (MgO; 5 or 10 mg.g-1 DM), sodium bentonite (bentonite;10 or 20 mg.g-1 DM), Acid Bufreg; (5, 10 or 20 mg.g-1 DM), Acid Buf + SB in a 3:4 ratio (11 or 16.5 mg.g-1 DM), Acid Buf + SB + MgO in a 3:4:1 ratio (12.5 or 18.75 mg.g-1 DM), and Herodrsquo;s Buffer (5, 10 or 20 mg.g-1 DM); keeping one group as control (no supplementation). After 24 h incubation, no significant differences observed in medium pH among SB, MgO, bentonite and the control, but Herodrsquo;s Buffer, Acid Buf, Acid Buf + SB, and Acid Buf + SB + MgO kept it up (Ple; 0.05). The lowest AV and AV: IVDMD ratios were observed when SB was used in the cultures (Ple; 0.05). Herodrsquo;s buffer IVDMD was the lowest (Ple; 0.05). The results indicated that the diet containing Acid Buf and SB had a relatively low AV and AV: IVDMD, and could maintain a relatively high rumen fluid pH compared with those of the others. Key words: Acidogenic value, in vitro dry matter disappearance, buffers. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/C68676242039 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0188 en Copyright © 2013 M. Danesh Mesgaran, J. Amini and M. Paktinat
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:09CDF4042042 2013-12-02T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Production performance of Fayoumi chickens under intensive management condition of Adami Tulu research center Tesfa Geleta, Samson Leta and Endalew Bekana Full Length Research Paper The study was done to characterize the production performance of exotic/Fayoumi chicken/under intensive management condition in semi-arid Ethiopia. Feed consumption, age at 40% egg laying, egg production, mortality rate, hatchability, external and internal their egg quality parameters used as evaluation parameters. Mean feed consumption of starter, grower and layer Fayoumi chicken under intensive management condition in Adami Tulu research center is 48.9plusmn;5.5, 71.4plusmn;5.4 and 113.5plusmn;8.1, respectively. Fayoumi chickens attain sexual maturity at 150 days and produced 159.9plusmn; 10.7 eggs in a year. Hatchability and mortality rate is 63.5 and 7.2%, respectively. Egg weight (g), egg length (mm), egg width (mm), shell thickness (mm) and shell weight in percent of egg weight of Fayoumi chicken`s egg was 44.3plusmn;4.51, 50.77plusmn;2.6, 39.3plusmn;1.41, 0.35plusmn;0.04 and 13.3, respectively. Yolk color, yolk weight in percent of egg weight, albumin weight in percent of egg weight and egg shape index of Fayoumi chicken is 1.59plusmn;0.76, 32.3%, 54.5% and 77.7plusmn;3.9, respectively. The result of the present study showed that Fayoumi chicken well adapted to semi-arid Ethiopia and their production performance is better than the indigenous village chicken means it is a good choice for egg producer who can regularly supply supplementary feed. Fayoumi chicken were active can easily escape predators and preferred perch after onset egg lay. Poultry breeder can also use the breed for the production of commercial breed by crossing with others in semi-arid Ethiopia. Key words: Intensive, semi-arid, mortality rate, hatchability, indigenous. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/09CDF4042042 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0169 en Copyright © 2013 Tesfa Geleta, Samson Leta and Endalew Bekana
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:FACB47042036 2013-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2013
Fattening performances of culled dairy bulls to boost benefits of dairy farmers in western oromia, Ethiopia Chala Merera and Ulfina Galmessa Full Length Research Paper Fattening performances for three age groups (G1=12-24, G2=25-36 and G3=37-48 months) were compared under the same feeding management to recommend the best possible age of culling of Horro Friesian crossbred bulls to boost the benefits of dairy farmers. The study was conducted for a finishing period of 90 days using the recommended level of concentrate supplementation of 3.5 kg/head/day for finishing Horro-Friesian crossbred bulls. The bulls were fed on Rhodes grass hay under zero grazing system in individual feeding pen. Economic analysis was also made considering the current prices of concentrate ingredients and estimated prices of the bulls. Though the total weight gain (85.9plusmn;5.91 kg) and average daily weight gain (999.4plusmn;0.07 g) were higher for the older age groups than the medium (78.3plusmn;5.91 kg and 921.1plusmn;0.07 g) and younger (81.2plusmn;5.91 kg and 954.7plusmn;0.07 g) groups respectively, the differences were not significant (pgt;0.05). The economic analysis also showed non significant differences between the three age groups. Therefore, it is apparent from the study that finishing of the crossbred bulls at early age is advantageous before incurring extra cost in keeping undesirable bulls in the herd. It is also suggested that these excess dairy bulls should be finished before disposal to boost the benefit of dairy farmers from dairy enterprise. Key words: Horro-Friesian bulls, age of finishing, weight gain, economic evaluation. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/FACB47042036 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0170 en Copyright © 2013 Chala Merera and Ulfina Galmessa
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:F0CFAFD42300 2014-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Outbreak of theileriosis and anaplasmosis in herd of holstein crossbred cows of Dehradun district of Uttranchal, India: A Himalyan region Shweta Kohli, U. K. Atheya, S. K. Srivastava, P. S. Banerjee and Rajat Garg Full Length Research Paper The theileriosis and anaplasmosis are not common in Himalayan region of India. However, this paper reports the outbreak of theileriosis and anaplasmosis in a herd of Holstein cross bred cows maintained at Graphic Era University Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. This was because of introduction of native Red Sindhi cows. These native cows are in apparent carrier of theileria and anaplasmosis. Even with given treatment for theileria with Butalex (Buparvaquone) 4 positive cows and 4 calves died. One of the cows pregnant for 5 month aborted. That outbreak of theileria in the elite Holstein cross bred herd is reported in Himalayan region of India. Key words: Theileria, blood protozoonrsquo;s, milk production, theileriosis, anaplasmosis. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/F0CFAFD42300 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP11.021 en Copyright © 2014 Shweta Kohli, U. K. Atheya, S. K. Srivastava, P. S. Banerjee and Rajat Garg
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:F4878B642302 2014-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Breeding practice and objective of indigenous chicken in North Wollo, Amhara regional State, Ethiopia Addisu Hailu, Zewdu Wuletaw and Hailu Mazengia Full Length Research Paper Characterization of breeding practices of indigenous chicken of North Wollo was conducted from January 2011 to May 2012 with the aim to identifying farmersrsquo; trait preferences of chicken, breeding objectives and priority areas of intervention. Focus group discussions were held, followed by a survey using semi-structured questionnaires. The survey revealed that both uncontrolled and controlled mating was practiced. Egg production, meat yield and disease resistance were the most preferred traits by farmers for further improvement. Based on flock size, production system, infrastructure availability, preferred traits and economic return, population settlement; roll mating and grading mate would be recommend to low altitude areas where as clan mating and breed out-out was the recommended breeding program to the mid altitude and high altitude study area. Key words: Breeding objective, indigenous chicken, North Wollo, Ethiopia. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/F4878B642302 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.0002 en Copyright © 2014 Addisu Hailu, Zewdu Wuletaw and Hailu Mazengia
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:3AC3BBE42299 2014-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Isolation of some respiratory viruses from camels Intisar, K. S., Ali, Y. H., Taha, K. M., Musa, M. Z. and Khalafalla, A. I. Full Length Research Paper The presence of three of the main respiratory viruses found in camels, that is, peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), bovine para-influenza virus 3 (PIV3) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), was investigated and isolation of these viruses in different cell cultures was carried out. A total of 100 pneumonic camel lungs collected from slaughterhouses were screened for the presence of PPR, PIV3 and BHV-1 viral antigens using ELISA. Forty five were found to be positive for PPRV, 15 for PIV3 and 4 for BHV-1 virus antigen. Of these samples, 15 PPR, 12 PIV3 and 3 BHV-1 positives were inoculated in MDBK cell line, primary and secondary lamb and bovine kidney cells. Each of the three viruses were successfully isolated in the different cultures used; CPE was seen at day 14 for PPR, day 3 for PIV3 and day 2 for BHV-1 after infection; CPE was observed, characterized by cell rounding, elongation with some syncytia formation for both PPR and PIV3, and BHV-1 samples showed cell rounding, edematous cells and cell sheet detachment. This is the first report of the isolation of PPR virus from camels. Key words: Camels, cell cultures, respiratory viruses, Sudan. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/3AC3BBE42299 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0160 en Copyright © 2014 Intisar, K. S., Ali, Y. H., Taha, K. M., Musa, M. Z. and Khalafalla, A. I.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:82E216542301 2014-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
The effect of feeding different levels of brewer’s dried grain yeast mixture on the performance of white leghorn chicks Zewdu Wondifraw and Berhan Tamir Full Length Research Paper This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of Brewerrsquo;s Dried Grain Yeast mixture (BDGY) on the performance of white leghorn chicks. A total of three hundred and twenty four day-old white leghorn chicks were grouped into 18 pens of 18 chicks each, and randomly assigned to six treatments (control, 6% BDGY, 12% BDGY, 18% BDGY, 24% BDGY, 30% BDGY) according to a completely randomized design (RCD). Brewerrsquo;s dried grain yeast mixture was composed of 80% brewerrsquo;s dried grain (BDG) and 20% brewerrsquo;s dried yeast (BDY). The mean dry matter intake and cost of feed per kg live weight gain did not vary (P gt; 0.05) among the dietary treatments. However, significantly (P lt; 0.01) lower daily gain and dry matter conversion ratio (P lt; 0.05) were obtained in chicks fed 24% BDGY and 30% BDGY than the rest of dietary treatments. Similarity in growth performance between chicks fed the control and 18% BDGY was observed. Based on this, it could be concluded that Brewerrsquo;s dried grain yeast mixture could be incorporated in chickrsquo;s rations at the level of 18% without any adverse effect on growth performance so as to increase the economic efficiency. Key words: Brewerrsquo;s dried grain yeast, dry matter conversion ratio, dry matter intake, weight gain, economic efficiency. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/82E216542301 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0171 en Copyright © 2014 Zewdu Wondifraw and Berhan Tamir
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:9CE8BD242721 2014-02-01T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Feed resources availability and livestock production in the central rift valley of Ethiopia Zewdie Wondatir and Yoseph Mekasha Full Length Research Paper This study was conducted to investigate feed resource availability in association with livestock production in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Random sampling was used to select target farms. A total of 60 livestock owners were selected from two districts namely Admi Tullu Jidokombolcha and Dugda Bora both in the central Rift Valley. Structured questionnaire, focused group discussions, secondary data sources and field observations were employed to generate data on household structure, farm size, land use pattern, herd size, herd composition, purpose of livestock raising, major crops grown, crop grain yield, livestock feed types and quantity of total feed. The results of the study indicated that natural pastures and crop residues were the main basal diets in both districts, with crop residues supplying the largest proportion of dry matter.The total livestock population is estimated as 15 and 16 TLU in Adami Tullu Jidokombolcha and Dugda Bora districts, respectively. The total annual DM production met 81 and 80% of the total livestock requirement per annum per farm in Admi Tullu Jidokombolcha and Dugda Bora districts, respectively. From the current study, it was concluded that the available basal roughage feeds were not sufficient to meet livestock dry matter requirement. Alternative means of feed production and supply should be sought with the involvement of all stakeholders. Key words: Dry matter, feed resources, livestock. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/9CE8BD242721 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0158 en Copyright © 2014 Zewdie Wondatir and Yoseph Mekasha
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:730F8B442720 2014-02-01T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Effect of poultry litter with or without enzyme supplementation on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and economy of rabbit production Ogunsipe, M. H. Full Length Research Paper A 9-week feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the performance, nutrients digestibility and economics of production of rabbits fed poultry litter with or without nutrase xylase (exogenous enzyme) supplementation. 60 cross-breed rabbits with group mean weight (515 to 530 g) were randomly distributed to 10 dietary treatments at 6 rabbits to a treatment group in complete randomization. Results on chemical composition showed improvement in nutrient status of enzyme supplemented diets over diets not supplemented with exogenous enzyme. The better nutrient density in enzyme supplemented diets was manifested in performance response data as rabbits fed enzyme supplemented diets recorded higher weight gain over rabbits fed non-enzyme supplemented diets, except at 40% level of inclusion, which recorded no significant influence (Pgt;0.05) between rabbits fed enzyme supplemented diet and non-enzyme supplemented diet. Apparent digestibility results showed improved nutrients digestibility by rabbits fed enzyme supplemented diets over those not supplemented with enzyme (Plt;0.05), except the dry matter digestibility that was statistically similar (Pgt;0.05) at 0 to 20 and 30 to 40% poultry litter inclusion levels. Economics of production showed that enzyme supplementation gradually reduced the cost of feed N/kilogram weight gain (N223.61 to 228.47) up to 30% poultry litter-based diets. Above this level, a loss was incurred as evidenced in the cost differential (N25.08) and relative cost benefit/kilogram gain (-10.35%). Key words: Nutrase xylase, digestibility, rabbits, litter, costs. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/730F8B442720 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.017 en Copyright © 2014 Ogunsipe, M. H.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:F0C4CFA44830 2014-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Socio-economic characteristics and husbandry practices of cattle breeders in the Vina division, Cameroon Mingoas Kilekoung J. P., Zoli Pagnah A., Tchoumboue J., Ebene Nyoungui J. and Toukala J. P. Full Length Research Paper In order to assess socio-economic characteristics of cattle breeders and their effect on farmersrsquo; practices, a survey was carried out in Vina division within the Adamawa highlands of Cameroon, from November, 2009 to October, 2010. Data were collected from 159 farmers in 9 localities, using a structured questionnaire. Information on breederrsquo;s ethnic group, age, marital status, education level, number of children, reasons for rearing cattle, labor distribution, herd size and composition, feeding and reproductive practices were obtained. Many (64.8%) cattle breeders were from the Peulh and Mbororo ethnic groups. More than 59% of the farmers were between 26 and 45 years old. The educational level was mostly primary and coranic. Wealth accumulation and social status were the main reasons for cattle breeding. The reasons for keeping cattle varied with ethnic group, age and educational level of farmers. Herd size ranged from 50 to 250 cattle. Health activities were carried out by herd owners. The Gudali zebu (48%) was the most common breed. More than 90% of cattle owners responded to practice feed supplementation with salt, cotton seed cake and cereal bran. Farmerrsquo;s education level had an effect on supplementation practices. There was no significant difference (Z = 0.29) between the ability to detect estrus or not of cattle breeders. Free mating was the common breeding practice. Udder and abdomen development were the main criteria for pregnancy diagnosis. Key words: Socio-economic characteristics, breeding practices, cattle, Adamawa, Cameroon. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/F0C4CFA44830 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.020 en Copyright © 2014 Mingoas Kilekoung J. P., Zoli Pagnah A., Tchoumboue J., Ebene Nyoungui J. and Toukala J. P.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:A700B5F44832 2014-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Heritability and correlation among first lactation traits in Holstein Friesian cows at Holeta Bull Dam Station, Ethiopia Gebeyehu Goshu, Harpal Singh, Karl-Johan Petersson and Nils Lundeheim Full Length Research Paper Records of 433 cows from 48 sires that had at least four daughters were used to study genetic parameters for age at first calving, 305 day milk yield, first lactation milk yield, first lactation length, first service period, first dry period and first calving interval. Data were analyzed by the procedures of Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method with animal model. Age at first calving had highest heritability of 0.53plusmn;0.116, and the estimate for all other traits found to be medium in magnitude ranged from 0.23 to 0.28. Very low phenotypic correlations of age at first calving with all other traits were observed. The phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations of first lactation milk yield with 305 day milk yield were high and positive. All correlations of first lactation milk yield with first service period, first dry period and first calving interval were negative. High phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations were found for service period with dry period and calving interval; and dry period with calving interval. Key words: First lactation traits, Friesian, heritability, correlation, Holeta. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/A700B5F44832 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0165 en Copyright © 2014 Gebeyehu Goshu, Harpal Singh, Karl-Johan Petersson and Nils Lundeheim
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:A1BDCDA44834 2014-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Empirical models used for lactation curve analysis in the Chiapas sheep breed using random regression models Carlos G. Vaacute;zquez-Pelaacute;ez, Joseacute; G. Garciacute;a-Muntilde;iz and Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos Full Length Research Paper The objectives of the study were to compare the goodness-of-fit of seven empirical models (orthogonal Legendre polynomials Order 1 to 4; Wood, Ali and Schaeffer and Wilmink functions) to fit lactation curves of three local colour phenotypes (brown, white, and black) of the Chiapas sheep breed; and to evaluate the effect of environmental factors affecting the parameters of the lactation curve of the model of best fit. A total of 428 complete and incomplete lactations from 1 to 5 parities from 339 ewes (151 white, 95 brown, and 182 black) collected in two periods of four consecutive years from 1991 to 1994 and 2005 to 2008 at the Centre for Technology Transfer-Autonomous University of Chiapas, Mexico, were used in the analysis. Estimates of the parameters for each of the models were obtained using random regression mixed models and several criteria for goodness-of-fit were used to compare model fit. Of the models compared, the orthogonal Legendre polynomial of Order 3 had the best fit. Estimates of parameter alpha;2 were significantly different between sheep colour phenotypes (P lt; 0.05). The estimate of parameter alpha;0 was affected only by parity number (P lt; 0.05). Genetic evaluation for milk yield and shape of the lactation curve can be implemented. Key words: Chiapas sheep breed, lactation curve, longitudinal models, random regression. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/A1BDCDA44834 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0177 en Copyright © 2014 Carlos G. Vaacute;zquez-Pelaacute;ez, Joseacute; G. Garciacute;a-Muntilde;iz and Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:098AF4C43790 2014-04-10T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Post-thawed and fresh spermatozoa motion characteristics of Sahiwal bulls under computer-assisted semen analyser (CASA) Ulfina Galmessa, T. K. Mohanty, V. S. Raina, A. K. Gupta and Shiv Prasad Full Length Research Paper In this study, motion characteristics of spermatozoa was assessed by computer assisted semen analyser (CASA) for evaluating fertility potential of Sahiwal bulls. Twelve bulls were selected and grouped into two on the basis of age (AGI lt; 50 months old; AGII gt; 50 months old) and scrotal circumferences (SCI lt; 33 cm; SCII gt; 33 cm). The following CASA parameters i.e., velocity average path (VAP, mu;m/s), velocity straight line (VSL, mu;m/s), velocity curvilinear (VCL, mu;m/s), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH, mu;m), motility (%)(the percentage motile cells of the total) and straightness (STR) were recorded. Results of the study revealed that there is no significant different (pgt;0.05) in progressive motility either in age or Sc groups of bulls. However, significantly (plt;0.05) higher mean post thaw motility was observed after 24 h cryopreservation for the younger (76.40plusmn;3.07) than the older (65.00plusmn;3.50) bulls and for larger SC than smaller SC bulls (65.56plusmn;3.78 vs. 56.56plusmn;3.78, plt;0.05). Similar trends observed at 0 h after freezing were not significantly different (pgt;0.05) for both age and SC groups. In most motion characteristics especially in motility and linearity of the motion, younger bulls and bulls with larger SC performed better than older bulls and bulls with smaller SC indicating the possibility of selecting bulls at an early age on the basis of testis size to save the money, space and time which otherwise spent on rearing such inferior bulls. This study also clearly indicated that CASA is a good supplementation to aid for selection of breeding bulls. Key words: Sahiwal bull, computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) parameters, spermatozoa motion characteristics. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/098AF4C43790 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0184 en Copyright © 2014 Ulfina Galmessa, T. K. Mohanty, V. S. Raina, A. K. Gupta and Shiv Prasad
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:D3E1CE543796 2014-04-10T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Socio-economic characteristics of poultry production in lowland and midland agro-ecological zones of central Tigray, Ethiopia A. T. Alem, G. T. Yayneshet and A. H. Aklilu Full Length Research Paper The study was conducted to explore the socio-economic characteristics of poultry production in lowland and midland agro-ecological zones of central Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Two districts were selected using systematic random sampling method from midland and lowland agro-ecology. Out of the total chicken keepers in the area 160 sample farmers, 80 from each district were selected randomly using lottery method. Data like purpose of chicken production, social and cultural value of chickens, labour division and ownership and use pattern were collected and analyzed using JMP5 (SAS, 2002). The main purpose of chicken rearing in the area was for meat consumption followed by egg production. There was significant difference (Plt;0.01) in production purpose between the households living in lowland and midland agro-ecology. The proportion of ownership in the family of male and female headed households was significantly different (Plt;0.05) in both agro-ecologies. In male headed households decisions like home consumption of chickens (65%) was done by the husband. In lowland 91.2% of the respondents and 78.7% in midland agro-ecology gave especial focus to Finding of the Cross day festivity than other festivals to slaughter chickens for sacrifice. Chicken meat consumption was significantly higher (Plt;0.0001) in lowland than midland agro-ecology. It was also higher in male headed households (Plt;0.001) than in female headed households but egg consumption was significantly higher (Plt;0.05) in female headed households than male headed households. Backyard poultry production in Ethiopia plays an important role in the economy, nutritional and socio-cultural values in the livelihoods of the rural households. Key words: Chickens, ownership, consumption, egg. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/D3E1CE543796 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0153 en Copyright © 2014 A. T. Alem, G. T. Yayneshet and A. H. Aklilu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:CE3943C44351 2014-05-01T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Effect of varying levels of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) haulms on the growth performance of weaners rabbits (Oryctalagus cuniculus) Etchu K. A., Ngu G. T., Yongabi K. A. and Woogeng I. N. Full Length Research Paper Thirty two, 6 to 8 weeks old rabbits of mongrel origin, balanced for sex and weighing averagely 0.92 kg were allotted to four dietary treatments in a complete randomized design (CRD) with 8 rabbits per treatment. The diets contained groundnut haulms (GH) at 40, 50, 60 and 70% levels of inclusion with a crude protein content of 16%. The rabbits were fed for eight weeks with 6 weeks of preliminary feeding and 2 weeks of faecal collection. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results obtained indicated an increase in feed conversion ratio (FCR), acid detergent fiber digestibility (ADFD), crude protein digestibility (CPD) and feed cost (=N=) / kg weight gain (FC/WG), and a decrease in dry matter intake (DMI), dry matter digestibility (DMD), daily weight gain (DWG), crude protein digestibility (CPD) and digestible dry matter intake (DDMI) with increasing fibre level. There was a significant difference (Plt;0.01) among the mean values for acid detergent fibre intake (ADFI) and digestible acid detergent fibre intake (DADFI) indicating that these variables were affected by fibre levels. All the rabbits fed on the four diets gained weight. Taking into consideration feed cost and the availability of grains as a limiting factor to increase animal production, it can be concluded that GH, a potential crop residue can be included in the diet of growing rabbits at up to 70% level, since this did not cause any significant deleterious effect on the growth and performance of the rabbits. Key words: Groundnut haulms, growth, performance, rabbits. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/CE3943C44351 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0156 en Copyright © 2014 Etchu K. A., Ngu G. T., Yongabi K. A. and Woogeng I. N.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:49B8EC344361 2014-05-01T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Effect of wheat straw urea treatment and Leucaena leucocephala foliage hay supplementation on intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and growth of lambs Getahun Kebede Yadete Full Length Research Paper This study evaluated the effect of wheat straw urea treatment and Leucaena leucocephala (LL) foliage hay supplementation on intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and growth of Ethiopian highland sheep. Thirty-six yearling male lambs were randomly allotted, in randomized complete design, to six dietary treatments:- untreated wheat straw (T1); urea treated wheat straw (T2); T2 plus 100, 200, 300 g LL in T3, T4, T5 respectively, and T1 plus 300 g LL per lamb/day (T6). The lambs were fed for three months. Urea treatment increased straw crude protein (CP) content (g kg-1DM) (32 vs. 60) and decreased neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (807 vs. 743), acid detergent fiber (ADF) (523 vs. 504) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) (75 vs. 70). Straw intake was increased (Plt;0.001) with urea treatment and supplementation. Total DM intake (g/day) peaked (Plt;0.001) in T5 (750) compared to T6 (546.9). Lambs in T2 gained 10.7, while lambs in T1 lost 33.9 g/day. The highest average daily gain (47.2 g) was achieved in T5. Digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and CP was higher (Plt;0.001) in T2 than T1. Supplementation increased the digestibility of DM, CP and Ash significantly. Digestibility of nutrients, except CP, was higher (Plt;0.001) in T5 than T6. Nitrogen balances (g/day) were positive, except in T1 (-0.71 g/day) and increased (Plt;0.001) with supplementation. Total nitrogen excretion (g/day) was higher (Plt;0.001) in T2 (4.64) than T1 (2.97) and increased with supplementation. It is concluded that combined use of urea treatment and LL supplementation improves feed utilization and lambs#39; performance better than using them separately. Key words: Wheat straw, urea treatment, leucaena, intake, live weight, lambs. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/49B8EC344361 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP12.040 en Copyright © 2014 Getahun Kebede Yadete
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:6B0B9EA45329 2014-06-13T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Non-genetic factors affecting fitness traits in the grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) S. Y. Annor,, B. K. Ahunu, G. S. Aboagye, K. Boa-Amponsem and J. P. Cassady Full Length Research Paper This study was conducted at the grasscutter section of the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana, to estimate non-genetic effects on reproductive and survival traits. Data consisted of records on 136 does from 2006 to 2010. Litter size at weaning, litter weight and lactation weight loss all increased (P lt; 0.01) with increasing litter size at birth. Litter weight and lactation weight loss increased (P lt; 0.05) at weaning, whilst days of joining decreased (P lt; 0.01), with increasing years. Minor rainy season was found to be the most suitable mating season. Dams that kidded in dry season took fewer (P lt; 0.05) days to conceive than in other seasons. Nursing dams lost more (P lt; 0.05) weight in dry and minor rainy seasons than in major rainy season. Increasing parity led to decreasing (P lt; 0.05) pre-weaning survival of offspring. Post-weaning survival of offspring decreased (P lt; 0.01) with increasing years. Kids conceived in the minor rainy and dry seasons had significantly higher (P lt; 0.05) post-weaning survival rates than those conceived in the major rainy season. Post-weaning survival rates of kids born in the minor rainy season were lower (P lt; 0.05) than those born in other seasons. It was concluded that non-genetic factors influenced fitness traits and must therefore be considered when designing grasscutter breeding programmes. Key words: Domestication, environmental factors, reproduction, rodent. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/6B0B9EA45329 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0178 en Copyright © 2014 S. Y. Annor,, B. K. Ahunu, G. S. Aboagye, K. Boa-Amponsem and J. P. Cassady
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:7AFE20145318 2014-06-13T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Alternative remedies and approaches used by resources-challenged farmers in the management of cattle black-leg disease in Umzingwane district, Matabeleland South, Zimbabwe B. Moyo, S. L. Ndlovu, S. Moyo, P. J. Masika, V. Muchenje, D. N. Ndhlovu and V. Maphosa Full Length Research Paper Cattle productivity has been minimized by the occurrence of diseases such as blackleg. This study was conducted to determine and document how resource-challenged farmers of Umzingwane district of Zimbabwe use alternative remedies to manage cattle blackleg cases. Random sampling was used to select 90 beef cattle farmers who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that cattle owners (86%) reported blackleg disease to be the most important disease followed by ehrlichiosis (23%) and lumpy skin disease (5%). Almost 71% of the respondents reported having experienced cases of blackleg in their herd in the past three years. Few farmers (22%) used conventional vaccines, whereas the majority (78%) used alternative remedies to manage the disease, which included; hot water (80%), hot iron (78%), Potassium permanganate (10%), Ihlwili (60%), Ricinis communis (5%), Pterocarpus angolensis (7%), Sclerocarya birrea (8%), Diospyros mespiliformis (3%), Gardenia spatulifolia (2%). Some of these remedies (P. angolensis, S. birrea, D. mespiliforms, G. spatulifolia) were believed to prevent the occurrence of the diseases, while hot water and hot iron were used for treatment of infected animals. The study revealed that most resource-challenged farmers in Umzingwane district of Zimbabwe used alternative remedies to manage blackleg infections in cattle. Key words: Alternative remedies, blackleg, cattle, Clostridium chauvoei. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/7AFE20145318 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0198 en Copyright © 2014 B. Moyo, S. L. Ndlovu, S. Moyo, P. J. Masika, V. Muchenje, D. N. Ndhlovu and V. Maphosa
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:DA2B15645643 2014-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Economics of phytase enzyme supplementation in low energy-protein layer chicken diet P. Ponnuvel, K. Narayanankutty, A. Jalaludeen and P. Anitha Full Length Research Paper A production trial was carried out utilizing 200 single comb White Leghorn hybrid Athulya layers to study the economics of phytase supplementation at three different levels in low energy-protein diet with reference to the cost of egg production and net profit per egg for a period of 20 weeks. Phytase was supplemented at 0, 500 and 1000 units/kg in low energy, protein and energy-protein layer diets containing available phosphorus of 0.30% from 21 to 40 weeks of age. Significantly (P lt; 0.01) lower cost of production of an egg and increased net profit were recorded among various phytase supplemented dietary treatments when compared with standard layer and unsupplemented diets fed treatment groups. Key words: Phytase, layer, economics. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/DA2B15645643 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2014.0212 en Copyright © 2014 P. Ponnuvel, K. Narayanankutty, A. Jalaludeen and P. Anitha
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:C0C5B4545645 2014-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing and beekeeping development in Tigray, Ethiopia Teweldemedhn Gebretinsae and Yayneshet Tesfay Full Length Research Paper Colony marketing is an important venture in Werieleke district of Tigray region in Ethiopia. This research was conducted in Nebelet and Maikinetal colony market centres of the district to characterize market actors, colonies, the markets and prices by interviewing 120 market actors. This was run for 6 market days at one week interval (July to September in 2010) by interviewing 5 sellers and 5 purchasers from each market daily. The price of colony in Nebelet was significantly higher than that of Maikinetal (P lt; 0.0001). The highest price was found at the 3rd week of August in Nebelet (925 plusmn; 11.64) and at the 2nd week of August in Maikinetal (596 plusmn; 11.64). Colony marketing had been neglected in the area. Difficulties in determining quality of queen, deserting worker bees, damaging bees by heat and suffocation, comb breakage, lack of awareness on safety, lack of protective are some of the constraints faced. Colonies are flowing from the highlands, which may result in genetic erosion and other problems. Therefore, a law should be established to standardize marketable colonies, conserve bee biodiversity and avoid disease transmission. Beekeepers should be encouraged to multiply their own colonies and rear queens at their specific sites. Key words: Beekeeping, colony, marketing, queen rearing, price Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/C0C5B4545645 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0183 en Copyright © 2014 Teweldemedhn Gebretinsae and Yayneshet Tesfay
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:1E6E27345647 2014-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Analysis of the determinants of the sustainability of cattle marketing systems in Zambezi Region of north-eastern communal area of Namibia B. Thomas, C. Togarepi and A. Simasiku This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of variables that influence the motivation behind the preferred choice of cattle marketing channels in north eastern communal area of Namibia. The data required for the study were collected through a small-scale survey, key informants in-depth interviews and review of secondary data were analysed using Multinomial Logistical Regression. The results showed that the majority (62%) of small scale cattle farmers preferred to trade through informal marketing channel (comprising open market, private sales and butcheries). The abattoir was the single most preferred channel for 38% and the only available formal market. Four factors are identified motivating cattle farmers to choose this marketing channel namely, the gender of the household head, marketing information received, education and number of livestock sold. The results also suggest that formal marketing is relatively relevant to farmers with large cattle numbers and meet the required standards from abattoirs. The study recommended that in order to increase the number of cattle marketed through the formal channels, there is need to improve overall herd size, as well as setting attractive prices coupled with reduced delays in making payments to the farmers for their livestock sold. Key words: Formal market, informal market, factors, sales, agriculture, livestock. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/1E6E27345647 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0190 en Copyright © 2014 B. Thomas, C. Togarepi and A. Simasiku
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:81FED0746568 2014-08-11T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Relative economic value estimates of grasscutter production traits S. Y. Annor,, B. K. Ahunu, G. S. Aboagye, K. Boa-Amponsem and J.P. Cassady Full Length Research Paper The study was conducted to estimate relative economic values (REVs) of survival, body weight, growth rate, reproduction, docility and food intake. Data were obtained from records of grasscutters (Thryonomys swinderianus) kept at the grasscutter section of the Department of Animal Science Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. Average values of production inputs and outputs parameters were computed from records of 502 kids born between 2006 and 2010. Relative economic values of traits were computed by using computer models in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet of Windows 2007. When feed intake was included in the breeding objective and economic evaluation was based on genetic standard deviation, mature body weight emerged as the most important trait. Ranking order of traits was body weight gt; survival gt; reproduction gt; growth rate gt; feed intake gt; docility. The ranking order was maintained when feed cost was set to zero. The use of coefficient of variation to estimate REVs changed the ranking order of traits: Growth rate gt; reproduction gt; docility gt; survival gt; body weight gt; feed intake. It was concluded that post-weaning growth rate, litter size at weaning and docility should be selected to be included in the breeding objective of grasscutter breeding programmes in Ghana. Key words: Breeding objective, docility, food intake, growth traits, reproduction, survival. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/81FED0746568 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0180 en Copyright © 2014 S. Y. Annor,, B. K. Ahunu, G. S. Aboagye, K. Boa-Amponsem and J.P. Cassady
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:836448146572 2014-08-11T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Infrastructure disparities in rural India: With special reference to livestock support services and veterinary infrastructure Pushpa Yadav, B. S. Chandel and Smita Sirohi Review The prosperity of a country depends directly upon the development of agriculture and industry, and the production of agriculture and industry requires irrigation, power, machinery, credit, energy and telecommunication facilities, marketing services, transport services which includes railway, roads, shipping and communication facilities etc. All these facilities and services which help in industrial and agricultural production constitute collectively the infrastructure of an economy. States of India have large disparities. One of the critical problems facing India#39;s economy is the sharp and growing regional variations among India#39;s different States and territories in terms of per capita income, poverty, availability of infrastructure and socio-economic development. Although, income inequality in India is relatively small (Gini coefficient: 32.5 in year 1999 to 2000), it has been increasing of late. Wealth distribution in India is fairly uneven, with the top 10% of income groups earning 33% of the income. Despite significant economic progress, a quarter of the nation#39;s population earns less than the government-specified poverty threshold of $0.40/day. 27.5% of the population was living below the poverty line. This review paper is an attempt to find out the availability and accessibility of veterinary infrastructure in rural areas of India. Key words: Livestock, veterinary dispensaries, animal husbandry, infrastructural facilities. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/836448146572 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0179 en Copyright © 2014 Pushpa Yadav, B. S. Chandel and Smita Sirohi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:EFAB22C47470 2014-09-18T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Analysis of creditworthiness and loan repayment among bank of agriculture loan beneficiaries (Poultry farmers) in Cross River State, Nigeria Ajah E. A., Eyo E. O. and Ofem U. I. Full Length Research Paper Due to the high rate of defaults amongst loan beneficiaries in Nigeria and Cross River State in particular, this study examined creditworthiness and loan repayment of poultry farmers in Cross River State. Specifically, the study assessed credit worthiness of borrowers, identified factors that discriminate between credit worthy and non credit worthy farmers and analyzed factors that influence the farmers#39; ability to loan repayment. A total of 120 poultry farmers were used in the study. Data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by means, frequencies, percentages, discriminant analysis and multiple regression techniques. The results revealed that 51.7% of the respondents were credit worthy. Also, Farmers with better educational level and large farm sizes were non credit worthy. While farmers with large total operating expenditure-income ratio, longer years of farming, older farmers with adequate supervision were credit worthy. The results of the linear regression model showed that farmers with large Loan amounts, better educational level, larger farm income, late disbursement and large farm sizes repaid their loans more. An increase in these variables increased their repayment ability. While farmers who were defaulting in their loan repayments were supervised more than those who were not defaulting. The study recommended that older and experienced farmers should be taken in to consideration when loan applications are made. Key words: Discriminant analysis, poultry farmers, loan repayment. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/EFAB22C47470 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2014.0218 en Copyright © 2014 Ajah E. A., Eyo E. O. and Ofem U. I.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:606A68847475 2014-09-18T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Factors influencing urban and peri-urban dairy producers’ participation in milk value addition and volume of milk value added in Welmera Woreda, West Shewa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia Tadele Mamo, Tewodros Tefera and Noreen Byre Full Length Research Paper Value addition is currently becoming an important topic in agricultural sector, especially for perishable agricultural products. The aim of this paper was to assess factors influencing urban and peri-urban dairy producersrsquo; participation in milk value addition and volume of milk value added (VMVA) in Welmera Woreda. The study employed both primary and secondary data. The primary data were collected by structured questionnaires from 120 urban and peri-urban dairy producers, while the secondary data were gathered from different governmental and non-governmental organizations, from published and unpublished sources. The data were then analyzed using both descriptive (mean and standard deviation) and econometric model. Heckmanrsquo;s two-step econometric model was used to identify factors affecting value addition participation (VAP) and VMVA. The result of the model shows that gender, age and education of household head, market distance, number of local milking cows and quantity of annual milk production affected the probability of participation in value addition positively in the first step. In the second step, sex of household head, income from non-dairy source, distance to market, number of local milking cows and quantity of annual milk production affected the VMVA positively, whereas number of children less than age of 6 years and number of crossbred milking cows had a negative influence on it. The finding implies that paying a special attention to female headed households will have a positive effect in participation in value addition. In addition, expanding rural education and arranging a mechanism for experience sharing among experienced and young farmers would have a positive effect. Better infrastructure and introduction of processing machines are also helpful for selling row milk and value addition, respectively. Key words: Heckmanrsquo;s two-step, urban, peri-urban, Welmera Woreda, Ethiopia. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/606A68847475 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2013.0174 en Copyright © 2014 Tadele Mamo, Tewodros Tefera and Noreen Byre
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:4A5AFDE48019 2014-10-09T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Creating animal welfare assessment method for backyard goat production in the Philippines using stockmanship competence as proxy indicator M. J. Alcedo, K. Ito and K. Maeda Full Length Research Paper Measuring animal welfare is a newly emerging area of research and it requires multi-disciplinary approach to achieve it. Due to the diversity of what constitute the definition of animal welfare, different methods and models have been suggested, and were mostly implemented in semi-intensive and commercial farms in developed countries. There are hardly any studies on animal welfare assessment conducted in backyard livestock operations in developing countries. Recognizing that majority of livestock operations in the Philippines are categorized as backyard, it is crucial to come up with parameters that can assess the welfare of the animal at the backyard level. The current research used stockmanship competence as a proxy indicator in assessing animal welfare. Stockmanship competence in this study refers to the capacity of the animal owner to ensure the welfare of their animal by providing their needs for growth and reproduction. The Philippine recommendations on goat production, tips on goat raising and goat scientific literatures were used as the basis of identifying indicators known to be important in meeting the needs of the animal and ensuring its welfare. Scores from -1 to +2 were assigned depending on how close it is of satisfying the needs of the animal. It is hoped that this assessment method would contribute to the growing body of knowledge on animal welfare and could be utilized as a logical and scientific framework in assessing welfare not just in backyard goat operation but in semi-intensive and commercial goat operations. It is suggested that further studies be done to identify other factors and standardize indicators that would reflect a comprehensive outline for goat welfare. Key words: Backyard goat production, stockmanship competence, animal welfare, Philippines. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/4A5AFDE48019 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2014.0217 en Copyright © 2014 M. J. Alcedo, K. Ito and K. Maeda
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:FD3F17F48583 2014-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Biosecurity practices in Central Ethiopian cattle feedlots: Its implication for live cattle export Gezahegn Alemayehu and Samson Leta Full Length Research Paper Biosecurity is the implementation of measures that reduce the risk of the introduction and spread of disease agents. Biosecurity is a cornerstone of herd health maintenance in export-oriented feedlots. The aim of this study was to document current biosecurity practice in export-oriented cattle feedlots in Central Ethiopia and to discuss its implication for live cattle export. In this study 31 export-oriented cattle feedlots found in central Ethiopia were interviewed with structured questionnaire in order to better understand how owners deal with the challenges of introduction or spread of diseases. Majority of the feedlot operators took little percussions in purchasing and introduction of bulls for their feedlots. This study furthermore indicated that hygienic practice of the feedlots workers and visitors are none existent. Vaccinations of all bulls for six diseases were given in all assessed feedlots. Only 9 (29%) of assessed feedlots used their own veterinarian for the treatment of sick animals. A single needle was used on multiple cattle by all feedlots without disinfection. This study has identified that biosecurity measures in export oriented feedlots to be very low, with majority of them undertaking little or no preventive measures to combat disease transmission either within or between farms. Key words: Biosecurity, feed lots, Central Ethiopia. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/FD3F17F48583 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2014.0221 en Copyright © 2014 Gezahegn Alemayehu and Samson Leta
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:DE1DC6948915 2014-12-05T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
The effect of replacement of part of dietary crude protein with urea on the performance and carcass characteristics of grasscutters (Thryonomys swinderianus) in captivity Buasilenu E. K., Tuah A. K., Bonsu F. R. K., Kagya-Agyemang J. K., Annor S. Y. and Baah J. Full Length Research Paper A 24 week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing a portion of protein requirement of grasscutters with urea on growth performance, carcass characteristics and microbial composition of the caecum. In all, forty grassscutters of age 3- months old were used. There were four dietary treatments with ten replicates in a randomised complete block design. The treatments were; control (U0%-P) which had protein from plant sources only. Treatment 2 (U30%-P) had 70% plant protein and 30% urea, Treatment 3 (U25%-P) had 75% protein from plants and 25% from urea and Treatment 4 (U0%-AP) had 10% protein from animal source and 90% from plant source. Parameters measured included, feed intake, feed wastage, carcass characteristics, caecal pH and caecal microbial composition and meat quality. The data collected was subjected to the analysis of variance with SAS (2008) and significant difference separated at 5% level. The results obtained showed that daily feed intake, feed wastage, and feed conversion ratio were not significantly different (P gt; 0.05) among dietary treatments. However, daily feed wastage was higher than feed intake. Daily weight gain 9.82, 9.70, 9.27 and 10.9 g/day respectively for U0%-P, U30%-P, U25%-P and U0%-AP was not significantly (P gt; 0.05) different among dietary treatments. The protein, fat and moisture content of the meat were influenced by urea supplementation. Dressing percentage was significantly (P lt; 0.05) influenced by dietary treatments but weight of organs to body weight did not differ significantly (P gt; 0.05). Caecal pH ranged from 5.9 - 6.0 and was not significantly (P gt; 0.05) influenced by urea supplementation. Microbes observed in the caecum were mainly Bacillus sp. Protein and fat content of the meat was influenced (P lt; 0.05) by dietary treatments but not pH. Urea supplementation of U30%-P and U25%-P reduced the variable cost by 31 to 44% and 36 to 48% respectively making the use of urea economical in the diet of grasscutters. It was concluded that urea can be used in grasscutters diet without any deleterious effects on their general performance or carcass characteristics but renders the production more economical. Key words: Urea supplementation, grasscutters, plant protein, caecal pH, caecal microbes. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/DE1DC6948915 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2014.0222 en Copyright © 2014 Buasilenu E. K., Tuah A. K., Bonsu F. R. K., Kagya-Agyemang J. K., Annor S. Y. and Baah J.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:172619148920 2014-12-05T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2014
Production practices and constraints of pig farms in N’Djamena area, Chad Mopateacute; Logteacute;neacute; Youssouf, Vounparet Zeuh, Issa Youssouf Adoum and Kaboreacute;-Zoungrana Chantal-Yvette Full Length Research Paper Practices and constraints of pig farming in the area of N#39;Djamena were submitted to transversal and retrospective and longitudinal investigation. The study concerned a sample of 176 farmers, divided in 4 of the 5 districts where pigs are raised in N#39;Djamena and 12 surrounding villages. The survey rate was 12% in Nrsquo;Djamena and 20% in the suburban area. The monitoring concerned 8 farms in the city and 7 at its periphery during one year. Older farmers numbers or ages averaged 43.8plusmn;13.7 years were plant producers (52%), employees (24%), small traders, workers and artisans (11%), students and pupils (9%) and retired persons (4%). The constitution of herds by buying pigs was dominant in urban (85%) and suburban (89%) farming systems. Most of the farms (97%) had piggeries but 53% were in defective conditions. The alcohol residues (99%) and artisanal spent grains (67%) were the basic feeds served mostly 2 times a day (67%). Average litter size at farrowing, piglets born-alive and numerical productivity per year per sow were significantly higher (plt;0.05) for breeders who used mineral (sodium carbonate and sodium chloride) supplementation. Theft (45%) and mortality (41%) represented the larger part of the 1,350 annual losses of the farms. Respiratory and digestive symptoms dominated (62%) in the monitored farms. These symptoms are related to the bad conditions of piggeries and scavenging pigs. Improvement of reproductive and numerical productivity by mineral supplementation appears interesting; and suggests further studies on this aspect to provide advices to producers. Knowledge of practices and constraints of pig farms are of great importance for the production improvement actions. Key words: Pig breeding, production practices, constraints, N#39;Djamena, Chad. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/172619148920 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2014.0227 en Copyright © 2014 Mopateacute; Logteacute;neacute; Youssouf, Vounparet Zeuh, Issa Youssouf Adoum and Kaboreacute;-Zoungrana Chantal-Yvette
oai:academicjournals.org:IJLP:A91374249996 2015-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJLP IJLP:2015
Analysis of performance, management practices and challenges to intensive pig farming in peri-urban Kampala, Uganda Okello, Emmanuel,, Amonya, Collins, Okwee-Acai, James, Erume, Joseph and De Greve, Henri, Full Length Research Paper Uganda is currently among the largest per capita consumers of pork in sub Saharan Africa. Most of this pork is consumed in ldquo;pork jointsrdquo; in Kampala and other major urban centers in the country. However, the current productivity is low and cannot meet the soaring demand for pork. No information was previously available on the performance productivity of intensive piggeries in Uganda. This study was aimed at assessing the performance, factors affecting productivity and challenges to intensive pig farming in peri-urban Kampala. Production parameters were captured from purposively selected 332 sows and 521 grower pigs. Information on management practices, challenges and prospects of the industry was gathered through questionnaires administered to farmers, key informant interviews and stakeholderrsquo;s focus group discussions. Results showed most farms had good level of management but the breeding practices were uniformly erratic in all the farms, and different breeds were crossed anyhow. Furthermore both reproduction and performance parameters were suboptimal. Analysis of management practices revealed that breed had a significant effect on growth performance (p lt; 0.001) and litter size (p lt; 0.005). Feeding had significant effects on litter size (p lt; 0.001), number weaned (p lt; 0.01), weight:age ratio (p lt; 0.05) and weaning to service interval (p lt; 0.05). The major constraints found were high feed costs, diseases and competition for land with the upcoming residential estates. The performance indices varied greatly between farms, indicating great potential for improved productivity. We recommend improved housing, breeding practices, feeding and biosecurity measures so as to improve on performance and productivity of peri-urban pig farming. Key words: Peri-urban farming, pig production, performance indices, management systems, challenges. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-abstract/A91374249996 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2014.0223 en Copyright © 2015 Okello, Emmanuel,, Amonya, Collins, Okwee-Acai, James, Erume, Joseph and De Greve, Henri,
2019-09-17T14:03:15Z|100|oai_dc|ijlp